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METHOD GASPEY-OTTO-SAUER.

ARABIC GRAMMAR
OF THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE

REV. G. W. THATCHER, M. A., A. D.
WARDEN OF CAMDEN COLLEGE. SYDNEY, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA.
FORMERLY SENIOR TUTOR, MANSFIELD COLLEGE, OXFORD.

SECOND EDITION.

LONDON.
OAVI NUTT (A. O. Berry), 818 Shaftcebury Avenue, W. C. 2.
DULAU & CO., U4 36 Margaret Street, Cavendish Square Wl.
5EW YOBK: BRENTANO'S, Fifth Avenue and 27th Street.
THE INTERNATIONAL NEWS COMPANY, 83 and 85 Duane Street.
G E. 8TECHERT & CO., 161166 West 26th Street.
E. 6TEIGER & CO., 49 Murray Street.
BOSTON: G. REUSCHEL, 110 Tremont Street
8CHOENHOF BOOK COMPANY, 128 Tremont Street,

HEIDELBERG.
JULIUS GROOS.
1922.
The Gasper- Otto -Saner Method has become my sole property by
right of purchase. These books are continually revised. All rights,
especially those of adaptation and translation into any language, are
reserved. Imitations and copies are forbidden by law. Suitable
communications always thankfully received
Heidelberg. Juliu

--
B .
.

j]
Ill

Preface.

During the last ten years of my teaching of Arabic
I have often found that my pupils had received much
help from Harder's Arabic Grammar
1
and have been,

asked whether there was a similar work in English.
When I was asked by the firm of Julius Groos to write

such a work using Harder to any extent, I gladly
consented, and trust this Grammar may be useful to
many students of Arabic, who cannot read German.
The present work is a grammar of Arabic as it
has been and is written. The spoken language varies
in Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Morocco etc. but the written
language is the same for all; the chief difference
between the modern and ancient literature consisting
new words to meet the require-
in the introduction of
ments of advanced knowledge. ,

Each lesson should be thoroughly mastered before
the next is studied. Each exercise should be carefully
worked and compared with the key.
In the supplement only a few extracts from older
books are given, as the Koran and other works of this
class can easily be obtained. Special attention is given
on the other hand to selection from modern novels,
journals and correspondence.
To thosewho wish to study the grammar of the
classical Arabic further I would recommend the last
1
Arabische Konversations-Grammatik mit beeonderer Be-
rQcksichtigung der Schriftaprache von Ernst Harder. Heidelberg,
Julius GrooB, 1898.

2G11C
IV Preface.

edition of Wright's Arabic Grammar published by the
Cambridge University Press.
The various styles of Arabic handwriting niaj" be
studied in the Specimens d'ecritures Arabes (with key)

published at the Imprimerie Catholique in Beyrouth.
A handy guide to Arabic literature is M. C. Stuart's
"Arabic Literature" London 1903.

Sydney (New South Wales), September 1910.

G. W. Thatcher.
Table of Contents.
Pages
Preface m
*
Introduction
Alphabet 1. Pronunciation 4. Classification of Letters 4.

Vowels 5. Nunation 7. Sukfln 8. Tashdld 8. Hamza 9.

Madda 13. Syllable 14. Accent 15. Numerals 15.

Abbreviations 16.

Exercises in reading 17

First Part.
Lesson 1. Article 23
2. Feminine. Collectives 25
3. Number 29
4. Broken Plural . 33
6. Broken Plural 36
6. Declension. Genitive 40
7. Genitive (continued) 44
8. Pronominal Suffixes 49
* 9. Demonstrative Pronouns 53
10. Adjectives 57
> 11. Verb 61
12. Verb with suffixes 67
13. Imperfect 71
14. Moods of Imperfect 76
15. Jussive 80
16. Imperative. Present Participle. Verbal Noun . 84
=. G 2 s c
17. Passive. Particles ,..t , ,..t and ,.,i - 89
VI Table of Contents.

Pages
Lesson 18. Derived Forms of Verb 94
19. II. III. and IV. Forms .100
20. V. and VI. Forms 107
21. VII. and Vm. Forms Ill
22. IX. and X. Forms 116
28. Classification of Verbs. Doubled Verbs ... 121
24. Hamzated Verbs 129
25. Hamzated Verbs 136
26. Weak Verbs. A. Assimilated verbs .... 143
27. Weak Verbs. B. Hollow verbs 151
28. Weak Verbs. C. Defective verbs 167
29. Doubly Weak Verbs 184
80. Verbs of wonder. Optative.
Quadriliteral Verbs.

The verbs

o Ji j Jo and its sisters 193
,
plo , , ,
yX . .

81. Relative sentences 202
32. Numerals. Dates. Age 210
33. Numerals (Ordinals) 225

Second Part.
Lesson 34. Noun 233
35. Nouns of Place and Time, Instrument, Dimi-
nutive . . .
, . . 240
36. Relative Adjective. Adjectives 244
37. Proper names 249
38. Feminine 251
39. Number. Broken Plurals 256
40. Broken Plurals (continued) 268
41. Declension of Noun 274
42. Use of Cases. Emphasis. Permutative . . 278
43. Pronouns 287
44. Prepositions . 290
45. Adverbs . . 305
Table of Contents. VII

Pages
Lesson 46. Conjunctions 313
47. Conditional sentences 321

48. Interjections . . 327
48. Arabic Verse 332

Supplement 345

Arabic-Engllsh Vocabulary 381

English-Arablc Vocabulary 437
Arabic Index 449

English Index . 460
Introduction

Arabic characters are written from right to left.

The alphabet (sLs^ hija) consists of 28 characters

(op- harf, plur. O3j
s> huruf), which represent con-
all

sonants. Most of these letters are written in slightly
different forms according to whether they 1. stand
alone or are joined to a preceding letter or 3. are
2.

joined to a preceding and a following letter or 4. are
joined to a following letter only.

Arabic Grammar.
Introduction.

Note 1. The letter' I
(altf) has no sound of its own but
is used merely a)- as a support for hamza under certain con-
ditions (see 10). or b) to lengthen a preceding a vowel (see 6)
Introduction.

or c) at the end Of 8^ plur. of verbs (see 6, Note 4). The
first real consonant of the Arabic alphabet if * (see 3 and 10).

Note 2. When the letter tftused as the feminine ending
is

of nouns or adjectives it i written as ha () with two dots (s) and
, JO- -

is called K&*j 5J tft marbuta, the ordinary tft being called

v'j tft tawlla. This tft of the feminine ending is not pro-

nounced in modern Arabic except when followed by a word
beginning with a vowel sound. The modern usage is observed
9-0-.

in the technical terms of this book e.g. hamza for
OJT;
hamzat

al-wasl for

Note 8. In NW. Africa f is written ^ and q v_j.

Note 4. The following letters are sometimes used in
foreign words: y= p; T ch (as in church), <J? = v.

2.

The six ^ j
letters can on ^y ^e joined
<*
j 3 \

to preceding not to following letters. These are called

yJLafcu
u^jO-,
hnruf munfasila i.e. separate letters; .the
O, s , O j t

huraf muttasila
others are called AJLai*
^y^ i.e.

united letters.

Among ordinary combinations of letters iajgritingr
are the following:

^ or K
f. bft-h&
g^ ha-jim-jim (joined to preceding
letter ^L) lam-alif

^ ba-y& s^ sln-ha ^ lam-h&
SF ta-h& ^ sad-hft I lam-mim

^ ta-ya -^ 'ain-jim ^? mlm-r>a

5? jim-h& ^ fa-h& t mim-mim
j^ ha-jim ^ fa-y& JP nun-ha

^ nun-yft a? ya-h&

S> ha-mim ^ ya-mto.
4 Introduction.

3.

Pronunciation of the Consonants.
The following letters are pronounced like their
English equivalents:
v_ ba = b. o ta = t. & tha = th as in think.
_ jirn
= j. j dal d. o dhal = dh = th as in
this,
j
ra = r.
j
zai = z.
^= sin = s as in so.
= sh as in
shin o shot, fa f. & kaf = k.
(jfc

<$ lam = * rnlm = 01.^
1. nun = n. ha = h.
3 waw = w. ya = (jr y. (3
and ^5 are also used
to lengthen a preceding u or i vowel see 6).

The following represent sounds foreign to English:
s. hamza is a click produced by a quick com-
pression of the upper part of the throat.
ha is an h pronounced with a strong expulsion
of air from the chest.
kha is a guttural ch as in the Scotch "loch"
^
but. more from the throat.

(Jo sad, (jo dad, >b ta and J& ga form a group of

emphatic sounds corresponding with s, ^ d, o t ^
and z distinguished from them by the tongue being
-

placed against the palate instead of against the teeth.

^ produced by com-
'ain ig a very strong guttural
and expulsion of the breath.
pression of the throat

ghain has a hard sound between a snarling
pronunciation of gh and r.
qaf is a k sound produced in the throat, (like
the cawing of a crow).

4.

Classification of the Letters.

1. Arabian grammarians divide the letters of the

alphabet (z-&^l\ oJ=> huruf alhija') into a) those
Introduction.

* - ) j.>
which are dotted (iU^- ^j> hurnf rau'jauaa) and
.

b) those which are not dotted (VdUg* o^y> huraf
muhmala).
2. More practical is the division into a) Sun
letters (iu,*Ajf cA>j3| alhuruf ashsharaslya) namely

, ^> , ^ j, > L>"> vA
uf, o*, AA v5,
which
assimilate the 1 of the Article, and b) Moon letters

alhuruf alqamariya), comprising the other
fciytJuT o^2 5

letters of the alphabet, which do not assimilate the 1

(see Lesson I).

3. The letters, I
aljf, ^ wa\ and'^ jj are called Weak
letters (LJ? v-4js>
hurQf al'illa) because they arc often

interchanged or dropped under the influence of other
letters. Contrasted with these, the other letters of the

alphabet are called Sound letters (s^Waj 3 alhuruf
assahlha). ..

5.

Vowels.
Every consonant in a vocalised Arabic text is
r
provided ^ith a vowel sign or with a sign indicating
the absence of a vowel.

The vowel signs (jXfe shaki, Plur. 3lXa! ashkal or

i shukttl) are three in number:

1. iLste fatha, a small diagonal stroke over a con-

sonant =
a as in o da.
0,0,
*f*S kasra a scroll diagonal stroke under a con-
2.

sonant = i as in o di.

?. &*/> damma, a small 3 above a consonant
=
u as in o du.
6 Introduction.

The sign indicating the absence of a vowel is -^
written above^a consonant. It is called
a yL* sukan
6 -- > i
or iJojs. jazma e.g. kun.
^
Note L The
vowel signs above do not 'actnally
three
represent the vowel sounds used in pronunciation for while
ail

fatha preserves the & sound after ., -i, ,
it inclines to
g,
the sound of au in "taught" after the Emphatic letters yo, (_p,
_b ? ^0, *, and is usually thinned down to the sound of S after
G <"
the other letters as in u-J$ kelbun.
o.-..
Note 2. In Arabic. a vowel is called a "movement"
(MJ>>

haraka) and ao a consonant is either "moved" (t^Sj^C* mutaharrik)

i.e.provided with a vowel, or. "resting" (^Tu sakin) i.e. without
vowel.

6-

Long Vowels and Diphthongs.
Jhe_long_vowels a, I,' a are^ expressed in Arabic
b^the signs _L_ followed by I, ^5, ^ (written

without sukun), thus Ju malun "wealth",
o >
^S klsun

"a purse", j^b tulun "length".

The diphthongs ai and au (now generally pronounced
'
as English a and o) are written ^5 and . as ^^1
u
)>aitun a house ', ji- khaufun "fear".

Note 1. In a few words a is expressed by a short vertical
' '

stroke over a consonant as in \0& hadha "this", Mi dbalika
!

"that",
^
Note
lakin "bot", i'i allshu "God" etc.

2. At the end of a word & is often expressed by

_1_ followed by ^5 (without dot* or sukun), thus rams "he
Introduction.

threw", Q ila "unto". As soon as
* * *
this ^5 ceases to be final

it returns to the form I
e.g. sic, raraShu "he threw him".
-o- , > O
The Arabian grammarians call this <j? the &LJ!

alif bisorat alyft' "alif in the form of ya". The sign for a at
3, , o. G *
the end of a word (whether I or ^) is called

alif maqsflra can be shortened" because it is short-
"alif that
ened when followed by a word beginning with hamzat alwasl
(see 11).

Note

writing them with 8j or xj
ii
In a few words ending in at an older form of
3.
9 -

occurs. These are aj-o- or
'

hayfttun "life", 8jLe or s!^Lo sal Stun "prayer", or
S^j
O . . 9 lo- - o-

al^Dj zakatun "alms", *Jj>i or S^_^> tauratun "Torah" (the
Mosaic Law).

Note 4. An I is written bat not pronounced after the $
> * *

with which some verbal forms end e.g. \^J==> katabu "they
o . -

wrote" \^>j ramau "they threw". The \
Is also not pronounced
e
in the word iuU mi'atun "hundred".

7.

Nunation.
At the end of nouns and adjectives, when indefinite,
the three vowel signs are sometimes written double,
,thus JL, _ ,
_L and are then ronounced tw, in, an,

This is the so-called Nunation ,(
cw tanwln). The

sign fot an has i as well, except after B e.g. LL

baban, aLif khaltfatan.

When however an is a contraction for oyu we
find it written ^JL as ^jsi hudan (for hudayun); *&.
8 Introduction

n contraction for awun it is written ^5 or !_L as
c

J^tf. or uae^asan (for asa\vun).

8.

Sukun or Jazma.
of a vowel after a consonant isjndi-
The absence
O 9-o ,
cated by the sign __ called o yC* sukun or Xxp. jazma

e.g. JJ3 qatlun "a killing", \&lzS katabat "she wrote".
letters ^ and ^5 take sukun when they form
The
diphthongs, but not when they only lengthen__vowels
(see 6).

For the omission of sukun with the lain of the
article see 9.
o
A vowelless consonant is said to be
^jfl**
sakin

"resting" ( 5, note 2).

9.

Tashdld.
When a consonant occurs twice without a vowel
sound between, it is written once only qnd the sign

(called vXisX-iJ tashdld) is placed over it e.g. J
S-
marra "he passed by",
^U marrun "passing by". The
consonantal sound however must be distinctly pro-
nounced twice.
Tashdld often indicates assimilation. Thus the ^
of the Article 3! al is assimilated when the word to
which it is
prefixed begins with a Sun letter (see 4).
The (3 is retained in writing but without sukun; ajgtd^
Go*
tashdld is written over the following letter e.g. J-^K
J o 5
shamsun "sun" becomes with the Article
^^J-iJ! ash-
shamsu "the sun"; rajulun "a man" becomea.
Jo^
arrajulu "the man".
Introduction. 9

*

Again the o of the words }
\ *an "that", ^ min

and ^ c
an "from" is assimilated to the J and
^
of ^

la "not", U ma "what" and ^ man "who, whom" in

^1 alia = an-la, "that not", U* minima and L*i 'aramfi

"from what", ^I^mimman and {
.
y4
f.
e
amman "from him

who": so also ttt 'ilia = 'in-la "if not".

Sometimes the letters o, cy, o, o, <j>, JP," J& are
assimilated to a following o.
Here also the letter assimilated is left in the writing
but without sukun, while a tashdld is written over the

o e.g. co'.t aratta
^
= arad-tA, d^ labittu = labith-tu. :
,

10.

Hamza.
Hamza _JL.
(jl
cf. 1, Note 1 and 3) -is of
o .,0,0 >- o
two kinds 1. ,h>^t
SJ^P
hamzat alqat", which cannot

be dropped and 2. Juo^J! aJ.P hamzat alwasl, which

is omitted under some circumstances (see 11).
It is generally written above (with JL- and _L) or
under (with _ )
one of the letters I, ^ but sometimes ^
independently. The following are the rules for writing it:
I. At the beginning of a word it is always written
9o O,o Oo
with i
e.g. amrun, a.^? ibratun, ..o5 'udhnun.
jA\
II. In the middle of a word:
a) Preceded by _1_ a and i. followed by _I_ a or
* O ^

sukun it is written above I
e.g. JL. sa'ala, uw ?j ra'sun;
2. followed by _ it is written above ^ e.g.

ya'isa; 3. followed by _i_ u it is written above 3 e.g.

ba'usa.
10 Introduction.

Go
b) Preceded by _ i it is written above ^ e.g.

^ biruu.

c) Preceded by _i_ u it is written above ^ when
followed by a or u, above ^ when followed by i, e.g.

JL yu'allifu, ^L su'ila.

d) Preceded by sukun it is written above I when
followed by _!., over 3 when followed by u, over ^
when followed by e.g., ilLl yas'alu, J^ yab'usu.
e) If hamza is preceded by or 3 of the long
t

vowel, it is written a little above the line without any

bearer e.g. i3U4 tasa'ala, fr^yu maqru'atun; if preceded
by the ^ of long I, it is written above the stroke that

joins the ^ to the following letter e.g. x k.L khatl'atun.
;

III. At the end of a word:
a) It is not affected by the vowel that follows it,
but is written over afler _L over
\ after over ^5 ,

after _ e.g. \j* qara'a, tjfij yaqra'u, ^jo danu'a,

b) After sukun it has no bearer e.g. 3^> dau'un,
shai'un. With the ending an the hamza is written
9^yi
over the stroke connecting the previous letter with

the t
e.g. shai'an; CLi
however the preceding letter if

cannot be connected the is omitted and the hamza I

written without bearer e.g. g> juz'an.

Hamzat alwaal.

fo some cay* the hamza at the beginning of,
1.
a word is no essential part of its form t but seems to
Introduction. 11

b^written only to prevent a syllable from beginning
with a vowel., In such cases, when it follows another
word, the hamzals dropped with its vowel, a sign called*
0- o -

wasja
is
put in place of the hamza and the
(iJLoj)
two words are read as one. If the preceding word
does not end in a vowel, jhen one is given to it in
accordaoce with the rules below (4). TheHainza in these

cases is called Joo^I
aj+3>
hamzat alwagl The t, though

reserved in_tbe writing, is noljjronoanced. neither
on Ihe'pron^anciatioiL
e

Examples: ^Jlill
oo^ abdu 'Iqadiri; ^yajlj wa'n-

sarafa (from
vJ^oj^), ^31 ^ 4otJ ra'aitu 'bna 'lamiri.

2. The hamza is harnzat alwagl:
f
In the Article abdu
a) 3l al e.g.
^oUJ I Jvxc 'Iqadiri.

b) In the Imperative of the I form of the^Verb^

(Lesson 16) e.g. vlutf? viis qultu 'ktub "I said: write".

c) IiX-ibe Perfect, Imperative and Verbal noun of
HLlYinnX and X foimsoflhTYerb, (Less. 1 8)
e.g. fa'nhazama.
^i\a
d) In the following eight words:
GO 9,0
ibnun "son". '^- t-
or
3J*l im-
iyi\ Jimraun
**** \ ru'un "man".
6<0
idil ibnatun "daughter". Cjg ^
si lot imra'atun "woman".

^ .-
Jitbnairi
( (Masc.).

fithanatani "two"
"two"

9
-,
/
igmun narae
,,

istun "buttock".
I (Fern.). ^^^
the wora
If Jhe
3. It
6. precedmg a namzat
word preceding hamzat alwagl
alwasl does
d(
not_end in a vowel, then the final congogant generally
12 Introduction.

? u
receives akasra __, e.g. Jyaj! J>i qadi nsarafa he

has already gone away". The ruination also takes _
after it.

Exceptions. The Preposition Q, rnin "from" takes.

_ before the Article as jJ^Jl ^ mina 'Iwaladi "from

the boy"; In other cases it takes the usual _ e.g.

iuli ^ mini 'biiihi "from his son".

The Personal proDouns "f hum, ^ kum and ^
turn of the 2 nd Pers. Plur. Perf.
antum, the ending ^
of the and the Preposition vX* mudh (= jcu
verb
mundhu) "since" take _1_ u before the hamzat alwasl
e.g. alJl
^IiJ
la'anahumu 'llahu "May God curse them";

jJ^H ra'aitumu 'Iwalada "You have seen the boy".
,*AJ^
If the word preceding the hamza ends with 1,
^
or ^ which lengthen the vowels before them, then
although the writing is not altered, the vowel must be

pronounced short (see 13, 3) e.g. jjjlt *Il abu^lwaladi,

^UJJ j
fi Mdcari.

If however the word ends in ^5-' or ^-1., then
the ^5 takes __ and the ^ takes _i_ in place of the

sukfm e.g. y^ J. j ft
ainayi 'Imaliki "in the eyes

of the king" *)JJ
jaL&> mustafawu 'llahi "the chosen
ones of God".

The conjunctions lau "if and ^1 au "or" follow
^
the general rule and take __ after the .

4. The hamzat alwagl falls out of the writing ag
well as the pronunciation:
Introduction. 13

a) In the expression Kf
f*o bismfllahi (for -Mb)
In the name of God".

b) In the word f ibnun "son" when it cornea
between the name of the "" and that nf the

{and not at the beginning of a line) e.g.

'umaru 'bnu 'Ikhatt&b "Omar the son of Alkhattab".
9o o. > *- So."
If the
cr
j is predicative the { is preserved e.g. ^^ ^\ j^
zaiduni'bnu 'amrin "Zaid is the son of Amr".

c) In the Article Jl al, if preceded by the Pre-

position ,3
ji_ "to,
for") or the strengthening Particle S

l& "verily" e.g. Jo.yj lirrajuli "to the man" jJJIf

lilwaladi "to .the boy",
( j^ lalhaqqu "verily the truth".
If the noun befflns^with .3, then the
^
of the Article

falls out also e.g.-iXjJ (for xLJUJ)-lillailati "for the night".

Similarly from 2jf allah "God" is formed Jl lillahi

"to God".

d) The t of the bamzat alwagl may drop out, when

preceded by the Interrogative particle !
e.g. 5^Lt abnuka

(for 5Uln) "thy son"?

12.

Madda.

If_a_ bamza with fatha (a) is followed by a^ vowelless
the hamza and vowel are dropped and one
tEJBn"
is written, while above this is written a sign

madda (really the second alif written

horizontally above) which is pronounced a, e.g. cr,T
14 Introduction,

aminun (for allj) ra'ahu,
(for cr !!), ^
!
o lyj qur'anun

(for *,

Note. In many books the usual t which lengthens the
"
vowel, is provided with this sign, when it precedes hamza

sahrfi'u "desert".
e.g. t\jP

13.

The Syllable.

1. There are two kinds of syllable.:

a) Open, consisting of a consonant and a short
vowel e.g. JJtf ka-ta-ba..

b) Closed, consisting of a consonant, short vowel
and vowelless consonant nd and 3 rd
e.g. the 2 syllables

ka-tab-tum.

Syllables consisting of a consonant and a long
vowel aje considered closed since the letters ~t\' Vs

are considered vowelless consonants e.g.
^b da-ri.

A consonant followed Jjythe nunation is also
considered as closed (as if the n were written) e.g.

!o da-run.
;

2. No syllable can begin with a vowelless consonant.
If suclTa case arises from inflection in Arabic words,

a hamzat alwa?l with { is prefixed e.g. Cof I 'uktub

"write" (for >^jS ktub). . In writing foreign words an

unchangeable hamza (jJaiSf S}!P)
is prefixed e.g. J,>bii!

aflatQnu "Plato", or the first consonant is provided with
a vowel e.g. faransa (for fraiisa) "France".
lljji
Introduction. 15

3. No syllable can close with two vowelless con-
sonants. If such a case arises from inflection, then

one letter falls out e.g. j^S qnl becomes Jjj qfll "say",
(cf. also 6, Note 12 and 11, 3).

The only exception to this rule is in the case of
words in which these letters I,
-
3, ^ lengthening a

vowel are followed by a doubled consonant e.g. Jli

farrun, for from farirun.

14.

Accent.

1. In words of more than one syllable the accent
is never on the last.

2. If the last syllable but one i3_closed, it receives.

the accent e.g. jls q&la, Syb .yaqulu, ^Jo^> khayyatuna,
x-M ijtamd'na, 1/6 *6*\ akhbarn&kum.

3. In words of three syllables, if the last but one

is open, the accent falls on the last but two e.g.
kataba. In words of four or more syllables the acce.nl
is__carried back until it meets with a closed sllabi
- - o . '

V.J&A inashwaratun, uUx^ tajannabata,
1

e.g.
mukatabatun.

15.

Numerals.

In former times (and occasionally still in some
1.

forms of literature) the letters of the alphabet
artificial
areused to indicate numerals. In this case the order
of the 1 Dtters is that of the old Semitic alphabet, followed
by the letters peculiar to the Arabic alphabet. This
alphabet is called JsJ^T o^Js> huruf al'abjad.
16 Introduction.

1.1 20. d 200.

2.o 30. J 300.

3. 40. 400.
s r
4. o 50. 500.

5. 60. 600.
L .

6. 70. 700.
5 ^
7. 80. o 800.

9. Js 100. 1000.
^
10. ^
This order is given in the following h'ne:
o - c ^

uX^? 1
\> j^*iii'W ,

but that used in NW. Africa differs slightly from this.

2. The numerals in general use now are:

t i* r f o i v A 1 .

12 34567890
These are read from left to right e.g. uiv 1897.

16.

Abbreviations.
A stroke resembling a madda is generally (though
not always) put above abbreviations e g. ^Jl for s->7 J.I

ila akbirihi "and so forth" (literally "to its end").
The following abbreviations are in common use after

the names of certain persons : ,**o = JLLj ^IIr ^ & !
jjo
! f
salla llahu alaihi wasallama "God bless him and give
him peace" used after the name of Mohammed.
c
Jtc alaihi 'ssalamu "Upon him be
peace" used after the names of other prophets.
Introduction.

radiya 'llahu 'anlrn "May God
be pleased with him" used after the names of the
Companions of Mohammed.

j
= >

dJ!
-e i .

*s>j
rahimahu 'llahu "May God have
compassion on him" used after the names of the dead.

Exercises in reading.
I.

vlj* J? JLi ^ JJ jj vLi*
j J o o
tib kul qum harnun qul bal abun wa l! ta bi

yadun kai dum ft uam dhu khudh 'an lam ma la sir

g, a.

kullun dalla tibbun madda lubbun wai

II.

farahun qatlun shariba hasuna fariha qatala kataba
O Oo, 06- -. -- Go, G,,

ibilun habluu 4a r un khafa t^la husnun hasanun
O H, . o , t,i Go- G - G o, G G >

ra'sun khifti qumta mautun jarun baitun fllun uurun

jara akala bikrin nahrin baLirin bukblun zahrin
Arabic Grammar, 2
18 Introduction.

m.
6 s o.. -o. 6- Q
VJ,^ w~AJ LjJS WOK
haribun nafsan qulna katibun kitabun katabtu katabat

katabtum asasun fattish fattasha aqtulu tadribu jaktubu

uj^Xo f&it<
w^T 1
'

!>**) Uoo
^j^
maktubun sbu^hlukum kitabuhu takhruju ba'atha farihna
.o,
> o->, -o- O -.- J - G-o
u-aXxir' l-^^
( '

f^Jj^ C)^*" 0^-7*"
1

^^^
takhtalifu tarlqukum ta'banu saratanun jalisan miftahun

^,l5J ^^>1 li3^iJ.[ Lulx.>^ <jixi-[
c
tadanika ihmarrat ittakhadhtuaa ijtama na ikhtilafun

'ala ila akhidun akilun mu'oimun tatadhakkaru idtarabat
.- j~j O- - j o-o O ,o o ^ >

mu'allifuna mu'akhadatun istahlifinl isti'nasun mOsa

IV. ta'lifan

J^' aijj viL>

OS S ,
Introduction. 19

CT Jt>
, ) > ,o i .6- S -

8>uM

JOLc

S- 0,0.0, t , y > .

JUc

O.O .,<

UiiJ I

J -o;; < t= >, .',
Introduction.

