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Content Page

Introduction Performance Methodology Design and Build Design Specification Design Circuit Buck Converter Topology Calculation & component Selection

Component Cost Details

Maltab Simulation References

Appendixes

Introduction
The main objective is to design a switch-mode, none isolated, dc-dc converter which can supply 3V at 2A nominal (6W) for powering a solar model-car. Currently cost is the most important issue, followed by size. The specifications for the converter are as follows: First, input range is +10V to +20V dc. Secondly, output should be +3 V, with good control capability. Subsequently, maximum output power needs to be up to 6 W, while isolation is not required. Lastly, although this is not listed in the assignment brief, but we tried to have a total parts cost (based on high-volume production) to not exceed 10. The converter should be capable of remote control (on/off) by a low-power TTL or CMOS compatible signal. The converter design is done as a group and we have realized that there are people who have done the same project in the previous years, thus, we have tried to make our own design unique although the same components are to eventually be given to every group by the tutor. We will build a converter with the input range voltage ranging from 10 V DC to 20 V DC. We then need to obtain 3V DC and 6 W as our output voltage and maximum power. Since the cost of this project must be about 10 pounds, the converters circuitry is very simple and highly efficiency and we hope that this project will be helpful to the Automobile industry. To initiate the practical phase of the project work we are advised to concentrate on the MOSFET driver, which we have selected through our analysis and components selections. Using the data sheet for a low cost PWM control chip, we used TL494, which was recommended for non isolated switch mode DC-DC converter; we basically went through the process of setting up the PWM control chip on a breadboard and producing open-loop single and double-ended switching outputs. In hoping to reach our goal, we will build the buck converter with the input voltage ranging from 10 V DC - 20V DC, the output about 3 V DC, and the maximum power 6 W. This report details the initial calculations and design performed by a group of four students for a group project.

Performance
Input voltage Vin = 15V nominal, 10V min working, 20V abs max. Output voltage Vout = 3Vdc. Output current capability from 2A nominal, 3A maximum, 0.5A minimum. Converter Vout ripple = 100mV maximum. Converter output current ripple less 1%. Converter output voltage regulation = 0.2V (ideally 2.9-3.1V), for 0.5 - 3A load and

10-20Vdc input voltage.


Target efficiency of > 80%.

Methodology
To achieve the aims of the project, the entire project will be tackled in four separate stages: Phase one - Research and Report write up. Phase two - Design and Build circuit to perform set objectives Phase three Test Phase four Conclusion

Design and Build

This will cover the following steps


1. Design the circuit 2. Selection of component values from design 3. Circuit design simulation using Simulink in MATLAB. 4. Calculation of power losses in each component and efficiency of the circuit. 5. Build prototype using Vero board

Design Circuit

Figure 1: Buck Converter Buck Converter Topology Figure 1 shows a basic buck topology using ideal components. The inductor serves as a current source to the output load impedance. When the transistor (MOSFET) switch is on, the inductor current increases, inducing a positive voltage drop across the inductor and a lower output supply voltage in reference to the input source voltage. When the transistor (MOSFET) switch is off, the inductor current discharges, inducing a negative voltage drop across the inductor. Because one port of the inductor is tied to ground, the other port will have a higher voltage level, which is the target output supply voltage. The output capacitance acts as a low-pass filter, reducing output voltage ripple as a result of the

fluctuating current through the inductor. The diode provides a current path for the inductor when the transistor (MOSFET) switch is off. The clear advantage of this method is efficiency, as minimal power is dissipated in the power path (FET switches) when the output supply voltage is sufficient for the load state. Essentially, the power converter "shuts off" when power is not needed, due to minimal switch duty-cycle.

Calculation
The following calculation was carried out to find out the correct values of each component in the circuit. Vin = 15V; V0 = 3V; I0 = 2A; Step 1: calculating the Duty cycle

This is;

Therefore;

Step 2: Using the following equations

Now calculating the inductor value

Value of inductor selected from the data sheet:1.2mH


From the 1.2mH inductors datasheet (refer to appendix) we find out the maximum DC resistance: ESR

And calculate Power loss:

Calculating the Output Capacitor value , =

From the datasheets a 2.2 capacitor with an ESR of 58 was selected (for datasheets refer to appendix) Power of capacitor: Lets assume that ESR=0, then

Diode Selection Estimate Diode Current: ID = (1-D) I Load ID= (1-0.2) 2 = 1.6A Where D = Duty cycle Max Diode Reverse Voltage = 15V Select Schottky rectifier: A 1N5820, 20V, 3 A Schottky meets requirements Power Dissipation:

Mosfet Selection and Power Calculations

From the information given a p-channel mosfet was selected from the datasheets. With the following specifications:

VDS max =55V VGS= 20V

Calculation of power loss of mosfet:

Total power loss in the system:

Therefore the efficiency achieved:

2.3: Cost of Components


The above calculated components were selected and costing was done as shown below

Costs
The individual costs are as follows: MOSFET Capacitor Inductor Diode 0.336 0.398 1.35 0.74 RS Stock No 650-4485 <www.uk.rs-online.com/web>International Rectifier RS Stock No 305-2385 <www.uk.rs-online.com/web>Vishay B82722A2302N001 <www.components.arrow.com>Epcos 1N5820DICT-ND

<www.parts.digikey.com>Vishay Tl494 0.72 Rs stock No 517-2986

Total price = 3.54

Design Matlab simulation

Results of above Simulation(V Out=3V and IL=2A

References
Websites Buck converter Component Selection
http://powerelectronics.com/mag/power_guide (Accessed 27/02/12)

Practical Design For Buck Converters


http://www1.futureelectronics.com/doc/ (Accessed 27/02/12)

Power Mosfet selection


http://www.nteinc.com/Web_pgs/MOSFET.html (Accessed 29/02/12)

Design and Implementation of a Buck Converter


http://www.scribd.com/doc/24501749 (Accessed 04/03/12)

Power Systems- DC-DC converter Design http://powerelectronics.com/power_systems (Accessed 24/02/12)

SMPS www.microchip.com/smps/16-bit (Accessed 05/05/12)

Appendixes Data sheets Mosfet P-channel 1.2mH Inductor Data sheet 2.2uF Capacitor Diode Tl494 Datasheet. 4