Xljl fc*US W

Transcription and Translation.

alqutru 'Imigriyu yukauwinu 'zzawiyata
The land the Egyptian forms the angle
'shshamallyata 'shsharqlyata min afrlqiyatin wayuqalu
the northern the eastern of Africa and it is
lahu aidan wadi'nnlli li'anna qismahu
called also the valley of the Nile because its part
'IjanUblya waqi'un baina silsilaiai jibalin
the southern lies between two chains of mountains,
wayakhtariquhu nahni'nnlli Tazlmu
and cuts through it the river of Nile the mighty.
masahatuhu jighraftyan arba'umi'ati alfi mllin
Its area (is) geographically 400000 square
murabba'in wa amroa masahatuhu 'Imuqasatu
miles and as for its area the measured,
fahiya 65 alfa mllin murabba'in minha 5736000
it
(is) 65000 square c miles, of which 5736000
faddanin ardan zara lyatan.
faddans (are) seed ground
wayahuddu hadha 'Iqutra mina 'shshamali 'Ibahru
And bounds this land on the North the sea
'Imutawassitu wamina 'shsharqi khattun yamtaddu
the Mediterranean and on the East a line which extends
c
min khaui yunusa ala 'Ibahri 'Imutawassiti ila
from Khan Yunus on the sea the Mediterranean to
'ssuwaisi 'ala 'Ibahri 'rahmari wa 'Ibahru Tahraaru
Suez on the sea the Red, and the sea the Rod;
wamina 'Ijanubi biladu 'nnubati wamina
and on the South the district of Nubia; and on
'Igharbi biladu barqata.
the West the district of Barqa.
Introduction. 21

;
wa nnllu nahrun yakhtariqu
And the Nile (is)
a river (which) cuts through
'Imisriya mina 'shshamali
'Jjanubi ila
the land the Egyptian from the South to the North
fa 'idha wasla ila qurbi 'Iqahirati
and when it comes to the neighbourhood of Cairo,
'nqasama ila far'aini yaslru ahaduhuma ma'ilan
it divides into two branches, goes one of them tending
ila 'shsharqi hatta yasubba ila 'Ibahri 'Jmutawassiti
to the East until it flows into the sea the Mediterranean

'inda madmati dimyata wa Takharu yasiru ma'ilan
at the city of Damietta and the other goes tending
ila 'Igharbi hatta yasubba ila dhaiika 'Ibahri 'inda
to the West until it flows into that sea at
thaghri rashlda.
the frontier of Rosetta.
wayanqasimu 'Iqutru 'Imisrlyu bihadha
And is divided the land the Egyptian in this
'li'tibari ila qismaini janublyin washamallyin au
way into two parts, a southern and a northern, or
qibllyi.n .
wabahrryin
fa'lqismu 'Iqibllyu
a southern and a sea-coast, and the part the southern,
wayuqalu lahu 'ssa'idu au misru Tulya yamtaddu
and it is called the Sa'ld or Egypt the upper, extends
min akhiri hududi misra janftban ila
from the end of the limits of Egypt (on the) South to
?

nuqtati tafarru'i nnlli wa'lbahrtyu
the point of the branching of the Nile; and the sea-coast,
wayuqalu lahu misru 'ssufla yamtaddu min nuqtati
and it is called Egypt the lower, extends from the point
tafarru'i 'nnlli ila 'Ibahri 'Imutawassiti.
of the branching of the Nile to the sea the Mediterranean.
wayuqsamu 'Iwajhu Ibahrlyu ila
And divided the portion the sea-coast into
is
thalftthati aqsamin mutawassitin wahuwa 'Iwaqi'u baina
three divisions, a middle, and it lies between
c
far ayi 'nulli waqad summiya
the two branches of the Nile, and it has been named
lidhalika raudatu 'Ibahraini
on account of that the garden of the two rivers
wayuqalu lahu aidani 'dhdhalta limushabahatihi
and it is called also the Delta on account of its
22 Introduction.

biharfi 'dhdhali 'inda
'lyunaulylna
resemblance to the letter dhal the Greeks,
among
washarqiyin wahuwa 'Iwaqi'u ila
sharqlyi 'dhdhalta
and an eastern, arid it lies to the East of the Delta
wayuqalu lahu "Ihaufu 'shsharqlyu wagharblyin
and is called the border the Eastern, and a western
wahuwa 'Iwaqi'u ila gharblyiha wayuqalu lahu
and it .lies to the West of it, and is called
'lhaufu 'Igharbiyu hadhihi hiya 'aqsamu
the border the Western. These are the divisions
c

Iqutri 'Imisrlyi "ttabi lyatu 'amma 'aqsauiuhu
of the laud the Egyptian the natural.
'
As for its divisions
Tidariyatu t'atakhtalifu bi'khtilafi
ihe administrative, they differ with the differing
Tazmani.
of the times.
23

First Part,

First Lesson.

($7 'addarsa 1'awwalu.)
JJjLrf
1. There is no indefinite article in Arabic.

2. The definite article for all genders and numbers
is <35
^al
which is prefixed to the noun which it defines,
at the same time depriving it of the nunation (Intro. 7),

e.g. vi^yo baitun "a house"; y^jf 'albaitu "the house".
The hamza of the article is hamzat alwasl (Intro.
11) and so when it follows another word is dropped
with its vowel and in pronunciation the 3 follows
immediately the vowel of the preceding word e.g.

jb babulbaiti "the door of the house" ; vi>Jjf vjb

babilbaiti "of the door of the house"; vti**J! ou bab-
'
albaiti "the door (accus.) of the house".
3. In pronunciation the J of the article is assimilated
to the Sun-letters (Intro. o 3 } j
4, 2) o o ^ ji
(jo ijo Jo Ji? j o when the word to which it is

attached begins with one of these e.g. ,j4-ls1 'arrajulu
> o s
'the man" ^.^-Ji ashshamsu "the sun". In such
words the j is written without vowel-sign and tashdid
is
placed over the Sun-letter.
4. .Adjectives as attributes are placed after the
nouns they qualify. If the noun has the article th^
adjective must have it also e.g. ^jojjt jfS
nahrun

arldun u a wide river";
c

t
oj T*jI lull 'annahruraridu
"the wide river".
24 First Part.

5. The_CQpula "is" or "are" is not expressed in
O * Joss
Arabic^ e.g. \ja&f. jju]
'annahru 'artdun "the river
is wide".
6. The personal pronouns of the singular are:
3
Gf ana I.

ooi 'anta Thou (masc.).

saJt 'anti Thou (fern.).

'^s>
huwa He.

g hiya She.

Vocabulary.

O bustiinun a garden. bahrun a sea.

j /qablhun bad, dis-
insanun a man. : { graceful.
Second Lesson. 25

Exercise 1.
j .. o >o G - J ^ojoS
bUJ I
^-^ LX**J 1

G.,j ,s G - - 8--
^^s- J^-Ji
G - JG-:, O

G - G > - -oS O j , - O - > t, >*t.

^- v^I, J^ UU5 J^>, lit
v^ j^l
. > y , * t.
'
- - - tf
a E

Transcription.
albustanu kablrun. albustanu 'Ikablru. al-
baitu '^saghlru. mahallun hasanun. arrajulu ha-
sanun. insanun qablhun. armllu nahruu. mali-
kun 'adilun. albahru kablrun. qasrunkuwaiyisun.
khubzun taiyibun. alkhubzu taiyibun ani rajulun.
- auta ta'banu. huwa
alqadl rajulun taiyibun.
hablbun taiyibun. arrajulu huwa 'lhablbu 'ssadiqu.
shshri'u 'ari^un.
Exercise 2.

The house is large. The garden is a beautiful
place. Thou art a good man. - - I am tired.

The beautiful castle and (^ wa) the wide river. The
judge is upright. I am an upright friend. Thou
art a bad man. The wide street.

Second Lesson.

The Feminine.
1. Most feminine words take the _!_ atun
ending
(for this form of t see Intro. 1, Note 2), e.g. ^t
26 First Part.

O-o
'ibrum "a son", xut 'ibnatun "a daughter";

kablran "great", feminine a-y^ kablratun.

2. The adjective agrees with the noun which it

qualifies
or is predicate to. e.g. 'LJ3\ iSif 'alibnatu

'Ikablratu "the big girl",
{^ 2ll .'alibnatu kablratun
"the girl is big (or old)".
3. Some words are feminine without having_a
femimne"'ending.;

a) Nouns denoting females e.g. ^5
'urnmun "a
O i, o

mother", u^f. 'arusun "a bride", JUP Hindun (name
of a woman).

b) Proper names of lands and cities e.g.
yax misru

(without nunation) "Egypt, Cairo", ^UJ! 'ashshamu
(always with article), "Syria, Damascus".

c) Names of those parts of the body which occur
, O o
in Jvj yadun "hand", "foot",
pairs e.g. Jo^ rijlun

(
._vc 'ainun "eye" etc.

d) Many single words, among the commonest
being:
O o O o -
(joi 'ardun, earth. *M-& shamsun, sun.
..

khamrun, wine. .'j namn, fire.

, O o,
tjarun, house. ^V-AJ nafsun, self, soul.

[ > >^
G -*

nh\ln, wind. v^. siiqun, market.

Note 1. Some words are used both as masculine and
feminine, (see Less. 38).

Note 2. Other feminine endings are ^5 -- a and *!

a'cr (see Leas. 38).
Second Lesson. 27

Note 3. Nouns ending in denoting males are mas-

culine e.g. K.JL> khallfatun "a caliph",
^syb Tarafatu (the name
of a poet).

Collectives,
4. Many words singular in form have a collective
G-- 6 JO-
meaning
"olives".
e.g.
To
^ hajarun "rock", o >jj zaitunun
indicate a single object the feminine
*""
O Q ___
ending
JL _atun is
appended to such words e.g. s^
5^ j O->

hajaratun "a piece of rock, a stone", J^u; zaitunatun
"a (single) olive".
5. Tnterrogat^yft apntyncea are introduced by the

particles $J> or f. The latter is prefixed to. the first

word of the sentence.

Vocabulary.
-
Maddun a grand- Ihadirun present,
"
\
father. ('ready.
a grand- 9 s hadidun
(jaddatun j strong,
f mother violent.
salihun honest.
aklmun ft

.- f*^ ( man, physician.
jLuLs>- junainatun a garden. J&
JL> tairuu a bird.
^*i na am es.

UM sa'atun an hour. 2
muzillun shady.
fqadlmun old, ancient

Jk hadimun
\ (of things). 9 a man,
.
i
servant.
*
jadldun new.
(khadimatunamaid-
waladun a boy. I
servant.
,
28 First Part.

rauti'un obedient malikatun a queen.

qahirun conquering. (gharibun setting (of
the sun).
nazifun clean.
(tuffahun apple
jiwazzun goose ( (collective).
( (collective).
Jshajarun tree
maiyitun dead. j (collective).

Exercise 3.

(a name of Cairo)

j-
B
j3 jii

Transcription.

aljaddu kablrun. aljaddatu kablratun. alib-
natu 'aghlratu. ibnun
salifrun. hali 'ijuuaiuatu
c

kuwaij'isatun. na atni 'ljunainatu kuwaiyisatun.
c
sa atun hasanatun. albaitu qadltnun. addaru jadl-
datun. 'arummu hasanatun. alwaladu hadirun.
rlhun shadldatun. arrihu shadldatun. -
a'anta -

c
ta'banu. na'ara aoa ta banu: hal anta 'Iqadi.
Third Lesson. 20

la ana 'lhaklmu. hal hiya alihatun. la hiya

qablhatun. ashshamsu t&li'atuu. ashshajaratu
'Imuzillatu. alkhadimatu mutfatun. mi?ru 'Iqa-
hiratu. alyadu nazlfatun. al'iwazzu t^irun.
aFiwazzatu 'Iraaiyitatu.

Exercise 4.

The mother is present. A great fire. Is the

garden lerge? No, the garden is small. The new
house is small. The wind is violent. Art thou
the grandmother?
(fern.) Yes, I am the grandmother.
- The beautiful The king is just and
daughter.
the queen is beautiful. The setting sun.

*
Third Lesson. ,-*+ <>

9"

Number.
1. There are three numbers in Arabic: Singular

(Oji* rnufrad), Dua| ()j&* muthauna or &AJ&J tathniya)
9.o *
and Plural (** jam*).

2. The Dual is formed by adding to the wor4
masc. or the tennination ani for the
^either fern.)
o t

aini for the other cases,,, e.g.

malikun a king; malikani two kings
glb>
(noni.); ^IXL*
raalikaini two kings (other cases).
"
o^ / , , ,
3JX* malikatun a queen ,-,oXU malikatani two

queens (noni.) ^IHJU malikataini two queens (other

Note. In the fern, the a is changed to o whenever a
suffix is added.
30 First Part.

3. The Plural is of two kinds:
c

a) The Sound plural (jJl^Jl 5^! 'aljain assalim)

formed by the addition of endings to the singular.
? r

b) The Broken plural (^u j-l aljam almu-

word and in some cases with au ending as well.
Lessons 4 and 5).
4. The Sound plural masc. of nouns and adjectives.

js_formed by adding ^3- jana for the nominative
and ^j _ ma for the other cases^ after the case-ending
pf the nominative singular has been dropped, e.g.

Singular. Plural Nona. Plural, other cases.

malikuna. r*^ 8 nialiklna:

'
kathlrun. kathlruna. >.
kathlrln'a.

JBg
The .Sound jglural
_ atun into ot_L
~,
-
of feminines
~~~

jitun for
is formed by chang-
the nominative and
ot J.tin for the other cases, e.g.

Singular. Plural Norn.,
G, '-' ^
khadimatun a maid-servant. OU^'L> khadimatun.

Plural, other cases.

khadimatin.

Note. Some feminine nouns take a masculine sound plural,
6, - t

eg. ioLw sanatun a year Plur. ...^-Lw sinlina; some masculine

nouns also take a feminine sound plural, e.g. ,;,!_***- hayawanun
o , -- -

animal, Plur. Ou!_j-o> hayawanatun.

5. Adjectives agree with their nouns not only in
gender "'(see LTess. 2, 2) but^alsojn niugoer^excepT
Third Lesson. ,- 31

^ when
the noun is injhe* Sound fern, plur.tbe.
ttdjective la usually in the femT singular, though Tt'ig
in thjB fern, plur. when persons are indicatedT
ocrflgionftlly
5) Broken 'plurals being originally^Collectives, take, the.
jjdjectjreJn_JJie_fem. sinft.
(see Lessons 4 and 5).

Examples of the regular agreement:
Ikhadimun hasanun a good (beauti-
| fui) servant,

fkhadimatun hasanatun a good maid-
- -
.
:

^ L> \ servant.

- - Ikhadimani hasanani two good ser-

Ikhadimatani hasanatani two good
I maid-servants.

^is>- ^^-olA- khfidimuna hasanuua good servants.

Example of exception a):

: (khadimatuu hasanatun good maid-
8ervauts>

or as the noun indicates persons

l>L*M^> o'wcJL> khadimatun hasanatun.

G. The personal pronouns are:

Ihuma they
,

huwa he. ^
- >

two ^
>
(hum they
masc..

hiya she.

thou
antuma fantum you
junta ? ( -.^f
(masc.). 7. y,
(masc. and rn.. 5 ,
|
antunna vou
em
^ ^ jnahnu we
.:* (ana I (masc. a^' !
(masc. and
and fern. I fern..
First Part.

Exercise 5.

6,
Fourth Lesson. 33

Transcription,
alrnu'alliinu 'sgalihu. almu'allimnua salihflna.
c
al ainam 'llami'atani. almu'allimetu hadiratun.
hal antum mabsutuna. la nahnu za'lanuna.
lailatani wanaharani. hali 'Iqadl inashghfllun. na'ani
huwa mashghulun. alkhabbazuna mujtahidtina.
alibnatani gha'ibatani. alkhaiyatu wa'lkbaiyatatu inash-
ghulani. alkhaiyatttna wa'lkhaijatatu muytahidana.
almuslimtlna 'salihuna. waladani la'ibSni. alharatu
nazifatun.
Exercise 6.

The quarter (of the clean. The teachers
town) is
are present. A
flashing eye. Are you (two) in-
dustrious? Yes, we are busy. Are you vexed?
No, I am contented. The Moslem is pious. They
(raasc.) are absent. The beautiful tailoresses are
present.
- The boy is industrious. The night is
dark. The servants and maid servants are tired.
The physician is busy. Two busy physicians.
Two clean hands. Are the bakers idle? Yea,
and the carpenters are idle, they are tired.

Fourth Lesson.

The Broken Plural.

Explanation. Arabic words with few exceptions
(see Note) consist of three consonants called Radicals
together with certain vowels and sometimes prefixes or
suffix^.
To indicate patterns or type-forms of words
Arabian grammarians use the three consonants Jja
the o representing the first radical, the
^
the second

and the ^ the third e.g. olf kalbun "a dog" is said
S o* O .> 9,2
to be of the form Juts; .^S of the form Juoe; Ji> (for
Go G o } , c'f
of the form Jjii; *y\ 'ahmaru "red" of the form
T
:
of the form of the form
;

^Ji ^^Ufc J?^1U ,

Arabic Grammar. 8
34 First Part.

Note. A few Arabic words have four radicals; The pattern
JJUs is used for them.
There are 31 patterns of tbe^Brokeg,PJiiral (Less. 3,
A complete list of theslTTs given in Lessons 39
3).
and 40. Among the most frequently used are?
.
a) 3lJf e.g. i1 'auladun plur. of jjj waladun
t I ffr\ Q ^5,5 o ,.
' 1

"a boy ;
'afrasun plur. of
^j farasun "a horse";
(j*5js!
'* -

J-af 'ashrafun plur. of sharffun "noble". In
UujZ
>
.... the same way are formed the plurals of J*ib tfflun "a
Go,
baby"; ^lax matarun "rain"; .^i^ waqtun "time".

b) 3ji e.g. ; _^ buhurun plur. of ^ bahrun "sea";

'usuduu plur. of jJJ 'asadun "a lion";
o .* o
shuhndun plur. of j^Ui shahidun "a witness";
o ^*
In the same
fyuqtlqun plur. of/j^>haqqun "a right".

way are formed the plurals of JJbs qalbun "a heart";
G t,, 6 -

j^i> jundun "an army"; 5JU malikun "a king".
G . G , G c-
^ c) JLS e.g. vjtki' kilabun plur. of ^JLT kaibun "a

4 dog"; JL^, rijalun plur. of J^>, rajulun "a man"; so

O also are formed the plurals of UU> jabahm "a mountain";

<p*A.
rumhun "a spear"; j^ kablrun "great".

d) .Us e.g. waf kutubun
' plur. of \J&3 kitabun
'
>, o, '.

"a book"; ..j^ mudunun plur. of *JuJw madlnaftun
,
"a city"; ^^ sufunun plur. of y_'.^o w saftnatun "a ship".

e)-jJts! e.g. ^J5
'anhurun plur. of ^i nahrun "a

river"; ^\ 'ashhurun plur. of
^& shahrun "a month";

' J 'arjulun plur. of J^L. rijlun '
"a foot".
Fourth Lesson. 36

Vocabulary.

The small a word indicate that the Plural
letters after is

of the form given under that letter in this lesson.
o G
wasikhun dirty. Ju tawllun long.

a'bun hard, diffi- > -> the
oi ^ji Jalfuratu
cult. i Euphrates.

(d) tarlquu a way. u^ mukhlisun honest.

sarfun swift-
sahilun easy. &??

j(b)
'ilmun know- $ almadl the past
ledge, science.

^
\

e

nafi
c
un useful. al att the high.

-
galihun pious, JU* (b) saifun a sword.
l(c)
honest.
jb'o qatiun cutting.
harisun watchful. e"

,oS 9 ^ O
First Part.

a > * C.2&S

Transcription.
c
huwa kitabun kutubun sa batuu.
sa'bun.
raisru wa'shshamu madlnatani hasanatani. almudunu
kuwaiyisatun. turuqun eahilatun. arulumu nafi-
'atuD. ashshurutu sa'batun. huququn thabitatun.
huwa shahidun shuhfldun silahun.
salihun.
alkalbu harisun. alkilabu 'lharisatu. alqulubu
'linukhli^atu. sufunun sarfatun. al'afrasu hasa-
natun. arauladu mutl'ftna. al'amtaru 'shshadldatu.
al'auqatu 'Imadiyatu. aljibalu 'aliyatun. al-
hurufu "rarabiyatu. assuyofu qati'atun. al'anhuru
'ikablratu. hum nasun kibaruu.
Exercise 8.

The dogs are swift and watchful. It is a diffi-
cult way. Difficult ways. The industrious boys.
- The Arabic letters are difficult. They are (^) per-

manent rights. An honest heart. The high
mountains are beautiful. Are you great people?
No, .we are honest people. -- Useful books. The
Arabian cities are dirty. The Arabian sciences are
difficult. The swords are long. The Nile and
Euphrates are two great rivers. The past month.
The little babies.

Fifth Lesson.

1. Further forms of the Brpken Plural are:
' -.. 9 .

,f) ^las e.g.
*!^j
wuzara u plur. of ^ wazlrun a

Vezir, minister"; *fy>!
'umara'u plur. of -y*! 'amlrun
Fifth Lesson. 87

"a prince"; *Jy sufara'u plur. of ^A^, saftrun "an
-- t> "O 3
ambassador"; t\f*\ 'usara'u plur. of
^! 'asiruri "a
captiv".
This is a very common plural for words of the

form ^fjta when they denote persons.
-

g) iSUsi e.g. *SX*I 'asdiqa'u plur. of

dlqun "a friend"; *llol 'anbiya'u plur. of *j

"a prophet"; iL^J 'aqriba'u plur. of qarlbun "a
^oy
relative"; *U*e! 'aghniya'u plur. of Js ghanlyun "rich".

S ^oi G -o > ^ ,
fursanun plur. of ^.b farisun a-X
h) o^*5 e.g. o u-/
* - o> G ,, AL^
**a rider"; o t^b buldanun plur. of jjb baladun "a a 1

O , o O
district"; oUxos qudbanuu plur. of <>.yC3i qadlbun "a
rod, sceptre".

2. Nouns with four radicals (JJbe) have the follow.-

ing Broken Plurals:
i) JJL e.g. ^^=\^=> kawakibu plur. of ._*-*j^-~

kaukabun "a star"; y^' tajaribu plur. of iL?^' tajri- Cl-a

batun "an attempt". In the same way are formed the
O_ti., .O-ci^
plurals of j^> jauharun "a jewel"; ~_~-^-+ maktabun
"a school, office"; x*xL maktabatun "a library".

k) ijUS e.g.
J*** O*o ^
i fanajlnu from
Q^* finjanun "a cup".
~ ,
.oU^> sanadlqu from vjOx5 suudut^m "a coffer".
-. O o
U*. khanazlru from J-> khinzlrun "a pig".
38 First Part.

In the same way are formed the plurals from
O Jo-
sultanun "a sultan"; oyjCo maktubun "a letter":

qindilun "a lamp"

This form .is used for tbe_ plural of all words^ of^
four radicals which have a long voweMjetween Ihe
third arid fourth radicals.

1) AJJLs a rare form used specially for living beings
6 r 9
e.g. jo^Ljtalamidhatunpl.of js^Jij tilmldhun "a scholar"

3. The following words deserve special notice:
5o, ibnun "a son
- '-
,
- os

^[ I^ur- QJ^J banflna or 2Luf
'abua'un.

'ibnatun or o^iJ bintun "daughter, girl", plur.

'akhun "brother", plur. _jj>! 'ikhwatun or

'ikhwanun.
*
O o {> & , ~ $
c^>t 'ukbtun "sister", plur. o!^>t 'akbawatujQ.
'Note 1. Some nouns have two or more forms of Broken
6.0. G , O
Plural bahrun "sea" has j^^ buhurun, j^^- biharan,
e.g. ^,
1
-

SK- O -&Z
j3R?
abhuran and ^j^t abhSrun.
Note 2. Some words have different forms of the Broken
o,
Plural with different meanings e.g. c>uO baitun means "a bouse"
o ,1
or "a verse of poetry". In the former sense the Plural is o
.*

buydtun, in the latter oLoi abyatun.

Vocabulary.
9 -

c,li farighun empty. u*^ naftsun precions.
*
O
f*^=> karlmun noble.

(Other words in the lesson.)
Fifth Lesson. 39

Exercise 9.

Transcriptioii.
assufara'u walwuzara'u gha'ibUna.
hadirftua
aslran. agdiqa'u mukhli^una. annasu
aghniya'u. albuyutu- Taliyatu kuwaiyisatun. ma-
kfitibu nafi'atun. assalatinu kibaruu. arrimalju
tawllatun. basatmii hasanatun. almu'allimana
mabsfttttna wa'ttalacaidhatu mujtahidHna. a^undt?.qu
farighun. buldanim ghanlyatun. albi^aru (albuhttru)
'Ikabiratu. al'aqriba'u humu Ta^diqa'u. aljauharu
'nnaftsu. annafsu 'Ikarlmatu. albanQna mujta-
bidQna wa'lbanatu muti'atun.
Exercise 10.
The cups are empty. The
pigs are animals.
The Sultan isjust. The
princes and ministers are
present. The letter is long. Long letters.
Noble souls. The scholars are busy. The boys
are contented, they are playing. The horsemen are
tired. Are the ambassadors present? No, they
are absent. Are you relatives? Yes, and we are
friends. The big coffers. The jewels are precious.
Beautiful verses. The brothers and sisters are
present and the sons and daughters are absent.
40 First Vart.

Sixth Lesson.

Declension.
1. There are three cases in Arabic: the -Nominative

(js. raf),
Genitive, oblique or prepositional Qi. jarr)
6 _
" * *'
and .Accusative (v_^aj nasb).
These cases are expressed:
2.

When the word originally has junation
a)
-M#~ whether it be a inasc. sitig. or fern. sing, or broken
*
,*
plural ~by the endings un,in, an, (written
I }.
,(X/IV
^^
W>^-^^D) When the word has originally nojaunatinn hy_
M -
for the nom., and a foi the other caees^

When
the word is defined by the article or a
following word
in the genitive whether it baa
nunation or not originally by_u, i, a.

Examples.
4<
a) Nora L* sariqun a thief". Jol3- khadimatun

"a maid-servant". o^Jj auladun "children".

Gen. u- sariqin. */o,j> khadimatin. o^l auladin.
^ ; 5!

Ace. ^ioLi. khadimatan. |j^J auladan.
i^'u* sariqan.

b) Nom. i^imakkatu "Mecca", "coffers".
/^jjLLoanadlqu
Gen. and Ace. ixi makkata. ?anfidlqa.
(^oU*>
Nom. vi^Jjf v^bi sahibu-'lbaiti
c)
^UJ! assfiriqu.

"the master of the house"

Gen. assariqi. v**3\ ^s>\^> sahibi-'lbaiti.
^jUJl
Ace.
jUJ! assariqa. ^2\ vlo-L sahiba-'lbaiti.
Sixth Lesson. 41

Note 1. A word without original tan\vjn is called by the
+ O > td *
Arabian grammarians <-3.*aJu
j*c ghair
munsarif i.e. not (per-

fectly.)
declined, (see Less. 41).

Note 2. Words which end in ^5 preceded by kasra contract
e
^5 - iynn and ^5 iyin into in :
>

^5 iyu and ^5-^ iyi

into t. In the Sound plural they drop the ^ altogether
G

^
.
]

qsdin "a judge" for S qsdiyitn (nom.) or
e.g. (jtolS

.OS
^Sflfe
'
J -o
^
<jS<Jiyin (gen.) ^yto'JUl alqfidl; "the judge" for alqadiyn
^^toLaJl
'
^oz* . i *

(nom.) or ^toli^t alqadiyi (gen.) Plural, nom. Q>^^ qadana:

gen. -yutoS qSdfna. Other forms are nncontracted e.g.

(ace.).

Note
3. The forms of the dual and plural have already
been given in Lesson 3 so that the declension of the noun is
now complete.

3. All prepositions govern the genitive, thus;

"in" as bustanin "in a garden";
ft
o lilj ft

ixi ft makkata "in Mecca".

ji 'ala "on" as jll j^ 'ala 'Ijibali "on the
ruountaius".

J li "to, for" as jJJJJ lilwaladi "for the boy"

(see Intro. 11, 4 c).

c,, min "from" as o^ljl ^ mina 'Ibuyuti "from

the houses".

4. The relation of a word and its following genitive
o- -
is called &U?t idafa; the governing word is called
O > o* G . >

raufjaf and the genitive &Jt oLL* inudaf ilaihi.
42 First Part,

The word that governs a genitive is itself definite

but never takes the article, thus Jo*, c^xl baitu rajulin
means "tlie house of a man".

Jw>pl ^& baitu 'rrajuli means "the house of

the man".

When the governing word is^indefiiiite the prepo-
u

sitiQn"Timusi_be puT beSre_the followingjgenitim eg.
i - "GO,
Jc^LS oyo baitun lirrajuli "a house of the man"; or
i & -s }> (i O o,
one may say JoJl o_^o Q^ oyo baitun rain buyuti

'rrajuli (literally) "a house from the houses of the man".

Vocabulary.'
Sixth Lesson. 43

*x

Transcription,
?ahibu 'Ibaiti
gha'ibuni 'lyauma. alfarisu 'ala
zahri 'Ifarasi. al'amlru gha'ibun khadimu Tamtri
ft'ddari. miftahu babi'lbaiti. abwabu 'Imadlnati
c
maftuhatun. urnaru sahibun lizaidin. basatinu
'shshami masbhttratun. kalbu 'Iwaladi harisun.
kutubu 'ttalamidhati nazlfatun. nahnu a?diqa'u
'rrajuli. qasru Tamlri fi'lraadlnati. buyQtu 'ima-
dinati 'aliyatun. arrijalu badirOna ft'lmajlisi.
zaujatu 'Iqadl hasanatun. ra'su 'Ibikmati makbafatu
'llahi. baitun min buyUti Taralri ft'ssUqi. antum
hadirQna ft bustani 'Ijari. aljrau qabla 'ddari 'rraftqu
qabla
Exercise 12.
Is the master of the servant in the house? No,
he is in the garden of the neighbour. You are the
friends of the man. The merchant is present in the
44 First Part.

market of the city. The door of the house is open.
- The man's
dogs (dogs of the man) are watchful.
The king's ministers are present in the council. Is
the physician present? The physician is absent and
the wife of the physician is present to-day, -r Ahmed
is a friend of the judge. The gardens of the city
are spacious. The relatives of the physician are rich.

Seventh Lesson.

The Genitive (continued).
1. The Dual and Sound plural masc. lose their
final with its vowel when they are followed by a
o
genifiye;
thus the ending
o t ani becomes !_L_ a,
'
aini becomes ^5 & atani becomes ifJL
^j ai,
o
ata, ^-jAj
ataini becomes
^~ atai,
O3 una be-

comes ^ u, ^j Ina becomes ^ I, e g.

I baita 'rrajuli the two houses of the
I
man.

jbaba baitayi 'rrajuli the two doors
( -of the two houses of the man.
-o- ,.0
I
ibnata 'Iwazlri the two daughters of
jjj^jjj Uij^ j
^e minister.
c ,.0- , o, 'Iwazlri the house of
(baitu 'bnatayi
'

</**'
^^ \
the two daughters of the minister.
c

}mu allima 'Iwaladi the teachers of
I
the boy.
c
I kutubu mu alliml
'Iwaladi the books
( of the teachers of the boy.

2. The words \J\ abun "father", ~J akhun
9, >
o
"brother", .*>. hamun "father-in-law", ^o dhu "master,
Seventh Lesson. 45

possessor" (only used with a genitive), pi famun "mouth"
take the following forms before a genitive:

Norn. _,j|
aba Ace. Cl.aba Gen. \ abi

jL\ akhtt li-J. akha akhl
^s>\

_^+=>
hamu ,, Us- ham 3, ,,
^- haml

33
dhu .{o dha ^j dhi

^ fd 13 fa ft.

Thus:
abu rauhammadin Mohammed's father.

- -
f
darabtu aba zaidin I struck Zaid's
\ father.

u dhi husnin the face of the
beautiful man (literally "of- the pos-
sessor of beauty").

3. Aword cannot be separated from a genitive
to it, therefore if it is qualified by an
jjelongring
adjective" the adjective must be put after the gemtive
(and have the article), e.g.
baitu "Ivrazlri 'Iwasi'u "the

spacious house of the Vezir".
An alternative form would be:
c
albaitu 'iwasi u lilwazlri.

4. If the genitive refers to two nouns T it must
follow the first 'while the second takes the suffix "of
the personaL pronoun (see Lesson 8) e.g-.-

baitu 'Iwazlri wabustanuhu

'the Vezir's house and garden".

J^b^,. o^J? ijJ yada Ubinti warijlaha "the girl's

hands (dual) and feet (dual)".
46 First Part.

5. The genitive is often
used_partitivel^__andjfco
denote material x,k3 qifatu Jahmin "a piece
e.g. ^2
of flesh"; 8^|S
J^-S finjanu qahwatin "a cup of coffee";

khashabin "a seat of wood".
T_'..fi.;V
ijHyf kurslyu
6. The genitive often occurs after an adjective to

define or limit its application, e.g. Jjl*J! J^is qalllu

Taqli "little of understanding" (i.e. as regards under-

standing) i.e. "stupid"; ^Ul .^ kathlru 'Imali "abundant

of wealth" i.e. "rich";
"beautiful of face".
je>^J! && hasanu 'Iwajhi

Note. This genitive is improper and elands in place of a
defining accusative, hence the rule in Lesson 6, 4 does not
apply to the word before it, which can take the article when it
is definite e.g.
O, , O ,0.0 }* , ,P<, ,(MI t ,0

'Iwazlri 'lhasanatu

'Iwajhi ha^iratun "the beautiful daughter (lit. "the daughter the
beautiful of face") of the Vezir is present".

7. Some nouns are used in Arabic with a following
genitive denoting a quality, where in English an ad-
Cj

jective is used. These nouns are such as ^oU? '
6 ,0 >

sahibun, plur. oL^I ashabun "master, possessor"; ^
dhQ, dual, |jO dhawa (with omission of the final ^ be-

fore the genitive), plur. ^ dhawu and the feminine

sing. o!J dBatu, dual b'l>3 dhata, plur. o!^>3 dhawatu

"possessor"; _^| abtt "father"; unimu "mother";
jt
ibnu "son", e.g.
sahibu 'ilmin "master of learning
i e learned".

jdhatu husnin "possessor of beauty
> -
'
"
i.e. beautiful
Seventh Lesson. 47

* f abu lisanaini "father of two tongues
jj\ | j e dissembling".
' * ibnu khamslna sanatan "son of
I
OT 1 50 years i.e. 50 years old".

Vocabulary.

bakrin Abu e
)abu khubzun bread,
I
Bekr, (name of j*
I a man). hadldun iron.

qabilatun a tribe. an old
banQ asadin (sons man, head of a
j

of a lion), name tribe, Sheikh.
Ishaikhun
j
of an Arabian ma'rifatun know-
|
tribe.
1 ledge.

jamalun beauty. kidhbun a lie.

< f bukhlun mieer-
J
{ liness. tujratun a room.

zillun shadow. I matbakhun a
( kitchen.
O o >

j^j
zuhdun abstinence. nisfi'un women,
s-'
(luqmatun a bit (of o
*~^ tajirun a merchant.
\ bread, ineat&c.). >?

Exercise 13.
48 First Part.

Transcription.
f
mu'allirnQ "Iwaladi a^habu ilmin. arrajulu
'Iqablhu huwa abu lisanaini. ibnu abl bakria ka-
tblru'lmali. ibuata 'Iwazlri hasanata 'Iwajhi. bSbu
'Ibaiti 'Iwasi'u mafttthun. tial huwa dhn Mlinin? La,
huwa qalllu Taqli. kutubu dhawl 'ilmin nafi'atun.
- ban! asadin hiya qabilatun rnina Tarabi.
qabllatu
zaujatu 'lhakimi hiya dhatu husnin wa jamalin.
hali Tamlru karlmu 'nnafsi. la huwa kathlru 'Ibukhli.
- aslishajaratu dhatu zillin. zuhdu abl bakrin mash-
hurun. 'aina 'bnati 'Jqadl lauii'atani. qit'atu lahrain
kablratun. luqinatu kliubzin saghiratun. ?
finjanu
'Jqahwati hadirun. kurslyu hadidiu ft lbustani.
shaikhu 'Iqabilati "Ikathiru 'ImUli salil.iun.

Exercise 14.

The boys are stupid. The stupid boys are
- -

present. The physicians (Broken plur. f) are learned.
The girls (Less. 5, 3) are beautiful. The men
present are learned and the women present are beauti-
ful. The tailor is bad, he is a liar (father of lying).
Abu Bekr's servant is present and the two maid-
servants of Abu Bekr's brother are absent. The cups
are in the room. No, they are () in the kitchen.

One of the sons (a son of the sons) of the sheikh is

50 years old. Is the merchant rich? Yes, he is
rich and miserly (much of miserliness). The learned
are the friends of kings (Plur. b).
Eighth Lesson. 49

Eighth Lesson.

Pronominal Suffixes.

1. The Personal Pronouns (^A^? damlr) jxist
in two
9 o>
forms: a) Independent i.e. standing alone

damir munfasil) or b) attached as Snffires to nouns,
O a> O
verbs or prepositions (J*aX/> .^ damn* muttasil). The

Independent forms have already been given in Less. 3, 6).
2. The forms used when attached to words are:

Sing. Dual Plur.

3 rd
Masc. hu -
, +& hum.
U* huma
rd ha
3 Fern. l i hunna.

2 nd Masc. 2 ka
|
U kuma
.-> . I/ kum.
^ ^
2nd Fern. ^ ki
^ kunna.
1
st
Masc. and Fern. ^5 I li na.
*

(with a verb J, nl).

3. These Suffixes attached jp^ a noun correspond to

pur Possessive Pronoun e.g. wb^ kitabuhu "his book":

attached to a verb or preposition they answer to our^

Personal Pronoun in the objective case e.g. &j^t> darabahu

"be struck him"; &ix minhu "from him".

Note 1. Nouns to which these suffixes are attached employ
the forms which they have before a genitive i.e. they drop the
nunation and in the dual and plur. the ,; while the words
OS Os O,
vj!
j,\ f> have the forms given in Lesson 7 (except that with
% s
the 1st pers. pron. sing, they become ^1 abl, ^=>\ akhi, ^J?
hami).
Ambic Grammar. 4
50 First Part.

Note 2. The suffixes s hu, UP hums ancf *# hum are
a

changed to hi, UP hima and p$>
him when attached to a word

ending in i, ^ 1 or (j ai e.g. XJuJ' kitabihi "of his

book", f froi *> kitabaihim "of their two books".

Note 8. The suffixes +5 kum and <*P hum become *-*

kumu and p& humu when they are followed by a word beginning
with hamzat alwasl.
Note 4. The pronominal suffix of the 1 st person sing.

is always ^c ya after a vowelless I
_ ^5 .

4. The prepositions jur. 'inda "with, in, in the

possession of", cr min "from" ji 'ala "on", t ila

"to, unto" are attached to the pronominal suffixes

without change (e.g. 5 .xic 'indahu "in his possession",

\Iic 'alaihi "on him") except in the case of the 1 st person
f

which is as follows: ^.x^ indl "with me",
^ix minnl
"from me", ^U 'alaiya "upon me", \\ ilaiya "unto me".

j li "to, for" assumes the form '\ la before the suffixes

except with the 1 person which
st
is ^ li "to me".

5. The English verb "to have" is usually expressed
in Arabic not by a verb but by the prepositions ^. it

jUc or ^> ma' "with"; thus "Zaid has a book" may be

expressed by oji^a JsjJ or i_ilv^^ jo: Jw<c or

6. The particle 0! or Oh! in
forms^of
address

may be
expressed
in Arabic by j ya with the following
Eighth Lesson. 51

word in the nominative without pupation e.g. j^ C
ya zaidu "oh Zaid", but with the followipg word iu
the accusative if that is followed by a gepitive e.g.
?

\> ya saiyida nnasi "oh Lord of (the) men"-

For further details see Lesson 16.

Vocabulary.
e
<-
between, a ishatu Ayesha,
- jbaina
I

{ among. \ (name of woman).
--
Jwaraqun paper khaifan thread.
;3 \ (collective).

qalamun a reed, ismun name,
pen.

,j> hibrun ink. sa'atun hour, watch.

-- zainabu Zainab
j dhahabun gold.
}' (name of woman).
'abdu 'rrahmani
| saiyidun master,
lord.
Abdurrahman,
(name of man,
1

saiyidatun mistress, literally "the
lady. servant of the
f mahmudun Mah- Merciful").
mud, (name of ? -
x |
himfirun
I
man). an ass.

|
hasanun Hasan,
r

abdun a slave,
j (name of man). servant.
fiddatun silver. au or.
>{

J fatimatun Fatima, I
hindun Hind,
1 (name of woman). ? j (name of woman).

Exercise 15.

(*J
52 First Part.

Exercise 16.

Abdurrahman has two sons, the name of the
older (great) is the (name) of the younger
Mahmud,
(small) is Hasan. O
servant, is the physician pre-
sent? No, (0) my master, the physician is absent;
the wife and son of the physician (Less. 7, 4) are pre-
sent. Hast thou a gold watch (watch of gold) or a
silver one (watch of silver)? I have a silver watch,
(0) my master 1 Have you horses (plur. a)? Yes,
we have horses and asses. Are my servants in the
market? No, your servants are in the garden.
My brother's wife is beautiful (beautiful of face).

my mistress, art' thou content with (Q,) thy slave?

Yes, I am content. He is content with his
servant.
Ninth Lesson. 53

Ninth Lesson.

Demonstrative Pronouns.

1. The Demonstrative Pronoun

al-'ishara) in its simplest form is: Masculine Sing, lo

dha for all Dual nom. dhani, gen. and ace.
cases; O !J>'

^jj dhaini; Feminine, Sing. ^3 dbl, 8 o dhihi, j tl, ao

tihi, if ta for all cases; Dual nom. ls tani, gen. and
CJ

ace. taini.
^AJ
Plural for both genders and all cases j^t ula or

ula'i.
*^t
These forms are however rarely used.

2. The words for ^tbis, these" are formed by pre-

fixing
IP (written 9 see Intro. 6, note 1), to some of the^
simple forms above. They are:

Sing. masc. IJ^P hadha for all cases. Fern. j^>

hadhihi (rarely ^j^>) for all cases.

Dual masc. nom. a tOJ> hadhani. Fern.
olip hatani.
Gen. and hadhaini. Fern. Joii hataini.
ace.
^j^
Plural ^p ha'ula'i for both genders and all cases.

3. The words for "that, those" are formed by

adding & ka (in some cases with interpolated ^) Jto

the simple forms. They are:

Sing. masc. M dhaka or 5Uo dhalika; fern. &s
taka or >^Lu tika or usually w^l> tilka for all
54 First Part.

Dual masc. noin. y5o!J dhanika or ^5o!6 dhannika;

gen. and ace. ^ijJ dhainika or L,3 dhainnika.

Fern. nom. ^j tanika or ^fJs tannika; gen. and

ace. y&Lu tainika or Lu tainnika.

Plural u&ftjt ula'ika (more rarely ^! tilaka or

i
ulalika) for both genders and all cases.

4. If the__demonstrative qualifies a simplejaoun.
.it
precedes~it and the noun Jakes the article e.g.

vjutfdT -I jJ> hadha 'Ikftabu "this book".

But if the noun is defined by a following genitive.
or a pronominal suffix the demonstrative isplaced

after these e.g. !J^> ^JJ\ ^ ibnu 'Imaliki hadha

"this son of the king" |j^>
fXAxs'
kxtabukum hadha
"this book of yours".

5. If the demonstrative is used pronominally and
as subject of a nominal sentence, then:

a) If the predicate is an indefinite noun, no copula
is necessary e.g. u>lii=9 \o& hadha kitabun."this is
a book .

b) If the predicate is defined by the article the
3rd pers. pron. is used as a copula to prevent the
demonstrative from being taken adjectivally (as in 4) e.g.

oJ^J! jp !JNJ> hadha huwa 'Iwaladu "this is the boy".

c) If defined by' a following genitive
the predicate is
or a pronominal suflix, the demonstrative is put first

and no copula is needed e.g. ^jGbsa !J^> "this is

your book".
6. The Interrogative pronouns. (j,l$ix*/5S? ^ ism

alistifham) are ^ man "who", U ma "what" (sometimes
Ninth Lesson. 55

- . a
lou madha),
^5 aiyun fern, jul aiyatuu "which",
kam "how much? how many?"

^ is indeclinable
(^^^ mabnl). The genitive

relation is expressed by placing it after a noun e.g.

Q, obtf kitabu man "whose book?"
U is also indeclinable. After some prepositions it

is written as lima "for what? why?"
^ <J'
2 OaS
t^!,
fern. iu| is declinable and is treated as a noun,

so takes a following noun in the genitive e.g.
J^ ^
aiyu rajulin "which man?" ^j^ xll aiyatu bintin
"which girl?"

^ takes the following noun in the accusative e.g.

{jjj *y kam waladan "how many boys?"
o .
Note. The interrogative particle*. (I, J^ ) 1

are not used
before the interrogative pronouns.

Vocabulary.
G
qatilun killing. anlsun amiable,

, shakhsun person.
Jahzun glance.
sababun cause.
qamusun dictionary.
muslbatun mis-
J
fortune.
yLu manzarun
(
look.

o!o r ( ghaflatun careless- matlubun desire,
Vl Q_t {

\ ness.
sanatun year.
imra'atun woman,
(in distinction from f

man).
umrun life.
56 First Part.

Exercise 17.
o , J , , \ G . .

s^ &lj UJ

I ^GjG,o , *$>* ,
Jv?

U UA

Exercise 18.
This is a good man and that (fern.) is a bad woman.
This is the judge. This judge is upright and that
physician is learned. These friends of thine are rich.
This son of the sheikh is amiable and that daughter
of his is beautiful (of face). O my master, what is

thy desire? What I want (my desire) is paper (and)
pen and ink. .Who is the minister's son, this or that?
- This is the minister's son. Whose son is Hasan?
Hasan is the son of Abdurrahman. How
many sons has Abdurrahman? He has five. Hast
thou this book? No, I have that. This dictionary
Tenth Lesson. 57

is useful. What is thy name? My name is Hasan.
How old art thou (how many years is thy life)?
I am 50 years old (my life is 50 years, or I am a son
of 50 years). These two men are friends.

Tenth Lesson.

Adjectives.

1. Some of the commonest forms of adjectives

IL[ ism sifa) are:

a) J^cli fa'ilun (properly the present participle) e.g.
A * ft

ol* sadiqun "upright", i>U 'adilun "just", J^L>

jahilun "ignorant".
G 6 6
b) J^uis fa'llun e.g. .Xou* sa'ldun "happy", y^

kablrun "great", kathirun "much, many".
^S
c) Ojjii fa'ulun denoting intensity e.g. J^> jahulun
r, j ^

"very ignorant", 3j*~S kasalun "very- lazy".

d) Q^J* fa'lanu (without nunation) e.g. o lwu
ta'banu "tired", U*iot ghadlbanu "angry".

2. Adjectives denoting colours or bodily defects
have the following form:

Masc. sing, jj afalu. Fern. sing. *Su fa'la'u.
6 a}
Plural for both genders Joe fu'lun.
58 First Part.

E.g.
Sing. Masc.

^M! aswadu, black

uol abyadu, white

j?\ ahmaru, red

blue
ijjf azraqu,

akhdaru, green t\~.

a?faru, yellow

atrashu, deaf

(j*jZ>\ akhrasu, <

e
a ma, blind
^j4*\

_jc! a'raju,
lame
' * f
\ ahdabu,
V^5 *"'
{ humpbacked.
1

Notice the absence of nunation in the Sing. (cf.
Lesson 6, 3).

Note. The fern, of the dual changes hamza into . e.g.
- -o .

Q^!O^M saudSwani.

3. For the comparative and superlative of adjectives

J^&Jt ism
the so-called Elative is used, (the ^^
attaf^il). It is always of the form JoiiJ af alu, e.g.

^J^> sa'bun "hard" Elative vlJiIal as'abu "harder".

kablran "great" Elative akbaru "greater".
yfJ: '^\
4. If the second and third radicals of an adjective
are the same, they are written as one with the tashdid

in this form (cf. Less. 23); e.g. 3sjJs shadldun "violent"
Tenth Lesson. 59

(radicals oj^i) makes its Elative JLif ashaddu; (for

;
J^IS qalllun "few", Elative J^t aqallu.

5. The_Elatiye as comparative is the_same for all

the English "than", e.g.
numbers. It is followed
by ^ to express

**> o ,02 Go-
a zaidun akbaru min 'umara "Zaid
j+c .
jS\ j^
is older than Omar".
, ^o- o i , ttf O o

j*f\
O^IP hindun akbaru min zainaba

"Hind, is older than Zainab".
^ +tj *o + > * o c- + j - c c
oUJ! S\ i albanttna akbaru mina

'Ibanati "the sons are older than the daughters".
6. The Elative as superlative is .always -defined by
the article _or a following genitive or a pronpniijaaT

j3uffix.. Its feminine is
ji fu'la (see Less.. 38, 5. c.),

al'akbaru "the greatest" (masc.) alkubra
e.g. ^iHf (j-^Xl!
"the greatest" .
(fern.).

7. The khairun "good" and
substantives
^i
sharrun "evil" are used as Elatives with the meanings
^
"better" and "worse", e.g.

js>
huwa khairun minka "he is better

than thou".
Vocabulary.

launun colour.
latlfun pleasant. o_p
6 o .

wajnatun cheek. U^.*f> aaifun summer.
bahrun sea (used -
, , .

also for the Nile).
sharan hair -

nisa'un women j^ thaqllun heavy
(used as plur. of
madrasatun school.
First Part.

jami'un mos-
que. J& a?lun n&IL
Taz- *- haddun boundary,
Ijam
aljami'u '"
f

ham the mos- 1 limit.

jazlratan

6 - fsharlfun
I noble.
albariha
^
*

o
,
-
_,.,
8a llun

yesterday ^3^ sbauqun yearning.
(used in ace. **,.
as adverb.). V/ gnarbun West.
Exercise 19.

.OE j - - oc

(Less. 7, 6)

W

J^Ji ^ J-.J

os -o >,o ^j So>
.
7, 6) ^| yu,J _^ ^^
jJ

..)
iU^
>CM> ,0 , O^CK, ) . , o <o s o-o

c ^

jif

(Less. 36, 7)
*

l3| ^
Eleventh Lesson. 61

Exercise 20.
The lame the yellow room.
girl is in The girl's
eyes are blue. The black eyes of the girl are killing.
- The. slave is black. The Red Sea is the boundary
of the peninsula (island) of Arabia in the West. The
beggar is deaf and dumb. My house is more spa-
cious than thine (thy house), it is the most spacious
of the houses of the city. The Nile is wider than

the 'Euphrates. This book is better than that
(^^l)
(book), it is the best of the books. Most men (jX~\

jjJjJI literally
"the most of the men") are idle. My
yearning for (&\ cf. Less. 8, 4) thee is more violent than
for thy brother."

Eleventh Lesson.

The Verb.
c
1. The Verb (J^s fi
l) has usually three radical

letters as vjotf kataba to write, but may have four or

more as ^-ji tarjama to translate, (see Less. 30).
Note. In 4ip.tioiia.riea the ArpKif- verb ia found iu the fprn\
the 3rd sing, masc. perf. active, while the infin. is given as
e translation nf j Thus we say kataba "to write" although
really means "he wrote".

2. The 3 rd sg. masc. perf. is of the forms juls, jo
'
or jots i.e. the first and third radicals always
have^ v

a t Awhile jibe second may have any one of the three
a. i. u. verbs i or uare generally intrangjtive
having
anci jdenote a state or qualityl^those with! denoting^ ^

temporary state as .^
-j>- hazina, to be sad; while tthose

jyithu denote a lasting or permanent state as ^
hasuna, to be beautifuL
62 First Part.

3. The verb has two main tenses: the Perfect

al-madi) denoting a finished action, and the

Jmperfect (^Laif al-muflari') denoting unfinished action.

To these the Arabs add as a third the Imperative

al-amr).
4. The Perfect Stem is obtained by cutting pff the
lastvowel of the 3 rd sing, masc. perf. f and the perfect is
Declined by adding to this stem the following endings^

Sing. Dual Plur.

3. masc. a. 3. masc. !_'_a 3. masc. 1.,u
3. fern. oJlat 3. fern. _ ata 3. fern.
o _na
2. masc. o_ta 1. m.a. f. U _ tuma 2. masc.*?__turn
i

2. fern. o. ti 2. fern,
^j'
__tuuna
1. m. a. f. o tu 1. rn. a. f. G _ na.

Kg.
kataba he has written,
|
Sing. 3. masc. he
( (or wrote).

3. fern. katabat she has written.

katabta thou (man) hast
,, 2. masc. |
} written.

jkatabti thou (woman)
2. fern.
j
hast written

1. masc. a. fem. katabtu I have written.
- (kataba they two (men)
Dual 3. masc. *
1 have written.
-- fkatabata they two
3. fera.
I (women) have written.
)
katabtuma you two
2. masc. a. fem.
\ have written.
Eleventh Lesson. 63

> - -
f kataou they (men) have
Plural 3. masc. f^T {

- <- - fkatabna they (women)
3 ' lem> " have written.
(

2. masc.
^
"

* * <"
- -

-
{
f

f
katabtum you (men) have
written

katabtunna you (women)
2. fern. ^xT haye

,, 1. masc. a. fern, lllx/ katabna we have written.

In the same way from verbs of the forms Jod

fa'ila and jj fa'ula we have: yyi shariba "he drank",

ooyi sharibat "she drank" etc.: from
^^a karuma
"he was noble", ^^S karumtu "I was noble" etc.

Note.The endings in the forma above are simply shortened
forms of the personal' propQivr^sed as^nommativea except in the
.Si* aing. maac. whereTEe a is unexplained, nythe 3^ sing, fem^

y here the at i_8.,tne" fern, ending and in the 3^ masc. plur. where
the u is simply the sign of tire plural. (The I in this last ending
is not pronounced and is introduced only to prevent the form
being read at the beginning of the next word as "and".)
The chief rules for the Concord of subject and
predicate are:
6 o

a) When the verb (Jois ffl) precedes the subject

'Jjf al-fa'il) then:

1. If the subject is a sing. masc. or usually if it
is a dual masc. or a sonnd plur. masc. the verb is put
in the 3rd sing. masc.

^JS kataba 'Imu'allimu the teacher wrote.
fJuit

o-^**
T'n 5
^V
'
/kataba 'Imu'allimfmi the two teachers
\ wrote.
!
- kataba lmu allimuna the teachers
|
64 First Part

2. If the subject is a fern. sing, followed imme-
diately by the verb, or a dual fern, or a sound fern.
plur., or a broken plur., the verb is put in the
3rd sing. fern.
|
katabati 'Imu'allimatu the teacher
( (fem.) wrote.
-
|
katabati 'linu'allimatani the two
( teachers (fem.) wrote.

katabati 'Imu'allimatu the teachers
(
fem )
wrote

Jt viv^ katabati 'ttalamidhatu the pupils wrote.

the subject is a sing. fem. not- immediately
3. If

following the verb, or a collective (see Less. 2, 4), the
verb may be in the 3rd sing. masc. or fem.

*f (vaJ^) v^ kataba (or katabat) lahu

'Imu'allimatu, the teacher (fem.) wrote to him.

xi* (viiJft)
-
jtf akala (or akalati) 'ftairu minhu,
jJafi
the birds (coll.) ate of it.

b) If the subject comes first the verb must agree
with it in gender and number,

hadara 'Imu'allimQna wadha-
tjlfcjj o>iLLlt f&=>
habu, the teachers were present and went away.
6. Sentences according to Arabian grammarians
are of two kinds:

a) The Verbal sentence (0**J! n
iJuJ-t al~jumla al-

fi'llya) when the verb (jJUj I) is followed by the subject

(called in this case J^UJ f
al-fa'il) e.g. >oj JJaT
kataba

zaidun "Zaid has written".

b) The Nominal sentence (il*-!^? idljl aj-jumla al-

ismlya), when the subject (here called IJJllI almubtada'
Eleventh Lesson. 65

"that (with which) is begun" comes first, whether the

predicate (j+?-\ alkhabar) be a noun or its equivalent,
o ,, e o,
an adverbial clause or a verb jo zaidun
e.g. j^
waladun "Zaid is boy",a vlja" zaidun kataba
-Vj
"Zaid (he) has written".

Note. The particle Jo often put before the perfect
qad is

to strengthen it. It may sometimes
be translated "already",
sometimes it may be omitted in translation.

Vocabulary.
"
-
j
fahima to under- v
c
naharun day.
r9 stand. j^
o
Oo, saidun hunt,
OjS qaulun speech.
--r to rise qabila to receive.
(of
(tala'a
;
1 the sun).
-
to set (of guest,
r | gharaba
\
the sun).
kasara to break,
sham sun sun.
kubbayatun glass,
qamarun moon.
ba'atha to send,
- to strive
fqasada
{ after, make for.
fallahun peasant,
sa'ihun traveller.
hakimun governor.
- - - f dakhala to enter,
1 g into. r

raja a to return.
'^> kharaja to go. out.
ba'uda to be distant.
(3jl
nazala to alight.
towards,
e
i\A ma'un water. {nahwa
about.

nisfun half,
j+> khamrun wine.
ft r. -

haushun courtyard. sa'atun hour.
Arabic Grammar.
66 First Part.

>j wajada to find. He. ghulamun youth.
2 - - -
f ghanfyun (plur. g) f jtalaba to seek,
tff \ rich. v^ 3
1 require.
G '

-06 fataha to open. r
^>F ta'amun food.

fariha to rejoice. jalasa to sit.
^5 JJL>

Exercise 21.
^

u ^

,b< - >, , ., J * ~ , s.

U (Intro. 11, 3)

t
(Intro. 9)

j
r
ir / x
Twelfth Lesson. 67

Exercise 22.
The verb is always to be put at the beginning of sentences.
Have you written your letters (plur. k)? Yes, we
have written our letters. The beggar sought food
from me. The maidservant opened the door of the
house. Hast thou gone out to the hunt to-day? No,
I did not go out to the hunt, I went into the city,
(accus.). Has the sun set? Yes, the sun has set
and the moon has risen. Mohammed and his sons
entered the city and went out (dual) of it. The men
sat. We returned from the hunt and sat. They
drank (the) coffee. I received the guest at my house

(^JUc) this night. O maidservant, hast thou returned

from the market? I alighted at the house of (j>J^)

the peasants. O girl, hast thou understood what I

say (my speech)?

Twelfth Lesson.

The Verb with Suffixes.

1. When a personal pronoun is the direct
object
of a verb it is attached to it as a suffix in one of the

forms given in Lesson 8 e.g. y^L^fc darabtuka "I have
struck thee",
,joyo darabani "he has struck me".

Note. The otiose { in the 3 r<3 plur. rnasc. is omitted before.

the suffixes e.g. J,_^Jyto
darabun "they have struck me"; and
>

$ U is added to the 2nd pi ur mas c. before the
. suffixes e.y

darabtumtlha "you have struck her".
68 First Part.

S -o,
2. The verb
kana "to be" is weak Jow inu'tall.
See Less.- 23, 1) and its conjugation will be explained
in Less. 27, but it is needed so often that the Perfect
is given here.

Sing. 3. masc. J}
tf kana he was.

,,
3. fern. oj kanat she was.

,, 2. nlasc. o-^ kunta thou (in.) wast.

2. fern. ^JS kunti thou (f.)
wast.

1. masc. a. fern. ^^jS kuutu I was.

Dual 3. masc. \j'tf kana they two (m.) were.

,,
3. fern. Lxjl^ kanata they two (f.)
were.

2. masc. a. fern. Uxlf kuntuma you two were.

Plur. 3. masc. Ijjfc'
kanu they (m.) were.

3. fern.
^yf
kunna they (f.) were.
O JO J

,.
2 masc.
p&S kuntum you (m.) were.

2. fern.
^^ kuntuuna you (f.)
were.

,,
1. masc. a. fern. \JS kunna we were.

3. The
of
verb
is _ used with the
Perfect
^
Perf.j)j
express the Pluperfect of the latter, the
to
ajupther
subject being often jjlaced between the two "verbs e.g.
zaidun kataba Zaid had
\ written.

'.
- - - -- kana 'rrijalu sharibu the men
J
-
-r
1
O^ ( had drunk, (cf. Less. 11, 3 b).
Twelfth Lesson. 69

0- -
4. When, ^ is used as a copula
5
its
o i
predicate

(^> khabar) is put in the accusative (^umj nab (see
Less. 30, 12), e.g.
?

:*7 .'.- . ,-
v kanat fatimatu bnata 'Imaliki
xj|
^b c^ott
I

( Fatima was the king's daughter.
* -, <o. . , kana zaidun waladan Zaid was
I
tt
KXJj J^J C) j a j.JQy
- > -
I
kana 'Ibustanu kabiran the
j:V]* 1?
j*i O^***^ O j garden was large.
5.
Any verb in Arabic may govern its own Verbal
j^oun (j-Vc^> masdar) m the accusative. When an
adjective is attached to this, the two words together _ are

translated in English bv an adverb e.g. '--.t.^^r lJ> j ,,J*

fariha farahan 'aziman, he rejoiced greatly (literally
"he rejoiced a great rejoicing", cf. Less. 34).

% baiagha to reach.
Vocabulary.

# 1
1

? 1
^
70 First Part.

2 - Ali (name
J
'allyun
c> of man).
1
.^^ bada i
u), wares,
Jui qatala to kill. I
goods.

?.'?'
****
1
fqal'atun fortress,
citadel.
^ sami'a to hear.

- - * asara to take
^
i

* - sallmuu
f Selim, \ prisoner.
"
I (name of man). f ^
S c

J* ) aduwun (pi. slj^i
bal but. *\ a'da'un) enemy.

Exercise 23.
t, . Go- ., , - - Oo c, -

Ls bS JwP
J^j t^Joj/to

j'uj i s j>

irf . iLiJ iju^f iJ^ is dJtf

'UCU

(Less. 7, 2) *& &> \S

U

Exercise 24.
Have you
struck them (fern.)? No, we have not
struck them, the men have struck them. This news
Thirteenth Lesson. 71

(plur.)has reached me. The king was just. This
sheikh was learned. Wast thou present yesterday
in the assembly? No, I was absent. children,
were you diligent? girl, hast thou understood
me?
I have understood thee. The girls were present
and rejoiced greatly. Her name was Hind. The
king took the enemies prisoner and killed them. O
merchants, where are your wares, have you left them
in the house? Have you heard it? We have
heard it. Hast thou (oo!) written it, or did thy
sister write it? They both wrote it.

Thirteenth Lesson.

The Imperfect.

1. The Imperfect tense (p'u^L! almudari') ex

an actionstill unfinished and is translated in English

by the present, the future~"or when used without q,
conunction after another verb by the present particile
* , , ~ -

e.g. ^4^-1 o _j^ixj ijJUft ij*JL> jalasa
'nnasu yashrabuna
'Ikhamra "the men sat drinking (literally "they were
drinking") wine".
2. The Imperfect Stem consists of the three radicals

baying, no vowel,
of -the Yerb 1 the second
_thefirst
having a, i/or u (the dictionary always tells which is
used with each verb). The persons are expressed by
prefixing ya, ta, 'a and~na to the stein with the
addition in some cases of suffixes also. The Moods
ai'e indicated by adding the vowels u for the Indicative,

radical^ which is left
a for the Subjunctive to the last
without vowel for the Jussive!
Prefixes and suffixes added to imperfect stem in
indicative mood:
72 First Part.

3. masc. j 3. masc. j 3. masc. j
o l
C)3

3. fem. I_Ij* 3. fem.
c ,U_Is 3. fem.
*,I_Ij
t

:
2. masc. _j 2. m.a.f. ,.,! j 2. niasc. ,.,._ _j

2 fem. 2. fem.

1. m. a. f. J ___ 1. m. a. f. ___ j
Full form of Imperfect Indicative of j3 -u (i.e.

imperf. stem = W>):
-
fyaktubu he writes (or
Sing. o. masc. will

,, 3. fem. taktubu she writes.
,- /taktubu thou (masc.)
2. masc.
\ wrjtest
rtaktublna thou (fem.)
2 ' fem '
writest.
{

1. masc. a. fem. aktubu I write.

fyaktubani they two
Dual 3. masc.
^ (masc<) write /
/taktubani they two (fem.)
" 3 - fem -
t write.

2. masc. a. fem. ,..* taktubani you two write.

(yaktubana they (masc.)
Plur. 3. masc.
\\^
/y flktubna they (
fem -)
3
d. fem
lem.

/ taktubQna you (masc.)
2. masc.
{ write

2. fem. taktubna you (fem.) write.

1. masc. a. fem. naktubu we write.
Thirteenth Lesson. 73

3. The vowel of the second letter of the imperfect
stem must be ascertained from the dictionary. The
following points however may be noted:

a) Most verbs whose second or third radical is a

? take a fataha,
guttural (i.e.
^ ^ ^ ^) e.g.
g
Imperf. gZu yaftahu; ^ mana'a "to hinder, Imperf.

There are however many exceptions as
jl/ yamna'u.
J^i-o dakhala "to enter", Lnperf. Jciou yadkhulu; iL

balagha "to reach", Imperf. jjL; yablughu; ^.>J raja'a

"to return", Imperf.
^-^ yarjfu.

b) Verbs of the form JjJ fa'ila generally take -L.

as shariba "to drink",
yyi Imperf. <-jyiu yashrabu;

exceptions however occur as v^v*> hasiba "to esteem",

Imperf. v-^^^r. yaljsibu. (v-^> hasaba "to reckon"

makes ^w*o^ yahsubu).

c) Verbs of the form jJii fa'ula take ___ as
^
karurna "to be noble", Imperf. Xj yakrumu.
4. The Imperfect in itself denotes only unfinished
action, but it may be made to indicate the future by

putting the independent word vJj*. saufa before it or

prefixing the contraction *. sa, e.g. wJciu *J^ saufa

yaktubu or ^JsLl soyaktubu "he will write".

5. The Imperfect
future meaning) is:
of
^ (which generally has a

Sing. 3. masc. o-*^ y a^ unu ^ e w ^^ ^ e -

3. fern. 1 ta ^ unu sne w '^ ^e -
74 First Part.

'

Sing. 2. masc. takunu thou (m.) wilt be.

2. fern. thou (f.)
wilt be.

,, 1. masc. a. fern, akttnu I shall be.-

n Q si- /yakunani they two (ra.)
Dual !
3. masc.
win be
{-

o - /takunani they two (f.)
" - fem -
will be.
I

2. masc. a. fem. takttnani you two will be.

Plur. 3. masc. yakuntma they (m.) will be.

,, 3. fem. yakunna they (f.) will be.

2. masc. takQnftna you (m.) will be.

:
2. fem,
yCi takunna you (f.)
will be.

1. masc. a. fem. o nakunu we shall be.

The
6. Perf. of
,^ used with the Imperf. of another
verb gives to the second one the meaning of the Latin
J^G." Go^ --^
imperf. e.g. v_>jdj J^\
was playing".
^
kana zaidun yal'abu "Zaid

7. The Imperf. used with the Perf. of another
of^l/
verb gives to the latter ^the meaning of the Future-
kataba
perfect e.g. vlJjr J^ ^ysj' yakttnu zaidun
"Zaid will have written".

Vocabulary.
itauftqun success
shan un street.
{ (of God)>
'arafa to know.
la iba to play.
aghniyft>u (plur of
'
2
allahu God. 1 u^ghanlyun)rich.
Thirteenth Lesson. 75

!E suffix
hum
dhahaba
^x^-I

to
ahadu-
one of them).

go away.
hammalun
(

\
himlun
burden.
porter.

load,

faina where?
\ whither? zuhrun midday.
c
da 'zzuhri, in
i dukhanun smoke, |ba
I the afternoon.
i tobacco.

Exercise 25.
9 -c

<S > o,S
Liau'uiiJ
Q4J tiU* wJLu ^
76 First Part.

!3U dJj C jilj (accus. cf. Less. 12, 4)

Exercise 26.
Dost thou smoke? I do not smoke. Will you
two be present to-morrow with us? No, we shall be
absent. What does he desire from me? He de-
sires his right from me. The girl sat playing with
us. Zaid knew (use ,.
}
l/ with imperf.) the sheikh of
the tribe. I did not know him. The porter will

carry the load to (Jl) thy house. Dost thou under-
stand what I say (my speech)? No, I do not under-
stand it. The men were present going to the hunt.
When wilt thou return from the hunt? I shall
return to-morrow Will this news (plur.) reach him?
It will reach him in the afternoon. The king
will be just. The sheikh smoked f.^ with imperf.)
much tobacco. merchant, wilt thou send the
wares to my house? The porter will bring them
to thee.

Fourteenth Lesson.

The Moods of the Imperfect.

1. The Imperfect (g^'ualt almugtari') has three Moods

which are distinguished by the vowel of the third
Fourteenth Lesson. 77

radical In this it resembles the noun with_jts__three

case-endings. (Hence the terra which means
g^'wax
"resembling".)
Note. Arabian grammarians treat the imperfect as a noun,

thus, where we should say that the conjunction ^! anna "that"
requires the F bjunctive Mood, the- Arab says that the particle
as
,.! governs the imperf. in the accusative.
The three_Mpod3 are.t

1) The Indicative ending in
Corresponding to the

nominative, and hence called
<^j>'f\ pj**?l
almudari' almarfu', e.g. ^JjCj yaktubu.

2)
The Sflhjnnntiye pndinpr in JL corresponding.
to the accusative and called v-jj^allf ?j'**l
almudari' almansub e.g. ^JOu yaktuba.
5) The Jussive with a vowelless ending correspond-

ing to the genitive and called ..i>al p.uz\
almudari' ahnajzum e.g. ^OXj yaktub.
Note. The Jussive originally ended in which is now
dropped, but reappears before a word beginning with hamzat

alwasl e.g. L.jJ>XI !
v*^H yaktubi-lkitaba.

2. The Imperfect Subjunctive is declined as follows:

Singular. Dual.

3. masc. <-^po yaktuba. 3. masc. ux*j yaktuba.

3. fern. ^-jOo taktuba. 3. fern. Ux>' taktuba.
:
2. masc. ^okj" taktuba. 2. m. a. f. Ljjsj taktuba.

2. fern. taktubi.
u^*^
1. m. a. f. is] aktuba.
78 First Part.

Plural.

3. masc. l^-<j yaktubu.

3. fern.
cr*^' yaktubna.
2. masc. \_^& taktubu.

taktubna.
2. fern.
i^'
1. m. a. f. v_JXs naktuba.
Note In the 2 nd sing. fern, and in the 2 nd and 3rd dual
1.

and plur. mascl. the final of the Indicative is dropped. In the 2^ d
Q
and 3rd plur. the otiose ! is added at the end except when a

suffix is attached to the verb e.g. s^yi yaktuubhu.

Note 2. The Imperf. Subjunctive of Q is declined like
the indie, subject to the same changes in the endings as in the
verb above.

3. The Subjunctive is used after the conjunctions
an "that", ^ alia (see Intro. 9) "that not", &-

hatta "until, so that", li,
"^ kai, jCMikai, ^ li'an

"so that", ^l li alia $ ^ li'an la) "so that not", J
fa and 3 wa when they mean "so that", *\ au when

^
:

it means "unless that, until that' and Ian "not"
* 9 <t + O -^^
as negation of the future), -.Jib
(used e.g. ^o^r. o \

talaba an yahdura "he required that he should be
present".

"it will
Note. ^
not be that".
is a contraction for
^1 ^j^.
^ la yakunu an

Vocabulary.
The vowel after a verb is that of the second radical
in the imperfect.

rkashafa (i)
to un- s* famrun command,
t cover, examine. 7*' \ affair.
Fourteenth Lesson. 79

amara. com- 9 * -
(u) to
mand (takes ace.
*#** maujndun existing.
of the person). J -
i fmafqudun wanting,
samaha to allow, ***** \ not present.
(with J for the

person 'and o for ^j nazara (u),
to see.

the thing).
J4ji 'amila (a)- to do.

p ghurfatun room, -
-f /amama before (of
to spend UJ
r I
place).
-
firashun bed.
, .( wa'ada to promise
vXej
<
(with ace. of the
I
person).
j raqada (u) to sleep.
-- , . . . ^M sirrun a secret.
/..
ai qagada (i)
to intend.

Lc 'aqilun intelligent. baina between.

Exercise 27.

U VLJ li Oe \j>0 Vj'u
gJSL
<o^Ox>;jO, ^ , 0o,o - o -

^LSJt JUJI rf)j ^ l ULSXJ

Exercise 28.
We requke thee (from thee) (fern.) to be present
(see Less. 16, 6) with us. He entered the bed to
sleep (so that he might sleep). The women intended
80 First Part.

to go out of (from) the house. I sent a boy with

him to see what (L) he would do. Mohammed and
his servant intended to go to (Jit) the market. I

shall return to the house to see what thou art doing.
I have commanded the servant to appear (be present)
before me. They went away until they entered the
city. I have promised him that that shall be a
secret between me and (between) him.

Fifteenth Lesson.

The Jussive.
1. The Jussive Mood almudarf
Fifteenth Lesson. 81

when
2. The verb
the last radical
^ in the Jussive loses
is vowelless (see Intro.
its^ (see Less. 27)
13, 3) e.g.

Singular. Dual.

3. masc. 3. masc. byL yakunu
^Xj yakun
3. fern.
^xi'
takun 3. fern.
Gyj takun a
2. masc. .i takun 2. m. a. f. ijAi takun a.

2. fern.
j,yC5
takunl

l.-m. a. f. I akun.
Plural.

3. The Jussive is used: .

a) Alone, especially in the 3 rd pers. to express a

command e.g. v_^JJo yak tub "let him write". In this
sense it is'
generally strengthened by a prefixed -3 e.g.

^JjCll liyaktub "let him write". If ^J precedes this

particle, the ^ loses its vowel eg. u^xXJb falyaktub

"So let him write".

b) After i la used for prohibitions i la
(^-JIl!

annahyi) e.g. ._.r^-.v i la taktub "do not write".

,& *$ la takun gha'iban "be nqt absent".
Arabic Grammar. 6
82 Ffret Part.

c) After lam used to deny a statement. Here
jj

the Imperf. has the force of the Perf. e.g. u^xXj .J
lam yaktub "he has not written". It is also used after

CJ lamina in the sense "not yet".

d) In the protasis and apodosis of conditional
sentences, (see Less. 57).
Note. The jussive may be rendered more emphatic by
adding anna or an, thus forming the so-called modus energicus
1 and 2, e.g.

Modus energicus I. Modus energicus IL
Fifteenth Lesson. 83

These forms (not much used) are employed for
exhortation and are often strengthened by prefixing
the particle 3, e.g. ^JO^J layaktubanna "let him
surely write". They are also used after the prohibitive

la taktubanna "thou shalt not write".

Vocabulary.

janibun side, (ghadibatobeangry
(followed by j^).
dlquu anxiety, need.
i qadara(i) to be able.
mana'a to prevent,
another
* -I|ghairun
>.-

dukhnlun entrance. (noun).

& _ shai'un thing. L another than he.

G -
(gharlbun strange
kadhaba(i) to lie.

pi. t(i ji ghuraba'u.
|

daqiqatun minute.

maudi'un qala to soy.
place.
cr
makanun nQrun light.

Exercise 29.

vj L^s

(Less. 16, 4 a) s G
.Cyjf oL
84 First Part.

gui

Exercise 30.

I did not (*>)
know the affair and did not (.J)
understand it. boys,do not open the door. -
girl, do not lie. The pupils were idle and did not
( J) write the letter. O boys, be not idle. They
heard your epeech and- did not understand it. Do
not leave your friends in (the) anxiety. Do not pre-
vent me from entrance to (out) you. Be not angry
with me, o girl. Let us drink (the) coffee. The
father and his son were not able to return to their house
(.
. that they should return).
. .

Sixteenth Lesson.

The imperative,
1. The Imperative >^i jJi fi'l aFamr is formed

jrom the Jussive by omittiug the pronominal prefix,
but as a word in Arabic must not begin with a yowelless
letter (see Intro, fc? 2) a hauazat alwasl (Intro. 11) su]>
ported by t is prefixecT__This hamza" takes the vowel

_
if the second radical has
_ _
_ ,
but __ if the second
radical has oj e.g.

kataba, Jussive vS yaktub, Imperative

} uktub.
Sixteenth Lssson. 85

daraba, Jussive y^**y yadrib, Imperative

idrib.
vytol

}tjjs> maua'a, Jussive .>Uj yamna', Imperative

imna'.
<cix>j.

iic* oUlT it J^H idhhab ila 'Ibabi waftalihu

"go to the door and open it".

nd
2. The Imperative is naturally found in the 2 pers.
only:

Sing. 2. masc. <^>ji '! uktub

2. fern. ^1 uktubl

Dual 2. masc. and fern. LXJ'! uktuba

Plur. 2. raasc. -*^' uktub\3

fern. ^ nktubna.

The Imper. of
o^ is:

3. The Imperative is
negatived by ^ with the
Jussive (see Less. 15, 3 b).

4. Direct address (the vocative) is introduced by:

a) The
particle \ ya followed by a noun, which,
if it stands alone is put in the nom. without the article
88 First Part.

and without nunation in the sing.; but if it is followed

by a genit. is put in the accus. e.g. jjj [>
ya waladu

"Oboyl"; Jjf jJc' I? ya <abda 'llahi "O Abdallahl"

(literally "servant of God").

b) The particle l^jf aiyuha; fern.
L^ aiyatuha;

.strengthened form l^it
G ya aiyuha followed by a noun
in the nom. and always with the -article e g. j^JJdT Ql C

ya aiyuha 'ttilmidhu "0 scholar I"
For further details see Less. 48, 1.

Present Participle.

5. The Present Participle ism alfa'il,

nomen agenda) is of the form J^eli e.g. katibun
"writing".

T^eJParticiple is declined like other nouns and
generally has
a sound plural e.g.
Masc. Fern.
G - O- ^
Sing. nom. wo'tf katibuii writing xo'K katibatun

ace. katiban ilstf tatibatan
Sixteenth Lesson. 87

After a condition in
^l/^tbej^articiple ^xpresses
Go-
the past e.g. Lj'l/
Joj ...li' kana zaidun katiban "Zaid

was writing" thus having much the same meaning as

(see Less. 13, 6).

There is no infinitive- in the sense of_the
6.
European languages in Arabic. The English infinitive is

expressed by a sentence in Arabic e.g. *JL;u O 5
vX^' ^JsJu
c

yaqdiru zaiduu an ya malahu "Zaid is able to do it".

'

The Verbal Noun.
7. in Arabic fans a Verbal Noun
Every verb (^j^a*
masdar). In the simple verb this may be of one or
more of some 40 forms. Among the most common
Go- 9 o- O,- e
are Jue fa'lun as Jj3 qatlun "killing"; Joe fa aluu (from

verbs of the form joe) as -j farahun "rejoicing" (from
O ,) O , >

and ^ye fu'ttlun as dukhulun "entering",
**};
Oj^O
khurQjun "going out", cjii tulti'un "rising",

nuzftlun "descending".
For details see Less. 34.

Vocabulary.

n small.

- be labisa to P ut ou
u-j
to
|sakata(u) |
I
I silent. : (clothes).
o ,
thaubun (pi. ujLS
sakana(u) to dwell. o

- -
thiyabun)garment,
;
| saiyidatuu woman,
\ mistress. clothes.
* -
I wastun middle,
faala to do. Ja**s centre.
88 First Part.

L taraqa to knock at. ujb-l ajaba to answer.

Izarffun (plur. & *t
*
/
*
fa'inna for, (cou-
Junction).
zurafa'u) a witty
( person, wag.

Exercise 81.
,>- , e -o - . . . , 0,0 .o
!^JL30u 3 0^5 1 b ! U oLJt

tijT i^rff ii

(what) Lo

jib!

Exercise 32.

See, o boys, what you have done. friend, enter
and sit by my side. scholar, open the door of
the room. I was going to the city. Whither are
you going? We are going to the market. boy, O
come down from the mountain. you two scholars,
Seventeenth Lesson. 89

write your two letters. girl, speak the truth and
lie not. Where is Mr. (>xLl) Hasan living? He
is living in the middle of the city. What are you
doing? We
are putting on our clothes. I was

writing a letter, when (o) our friend entered, Do
not prevent me from entrance to (jsc) you.

Seventeenth Lesson.

The Passive.
1. The Active Voice is called in Arabic
alma'lttm "the known" because the agent is known,
when the active is used as in "Zaid struck him";
} i o -o E
the Passive Voice is called i3j^sU! almajhul "the
unknown" because when the passive is used as in
"Zaid is struck" the agent (the striker) is unknown.
The Passive is formed from the Active by change

of vowels, jn the perf. the I 8t radical takes __ ,
the

2 nd takes __ In the iroperf. the prefix takes __ ,
the

2 nd radical takes __ All the other vowels are as in
thejacjtiye e.g.
Perfect.

3. rnasc. duriba he was struck.
Sing. ^^o
3. fern. cluribat she was struck.
vi^oyto

2. masc. duribta thoti (m.) wast struck.
^yto
wast struck.
c>o/s duribti thou
2. fern. (f.)

1. in. a. f. v^oto duribtu I was struck.
90 First Part.

Imperfectum.

Sing. 3. masc.
VV^ yudrabu he is struck.

3. fern.
Vj**
2-1 tudrabu she is struck.

2. masc. vy^ tu<Jrabu thou (in.) art struck.

2. fern. tudrablna thou (f art struck.
?O;^J )

1. m. a. f.
ujyst
udrabu I am struck.

2. The Passive must not be used in Arabic when
the agent is expressed; thus "Zaid has been struck by

Omar" must be rendered by tJoj .*. v_jyto
daraba
'umaru zaidan "Omar struck Zaid"

The_Passive is often used impersonally e.g. Jj
dhukira "it has been mentioned", or "it is told",
Passive Participle.

3. The passive participle (JytlU ^\ ism almaful)
O to, G ) o ^

is of the form &J*SLA mafol e.g. \->^&A maktubun
"written". It is declined like other nouns and generally
has the sound plural.

The Particle ^.
Os o O,o ,

4. A Nominal sentence (JLM [ '^U> jumla ismlya

see Less. 11, 6, b) jg often introduced by the particle

inna "verily". _shich is followed by the subject
y\s

(!JcoI5 almubtada') in the accus. and the predicate

(^3-1 alkhabar) in the nom. The predicate is often

strengthened by the prefix 5, e.g. JJiU ulj ^ inna
c
zaidan 'aqilun or JSLJ inna zaidan la aqilun
tJsJ J^l

"verily Zaid is intelligent".
Seventeenth Lesson. 91

If_the subject is a personal pronoun, it is attached

as a suffix (see Less. 3) to
^ e.g. aJj innahu "verily he".
Note. Alternative forms are used with the I8' pers.
- . v *
pronoun i.e. J>l innl and .c^ inttanl "verily 1"; lit innS and

Lot innana "verily we".

The Particles ^ and $.
5. The Conjunction "that" is expressed in Arabic:

a) By o t an (see Less. 14, 3) with a Verbal sentence

(Less. 11), the verb being either in the perf. (osL>) or
O > o- O - j

the imperf. subj. (^.J^^A e.g.
fj^a*}

'IqadI an yahdura

zaidun the judge required Zaid to be present (to appear).

Jo-. i^sAi ,.J c>ou sami'tu an dhahaba zaidun
'V \*J

I heard that Zaid had gone away.

If more than one verb is dependent on ^t, the
is used throughout and the is not
imperf. subj. o?
repeated e.g.

zlru an yahdura rauhammadun wayajlisu bijanibihi the
vezir commanded Mohammed to be present and sit
beside him.

b) anna with a Nominal sentence, the noun
By
^1
immediately following the conjunction being put in
the accus. (as with If a pronoun follows it is
^jj.

added to as a suffix. With the 1
st
pers. pron. the
^1
double forms ^U arml and '^\ annani, ijj anna and
-SB
UJl annana are used.
92 First Part.

If the predicate is a noun it is put in the noni.,
if it isa verb (see Less. 11, 6) it is put in the perf. or
the imperf. indicative, e g.
"'

O _ f o ., -5
JjjLc
w L>o-. ...I ,-jtb balaghan!*anna zaidan 'aqilun
^" *
**J \^j

it has reached me (i.e. I have heard) that Zaid is

intelligent.

jzji?. iJvj ^icl o l aUamu anna zaidan yahduru
I know that Zaid will be present.

Vocabulary.

/ dhakara to I
slratun manner
\ mention. \ of life.

(
anlsuu ami- khusrun loss.

\ able.
qabila to receive
li for.

(hadlyatun a gift,
/ shaja'atun {
\ courage. -,,

(
daraba to J5r- surOrun joy.

\ strike, coin. | salahu 'ddlni
-
\ Saladin.
sikkatun coin.

yatu Con-
1 stantiuople. c.

^>
/ majhulun un-
' known '

fmashghQlun
I busy. (ghalaba to
^ conc uer -

to l

(hadama
1 destroy. mu'arrikhun
j

waqtun time.
{ ^^ (
8ound

to wash.
ghasda
* khaufun fear. salaba to crucify.
Seventeenth Lesson. 93

/munajjimun astro- ^
***j
/
rif atun lifting up,
\ loger. I raising.
-
/qlla (passive of & %& wa akinna but
i .

:
j qala "to say").
OG, ?.'' kbashabatun a
^ najrnun star. ^^>
I

t
pj ece o f wooc|.

Exercise 33.

*
Jt 1' jiT Jli ^* LL
f
(
(Koran, Sura 2, 151)

(Koran, Sura 103, 2)

JL? i' ^aS
o ^ oS
Jit!

Exercise 34.

The doors of the house were opened. The pre-
sent was received with (o) joy. It is told that Saladin

was a powerful sultan. I did not know that you
were busy today. - Was this news known to (*x*c)

you? Truly this news is unknown to us. I know
94 First Part.

that Hasan is the conqueror and that thou art the
conquered. Truly the men mentioned are my friends.
His courage has been mentioned by (j^JLt) the his-
torians. Your clothes were washed.

Eighteenth Lesson.

Derived Forms of the Verb.
1. TheSimple_^erli (which alone has been treated so
Os-> O o
far) is called o^s? Jje
fi'l
mujarrad ("the naked verb").
6 - O o
From this is formed the derived verb (xo
vXjj/> Jots

fi'l raazld flhi litterally "the verb in which is -an
increase"). There are 14 forms of this each
latter,
consisting of "the three radicals, of theTBiffiple form
with the addition of one or more letter^ajidhavjng"g.
meaning -whfoh * H a mnHififtation of that of~the Simple
These with the simple form are designated by
e numbers 1 to 15. Of these the first 10 only are
in common use^ and the ten seldom occur from any
one root. The forms of a root in actual use are given
in the dictionaries.

2. General list of the Perfects in each of the
15 forms with its modification of the root meaning:

L Simple form: fca fa'ala, joti fa'ila or jJe fa'ula
(see Less. 11).

Forms increased by one letter:

II. JJI fa"ala, (with doubling of the second radical).

Meaning: Intensive as '^s> qataV'to cut", ^Jai

qatta'a "to cut to pieces"; or causative as
(JU
'alirna

c
"to know", 'JLti allama "to make to know, teach".
Eighteenth Lesson. 95

HI. J^ fa'ala (with introduction of an alif after
the first radical).

Meaning: Relation of the action to a as ^jS
person
kataba "to write", ^:M kataba "to write to someone";

or Attempt to do the action as JJ3 qatala "to kill",

jj&*qatala "to try 4o kill, fight".

IV. jjf afala (with prefixed hamzat
^L&IT gjl*
alqat' cf. Intro. 10; the first radical losing its
vowej).
^ , * .. o E
Meaning: Causative as ^^Jb- jalasa "to sit''..^^?
ajlasa "to make to sit".

Forms increased by two letters:
cc
V. jj^j tafa ala (with prefixed o ta and doubling
of the second radical).

Meaning: Reflexive of II. as 5Jbi qallada "to gird"

jjj taqallada "to gird oneself".

VI. j^llf tafa'ala (witl^ prefixed o ta and alif
introduced after the first radical).

Meaning: Reflexive of III, as J3i qatala "to fight",

taqatala "to fight one another".

VII. jJtlj? infn'ala (with prefixed hamza and nun
he hamza here and in all the following forms being
hamzat alwasl, cf. Intro. 11).

Meaning: Originally Reflexive of I but generally.
as a Passive as
u^sed '^=> kasara "to break" "~*=\\
inkasara "to be broken".

^ VIII. Jjts^ ifta'ala (with prefixed hamzat alwasl and
o ta introduced after the radical, which loses its vowel).
First Part.

I as ?c+=>- jaina'a "to collect,
Meaning: Reflexive of

unite" pt+>1 ijtaina'a "to collect themselves, to assemble".

IX. jjist if alia (with prefixed hamzat alwasl, ^omig,-
gion of the vowel
of the first radical and doubling of
the^third radical).

Meaning: Used only for
Colours
and Defects r fls

~^s>\
ihmarra "to be red"; ^^[ i'wajja "to be crooked".

Forms increased by more than two letters:

X. Jou^Lj istafala (with prefixed ^v*[ ista_ and
omission of the vowel of the first radical).

Meaning: Properly Reflexive of IV as JUt aslama

"to give up" JL*JOJ istnslama "to give oneself up".

XI. 3t*s! ifalla a rare secondary form of IX.

XII. ,'kc^asl ifau'ala

j^st ifauwaia rape f Tms occurriug }n
^
certain verbs only with
XIV. .jJuisj if'anlala special meanings.

XV. Jjjiit
ifanla

3. Any verb in the above list that has Reflexive

meaning is called ? .Lax uiutu\vi\

4. The imperfect of the derived forms is foripefl
from the ])erfect according to the following rules:

a) The prefixes ya, til, alif, nun receive the vowej
u_if the verb is increased by one letter only (II. III.
IV forms), otherwise
Eighteenth Lesson. 97

b) The second radical receives the vowel i except
in the Ibrms with prefixed ta (V and VI) when it
a.
Deceives
c) The
first radical remains as in the perfect: the
third radical receives the vowel of the mood u for
the indie., a for the subj., sukGn for the juss.
Thejbamza at the beginning of some forms in the
erf. lajis away in the imperT
Thus the Imperfects are as follows:
Perfect. Imperfect.

II. Jots fV'ala Joub yufa"ilu

III. Jiis fa'ala J^l^j yufa'ilu

IV. jJtM af ala JoJb yuf ilu
f

V. Jobb tafa"ala JotiL yatafa' ali>

c

VI. J^IAJ tafa'ala J^i^j yatafa alu

c
VII. Jotl>5 infa ala Jjt^j yanfa'ilu

VIII. ji-3^ ifta'ala J**^ yafta'ilu

IX. JUsl if'alla joilj yaf allu

X. joilxx-l istafala Jj^*u yastafilu.

5. The Imperative is formed according to tbg
general rule (Less. 16, 1) from the Jussive by tbg
.omission of the prefixes^'
If the first radical thus becomes vowelless a hamza
must be put before it (Intro. 13, 2). In the IV. form
this is hamzat alqaf (Intro. 11) which receives the
vowel a (fatha); in the other forms it is hamzat alwasl
and receives i
(kasra).
Arabic Grammar. 7
98 First Part.

6. The Participles are formed from the Perfects
by prefixing a mlm with the vowel IT The prefixed
hamza is droppeoL The second radical' takes the"vowel
i in the Active, a in the Passive!
Eighteenth Lesson. 99

7"
100 First Part.

Nineteenth Lesson.

II. Form j.
1. Conjugation of "to break to pieces, smash'
^ly
Imperf.

Perf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Imperative

.I/ Part. Active

^5j~J etc. Part. Pass.

Verbal noun

In some verbs there is a secondary form of the

Verbal Noun of the form 3l*' e.g. from vj^>' "to

welcome"

The Passive is in the etc., in the Imperf.
Perf.JJlr
etc.

2. The form Jsii denotes:
Nineteenth Lesson. 101

a) A strengthening of the meaning e.g. '^S "to

break", ^ "to break into pieces, smash".

has usually a Causative or Factitive meaning
b) It

(like
teach".
jJiM) e.g. jji^
"to learn"
^ "to make to learn,

Note. In these cases, if a verb is intransitive in the Simple

form, it becomes transitive in II. e.g. jT "to be numerous",
v**
jiT "to make numerous, increase"; while if it is transitive in

the Simple form, it becomes doubly transitive in II. e.g. ,,Jb
- a^
"to reach",
jJb
"to make (something) reach (someone to transmit)".

c) Sometimes it has the meaning of thinking,
esteeming e.g. OJcT "to lie", v_j Jo "to esteem (someone)

a liar", .Woo "to be sincere" .%vXo "to think (someone)
sincere, believe".

d) It is often used to form verbs from nouns e.g.
Go * z ,
from oJl>. "skin, leather" is formed jsJb*. "to skin,

bind (books)"; from j&glc ,^UJt "peace be on thee"
is formed *jU "he greeted him" i.e. said "peace
JjL,

be upon thee" to him.

III. Form j^.
3. Conjugation of v-*i' "to write to":

Imperf.

Perf. . Indie. Subj. Juss.

WOO i^o'LXj
102 First Part.

Imperf.

Perf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Imperative
vlo Part. Active viol*

^f etc. Part. Passive sLjb
5
Verbal noun ^jlxi',
more usually

Passive, Perf. v*jy Imperf. Indie. JJlx!

4. The form jlli is used to express the relation

of the action to a person e.g. ^>jS "to write", ^J*
"to write to (someone), correspond with".

It also very often expresses an attempt to do

something e.g. Jjia "to kill", Jjls "to attempt to kill,

to fight";
0L* "to precede", ^l^ "to try to precede.
to compete with".

5. The j^li form is always transitive and takes
the Accus. of the Person e.g. xli'^ "he corresponded

with him", Uii "he fought with him".

IV. Form jJS.
6. Conjugation of JJi^? "to make to sit".
Nineteenth Lesson. 103

Imperf.

Indie. Subj. Juss.

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Imperative
Part. Active

etc. Part. Passive

Verbal noun t

Passive, Perf. Imperf. Indie.

7. The meaning of the jJ^st form is causative or

factitive (cf. jJki).
It makes intransitive verbs transitive

and transitive doubly transitive.
y^> "to be present",
-. ^ o
"to make to be present i.e. to bring, present";
^ -. o

"to sit", Jb-l "to make to sit, seat".

Many verbs employ both the II. and IV. forms
as causatives, sometimes with different shades of

meaning, e.g. 'j-> and ^3-t are both used to mean

"to inform"; while means "to teach" and "to
inform".
104 First Part.

The joist form is often used to form verbs from
<5 o > - - o

nouns e.g. from *xwo "morning" ^/-ot "to do in the

morning"; from sL** "evening" "to do in the

evening"; from p^LJ "Islam"'
^
"to receive Islam,
become a Moslem".
Vocabulary.
; II. to
speak to,
I
III. to defend.
r* i
address (ace.).
(III. to treat in a to witness, III. to see.
1 frier dly way.
II. to kiss. half.

IV. to destroy, around.
'

to be (literally if not,
except.
"to do in the
morning").
i only.

ramping. horizon.

III. to interrupt.
>JJL> III. to disobey,

command. speech.
yd! pl. y>!3 5

to send.

pl. affair.
bedouin.
IV. to inform
-'j^ j (^ II. to bring.
I
"concerning").
..- f
father (literally IV. to bring for-

}* \
"begetter"). ward, present.
II. to cause to
JlS IV. to become dark. reach, convey.
O > j

;3
U to ask advice of. pl. (jojjaj
robber.

;^-to equip. III. to attack.
Nineteenth Lesson. 105

-
.

(immediately, (ad-
land. verbial accus.).
I

II. to take good
from. news to.

distance. to mix, III. to have
intercourse with,
II. to seek.
(ace.).

frequent the
to be neighbour to.
^ :
-
f
(
III. to

society of (ace.).
neighbourhood. -
|
II. to propose,
^J I manage.
- f IV. todeprive,
c
1 (with two accus.). xi II. to determine.

I
life, (see Intro. 6,
- II. to believe.
\
Note 3).

- f III to watch, ob-
to tmvel
; (
serve.

fc to cover, overwhelm, P^ce, greeting.

friendliness. as .
like -

IV. to treat kindly. to find.

Exercise 35.

t s

xobs.it -- clsJsJu
106 First Part.

(Perfect for the English Future)

(proverb) J jJb *LM
3

Exercise 36.

O servant, bring us the coffee. The judge com-
manded them to (that they should) bring forward the
robber. We kiss thy hands. Convey to him my
greeting. I have commanded thee, o girl, to convey
I informed him of
my greeting to them. this
(^
affair, but he did not believe me. Do not believe
this boy, o girl. The proposing is from men, the
determining is from God. I ask advice of my friends
in anxiety. - Thou hast seen many cities and had
intercourse with many peoples. Send that man to
Twentieth Lesson. 107

me so that ($) I. may treat him (*-J;) kindly.

Do not disobey my commands. Defence is the right
of (the) man. I bring thee the good news that we
have conquered the robbers. We have travelled to
Damascus. Bring in (cause to enter) the physician.

Twentieth Lesson. .

V. Form
1. The jJiii' form is the same as the jJis with

prefixed o.

Conjugation of Juli' "to take over, receive":

Imperf.

Perf. Indie. Subj Juss.

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Imperative
Part. Active

etc. Part. Passive JLliL*
t
108

Verbal noun

Passive, Perf. ^JUo Irnperf. Indie.

2. The V. form jJi is the Reflexive of the II. form

"to separate", "to separate oneself
jj^i e.g. t
-;Js' X^AS

to scatter"; -
"to teach" "to teach oneself i.e.
jjtc pUj
to learn".
It is also used to form verbs from nxmns e.g.
2 .. o - ' - '-

from ,iLkflj
"a Christian" is formed
^o "to become

a Christian"; from ^50^ "a Jew", o^ii'
"to become
a Jew".
It often has the meaning "to think oneself, to

represent oneself as", ag. & "to think oneself great,
*-. S 1

be haughty"; Ltf (from "a prophet") "to represent
^^
oneself as a prophet".

VI. Form.
3. The VI. Form is the same as III. with a pre-

fixed o.
Conjugation of jjlai' "to fight with one another":
Iinperf.

Perf. Indie.. Juss.
Subj.

etc. etc. etc. etc.
Twentieth Lesson. 109

Imperative
o - ,- G ., ,

Part. Active

9
j' etc. Part. Passive

Verbal noun

Passive, Perf. jjjjtf Imperf. Indie.

4. The jsilij' form is the Eeflexive of the III. form,
4

e.g. JJIs "to fight", jjlii "to fight with one another",
therefore if the verb occurs in the Sing, its subject

must be a Plural or a Collective, e.g.

"the men
fought with one another";
is "the people fought with one another".
Collective)
This form is used more often than V. to mean "to

represent oneself as", e.g. ,^>L*j
"to pretend to be
f

blind"; oj*i "to pretend to be dead".

Vocabulary.

jji
V. to speak. L***-^ a ^ (
a ^v. accus.).

,
- -
(morning, ace. "in
\ the morning". ^
f ?
also.

-
V. to come for-
c^L necessary, duty. (

frf 1 ward.

Li V. to follow. --- f
V to
- se P arate
*j j
from one another,
1 VI. to disperse.
% trace.
U when - after '

IV. to narrate to
one another, VI. >
j
from (the presence
to converse. *^ cr of . . ..

V. to show oneself
brave H^ 1 8K e '
'
direction.
110 First Part.

j presence, ap- J
V. to wonder, be
|
pearance. (
astonished.

V. to be grateful. extreme, extremity.

(to know, II. to
|
(plur. ^AJ5^c) r \teach, V. to learn.
| tender feeling. medicine.

VI to play (L->).
(thus, (literally
( "like that").
flame.
I
appointed, speci-
V. to remember.
V. to have the
people.
honour.
V. to be slow.
or J>KxiJ (plur.
j VI. to meet one
ristian.
\
another.
f
V. say farewell
to
VI. to be bold. ^ {
to one another.

Exercise 37.
- .0.0

G? y" li **J "b

o , ,. ,--
<CAJO'

o (about) j

(from thee) ^(

UJ
Twenty-first Lesson. Ill

j jf
LtfS (Less. 12, 5) vs'
og &->, ,.. J - .

st ,3 a*ot ^

Exercise 38.

Do you speak Arabic? No, we do not speak
Arabic. They did not speak with us. We con-
versed about this affair. Hast thou learnt what thy
teacher has taught thee? Yes, I have learnt it.
These pupils learn the science of medicine. Do not
speak thus, o child. They separated from one another
that they might follow the way and meet at (,3) an

appointed place. I was greatly astonished (I was
astonished the extreme of astonishment) at (^ him.

Truly we are exceedingly grateful (we are grateful the
excess of gratitude). The Moslems and the Christians
fought with one another. We
said farewell to one
another so that we might disperse.

Twenty-first Lesson.

VII. Form.

1. Conjugation of J&1 "to break" (intransitive):

Imperf.

Perf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

y^^.
.^W^AJ
112 First Part.

Imperf.

Perf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Imperative
Part. Active

etc. Part, Passive

Verbal noun

Passive, Perf. Imperf. Indie.

2. The
VII. form is originally the Reflexive of the
Simple form, but generally it contains the idea of
allowing some action to be done to one i.e. it has a
Passive sense as ^LZ "to uncover", oJiXM "to be
uncovered".
3. The VII. form is wanting in all verbs that

begin with hamza, waw, ya, ra, lam or nun.

VIII. Form.
4. Conjugation of ^=>-\ "to assemble".
Imperf.

Perf. Indie. Subj. Juss.
o , o ,
Twenty-first Lesson. 113

Imperf.

Perf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Imperative
r.

Part. Active

etc - Port. Passive

Verbal noun

Passive, Perf. Imperf. Indie.

5. The <a introduced after the first radical under-

goes certain changes:
a) If the first radical is one of the emphatic letters
OJ, {jo, -b, -b, the ta is changed into a _b; this is
assimilated to a _b or jo which is then written with

tashdld e.g. "to make" forms "to

u
strike" forms ib to rise" forms

"to be dark" forms lib! and JLbt.

b) If the first radical is o, 3 or j, the ta is softened
to o; this is assimilated to a 6, which is then written

with tashdld e.g. forms forms
^J

Jso forms ^2*3^ and
c) If the first radical is cy, it sometimes assimilates

the o e.g. ^
Arabic Grammar.
forms e^ or
114 First Part.

6. The VIII. form is like the VII. the Reflexive of

the Simple verb e.g. from *=* "to collect" is formed

+z>-\ "to collect themselves, to assemble"; but has
also the sense of doing a thing for oneself e.g. from

"to acquire" is formed ^ ^u^'[
r "to acquire for
oneself. Sometimes it has a reciprocal meaning e.g.
'

"to strive", Loi>! "to strive with one another".

Vocabulary.
VIII. to be
l*Ji to divide.
experienced.

VIE. to be mingled.
(MM? division, part.
o 6 - &S
to approach Jut/> plur. 31**! likeness.
,
jVlJL
"**
\ (with ;,).

13! see! behold!
Twenty-first Lesson. 115

deed. Oli, youth.

nearness, neigh
- to lash. flog.
bourhood.

a lash. armv.

VIE. to confess I. "to help, VIIL to
|
I (something v_j). conquer (literally,
"to be heh
ilLa> truth. by God).
VIH. to think.
foot.

I.and VIII. to VIIL to
honour.
tremble. -
: f VIIL to busy one-
work.
> fear.
1 self,

to crowd;
[VIIL
all. I verbal noun, "a
whole,
I crowd".

Exercise 39.

U -

(Intro. 9)
116 First Part.

l

,3 (
'from fear" adv. accus.) li

\

Exercise 40.

Do
not approach us. We
assembled in the neigh-
bourhood of the city. Do
not expect us. We were
exceedingly pleased that yon were present with us.
The army of the Sultan was defeated (broken) and the
Christians conquered. Think not that thou hast con-
quered us. Truly, he is honoured by all. We are
diligent and work much. There was a great crowd
in the streets. The feelings of the men were stirred
as they heard that. Work and do not play, o children!

Twenty-second Lesson.

IX. Form.
1.Through the meeting of two similar letters at
the end of this form certain assimilations and con-
tractions take place in the conjugation, The rules for
these are given in Lesson 23.
Twenty-second Lesson. 117

Conjugation of ^>\ "to be or become red' .

Perfect.

Sing. Dual Plur.

3. p. m.

3. f.

2. m.

2. ,
f.

Imperfect. Indie. Subj. Juss.
i.,0- a ^ o - o-o.
Sing. 3. p. in. J^T;

3. f.
^i'

2. m. "^

Dual 3. m. (
.

3. f.
i:

M " >

' *
Plur. 3. m.
118 First Part.

Imperfect. Indie. Subj. Juss.

Plur. 2. m. ^ l I
3 ^

Imperative.
*

Sing. 2. m. => Dual. 2.
fj
Plur. 2. m.

2.f. 2.f.

.,
Part, Active ^s?
>

Part. Passive not used.
6^0
Verbal noun A^s>\. Passive not in use.

2. The IX. form is used only for Colours and Defects
(for the corresponding adjectives see Less. 10, 2), e.g.

to be or become black.

yellow, pale.

,, white.

red

,, green.

crooked.

The very rare form XL jUst is according to some
a stronger, according to others^ weaker form of IX.

e.g. jU=>j. "to be or become red".
Twenty-second Lesson. 119

X. Form.

3. Conjugation of Q^^J "to esteem beautiful":

Imperfect

Perfect Iiidic. Subj. Juss.
, ,' 0,0

O"""~

o o , oE

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Imperative
Part. Active

etc. Part. Passive ..

0,
Verbal noun

Passive, Perf. Imperf. Indie.

4. The X. form:

a) Is originally the Reflexive of IV. e.g. JL! "to

give up" jJUJLl "to give oneself up".

b) Denotes "to desire or. ask for oneself" e.g. ^ac.

"to pardon" la*j "to ask pardon".

c) Denotes "to esteem or think" e.g. ^>*s>
(
"to be.

beautiful" jl^w "to think beautiful" oi "to be
120 First Part.

disgraceful" *.*J&.\ "to esteem (something) disgraceful,

wrong".

d) Often has a Causative meaning, e.g. >JiL> "to

swear", ^JJLs^J "to make to swear".

Vocabulary.
> o -

Lk> world. plur. _.x meadow.
i,
&*
to be big, X. to
X. to rejoice.
esteem great, im-
X. to esteem portant.
forbidden. Ajiil. event.

opinion. (to serve X. to take
I into ones service.

X. to enquire.
government.

X. to use.
X. to receive.
reed, pen.
future.
hard} difficult.

;..{ if God will. .x> X. to enquire.

Exercise 41.

U

iJAi
o]Xl>? (Lesson 9, 6
,J)
U

Juu ^ Ciij

J L
Twenty-third Lesson. 121

>;
J
Jcill* r
f
l.'Ii? olcJ-l
,^ *
*jff IftiLl?
>,

(Less. 12, 5) U-J-^ ilUxIf olbllj? Uil^I? x

Exercise 42.

Do not esteem this event important. girl,
why hast thou become red ? I saw the men become

pale (white). Do you think right (beautiful) what he
has done? No, we think it disgraceful. The plants
have become green. I have taken this slave into
service. He is taken into service by the government.
They have received this foreigner well (a great re-
ceiving). Do you
use this pen? No, we do not
u$e it, use is difficult.
its Do you think it right
that I should take this man into service? I think it

wrong. Enquire concerning (^) this matter. He
went out to the reception of the vezir.

Twenty-third Lesson.

Classification of Verbs.

1 .
yerba are divided by Arabian grammarians into :

a|
Sound jU ji).

b) Not sound (fJL, '^, jjii).

These latter are again divided into:
9 -j

JJts i.e. the Correct verb
comprising^ (a)
"Doubled verb" i.e. the verb in which

the 2 nd and 3rd radicals are the same (b
122

'jHamzated verb" i.e. the verb in which one radical
isa~Eamza!
IL jjil jli the verb in which one of
^Weak"
the radicals is a waw orjj_jgu

Note. The terms JL- and & are often used as identical.

In this case the doubled verbs and harazated verbs are regarded
as Sound. The terms Regular and Irregular are sometimes used
loosely for Sound and Not sound.
This use should be avoided
as all these verbs follow certain laws, though they suffer some
changes of form due to the laws of contraction and assimilation.

Doubled,Verbs.
2. following rules govern the conjugation of
The
nd and 3 rd radicals are the same letter:
verbs whose 2

I. These two identical radicals are written as one

wjth_tashdid (or as the Arab grammarians say ^Uo^
"assimilation" takes place):

a) When the l at and 3rd radicals have^vQwels (are
nd radical loses
^^Lt "vowelled"), in which case the 2 T

its_vowej, e.g. Jo from jJ3; Uo from vijLb; Ji from

JJo (Pass. Perf.); & from &S (Dual Perf.); Jb from

JJto (III. form); Jfi from JJIJ (Part. Act,).

Exception: The Pass. Perf. of III. is
JJ^i.
*
9
b) If the first radical is vowelless
(^ L.) and th^

3 rd radical has a vowel, in which case the 2 nd radical
st
givesjip its vowel to the 1 ,
e.g. 3ij from jJjsj.

Pd
II. When the 3 rd
ladicaHsjvQwelless, the 2 ^retains
its vowel and contraction does not take place,
(fliop

e.g. 2. Perf. Sing. Masc. Perf. v^i'o; Juss. JJjo Imper. JJoi.
Twenty-third Lesson. 123

.. , * t *

Note 1. Doubled verbs of the Joe and Jie form are thus

only distinguished from those of the Joe form in the uncon-
S - - - O ,

tracted forme, e.g. Jw (= JJU) forms in 2nd Sing. Masc. Perf. oJLL.

Note 2. In the Jussive mood and in the 2nd Sing. Masc.
Imperative contracted forms occur very often. In these cases,
to prevent two vowelless letters coming together (Intro. 13, 3)
at the end, the doubled letter takes a vowel (either fatha or
kaera, or damma when the Imperf. has damma), e.g.
->,->, f, t * GJO,
Jussive: U^J, OJo and O^J beside JJ^o.
S->" O ,0$.

Imperative: ^ beside JJol.
o >o
The other forms of -the Imper. are formed either from JJoJ

or from 3o as li ^O tyJ but always

IE. When, the 2 Dd radical is separated from the
3 rd by a long vowel, no contraction can take plac.

e.g. Part. Pass, jjix*; Verbal noun of IV.

3. Conjugation of 3^ "to show":

Perfect.

Sing. 3. m. 5o Dual. & Plur.

3. f. vili bJo

2. m. ^
-f. Vtt

LJUo

Imperfect Indie. Subj. Juss.

OvXj ^JskJ JJ^xJ, also OjJ or ixj

or
124 First Part.

Juss.
Imperfect Indie. Subj.

33 33

o

Imperative.
o,ot =,
JJo! or Jo

or

or

or

Part. Active 3lo Part. Passive
Twenty-third Lesson. 125

Passive.
Perf. Imperf. Indie. Juss.

etc. etc. etc.

Derived Forms.
Perf. Iraperf. Irnper. Part. Act. Part. Pass.

II. jlS jixi JIS JJ3J.

in.

(Passive

iv. 33

v.

VI.

VII.

"
vm. Jo^t j

(The VIII. form of 3J> "to stretch out" is given

here, because in the VIII. form of t there is assimi-

lation = 3^ (see Less. 21, 4, b.)
126 First Part.

Perf. Imperf. Imper. Part. Act. Part Pass.
IX. Seldom occurs.

X.

Vocabulary.

then, thereupon. j determination.

((u) to stretch out,
IV. to help, VIE.
to extend.
^ V. to go.

{ Jc>, pi. J^jo boundary.
tablecloth. s - uncle the
\ (on
i father's side).
as (with genitive). ,.
c
_

people.
custom.
HI. to make war.
Bedouin. G; , (i **
o French-
((u) to narrate ("to"
man.
(i)
to determine
AXIS (with v ).

narrative, story,
G- - Cairo.
history.

(u)to injure, VIII.
VII. to to compel.
(u) to collect,

(u) to think, be-
join (with ^o).
lieve, esteem.
(u) to count IV. to
|
time, fate,
\
prepare, X. to
[ prepare oneself.
to be cheerful.
pi. il&j companion,
IV. to love,
journey, start.

extensive.

pi. Sjli horses,
(of a
[subjects
(i)
to be settled. I kingdom).
Twenty-third Lesson. 127

JaU^Ji

*1J 5 aj'
128 First Part.

UJ li^ jJ JoJ? J,f

jj u

lil

Exercise 44.

Have you felt the heat?Yes, we have felt it.
- Hast thou I did not pass
passed by this place?
by it, but I will pass by it to-morrow, if God will. -
Do you believe that he will appear before the judge?
- Wedo not believe that. The rich people count
their money. We have prepared ourselves for the
Twenty-fourth Lesson. 129

journey. Do you think him a brave man? I

thought him a brave man, but to-day I do not think
him so (uJJs^). Thy presence rejoiced us. We
are glad (rejoiced) of it (w). Ring the bell. The

boy did not complete his speech, when (o) his father-
entered. not speak much (make little thy speech).
Do
- I loved her
very much (a strong loving). He
loves her and she loves him. The heat was too great
for us (strengthened itself on us). This city extends
to the sea. He deserves a great reward.

Twenty-fourth Lesson.
>o

(o*r^
o*,,

The Hamzated Verbs.
^ u^)
> 9 -a > o 3

1. The Hamzated verbs are of three classes
according
to whether the hamza is the first radical as in o^>\ "to

take"; or the second as in 3ll "to ask"; or^the third

as in \ "to read".

2. In the conjugation of these verbs theJJQllQwing
rulea are employed (cf. also Intro. 10):

a) ft.t the beginning of a word the bamza is always

written with alif e.g. <A^t, Pass. Perf.

b) If it comes at the end of A syllable fl.mj__hfla
no vowel, jt is written with alif after
ffl^ha^^with^ya^
after
kasra]_witF
waw after jlamma. e.g.

Jc>G (Indie. Imperf. I.) ;
iXi^j (Indie Imperf. Pass. .
I.) ;

*3- (1. Sing. Perf. Pass. I. of llJ> "to conceal");
o!^3
Arabic Grammar.
130 First Part.

(1. Sing. Perf. I. of Ti "to read");
^ (Part. Act, IV. of

^if "to be true, believing").
c) Kithaskasra or damma and follows fatha jt

is written with ya or waw e.g. ^j "to despair";
^^
"to be brave".

Exception. At the end of a word it is written

with alif even when it follows fatha e.g. \JL (Imperf.

Indie I. of
Tjs).

d) If it has fatha and follows kasra or damma, it

is written with ya or waw e.g. UJJ (Iraperf. Indie. II.

of JiS); JdJI (Part. Act.); ^Jo (Perf. Act. I.).

e) If it has kasra or damma and follows a vowelless

letter, it is written with ya or waw e.g. ^Lu or
, 0,
(Imperf. Indie, of r^); uj*j
(_ (Imperf. Indie, of

(Imperf. Indie. III. of 'jL); jJLl (Part. Act. I.).

f) If it has fatha and is followed bv the alif that
jengthens the vowel, the latter is written with maddj^

(see Intro. 12.) e.g. 3^-T (Perf. III. of J^f); 1>T
(Part. Act. I. of the same). If however it has fatha
and follows an alif that lengthens the vowel, ItTs writlen

mdependently e.g. 3 lL (Perf. III. of JU).

g) If a is hamza
prefixed to the first radical and
that radical a hamza, then two hamzas will conie^
is

together, in whi^h case alif with madda is written in
jjace of both.. The III, form and the IV. forifL.will
thus be identical in the Perf. e.g. ^T(IV.) "to believe";

J^>7 (III.) "to blame".
Twenty-fourth Lesson. 131

IJjie prefixed hamza has kasra or damma. the
hamza ojme root is ciianged into the ya or waw thai:
o
lengthens the vowel e.g. o 'uj[ (Verbal noun of IV.);
o , i> , *.c. G *,&
of J^l); of
J^f (Imper. I.
yU (Imper. I.
^1); jj*A^

of
(Perf. VIII. "p "to quote").

h) The Verbal Noun of the II. form takes the

form xLr&f in verbs of which the last radical is hamza
0, o'.. Z,^
e.g. ^jfis (Verbal
noun II. of
f^).

3. Peculiar forms of certain special Hamzated verbs:

a) The verbs jeM "to take", j*\ "to command"

and jft "to eat" drop the first radical in the Imperative

of the I. form e.g. j^> "take"; Fein. ^JsJ., Dual |jj-

etc.
y> "command", J* "eat".

b) The verb S-* has in the Jussive a regular form

oLlu (written also jJL-Io) and a form J^Ia with omission

of the hamza. So in the Imperative J** (as well as

),
Fern, jl, etc.

c) The verb je>! in the VIII. form assimilates

the hamza to the following ta e.g. $[; Imperf.

Indie.

4. Conjugation of verb, the first radical of which
is hamza:

vjJ! "to get accustomed to".
182 First Part.

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

at \ .
gj Ij ^&J U \
Q-J L>

Jji Jjfe Jilff

> . - J! o --
uwb sJJo sjJIi"

vail

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Imperative
o- O. ^
lib! Part. Active ^A! t
"*
G ,-
etc. Part. Passive o^JU
^Lt
- f. >->
Passive Perf. u>Jl Imperf. Indie, ^^t
* .* >
Jf.
O , t
J**J "to hope :
Imperf. Indie. J^>b Imper. J^l.

"to quote": Imperf. Indie. Imper.
j3l ySu jt

Derived Forms.

'

Indie. Noun.
. ~-S. t~e> oS O_Si O IL*

II. v_^S ^
t
oaJ^J v I

m. JJT JjC JjT

IV.

--- -, ^
V. v^Jlj- V_jjLAJ JJB
Twenty-fourth Lesson. 133

VI.
** S 1"P-
JCJ
P rt ^ N'
VII. Wanting in all verbs beginning with hamza

waw, ya, ra, lam, nun.
- .> -- o , O .1) O -
VIII.

IX. Wanting.

X.

Vocabulary,

(to appear, IV. to take, III. to
1 to show. blame, VIII. to
take for oneself.
III. to be friend-
J
{ ly with. wealth, possessions.
III. to be inti-
( bread.
}
mate with.
to be true, safe, beggar.
IV. to believe
to be satisfied.
(in religious
sense).
|
to hope, V. to ob-
(
properly /^U serve (with ^ of
I
thing.
(plur.
food.
angel.

I
apostle. bedouin (adjective).
resurrection.
o,,
(sound plur.) move-
^^ ment.
religion.

sick, ill.
the day of
J
i judgment. to make an impres-
sion, V. to be in-
III. to travel.
fluenced, affected.
134 First Part.

(Moslem creed.)
Twenty-fourth Lesson. 135

*L' J^J JJI1

,..} (JJUI A^Jj'J IAP

(
a dv. accus. "in order to")

>

O > - - o-> ,.
I

| u^j* vJU 5 vi

sis. > i o - * J S >ox>
136 First Part,

Exercise 46.

Have you taken the money? No, we have not
taken it, but we will take it now. Eat and drink
until thou art satisfied. Take the reward of your
work. They both seated themselves to eat. I
think that 1 am affected by the heat. He hopes that
his father will command us to appear (that we appear).
- Excuse us for our lateness. We came forward
to ask permission of the Commander of the Faithful
to come in to him, and he allowed us that. Truly
this book is. the work (editing) of the sheikh Mohammed.
- Do not blame us. Eat with us. We discipline
the lazy scholars. The discipline of the lazy scholars
is the duty of the teacher. We do not blame (with
us is lack of blaming). We spoke pleasantly to him
(we were friendly with him in speech). He took
(VIII.) a house.

Twenty-fifth Lesson.

1. Conjugation of verb the second radical of which
is hamza.

Si "to ask".

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Subj.

Si ill! (also
written
jllu) jLlj (J^

to
oJU oL*o oLwj

M Jui
etc. etc. etc.
Twenty -fifth Lesson. 187

Jussive.

etc. etc.

Imperative.

(also written jll or

etc. etc.

Part. Act. JJLl
- ,
Part. Pass. 3j)_j (also written ^^-^ or

Passive Perf. J^l, Imperf. Indie. JLLji (also written V

Example of the form Joe: vjjj"'to be cast down

Imperf. Indie. vjIXj (also written

Imper.

Example of the form J.J6: J^ "to be brave".

Imperf. Indie.

Imper.
138 First Part.

Derived Forms.

Perf. Indie. Imper. Part. Act. Part. Pass.
Imperf
,,
n. ju

IV.

v.

VI.
, G ,,o, u,o G
^
, o > Gg,o,
VII. OLvAJt JuLw.*^ JwLwJ!_^ JUCvWwiX (jLtM^/4
^ , , ,

VIII. Jjdf *-^ri ^A>Jt
,vxxJu<l lxLo

(from 1^ "to bind up a wound" as this form of

3L1 does not occur).
IX. does not occur.

Verbal Noun.

II. !Uls IV. 5HlS VI. StLJ VIII. !tixh
I ^
> ^

m. ii uJ v. 3lli- vii. StLJi x.

2. Example of verb, whose third radical is hamza:

"to read".
lyi

Perf. Imperf. Iixiic. Subj. Juss.
,, i--o, f.e* I, o.

y i/^ 5yM 5y^
t,o, ,&, i-o,

lytt !yu !_JG
Twenty-fifth Lesson. 139

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Subj; Juss.

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Imperative
-0 8 -
Part. Active
iysl ^Is

etc. Part. Passive
j.yjt s.yli

Pass. Perf. Imperf. Indie.
^yj lyL'

etc.
dJyi

Conjugation of verbs which take kasra in the

Imperf.: UP "to be healthy", Imperf. Indie.
^^5, Impe-
rative

Conjugation of verbs of the form Joe: ^^ "to sin".

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Imper.

etc.

etc. etc.
140 First Part.

of verbs of the form jJis: yLi "to
Conjugation
be slow"
Perf. Imperf. Indie. Imper.
, o.

.i,. i.
etc.
o^ku _?rv"

etc. etc.

Derived Forms.

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Imper. Part. Act. Part. Pass.
2
n r *JM "i V-' r r>

s- -.
*
r.'
c
:
9 - ' s- - '

S-oS to, f o 9 o, 9-0,
IV. L5j*^ L5j*' L5j**
!yil ^j^*

Es_ *.*-- i-- 9~--.> is--
V. lyij
IJixj
tyij ^
E - -- *- :.--
*' 9
:.:.

E-,o * -o- -o 9
VII. tjijl

VIII.
IJXSJ

IX. Does not occur.
-0-0 & 0-0.
X. ^j
^

Verbal Noun.

II.
Jiys IV. syj VI. VIII.
3JL&
*
III. ?LL^ V. VII. sfjut X.
141
Twenty-fifth Lesson.
142 First Part.

Exercise 47

2T ill* L^

it OU j^ Li i <i)JI
j

L'4? ^' b

UL

W (Less. 9, 6) J jGjJJ ljJl 3l5 Jalll xUJ

cn

(than) jj !l^ ^i U (for me) u ^

Exercise 48.

Read this letter. I have read it. This woman
seeks (j^ai) me that (S) i may read her letter to her.

The people appeared asking (Imperf.) concerning my
condition. Ask me for what you want (ask me thy
need). I ask you to (that you) pardon my guilt.
Twenty-sixth Lesson. 143

Have you cask with apples?
filled this We have
-- --
filled it. Fill
immediately. it girl, read this
book. They began to read (that they read). I know
the beginning (Verbal Noun) of this book. I have
announced to them the arrival of the Emir. Come
forward that I may reward thee. We bring thee
congratulation (Verbal Noun). We are beginners
(Part.) in the Arabic language. The Sultan set up
a school.

Twent-sixth Lesson.

Weak Verbs,

1. The Weak verbs (Jojw Jons), in which one of

the radicals is a waw or a ya are divided into three
classes,: '

"~*r O - -6 o
A. Assimilated verbs^ (o&o joe) whose first radical
is waw or ya.
) , c, f} o

B. Hollow verbs (vJy>i Joe) whose second radical
is
waw_or ya.

Defective verbs djoSij
C. Jots) whose third radical

is_waw or ya^
A. Assimilated Verbs.

I. Verbs whose first radical is
3 .

2. Verbs whose first radical is waw have the
following peculiarities":

a) Those that take kasra injhe Imperf. lose their

in the Imperf. and Imper. e.g. from j^5 "to arrive"

Imperf. J^aj Imper. J^o. Many also that take fatha

in the Imperf. have the same peculiarity e.g.
144 First Part.

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Imper.

<txsj
"to place, put". *j jto

^, "to be wide" .*j *

L
gl
"'to fall".
^
v^.5 "^ sive "- v4^ v^
Most verbs of the form Joe take kasra in the

Imperf. (contrary to the rule in Less. 13, 3) e.g.

/ . "to trust", Imperf. /u Imper. /sS

o ^
"to inherit"
cy^j ,, ey.

'^\
"to be swollen"
^ j^

The verbs which take damma or fatha in
jhe
Imperf. and preserve their ^ arg__rare^ e.g. :
jo*.^
"to be

afraid", Imperf. Indie. j4"-_*J, Imper. jJ?.l (for J^>-3 (

see below).

Those which are also Doubled verbs retain their,

^inthe Imperf. e.g. ^ "to love", Imperf. Indie. o_^j.

Note. In the Imperf. of the Passive the .,
is retained,

even when it is lost in the Active e.g.: *X>j "to find", Imperf.

Indie. Act. X^r., Pass. ^X>-^j.

b) If the \vaw is vowelless and preceded by a.

kasra it is changed into a ya e.g. j4=T.I (for Jo^j[) Imper.
from jc>-31 so from jo> the Verbal Noun IV. is

(for
Twenty-sixth Lesson. 145

Vowelless waw preceded by damma becomes u e.g.

(for Jc>-jj) cf. Less. 27.

c)In the VIII. form the waw is assimilated to
the followiDgrj^ e.g.

J*oj "to join" VIII. JyaSJ, Imperf. Indie.

II. Verbs whose first radical is
^c.
3. These Verbs retain their ya in the Imperfect e.g.

_**j "to be easy'.', Imperf. Indie. ~-o.

(j*Ju
"to despair", ,, ,,
^Uj (see Less. 25).

If the ya is vowelless and follows damma, it is

changed into a waw e.g. JOJL "to be awake", Imperf.

Indie. IV. J%j (for -a&u).

In the VIII. form the ya is assimilated to the

following td e.g. J^j VIII. u %
4. Conjugation of the verb whose first radical is .

jyo3 "to arrive, join".

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

etc. etc. etc. etc.
Arabic Grammar. 10
146 first Part.

Imperative
O
Part, Act.
G
Juo etc. Part. Pass.
O o - G ..> 0.
Verbal Noun J^3 or Jyaj or iXo

Pass. Perf. j^ Imperf. Indie.

An example of those verbs, which retain their 3
in the Imperfect is J^>.. "to be afraid", Imperf. Indie.

Imper. J^rj.
Derived Forms.
Perf. Imperf. Indie. Imper. Part. Act. Part. Pass.
,- > - ~> o,, - > G s - >
II. *o

III.
jy^fj

--o
-IV.

V.

VI.

VII.

:
VIII. jsx ^
IX. Does not occur.
* ., O , > 0,0- O 0,0 G 0,OJ 0,0, O >
X.
J^O^A**<| ^V^fl^iUMj .J-O^XAW? JwO_jJC**v9 J*9^C*w

Verbal Nouu.
II.
juyoji' IV.
3LL| VI. J^tji' VIII.
3^
IH. Jll^ or iUux" V. 3-^3 VK. Sliyj X.
Twenty-sixth Lesson. 147

5. Conjugation of the verbs, whose first radical is
^ ;

J^J "to be dry".

Perf. Irnperf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Imperative .

Part. Act.

etc. Part. Pass.

Verbal Noun U *AJ
Pass. Perf. ,jj Imperf. Indie.

Derived Forms.

Perf. Iinperf. Indie. Iniper. Part. Act. Part. Pass.

III.

- -oS > > o oS O

V.

9- ,,j
VI.
148 First Part.

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Imper. Part. Act. Part. Pass.

vii.

IX. Does not occur.

Verbal Noun.
7
H. i IV. ,^Uil VI. J VIII.

v. vn.

Vocabulary.

II. to complete. time -

to- stay, remain,
j
VIII. to be dis-
stand still, IV. to
j turbed, excited.
refrain from (with
>*** hearing.
I. to learn,
^),
ascertain IV. to conduct,
(with
bring.
to be necessary,

eat, throne. incumbent (with

to lay down, to
allow (only
& let,
in Imperf. and
anger,

Imper.). body.
Exercise 49.

fi

4521
150 First Pare.

^^i
1

1^3? (j|3 ffi (in regard to . . .

.) ul

U (j-j*
b bo u *,*>r

L3& ;i
^ (j^is; k. ^~ v

Jj
Twenty-seventh Lesson. 151

Exercise 50.

You havesought us and not found us. Hast
thou laid down on the seat?
these books I have
not yet laid them down, but I will lay them down
Lay them down immediately. Let -
shortly.
us stay with you. If God will, you will arrive at

(it) Cairo in (the) comfort. We have already arrived

long ago (since a time). Ho fled from the bear, he
fell into the cistern. girl, do not fall. friends,
lead us to the sheikh of the tribe. This dwelling
will be very suitable for us. Stand still and do not

move. The entrance to (jUc) the Sultan was made

possible for us. It is our duty to bring you to the

prince (the bringing you to). Many .marvels are found
in Egypt. I shall describe it to thee in this letter.

Your letter has not reached (j,! oj us. We have

fallen into great distress. God will help (^^* II)

your affairs, for He fety is the Helper (Part.). We
have agreed that you shall stay with us for a long time

(sjji Accus.).

Twenty-seventh Lesson.

B. Hollow Verbs.

1. Hollow Verbs i.e. those, whose second radical
is
j or ^"observe the following rules!
152 First Part.

A. If the or ^ is vowelless and the third radical
ia then the 3 or ^js dropped to prevent
ajsojvowelless,
the meeting of two vowgTesTIettirs. (Intro. 13, 3) e.g.

From Ji (for the Jussive should be (.yb (see
^)
below, B, 1),
but as the 3 and r
are vowelless, the 3

is dropped and it becomes ,Jb; so Imper. ^3.

From eC (for 'o) the Jussive is *.J, the Imper. j.

From sJJ> (for J^) the Jussive is s^k 1

., the

Imper. ^>.
third radical, by conjugation, receives a
If the
ud
voweJ, no elision takes place e.g. 2 Sing. Fein. Juss.

.Ji^iS, Plur.
Masc. Imper. \jAj*.

So also the alif, when it takes the place .of ^ or
^, is dropped, whenever the third radical is vowelless
by conjugation e.g.

From IV. (for j^Sl) is formed 2 nd Sing. Masc.
jjsf

ie*ti.

B. If the 3 or ^5 is vowelled, the following rules
are observeHl

1} If the first radical is voweliess, then the vowel,
of the ,~or L 9 is given to It. the^or g thus becoming t

vowelless; aw is then changed to~ a &u<Tiw to f, e.g.:

From j.15
(= fja]
is formed Iraperf. Indie
^su
(for ^jil).

From (= >clj), Imperf. Indie. ^MJ (for *H).
^f
From ck> (= v_3^i-), Imperf. Indie. vJL?. (for

?. for
Twenty-seventh Lesson. 153

So also from (= ^s) are formed Perf. IV. J&
jLlS

for for Indie. IV. for
1^1 pjsf); Imperf. '^ (for ^Jib

Part. Act. IV. for Part. Pass.
^b); ^JU (for ^aJ ^U);
IV.
^Uu (for ^ for
~

rjju).

2) If the first radical is vowelled.

a) Then if the third radical is also vowelled,
a) (twa, am, awu, aya, ayi, ay u become a, e.g. 3 r<1 Sing.

Perf. I.
^ becomes j, ^^> becomes \Jte>, ^ becomes

X 3^i> becomes JLb, J**P becomes (jJs>. VII. Form
Perf. 4y*J! becomes 3lJu! and Imperf. Indie, oyi^j becomes

^lilj. P) wwi, wy* become z, e.g. Pass. Perf. I.
&j

becomes J^3, .&o becomes ^.oo.

Note. The rules a) and (3) apply also to the VIII. form

e.g. Perf. VIII.
^ys^ becomes lj
^|, Imperf. ~j*&:. becomes

-&*?. Perf. becomes
-*g^\ jLx*|.

b) If the third radical is vowclless, elision takes
place and
a) awa becomes u, awl, aya, ayi become f, e.g.

1
st
Sing. Perf.
to,,
^^ becomes &**, v^o>>
jo,
becomes

o-e becomes co
>(,

o' becomes v
it,

st
p) uwi and uyi becomej; e.g. 1 Sing. Perf. Pass. I.

tl becomes vils OAAO becomes
2. I^e_Verbal Nouns of IV. and X. drop the

and add fa after the third radical; e.g.
From j.15?
the Verbal Noun is
Kxls'^j
from

it is
154 First Part.

3. In the Participle Active of the I. form the
<TT G""^
and the^_are changed into hamza; e.g. ^Ss (for r is),

-
!?J, (for

4. In the Participle Passive of the I. form of verbs
whose Second radical is^ one of the two waws is
propped and damnta is written over the one left;
TT~~ e j., G
~
e.g. from ^15 the Part. Pass.
^AA (for ^JA*). I. is

In the Pass. Part, of verbs whose second radical^
is
^ the ^
isdropped and kasra is written under thg
first radical; e.g. from cL (= ^u) the Pass. Part. I. is
'
G + * G ><> ~

Note 1. A few verbs whose middle radical is ^ or ^5 of

the form Joo preserve the ^ or ^9 and are conjugated as Sound
verbs; e.g

jz. "to be one-eyed", Irnperf. Indie, ^au etc.

Hollow verbs, which denote Colours or Defects, always retain
the 3 or ^ in thg IX. form; e.g.

J "to be or become black" Imperf. Indie.
* -o
"to be or become white"

The 5 is often retained in the X. form; e.g.
> o - o -

Imperf. Indie,

Note 2. Hollow verbs, which have 3 or ^ as third radical
always retain their ^ e.g.

^5_jj* ''to be worth", Imperf. Indie. (j_?+->.

Note 3. Those Hollow verbs which have ta or nun as
third radical assimilate it with a following ta or nun', e.g.
- - i, > > o >

From OU the I 8 * Sing. Perf. I. is c^v (for

From o the l*t Plur. Perf. I. is UT (for U
Twenty-seventh Lesson. 155

Conjugation of (= "to stand":
j.15 j.^5)

Perfect.

Sing. Dual Uli Plural I_^l5
jte

0-- .. - ^0>
Uxls ( ..*S

Imperfect.
Indie. Subj. Juss.
' -
q. Q .'.- .'.- "i-
oin^r. o. m.
,
<%ftj <JLi ^.QJ

' *
3f *
*

i*-'^ t*^^
."^ ...'
J

i j>* + } * (i >*

' '
n
^5.
f
,, I.
t^y_jA>

Dual 3. m. 'Jijl

3. f.
g
" 2 -

g
Plur. 3. in. ;,

3. f.
156 First Part.

Indie. Subj. Juss.

Plur. 2. in.
O j*j&
2. f.
^ :
1.
r>
Imperative
S. 2. m. ^3

2. f.
^5 Part. Act.
^15
D. 2.
Uj5 Part. Pass,
rjiU

PI. 2. m. |_^5
2- ^ o^
Passive.
Perf. Imperf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

UB ,lu
JG
> , - > e> , ^

,
JL AJlj
j,.ftJ

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Derived Forms.
Perf. Imperf. Indie. Imper. Part Act. Part. Pass

III.
$
.-
IV. l5i
r
Twenty-seventh Lesson. 157

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Imper. Part. Act. Part. Pass.
-a-- **--, os-- O , OS--;
V. *Jij

VI.

VII.

VIII.

IX. ^%-*4 ^j~~* 3vj>^*t o^**ws wanting.
--,& > .0- 0-0 'J -0> 6 - . O
X. LAJUkw! ,jjiX^*)U AJt/Lwt ^iX&X^-./O _
...

Verbal Noun.

II. ,s V. !j VIII.

III. VI. IX.
K^'JU ^183

IV. VJ5[ VII. X.
^LxiJi

5. Conjugation of the form J*s.

JU> (for "to fear"
s_^)
Perf. Imperf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

old?. oli:

'

o'ws: 1

- . s
ol1
etc. etc. etc.
158 First Part.

Imperative
6
Part. Act.

etc. Part. Pass.

Passive.
Perf. Imperf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

etc. etc. etc.
etc.

Conjugation of the form J***:

51 b (for Jb) "to be long".

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Subj. Juss. Imper.

vl^Jlb etc. e*c - e t. e te. etc.

6. Conjugation of verb, whose middle radical is
c

JLO (for 'jLa) "to become"
Perfect.

Sing. 3. m. Ju> Dual |Jli
Plural
!^U>

3. f.
0j U 6^li Q^>
^ O ^ O o J r,

2. m. o
2. f.

,, 1.
OjA9
Twenty- seventh Lesson. 159

Imperfect.
Indie. Subj. Juss.

Siug. 3. m.

3. f.

2. m.

,1
2. f.

I-

Dual 3. m.

3, f.

2.
g ^ 1^ t^
Plur. 3. rr

3. f.

o tv.

. 2. f.

1-

Imperative

Part. Act.

Part. Pass.
160 First Part.

Passive.

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

etc. etc. etc. etc.

Derived Forms.

Perf. Iraperf. Indie. Irqper. Part. Act. Part. Pass.

IV. }

vV. -*-i *-:.- *-:.
-"
wkXU ^ClAJ ^A=L>

VI.

VII.
ji^[

vin. JiLit
(see Less. 21, 4 a)
S -0 i ,0, O ,0 8-0,
IX. ijaot \J**! u13 ^ 1
-?' u13*^* wanting.

Verbal Noun.

II. UJ V. !IJJ VIII. ^'
III. 1^ VI. *JuL :
IX.

IV. gtUI
^ *
VII. *l^Jj
J " t
X. gjLkll
S
Twenty-seventh Lesson. 161

Conjugation of the form Joe;

ujU> (for vJyjS ) "to fear".
1

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Subj. Juss. Imper.

etc.
162 First Part.
164 First Part.

- - to be absent, o -
f (, e)
V1J7 '
>ji { i
>oo eggs (collective).
I
go away.

pli (5
= ^1) to sleep. *_^ government.
protection. to fly.
.^Lb (^5)

Exercise 51.

^ eg - oS o - - o ,

c^o! ^j! Q,., oJi cr

M" (Optative) jlif lllu U

sX5 |Jo5

(Intro. 9) ioJT

yaxi
Twenty -seventh Lesson. 165

"as regards" . .
.,) Cs 54-/! (Less. 21, 5,-b) oloL' S&S\

i[ pjJ&T ^llj ^ ZJ (see Less. 42, 2, f

jNjlo! L
fSA> ^ (Proverb) ^J,\J> x

(what .... of insult = what insult) KJ

,*

'

s C j'S .
l
jjJ!3 ^jlij

("which the lions fear", see Less. 31,4) WL^J

jdLi !^> ^ (Less. 21, 5, a)
166 First Part.

oojf

"as regards"...) i ^Ja uLOOLsl (Optative) Ji-ou

k (
see Less '
42) 2)
j*j*
--
U ^ -
S o^ j v_ (Proverb) &| BoU

\ 'S (Less. 34, 6)

,

*^ * f + - s *E *-> -.^ c^ * ^ ^

Titf.hr SOlSt 'tii'Jol dULLP NxSb BJu33

Exercise 52.
Rise O girl, and let us sit. ->
We wish to stay
in this city half a year. A misfortune has
great
come upon us. You were afflicted by (\J) a great
misfortune. O woman, go away and do not return.
What have you said? We said, this is not fitting.
Do not say this. Dost thou wish O girl, that I
Twenty-eighth Lesson. 167

say to thee the truth? It was said, the king had
died. He did not die and will live long. Truly
we yearn to see you (to your seeing). I wished to
visit you, but was not able to (that). Go my son,
in the protection of God. The merchant, who lives

(Part, of pli?)
in Cairo will visit us. We wish that
God may lengthen your life. He fancied in (the)
sleep that he was flying. We flew from joy. Eat
and drink and rest. They handed us the coffee and
after the handing of the coffee we rested. He wished
to sell these eggs, buthe was not able. You have
made us giddy with your speech. Did you spend
the night in Damascus? No, we did not spend the
'

night in that city, The government appointed him
governor. Trust in God and fear not. The coward
(fearing) does not attain the reward. Repeat your
question. I have already repeated it. He will

approve our opinion. This stuff (jiUS) will not last.
(The) obedience (Verbal Noun of "obey") is our duty.

Twenty-eighth Lesson

C. Defective Verbs.

1. The Defective verbs, which have ^ or ^ as third
radical are conjugated according to the following rules :

A. If the ^ or l5 is vowelless:

1_. It is dropped, when nothing is added at the
end, as in the Jussive and Imper. e.g.

From U3 (= _^>) "to call": Imperf. Indie,

Juss. xj, Imper. >!.
168 *'irst Part.

From (= ^;) "to throw": Imperf. Indie.
-xj

Juss.
^Imper.p!.
From "j& "to meet": Imperf. Indie.
^^fiJLi.
Juss.

, Imper. ^K.
So also in the II. form (and other Derived forms):

forms Imperf. Indie. L^vXj, Juss. cjo, Imper. cj>.

The elision takes place even when the Personal

Pronoun is added as &xOl "call him".
2. If there is an addition at the end:

a) aw becomes au; ay becomes ai e.g. 2 nd Sing.

Masc. Perf. I. of Uo is
o^*x>; of ^, is ^^A} .

b) iw and iy become r, uiv becomes v\ e.g. 2 ud Sing.

Masc. Perf. I. of
^>j is
\&*+Oj\
of
^ is ulyJif; of

"to be noble" is
3y*< o.,^.
B. When the 3 or ^5 i8_vowelled:
1. If the second radical is vowelless. the_
S
3,
o,
or ^
e.g, Verbal Noun (of the form Joe) of
i^~
"
raid :
3^5 of L^J :

J*>
^If the second radical is vowelled, and
a) there isno addition at the end:
a) awa and ay a become a, this a being written
^ alif when it is derived from atpq," with ya when
IPs derived Jrom__a?/: e.g 3 ra
iSing.^Masc.
.Perf. 1. of

is 1*3, of
^
become^
is
^J.
remains; e becomes
fyjiwa iya, iya g. ^^
Pass. Perf. I. > becomes > remains

unchanged. So in Imperf. Subj. I.
'^^ remains
-
unchanged.
Twenty-eighth Lesson. 169

* > .* - ) O x

*t] uwa remains; e.g. 5J*, Imperf. Subj. _^x.j, (uya
does not occur).

8) mow becomes u\ e.g. Imperf. Ihdic. I.
_^Xj
becomes _j&xi, (uyu does not occur).
s]
iyit
becomes g; e.g. Imperf. Indie. I.
^^ becomes
does not occur).
^yy', (iwu

C) awu and ayw become a (always written with
J-'O-' * O .* >.,&.*

\5); e -g- Imperf. Indie. I. becomes
^o^ ^fo^\ ^j. (from

^^ "to pasture") becomes ^^
The same changes take place in the Derived forms,
wbereTIowever c 9 alwajsjakes the place of ^ (see below

rule 3); e.g. III. ^to becomes (J=|3; Imperf. Indie.
becomes lJu etc.

b)
There is an addition at the end:

a) The ,
and t <-
are retained when immediately
followed by an alif (in the Dual); e.g.;

3^ Dual, Perf. I.
|J^ 1^, L^, UJ.
3^ Imperf.

2 nd Imper. I^o! etc.
In these cases however iwa becomes iya\ e.g. \^o)
becomes LytoJ;
Pass. Perf. \^> becomes Leo.
P) If M or
f follows (as in Plur. Masc. 2 nd Sing. ;

Fein. Imperf. and Imper.) .the following changes take
placej_
a,wfi and aya become au. and so aivuna and ayana

become auna: e.g. 3 rd Plur. Masc. Perf. I.
l^^to becomes
rd
t^co; 3 Plur. Masc. Imperf. and
I.
\^o^ becomes j^a,

becomes '; lsL' becomes L.
170 First Part.

MC#, iyn and urni become u and so twang and

iyana become ana; 3 rd Plur. Masc. becomes
e.g. I.
1^J
j^jj becomes \j&\ 3 J
j^ becomes l^l; 3rd Plur.
\jjtoj-,

Masc. Imperf. becomes
O j**j4 o ^jj.
tiwl and
~ ay? become i; e.g. 2 nd Sing. Fern. Imperf. I.
j~O~~^~ + Q * > O ^
becomes Juss. jjj^cJG becomes
^j^kxj' ^A^vXj';
^. o - - o*
and Q-^-J becomes ^.yy.

becomes nd
oy? oi; e.g. 2 Sing. Fern. Imperf. I.

becomes ,jliij; Imper. Sing. Fein. L^kJ! becomes ^aJt.

7) When the o of the 3 rd Sing. Fern. Perf. is added,
the awa and ayaare first changed to a and then, to
prevent the meeting of two vowelless letters (see Intro.

13, 3), ^the alif is dropped; e.g. o_j*o becomes oUo
then u>^cO;
^yJ becomes oUj then u>^.
The^ Fem. of the Dual is (irregularly) formed by

analogy from the Sing.: 'u^J, Jo.
The following forms are regular i-^J-^j (since iwa

changes into iya], Dual

Note. The ^5 as sign of ti at the end of a word is changed

into \ whenever a suffix ia added e.g. "he threw him", (see
;
^U^
Intro. 6, Note 3).

2. In the Active Participle iwun and iyun are
6 G
changed into in\ e.g. _^c!o becomes c!o; becomes
,c*5.

These forms are declined like (jaii in Less. -6, 3.

Singular.
Nom. Gen. with the Article ^tSJ! (iww and
pto;
become z.
Twenty-eighth Lesson. 171

Accus. Uck>; with the Article <^lJj? (iya remains).

Dual.

Nom. ^licto;
Gen. Accus. ^-JXA^O.

Plural.

Nom. yj&te (uwfi and iyn become ),
Gen. Accus.

i^xcfo (iwt
and iyi become i).

In the Part. Pass, of verbs whose third radical is
* the two waws are contracted into one written witE
s , o , sTTT
tasMtd; e.g. ^jo becomes
In the verbs whose third radical is
^5, the ^of
the form is changed to , f and this is assimilated to
~*^T. TT3
theof the root; e.g.
j^yyj becomes
3. The verbs whose third radical is 9 are treated
in the Derived forms as if their third radical were ( g ;

e.g. from Leo: II. ,^=0,
III.
^lo, IV. ^i etc.

4. a) The Verbal Noun of the II. form is of the
"
" '

G- o, T
pattern
iUxaj (as in the case of the verbs whose third
O- o - a,
radical is hanusa. See Less. 24, 2, h); e.g. i\.^-o from ^.

b)
In the Verbal Noun of the III, form the ya is

changed into alif; e.g. slsSU from J,^ "to meet".

cLIn the Verbal Nouns of of the IV VII.. .

and xTlbrms, where the third radical follows an cdif,
the. ya is changed into a hatnza (without bearer); e.g.

IV. from t^to throw": 9liiJ!.

*. -

VII. from .y^Ail "to come to an end" :

VIII. from "to buy":
tjj&l sljx&j.
^ " O

ucJ "to ask forgiveness, abdicate" :
172 First Part.

d) In the Verbal Noun of the V. and_VL forms
uyun becomes in,' uyu becomes f; e.g. '^Sw
becomes

/&; Jib' becomes xtlS; with the Article {
jk\ and ipbat,

In the Participles
5. of the Derived
forms ii/un
becomes in; iyu becomes i; ayun becomes an (written
with (t;); ayu becomes a (also written with'\c); e.g.

becomes with the Article Part. Pass II.
JfJU, ^SU I ;

becomes '.^Lo,
with the Article
^ySil!
etc.

Conjugation of the Defective Verbs.

a) Conjugation of the verbs whose third radical is * ;

a) Of the form J^s;

Uo "to call".
Perfect.

Singular Dual Plural

3. masc. 3. masc. \
3. masc.

3. fern. 3. fem. L; 3. fem.

2. masc. 2. masc.

2. fem. 2. fem.

1.

Imperfect.
Indie. Subj. Juss.

Sing. 3. masc.

3. fem.

,, 2. masc.

2. fem.

1.
Twenty-eighth Leeson. 173

Indie. Subj. Juss.

Dual 3. masc.

3. fem.

2. t^eJG*

Plur. 3. masc.

3. fem.

2. masc.

2. fem.

Imperative.
*>o1>
Siog. maec. e Dual lcoi Plur. masc.
^ .

fem. fern.
^o!
Part. Active.

Sing. nom. masc. cfj (with Art. ^ijJi) fem. iixc

accus.

gen.
jp|.

Dual. nom. masc. J fem.

gen. accus.

Plur. notn.

gen. accus. ^
Part. Pass.
174 First Part.

Passive Perfect,

Sing. 3. masc. ^o Dual U&j Plur.

3. fern.

2. masc.

2. fern.

Pass. Imperf. Tndic. Siibj. Juss.

Sing. 3. masc.

3. fern.

.2. masc.

2. fern.

Dual 3. masc.

3. fern.
^UcjsJ ^J^'

2.

Plur. 3. masc.

,, 3. fern.

,, 2. masc.

2. fern.

1.
Twenty-eighth Lesson. 175

p) Of the form Jjti:

"'to be pleased".
^o}
Perfect.

Sing. 3. masc. Dual L^ Plur.
1^,
^i>*

3. fern.

2. masc.

2. fern.

I-
_..^
Imperf. Tndic. Subj. Juss.

Sing. 3. masc.

3. fern.

2. masc.

2. fern.

Dual 3. masc.

3. fern.

2.

Plur. 3. masc.

3. fern.

2. masc.

2. fern.

1.
176 Inrst Part.

Imperative.

Sing, raasc. \jo^ Dual L*>J Plur. masc.

fern. fern.
J^t
Part. Act. tl Part. Pass,

Pass. Perf. Indie.
'^o} (s. ^o) Imperf.

Verbs of the form Jo*i (as "to be noble") are rare,
SjM
b) Conjugation of verbs whose third radical is
^:
a) Of the form jjli;

"to throw".
^J*}
Perfect.

Sing. 3. masc. Dual U** Plur.
^*J \^
3. fern.
vi^ Lx^ ^AJ
2. masc.

2. fern.

1.

Imperf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

Sing. 3. masc.

3. fern.

2. masc.

2. fern.

1.
Twenty-eighth Lesson. 1

Imperf. Indie. Subj. Juss.

Dual 3. masc.

3. fern.

,,
2.

Plur. 3. masc.

3. fern.

2. masc.

2. fern.

" *
c*V
Imperative.

Sing. masc. Dual Plur. masc.
^t ll^t

fern. fern,

Verbal Noun
Part. Act.
r
Part. Pass.
^^
Pass. Perf. Imperf. Indie. ^^

etc. etc. ==

,3)
Of the form >S:

_1 "to meet"
Arabic Gretnmar.
is conjugated like
^ J4
173 First Part.

c) Conjugation of the Derived forms of all Defective
verbs.

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Imper. Part. Act. Part. Pass.

II. JU

in. &i

IV.
Jt
V.
J&
vi. J.ii

VII.
J&[
VIII. jiS
L

IX. Wanting.

Verbal Noun.
Twenty-eighth Lesson. 179

V. to breakfast. j: butter.

stretch, V.
to to '" (dried dates (collec-
j>
I

stretch *
oneself, 1 tive).
I rest.
tobacco.
V. to take supper,
;
to go away, Part.
(plur. L-) wixt5) herbs. Act. past, last.

1. and VIII. to be to call, to pray for,
1

watered wish (with J of
(suffici-
l
ently).
G.,.. person ,
of
rain.
r^ G thing) VIII. (see
= ^Uj.
time. Less. 21, 5, b) to
claim, X. to
winter. summon.
G - O -
to remain. ^jL. (plur. *lf) seller.

rest, remainder. VIII. to honour.
'PJ&-
G ,,
f
(pi. Ojxis) section, iio to approach.
1 season.
,=
-
((literally "to let
***"
to pasture, feed on. \ live") to greet.

1. and III. to meet, 1x5* to bend.
1

IV. to throw, VI. - o *

and VIII. to meet iXw to complain of
j'
one another.
-ASS brevity.
I IV. to give (with
two accus.), VI. to |
to be sufficient for,
III. to reward.
I
give one another. j

sheep (collective). collecting.
180 First Part.
Twenty-eighth Lesson. 181

Exercise 53.

3J3T UL S&. tsi^J i ijJ C cJ i-Su

j> (Proverb) jti' (for o

* * - --o-o - o

Jall'd*

1X^(5 isJo ^M ^i

j
Lo^. l. b3 Ub (Less. 34, 6)

olf Ljf (Less. 44, 5) JU

&J (Less. 31, 4) *XCJOL*O
182 First Part.

=> (
a s pledge) \JjS

LM i.

Lie T (Optative: "May God pardon", Less. 30, 6)

i J Is iJT toJ>

^-00,0 a --- .

*5j 1*1*^ (joo iJJJT t>3^ (Proverb)

(Less. 34, 7)

oojf uJ

U J? ,U xJiilJL il

i
|
j U (Proverb)

; jl; ^' u -
Twenty -eighth Lesson. 188

b jjT\ it Q vi^fti (Proverb)

(Koran, Sura 1.) .^-JiiLIf
.LuJ? Iwij, .(Jfi^ ^A

Exercise 54.

When was this house built? It was built

(Part, Pass.) in the lime ( )
of the last Sultan.
Why did you weep We beg your pardon
girls?
(we hope from you the excuse). I have read your
letter. Do not forget what I have said to thee O
boy! I have not forgotten it O my master. Go
slowly (with w
slowness). When will the time of
our meeting be? We shall give you what we ought
(isnecessary for us). You have not given us our
due (right). Remain with us. I heard a crier

(Part. Act. III. of |jo) crying (he cries) in the market
with a loud voice. The girl wept bitterly (a bitter
weeping). We fell fainting. What you wanted
did not happen. What you have said is sufficient
for me. Whither art thou going? Wast thou
content with what I said to thee? I met a dog in
the street. What (how) is this called in Arabic?
I went from the house to meet them (to their meeting).
Do not be anxious about this man. Spare me
(make me remain II). -*- Hast thou watered the horses?
We have already breakfasted and, if God will, we
shall shortly take supper. Truly, the merchants buy
and sell in the market. Buy what is necessary for
us. If God will, we shall meet in the current
(flowing) month.
J84 First Part.

Twenty-ninth Lesson.

Doubly weak Verb,
1. The most usual of the doubly weak verbs are/
of the following three classes:
A. Those in which one radical is hamza, while
another is a weak letter.
B. Those in which two radicals are weak letters.

C._ Those m which all three radicals are hamzas
or weak letters!
Hi

2.Verbs in which one radical is hamza and
another a weak letter.
I) Those in which
the first radical is hamza, the
second s or <jr; e.g.: vjt "to return".

Perf. Imperf. Indio. .Tuss.
. ^ > ><>* >.. o t,
oi oj^j (also written ^j) v^
o -^ > i-. t-
oj !

. , ,
-

^o I etc.
^jj etc. o_p etc.

Imper.
c i, 9
v_j5 Part. Active .^ !

jjjt Pass. Perf. Ju[.
So too the rarer verbs:

vJ! (for ^i3 !) "to injure".

jT (for vi,!) "to come, return".

31 (for jo!) "to be strong". II. jJ? "to strengthen".

2) Those in which the first radical is hamza, the
third _j
or ^; e.g. j^l
"to come".
Twenty-ninth Lesson. 185

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Subj. Juss.
,E 1. I.
.^
& M M 0'* .

etc. etc. etc. oil' etc.
,'$s j|j

|c>j? (from oJ5) also shortened o
<
Imper.

Part. Active o! (with Article j^fl)

Pass. Perf. Ji Imperf. Indie, ^j.
Of this verb the IV. form is
jl "to bring"; Imperf.

Indie, ^^j; Juss. o^j; Imper. ol; Pass. Perf. j^J.

So also jil
"to refuse"; Imperf. Indie, jj'j.

lot" "to pay"; II.
^ot (with same meaning); Verbal

Noun l\oli'.

3) Those in which the second radical is hamza,
the iirst or ^\ "to despair"; Imperf. Indie.
e.g. ,j^
LXJi; Imper. UW M_ etc.
4) Those in 'which the second radical is hamza,
the third ^ or L$ e.g. ^f, "to see".
; (Note that the
hamza is dropped in the Imperf. and Imper. and in
the IV. form).
Perfect.

Sing. 3. masc. ^ Dual C^
Plur. \J\}

3. fern.
,,
o^ ,,
[, Qj'l,

,,
2. masc.

. 2. fern.

1.
186 First Part.

Imperfect Indie. Subj. Juss.

Sing. 3. masc. ^^ ^^ ^
3. fem. ^jj ^^ ^
2. masc. ^y ^:i '^

2. fem.

Dual 3. maec.

3. fem.

?
Plur. 3. masc.

3. fem.

2. masc.

2. fem.

Imperative.

Sing. Dual Plur.
j bj
o -

Verbal Noun ^J\j

Part. Active (with Article J^\~/\]
stj

Part. Pass.
^
Pass. Perf.
^ Imperf. Indie.
Twenty-ninth Leeson. 187

When united with a suffix the forms used are

"he saw him"; "he sees her" etc.
TJ Ipt^J
Of the Derived forms the following occur:
III. "to dissemble"; Imperf. Indie.
jj;*^ ^\^.\
O , >

Verbal Noun B
!y>
or
sL^,.

IV. Juss.
t^l "to show'; Imperf. Indie.
<^jj; jj;
O .

Imper. ^; Verbal Noun 21,1
or
sel^t.

VI. ^*t-j "to look at one another".

VIII. "to think".
J^[
b) Those in which the third radical is hamza. the
e. & - -

first
_j
or ^; e.g. _bj "to tread"; Imperf. Indie. Lkj etc.

6) Those in which the third radical is hamza, the
second 3 or ^5, e.g. sL- (for 1^1) "to be bad".
Perf. Imperf. Indie. Juss.

etc. etc. etc.

Imper.
* Verbal Noun 9

Part. Active *L, (with Article

Pass. Perf. Imperf. Indie.

Of the Derived forms is IV. sL? "to make bad";

Imperf. Indie.
^**j; Imper. ^1; Verbal Noun 8LJ;
Part. Act.
188 First Part.

So from -e Uj (for to)
"to shine, be bright"; IV.

"to light".

Conjugation of ^ (for L>) "to come".

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Juss.

sL i -&. (also written

,Jj^>. etc.
~,
^-^'
',
etc.
^ ^
'-
etc.

Imper.
Verbal Noun '^^^
^>.
'?
5
etc. Part. Active SL> (with Article
^*> ^L^l)
Pass. Perf.
-,^.
C * * C5-
So from ?U? (for L*tf)
II. form LP "to prepare";
O, o-
Verbal Noun NAAJ.

Conjugation of zLfc (for "to wish".
sy#)
Perf. Imperf. Indie. Juss.
a * .

02 Li
- o . , f . -

o^l etc. iUxj' etc. UbJ etc.

Imper. Li Verbal Noun ^yfc
and '*J++A

Pass. Perf.
i( yi Part. Act. ^ (with Article ^tl/t).

B.

3. Verbs in which two radicals are weak letters.

Those in which the first and third radicals
1)
are weak letters. These follow the rules that govern
the conjugation of the Assimilated and the Defective
verbs; e.g.
Twenty-ninth Lesson. 189

Perf. & "to guard"; Imperf. Indie.
iJ
Jij; Juss.
^.
Irnper. Masc. Sing, s; Fern. Sing. $; Plur. !y>.

Part. Act. (with Article $$]).
^tl
VIII. form "to fear (God)".
'Jz^
Perf. j "to be complete, fulfil (a promise)".

IV. form ^j! "to fulfil a vow"; Imperf. Indie, ^^j;

Imper. vj^tj Verbal Noun slLl.

Perf. '^ "to be near"; Iraperf. Indie, jjj; Juss. Ju;
Imper. j.

"2)
Those in which the second and third radicals
are weak letters. These retain the second radical (see
Less. 27, '4, Note 2); e.g. ^j "to narrate".

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Juss. Imper.

- etc.

etc. etc. etc.

Part. Active
^ (^1^1)
Part. Pass.

Pass. Perf. Imperf. Indie.
^^
ij:..
"to be well watered" (of cattle, land, etc.).

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Juss. Imper.

etc. etc.

etc. etc.
190 first Part.

In the same way are conjugated ^5^, "to be worth":
1

"to be strong'
[f^i

of also written
Conjugation ^p. ^_=> (for
to live".
Perf. Imperf. Indie

II. form u>- "to let live, greet"; Verbal Noun

contracted iU^'.

X. form llsr^t "to spare alive"; in the sense "to

be ashamed" generally written with one^: Perf. -^uJ;
Imperf. Indie. ^?Uo.
C.

4. Verbs in which all three radicals are weak letters.

The only verb of this class, which is in common
use is
^i "to seek refuge"; Imperf. Indie, ^jj; Juss.

_Jj; Imper. _^jS;
Part. Act. ^i (with Article ^c.bH). II. form
Sc ^~-

^
'*

^.\ "to show hospitality to'"; IV. form | (witli same
meaning).
Vocabulary.

school.

i to swear, X. to
|
make to swear
I
(by v)-

or v_> s\.>- (literallv
r. o^ij> or
come
"to
to bring (with
with"),
^^ ] ^J|^) need, affair.
accus. of person).
Twenty-ninth Leeson. 191

U- E'U& .J

,..!
192 First Part.

Lij J U, O b' i .(Less. 47, 8) U ^j

Exercise 56.

Have you seen us come (we come)? We did
not see you come. I wished to see him, but he
refused to see me. You have come to us at a most
seasonable time (the most blessed of times).
uS^ji
In the coining week I will show you the goods I have
(what is with me of goods). We shall bring you
what you wish. After the greeting we inform you

that we have come to Q>\) Constantinople. The -
physician promised me that he would see me every
day. The master saw that I was ashamed (saw me
I was ashamed). Show me the books thou hast
(what is with thee of books).
Thirtieth Lesson. 193

Thirtieth Lesson.

Quadriiiteral Verbs.
3 ~> O o

1. The Quadriiiteral verb is of the form Jd*s e.g.

"to translate".

Perf. Imperf. Indie. Juss. Imper.

etc.

etc. etc. etc.
5 o * >

Part. Active *>J^ Part. Pass.

Verbal Noun

Pass. Perf.
^>^' Imperf. Indie. ^
Derived Forms.

a) JJLxL', e.g. from ^LL~"to appoint Sultan"
'to become Sultan".

Imperf. Indie. ^LjUJo Imper.

Part. Active .JaLtiJLt Verbal Noun ,.J

"
b) Jlii!, e.g. from Ui>,
to ^ e quiet
>J

Imperf. Indie. ^Jaj Imper.
-

Part. Active
^ijox Verbal Noun O
Arabic Grammar.
194 First Part.

There are numerous onomatopoetic quadriliteral
"
verbs; e.g. 3pj "to quake", Qji "to tremble", S^ to

howl (in mourning)", u-j*^ "to whisper" etc.

The Verb Jjj.

2. The Verb J^Ij "not to be" occurs in thePerfect only:

Sing. 3. mafcc.
J*^ ^ ual L~i'' jplur -

,, 3. fern.

2. masc. <

2. fern.

For the syntax of this verb see below 12.

The Verbs
^ and Jjj.

3. These are known as the Verbs of Praise

and Blame Lo) and occur in the 3rd Masc. and Fern.

only: ^jtj 9 os^ "to be good"; \j~5i, c>^*Jj "to be bad".

The Verb
^L^.
4. The Verb
^^ followed by the conjunction

ol or
^1
means "it is possible that; it is to be hoped
that; perhaps", e.g.

^o Q^si o' i?**^ "Perhaps (or
"it is to hoped")

that will be".
The other Persons of the Perfect are rare.

Verbs of Surprise or Wonder.

5. To express Surprise or Wonder two methods
are employed:
Thirtieth Lesson. 195

a) The 3 rd Sing. Masc. Perf. of the IV. form

preceded by U "what" and followed by the Accusative;

e.g. iJsjJ cr^- ^ "how beautiful is Zaidl" (literally
"what has made Zaid beautiful").
nd
b) The 2 Sing. Masc. Itnper. of the IV. form fol-

lowed by a word with the Preposition u;; e.g.

"how beautiful is Zuidl" (literally "make beautiful with
Zaid").
The Optative.
6. The Optative is expressed by the Perfect at the
beginning of a sentence; e.g.

^ "may God have mercy upon him".
This Perfect may be preceded by ^; e.g. ^|jo c^Jli ^
"may thy hands not grow dry!"
Note. In speech and in popular written language the
Optative is expressed by a Nominal sentence with the verb in
the Imperf. e.g.
, > - o- tl-s.

u*>-jj JJt (pronounced allah yarhamak) "may God have
mercy upon thee".
The Verb :
.
3f,

7. The Verb Imperf. jljl is used with the
Jfj

negative particles U, ^ and ^J (3tj U or ^fjj' i or Jj^' jj)
with another verb or with an Accus. in the sense "is
still" or 'continues" e.g.

(Ls>U) v^Ju j^j (^ jj) ^|^
U "Zaid did not
cease to go i.e. goes still".

Jj^jlii (yfjj jj) ty'lj
U "they still fought".
(tfcfajUi)

u> itjj
^1 "he is still alive".
Also:

Ol^f tO^ Jc jj*^ (v\jJ p) oJ|j U "matters were
still in this condition".
196 First Part

The Verb JU.

8. The Verb oLc, Imperf. oyu "to return" preceded

by a negative and followed by another verb is used to

express "not again", e.g.
u
)
oU L* he did not return again".

-lj .(^1 jJ)
lijs* U "we did not return again"

Also in the Imperfect:

i ^ "do not do so again".

^ct ^ "I will not do it again .

Also with Accus. but without a second verb:

"the journey was no more
jj

possible". The Verb 3^
9. The Verb 3tf, Imperf. olXj expresses the English
"almost, nearly", e.g.

ol/ "he nearly did it".

(oyil o !) ojxf oJs^ li} "I almost died".

The Verb 'tJ
r

10. The Verb ,.!j preceded by the Conjunction U

"as long as" and followed by a 'verb in the Imperfect, or
an Accusative is used to express "as long as, while", e.g.

"as long as fjl v^vO U |
"as long as
he stands". , ei
- ' > -
[ I stand".
U38 *!

The Verbs ji and to.
11. The Verb ji "to be little or rare" is used in

the phrase U JJ (also written Uis) to express "seldom",

e.g. UH> U JJ (^JLis) "thou hast seldom come to us".

The verb ^J?, Imperf. J|y "to be long" is used
Thirtieth Lesson. 197

in the phrase L 5l> (also generally written LJLb) to

express "not for a long time", e.g.
JUs-i (-* &Jj] u*JLb "thou hast not honoured us
> x '

for a loiig time".

The Verb
o^ and its Sisters.

12. The verb '^ used as a copula takes its predi-

cate in the Accusative (see Less. 12, 4), e.g.
(^>]
L>J Js^; ^ "Zaid was a merchant".
Certain other verbs known as the Sisters of
^
ha.ve the same construction,
(^ oi^>!) e.g.

jLJ "not to be" (see 2), which may also take
a predicate with \^>.

^ to remain.

b to continue, last, (see 10).

3h u not to cease, (see 7).

.La (Imperf. _^aj) to become.

to be or do in the morning.
to become.
,->**] to be or do in the evening.

(^5)
to be or do in the night.
e.g.
(or !vXS
O *.J Said is not a boy.

(or

UJLl I remained well.

we are getting (become)
tired.
198 First Part.

13. The verbs Lo "to become", ei- "to- take",

and Jjo. "to make" used before another verb in the
Imperfect mean "to begin to" e.g.
>
* '0 ^O ^
or iL*3 or LJLjLs.. we began to travel.

Instead of the Imperfect of the verb the preposition
or v-j with the Verbal Noun may be used e.g.
J , o

\ IxXrM we began to travel.

Vocabulary.
Thirtieth Lesson. 199
200 First Part.

jJas goodness, nobility. yC*ow camp.
JO HI. to defend.
u& cup.

Exercise 57.

- S& I ) , . -

3^> ^ \jl\\
U

-
t-ot

jjj U UXij' ,JkIfT ^ LJ '.Jb U
Thirtieth Lesson. 201

OS* -5-

ioO Jo

Jo

,

liub ju y

l, "j^

xi aj

UJt 5
202 First Part.

Exercise 58.

The Emir died (Pass. V. of J5 ), may God have
mercy on him! May God prolong your days!

May God reward you for (
CTC)
usl The woman
began prepare the food.
to God curse his father!
- They almost died from fear (Adv. Accus.). Satan
whispers in the breasts of men. pupil, translate
these words! I have already translated them.

boy, be quiet!
- boys, be quiet! Good is this-
girl, how beautiful she is! Bad are these goods,
how vile they are! Good morning (May God do to
thee in the morning good), my master. We still

remember your kindness. You are not (;j~J) heros.
As long as we live, we shall remember your kindness.
Thanks to God we are still well (sound). boys,
do not do this again! We will not do it again.
I have not seen you for a long time. We had almost
drunk (y> V.) the cup of death ( y-). They
o
continued travelling until they arrived at the camp of
the enemies. We became (*A\) incapable of defending.
So long as we remained in this city, we continually
saw wonders.

Thirty-first Lesson.

Relative Sentences.

1. The Relative Pronoun (J^tf JLT^T)
is:

Sing. Masc. (jrjJf, Fern, ^t (in all cases), "who,
which".
Thirty-first Lesson. 203

Dual Norn. Masc. Fein.
^CvL't o udi?
Gen. Accus. Masc.

Plural Masc.

(in all cases).
55
Note. The pronoun i^XSt is compounded of the Article

vM (therefore the hamza is a hamzat alwasl), the particle ^ and

the Demonstrative 13, ^cO (see Less. 9, 1).

Notice that the common forms of the Sing. Masc. and Fein.

-
and the Plur, Masc. are written with one lam, the other forms
with two.

^
2. Other Pronouns used
"
;
--
in Relative
~ ~ sentences are

"he who", U "that which, what", more rarely ^\
- --- it
O sg
Fern. KJ! (with following Gen.) "he who" and its com-

''whosoever" and L^J? "whatsoever".
pounds y j\
(
t

The words ^ and U are always treated as nouns,

^5JJ! usually as an adjective but sometimes as a noun,

when it has the same meaning as ^ "he who" and

'^ "what".

3. The Relative Pronoun is called ij^T <L3l

and the following Relative Sentence &Ll5i. This sentence

is treated in Arabic as quite independent and as coor-
dinate with the main sentence; e.g.

zL> ^53sJ! Jo^l the man, who came (literally:

The man who he came).
) }C* sx) > ) Z e.

*jii\j ^j^\ j"->j^
the man, whom I saw (literally:

The man who I saw him).
204 First Part.

CUf J elJ^ isjj? J-^f tae man to whom I

wrote a letter (literally: The man who I wrote
a letter to him).

the man, whose son I saw

(literally: The man who I saw his son).

The Relative Pronoun must always be caught up
again in the Relative sentence by a Pronoun (called
joU or
=-tJ)
either implied in the verb (as in the first

sentence above) or manifest (as in the other sentences).

> o
Note.
- -
After
> ><>'
^ and Is the Oolc is often omitted; e.g.

.

ooK L for
ayul^
U "that, which I have seen".

4. Jfthe noun to which the Relative sentence Js
attached""^ indefinite, the Relative pronoun is omitted".
STJ
Such a sentence is called a &ao; e.g.

I met a man, who had

gone out from his house.
5- - > ~. * 6, ,.>
a-xi^ vxjL^ L^o iouJvo |LiJ5 Damascus is a city,

in which are, many marvels.

Certain constructions of the Participle Passive
5.
are to be explained as shortened Relative sentences; e.g.

'

abo!
^UJ ; y\xti o_^LlT the witnesses, whose
names are mentioned below.

The may be regarded as a shortened
Article here
Relative pronoun, the following clause as a whole
depending on it; e.g. "The witnesses, who (mentioned
are their names)". The following phrases of a similar
nature are much used:

Jl ,mi or xJS lojll
the above-mentioned.
Thirty-first Lesson. 205

the man above-mentioned.

the woman above-mentioned.

the men above-mentioned.

Vocabulary.

Mt. Hermon. .< I. and VIIJ. to hear.

Damascus. ,-
(pi. melody.
^l=*i)

J> II. to cut in pieces
j(Elativeof^)
highest, (plur. illff) liver,
summit. jy. (used metaphori-
cally
= heart).
j IV. to deny.
(^5)
II. to soften.
to embrace,
surround. hard rock.

(pL il or to be tender, soft.
(i)

relative.
0^15!) giant.

(plur. obstinate.
answer,
to be certain, V. to
cold.
be convinced of.
- fin. to be like,
there.
| correspond.
tender, (i)
to break.

as, as if. to determine (on j^t).

(pi. IV. to deliver.
misfortune. G
(pi. oppressed.
206 First Part.

IV. to seize (with v-). ^ cry.

to fall. IV. to disturb.
0ii
Go', _ G > >
veil.

fresh. tearing, carnivorous.
J^o

2
*!)
o,
W ^ - to a<^ orn>

ij^ rosy. ( meantime.
, . (IV. to advance
"L^I beautiful, shining.
u
G '- -"
\ (to ji).
Jo!J> languid. G -

^ IV. to rain (trans.). o!j provisions.

pearl (collective). jj (pi. Q^Gs-) partridge.
jjjj
Ga w -

inflaming. 't+tS quantity.

'
to
piercing, splitting. v Ll ^^
distant.
(
1

exalted.
^Jw VIII. to prepare.

slic. song.
2 / - o- supper.
JLfc
'
(pi. La!) wretched. cs ,i
I
the day before
G , a* S * 5
^' ) yesterday.
joj^i (pi. *l>xii!) strong.
G -
G' -
JjiS struggle,
JwJj brave.
jjis (pass.) to be lost.
.ix refuge, escape.

jo jJ itf.Li battle.
delightful, agreeable.

IV. to free. yd to be intoxicated.
G /-

(jj)Jo\
to shoot, o by>. flowing.

death, *o blood.

to cry. iULlo courage.
Thirty-first Lesson. 207

to carry, induce
measure.
to

V. and VIII. to
consider (with j). -
a / u \
flowers (coll.).

method. -' TT A.
o V. to smile.

means. o, , mes-
j(pl.
^ I ea
sage.
swiftness.
Mt Lebanon.
entrance, approach. ~o
Mediterranean.

Jo*. I death.
V. to enjoy (vj).

letter, note.
iUS, (pi. *tjlt) prisoner.

^.c. hidden, absent. boneg

jsx number. mouth.

marshal -
V. to endure.

to measure. last.
(^5)

Exercise 59.

-lj (Less. 7, 4) w
208 First Part,

JU* Jo^j il vis J^y^ ;H^ J*

yUJ? ^5>>jt

*j vilf T *

.f^y

,,o,
PJ^c c^l^. ^ e?^ r)>b^ U|
fcAjj ^w-

LJ >Ui^ Jf^

jJi La i3

. -v* _-

JJI U JU i ^ jJT

US! swi
Thirty-first Lesson. 209

(Less. 44, 2 B 8)

,,JwO
^
sLAJkLAJ ^LciXc ~ii^ LJ
. * -" "*i - '' ..

J^Sf v-juaj ^xL' ^f S? oJu iij jiJf j: ^gfA

,

d #
(Less. 44, 2 B 8)

^

oB 1=^ U L.II'

that)

Arabic Grammar.
210 First Part.

Exercise 60.

Those men, who are in the market, buy and sell.
- Those women, whom we have seen in the street,
are of our family. This is the boy to whom we
have given the money. He, whose tongue is long,
his intelligence is small. The girl, in whose hand

(was) a flower, smiled. I saw girls (oJj), in whose
hands were flowers. All letters, which come to us,
must be addressed to necessary that they be in
(it
is
the name of) the director of our journal. This young
man, whose father, we know, is clever. Mt. Lebanon.
from the summit of which you see the Mediterranean,
is a very high mountain. After the enquity con-
cerning thy welfare (conditions) and the information
concerning thee (thy informing) (as to) which I hope that
thou art better than could be wished (thou art in excess
of what is wished), I inform thee that thy friendly
letter has reached me and I rejoice over (j) thy health

and thy well-being which mayest thou
(soundness),
continually enjoy. saw soldiers, with whom (were)
I

prisoners. I inform you that I am still in the con-
dition, which you know. A dog met a dog, in whose
mouth was a bone. The above-mentioned Marshal
is very renowned. The above-mentioned persons are
the owners of this house.

Thirty-second Lesson

(ojP&k ^ u>4
The Numerals.

A. The Cardinal Numbers.
1. The Cardinal Numbers are as follows:

a) From 110:
2.
,,&!
o. .- / also s.i.\
3. xj^Lii VwrittenxiJLi/ also o .A

2!

e. '
.. / also
also i.
)..

9.

10.

b) From 1119.

11. masc. fern.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.
212 First Part.

frequently written xfu,
j(also j

*~! but the alif is not pro-
) j

nounced).
d) From 200 upwards.

200. u. 'iiu
etc. to 10000.

11000. li!1 jc^f etc.

100000.

*
1000000. vjjl JJf or JL, Plur.

0. Zero, Nil y>
Declension of the Cardinal Numbers.

2. The Numerals from 1 to 10 are declined: a)
pU
and as Dual with Gen. Accus.
gtiull

b) the others as Singulars^ e.g.
214 First Part.

j^>| Accus. tje>l Gen.

Fern, i i&S

The Numeral o ui is declined like u^ii.
*
g c ,

ll_is indeclinable (^~)-
12 forms Gen. Accus. yi^ ^y^H Fern, gjs

13 1_9 are indeclinable.

The Numerals 20 90 are declined as Sound^
Plurals ;
e.g.

Nom. oij^c; Gen. Accus. ^yi*
The other Numerals are declined as follows:

Nom. *!/> Accus. io- Gen. 't&*

O S 8 V*, S . *t
i^aJI has two forms of the Plural: o^S ! and >-?_^i,
the latter being used for "thousands" in an indefinite
sense.
The Cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 are used in
jhe feminine form with masculine nouns and in the
masc. with fern, nouns.

Formation of the Compound Numbers.

3. Compound numbers from 20 on
are formed
by
joining the units, tens and hundreds by ^.
The largest number is put first, but the units are
put before the tens; e.g.
- ,o -0
21
Thirty-second Lesson. 215

' ' "''
'

1896 jLlo' xLs i I "il

Such an expression as eighteen hundred must be
expressed by one thousand eight hundred.
In the compound numbers each numeral is dg-
clined: e.g. Accus. .fJs^-f etc.
-rfyZ*-*

Syntax of the Numerals.
4. The Numerals are joined to the words they
to the following rules:
Qualify according
"

a) The Numerals 1 and 2 are adjectives; e.g.
O -. 9 4-
_JLa ''one heart".

is seldom used with a noun, because the
^Lut
Dual of the noun itself can be used, but when it is

so used, the
^wLit
loses its final nun (see Less. 7, 1)

and the noun follows in the Gen. Sing.

b) The Numerals 3 to 10 are Substantives and
are followed by the noun in the Gen. Plur ;
e.g.

JLs io^Ls Three men. z~^*i J^e. Ten women.

Note. They are more rarely placed after the noun in
apposition to it; e.g.
O, ,- O . o -

c) The Numerals 11 to 99 are followed by the,
noun in the Accus. Sing.: e.g.

!il>. -Ac js^-I Eleven men. ti>, .....Ac Twenty men.

d) The Numerals fry in 100 on are Substantives
.and are followed bv Jhe noun in the Gen. Sing. e.gT :

Three hundred men.

thousand nights.
216 First Part.

e) After CompcmndJSumerals the noun follow?
the laws regulating its relation to the last numeral
e.g.
* -, c,
xix A hundred and three men. (Rule b).

* A hundred and twenty-

five men. (Rule c).

The Indefinite Numeral "some", when it is
5.

--
used for a number between 3 and 10, is expressed by

the substantive .,00? (later also' iju^) followed by the-

Genitive: e.g. r (>t (iuwa?) ^cu some days.

Note. This word must not be confused with the word
60, ,, A i o.
(jiaj, which means, "one of some, a certain" e.g. L**xJf (joju
"Some poets" or "A certain poet".

An_jn^efinite number over 10 is expressed by the

e.g.

Jl idx A hundred thousand and some

(more) souls.

Method of denoting Hours and Days.
6. a) express the Hour of the day the Ordinals
To
jure generally used, (see Less. 33): e.g.

x*LJt Three o'clock (the third hour).

At three o'clock (in the third hour).

BuUhe Cardinal numbers are used predicatively ; e.g.
6 --- /, a s
XcL*Jt It is three o'clock (the hour is three).

It is eleven o'clock.

Note. olcL* cy^ would mean "3 hours"; X&L*
"11 hours". -
Thirty-second Lesson. 217

"What time is it?" is expressed by *jjjf ^ or

Note. The hours are counted in the East from sunset.

b) The times
of day '*jp the morning'', "in the
evening". "at midday" are best expressed by the Accus.t
otherwise by the preposition e.g. ;

n *
mornng.
In the evening.

At midday.
J
^<&Ty
7. Thejiaiaes_of tl>e Days of the week are:
'

j^-'51 Sunday.
(Jlji)

yj Monday.
'

(sLiiST) *j&i!l
(jLji) r ^ Tuesday.

(jLfrl) r_H Wednesday.

(^L^) ^ Thursday.
(ji-fi) *^j Friday.

(JL^
r
)
^ Saturday.

The word
Tuesday.
^ or
^ is often omitted; e.g.

"The week" is iil^ff or
^1*^1.
The Months of the Christian year.

8. The Christian year is called ilo^Lll xULl! "the

birth year" or ic^w*sl! xLlJl "the Messiah year" or

Ji iilljl "the sun year".
218 First Part.

The twelve Months are named:

a) usually in

^llJ January. ^ July (also ^JjJ).

yt^o February. August.

September.
March.
JJu
j| April. October.

May. November.

June. December.

b) usually in Syria:

j,lijT .& January. j July.

August
February.

March
March September,
J|jf

April. j* October.

Oas
November.
J bt May

June.

B.C. is expressed in Arabic by oLIt US (abbreviated ^ v)

or simple
The Months of the Mohammedan Year.

9.
jrhe_ Mohammedan year is called x

"the flight year" (abbreviated after a date to #) or
JS ^-0 >-5
uUJl "the moon year".
Thirty-second Lesson. 219

Dates are reckoned from 16 th July 622 A.D. thk
being the day of the flight of Mohammed from Mecca
to Medina.

Every year has 354 days.
The Mohammedan year 1327 began on 23 rd Jan^
1909 AH-
The yeau consists of the following twelve lunar
months:

or
month of fasting).
O^j (the

3i (Month of the ^>).

Some names of these months are often used with
special attributive; e.g.

Xt! .M-fc^;
e tC.

Mohammedan Feasts.

The Mohammedans celebrate two chief festivals:
.

"
1) jtfjgl f
Os^5 tne small festival" at the begin-

ning of the month 3t_^i immediately after the end of

the great fast in the month
^1*^.
2) Js^nJt "the great festival" also called
^xJC?
"the sacrificial festival" on the 10 th of the
^^^iT J^c
month A^f 3 i when the pilgrims offer sacrifice in Mecca.
220 First Part.

Method of indicating Date.

10. indicate Date the Ordinal numbers are,
To
generally used. After tbe^ Ordinal is put the Name of

the Month, with or without, the word *%& jbefore jit,
and ,after this the numbers indicating the Year with

or without iiJLl before them, in the Genitive: e.g.
5 - 3(1-0 a * ) . I

_^i | (
"
f )
rd
of Mul.iarram.
)
^ viJ'JJi
,.JP
UT.

J! 1896-

On such and such a date is expressed by the
.Accus. or the preposition ^.

Indication of Age.

11. How old art thou? is expressed by:
}U~
pf dj+s. literally "thy life (is) how many
years?" or:
-o ,, o, jo
oo! 'iJ*M
pf ^( literally "a son of how many
years art thou?"
The answer to such a question would be of the form:

"I am twenty years old".

Vocabulary.
2 ..
minute. J^ place.

equipment. ^ value ' P rice "

->
the first.

fr
^^ '
'
to subscribe
***"

c* expiration (of time). eUis franc.
221
Thirty-second Lesson.

I
direction,part (of relation.
( the word).
222 First Part.

/ (Persian) thin
list, register, cotton stuff.
)

library, bookshop, post.

title, address.

- of full
((Turkish) Alexandria,
I weight or value.
'
wind,
narrative, play. (pi.
^y
' travel. north,

Batuta, an south,
Arabian
(Ibn tra-
veller, who east,
died 778 A.H.
= 1377 A.D. west,

geography. heighth.
Lu 1
Amm
K D
-,Sa ( .j**\ Bey slumber,

Fikri(a modern Egyptian to spend (time).
writer).

k
VIE. to be strong,
the trusty
washerwoman,
guide" (name of a book),
shirt.
-o
'^c&j
Rifa'at Bey, (mo- (pi. Ou5)
(plur. Joollx) hand-
dern Egyptian writer).

O.L packing. kerchief.
II. to lose (time), be
total. slow (of a watch).

Exercise 61.

rj,j

jjf-
Thirty-second Lesson. 223

o!cL, (
jt W>LC

L-l ^JL- ji
iu xl (for)

r.
g >

a jf

.,t

- O; , O-

o g
224 First Part.

I 1*0

Exercise 62.

The earth revolves round (^^c.) the sun once (one

revolution) in 365 daysand 6 hours. The Moslems
reckon from the Flight,which was (and it was) in the
year 622 A.D. Wilt thou honour us with a visit (thy
coming) on Sunday? I will visit you on Saturday.
Wilt thou come in the morning or the evening?
Thirty-third Lesson. 225

I will in the afternoon (after the midday), if God
come
will. Alexander the Great came
to Egypt in the year
332 B.C. and built the city of Alexandria. The number
of its inhabitants is now 231396 souls. old are How
you (two)? I am
25 years old and my brother has
not reached in age more than 9 years. How old
art thou O girl? Next (on the coming) Wednesday
I shall be (reach) 17. The winds come to this
mountain (Accus.) from the four directions, the North
(and) the South (and) the East and the West, and its
height is 11000 feet. Truly, my eye has not
tasted ( *lJ [u]) slumber for (since) four days. We
spend about three months in the mountains, for the
heat is strong in the city. The washerwoman brought
us six shirts and two nightshirts (shirts for the sleep

j.Jj)
and twelve handkerchiefs. Hasan Pasha died
in the year 1888, may God have mercy upon him!
What is the time? --It is ten minutes past nine
(nine and ten minutes). Thy watch is slow, it will

soon be ten. How much is this book?

Forty-five piastres, my master. This is dear

will give thee twenty. Give me thirty, and enough I

Thirty-third Lesson.

B. The Ordinal Numbers.
1. The Ordinals are generally formed from the
'
'' ----- T
O ,

Cardinals according to the type J^li but with some
exceptions :

J*os , .05
1 fern. H the first.

ilsilh the second.
Arabic Grammar.
First Part.

fern. &Jl5t the third.

the fourth.

the fifth.

the sixth.

the seventh.

the eighth.

the ninth.

the tenth.

All the above are declined fully.
The Ordinals from 11 to 19 are indeclinable:

fern. -l^ y*S the eleventh.

ililSJ? the twelfth.

ixc KSM5I the thirteenth etc.

For the higher numbers the Cardinals only are
^ except_tE.at the^ Ordinals of the Units are_used
oined to the of the Tens to express the
^Cardinals
Compound Ordinals. The Article must be attached Jo
eVch migteral use^

masc. and fern. the twentieth.

fern. L ijol^f the twenty-first.

^ - i E
Xjo'iilt the twenty-second.

twenty-third etc.
Thirty- third Lesson. 227

xiif masc. and fern, the hundredth.

fern.
the last -

Note 1. For the use of the Ordinals in the indication of
Dates and the Hours of the day see the previous lesson.
yaut
Note. 2. The Ordinals have the Sound Plnral, e.g. i3^l

^
The word 0^1 has also a Broken Plur. J<5j}31 meaning
> ^-ic > '-co
"the first parts" just as ~s>*$\ has a J'lor.
f>\$$\ "the last
i oSoS > -oc
parts", and Jr* -^ I "the middle" has Ja**!^^! ''tlie middle parts".

These terms are sometimes used for the three decades of the
month.

2. The Numeral Adverbs "firstly, secondly, thirdly"
tc. are expressed by the Adverbial Accus of the
Ordinals, e.g.

<$, Lo }, &&, bulj,
1

J-sx ^
1
etc.

3. The Numeral Adverbs "once, twice, three times"

gtc.
are
expressed usually by the word "g.x in the
Accug.. e.g.

9.* "once", ^yj "twice", oLx cySii "three times" etc.

(Once = "once upon a time, one day" is
U^J or

Sometimes the occurrence of an action once or
twice is expressed by the Verbal Noun with the
ending
(the so-called i^ Up e.g.
0,^0- oS /&- > i -

8 ^ '*^ e tums roUQ d once or twice".
First Part.

4. The Fractions (with the exception of "a half)

are^oXJhe type ji or ~Us' with the Plural &(:
e &

^AX1J
J "a >

eJiS or iJLi Plur.

O> CJ >

V'* " S>
fi;
O o , > ,

Oo ^

8 3
e.g. /s LiH; /i

If a . whole and a fraction are united, they must
r
be joined b^> ^; e.g.

Note. /* i often written, ^- ;
l
/j, <; /
4>
-

^.
5. The
Multiplicative adjectives "twofold, threefold"
O *.) S*t *} ^ >
etc, are of the form Joiw; e.g. i^ "twofold", (

"threefold" (also = "triangle"); jj" "fourfold" (also

"square"). "Single, simple" is

6. The
Distributive adjectives "two by two" etc.
are expressed

a) by repetition of the Cardinal number j)r T
Thirty-third Lesson. 229

b) by the forms jus or JuU*; e.g.

3 *L>.
J or
^j& JjiLa- they come two

by two.
* I passed by people (walking)
(ztj'j*

in twos and threes.

7. Numeral adjectives expressing the number of

parts of which anything is made, are of the form ilii, e.g.

Biliteral.
JjUi '
2 - >

gi^b Triliteral, or 3 cubits long, or high.

QuaJriliteral, or 4 cubits high, or a quatrain.
^bj
Vocabulary.
G c. S.o-
doctrine, teaching. $.J eastern.

-"
.w^: Zanzibar,
lesson. ".<>

> -te
JalJ) central,
noble - -^ /(fern.
1 middle.
So.
& western '
tradition (in Islam).
2
I

|
^tf.
Mohammedans).
(
a ect of
x j^ southern.

-- to comprise,
*^ JVIII. "j' cape
contain.
1 -^
.*j to follow, belong.

",.,.. ,!$ continent,
be Maghrib.
/^ H. to date, (Verbal
\* .
*iM
f
Noun =
date,
ft Algeria. (
higtory).
5.
-
.- JILT,
to agree, corre-
s*
Morocco. (Js ( spond with.
230 First Part.

o
rising (pl.2Ult)noun.
of the sun.
to be spoilt.
setting

Frankish, European.
beginning.
and U s ^
1 letter, particle. tf/R Spring.

(pi. part, Autumn .

of
,

I
the Koran).

(the Fatiha (name of
noble.
the ls
t
s i rft) .
(

Exercise 63.

it

(.List
Kil it

3 Lj 1* sj ibf e

^pjl iLJL/t oL-lSl
Thirty-third Lesson. 231

..., j s - -5 - a
UL* ~-

pj
f

i*-LJ x JkL ^i ,ll ,5

sUlST f Lllbri JU iJJl

io>

Exercise 64.
The date of letter is: Tuesday the l t July
this
ih
1890, corresponding with the 13 Dhu'lqa'da 1307.
The 114 th Sura of the noble Koran is called "The Sura
of (the) men". In the first days (Jj3*) of the month
of May you (sing.) will receive (will come to you) a
letterfrom us and, if God will, you will send us the
answer in the latter days of June. In this night I
have not slept a quarter of an hour. I will return
to your dwelling after three quarters of an (from the)
hour. Take seven eighths of this stuff and we will
232 First Part.

take the last
eighth. Two thirds of this food is
spoilt Myservant was in the fifteenth year of his
life. - Yesterday I read the first (and) second and
-

third chapters of this book, and to-morrow I shall read
the fourth (and) fifth and sixth. How old art thou?
- I am in the
twenty-sixth year of my life, for
1 shall be twenty-six (reach the twenty-six) on the
29 th January. The beginning of Spring is on the
21 s 1 March, and the beginning of Summer on the
.

21 st June, and (the beginning) of Autumn on the
21 st September, and (the beginning) of Winter- on the
21 st December. The doctrine of the Relative Pronoun
st
is contained (is
found) in the 31 Lesson of this book.
There are three kinds of words in the Arabic
language: firstly the Noun, (and) secondly the Verb,
(and) thirdly the Particle.

END OF PART J.
233

Second Part,

Thirty-fourth Lesson.

The Noun and its Derivation.
o ,oS
Nouns (f*\ Plur. l

iUwt) are divided according
to their Derivation into:
O -

a) Primitive;e.g-.^J,
"head". Such nouns are
to be found in the dictionaries under the verbal stem,

although in this case the verb J*jJ "to be at the head of
a tribe, to strike on the head"is derived from the noun.

b) Derivative:
a) Derived from Verbs. Most nouns are of this
Go- - ,, O 0,
class, e.g. Jo3 "killing" from Jis; (J J^
"session, council"
1

u
from jUb- "to sit"; -^
"great" from ^j' to be great"
o , *&3
p) Derived from Nouns; e.g. sJu/u "a place in

which there are lions" from ,xj "a lion";

"Islamic" from *ill "Islam".

2. The most usual nouns derived from the verb are :

a) The Verbal Noun (,vX*ax) which properly expresses
the verbal idea in the form of a noun, but sometimes
has a more remote meaning and is then known as the

b) The Active Participle

c) The Passive Participle ($&\ (lit).
284 Second Part.

These three forms have been treated in the first
part of the grammar, but the following facts regarding
the Verbal Noun of the Simple (I.) form of the verb
should be noted:
9
a) The form Juis occurs especially in transitive

verbs of the form JJ6 and Ju6; e.g. jJa from jJa "to

from *^i "to understand".
kill";
pg
6 " ' '

b) Juts in intransitive verbs of the form Jjc; e.g.

"joy" from ^.
> 9 -

c) Jyc in intransitive verbs of the form Jsjis; e.g.

from jb. "to sit".

d) iJ^is and iJUi in verbs of the form jJii e.g.

"smoothness" and xlll "easiness" from
be smooth, easy".

e) l\jo especially in verbs denoting an Office or

Trade; e.g. x&> "Caliphate" from -Jfe- tl
to follow";

I>Li. "tailoring" from M^> "to sew".

f) Many verbs form their Verbal Noun with a
Go, , - .

prefixed mlm; e.g. -_V3 S." "purpose" from Jwuas "to
2 0,0,
intend". This form of Verbal Noun is called

g) Other common forms of the Verbal Noun of
the Simple verb are:
8 ' 9o, "P
..--( "to ocCUDV
> e.g. JJL* "buBiness" from JJLi
{ e in ,

y o GO
Joe *w> "part"
i
*~j> "to divide .

"smallness,
youth
,-
^
- -

"to be small
(

.
"treatise" lo "to say".
Note. In the dictionaries the Verbal Noun ia given for
each verb Sometimes several forms are in use from the same

verb, either with the same or different meanings; e.g. J^ais and
6 o- , - , O o, O-
"purpose" from Jua*; ^^"description" and Kix '-quality"

from ft*3j "to describe

3. The Verbal Nouns of verbs whose 2 nd "and
3 rd radicals are the same, of hamzated verbs and of
weak verbs are of the same forms as above but subject
to the rules for assimilation etc. given in the earlier
lessons; e.g.

from to think": (for cy&) "opinion";
from "to stand": (for "standing";
J.I5 ^Ls f_^)

from jis" "to say": jJUu (for iJ^U) "treatise".
286 Second Part.

should be noted that the verbs, whose first
It
radical 3 which drop the 3 in the Imperf. (Less. 26, 2)
is ,

have also a Verbal Noun without the first radical; e.g.
from J-^5 "to unite": iJLo "tie" (beside jJ^); from vju>ij
o,
"to describe": 'A*O "quality".

4. The Verbal Nouns of the Derived forms are

given in Lesson 18, 7. In these forms the Part. Pass.
is often used with the meaning of the Verbal Noun;

"that which is neceseitated" instead of
e.g. ^ax\
aliasS? "necessity".

5. The meaning of the Verbal Noun is either

Active or Passive. Often it is both; e.g. Jos is "killing"
or "being killed", sometimes it is only Passive; e.g.

"being found i.e. existence" (Active only is

"finding").

The meaning of the Verbal Noun is not in any

way connected with the idea of time, e.g. jus means

"killing" or "being killed" either in the past, present
or future.

6. In its syntax the Verbal Noun partakes of the
characteristics of the Noun and of the Verb. As a
Noun it is followed by the Genitive, subjective or
objective; e.g.

j^ JJ3 may mean "Zaid's killing (someone)" or-

"the killing of Zaid" as in
o o j <><> * *".

f*\
"the king commanded that

(someone) should kill Zaid".
Ifhowever the Verbal Noun has both a subject
and an object, theln the former is put in the Genitive and
the latter in the Accusative or has the Preposition ^; e.g.
Thirty-fourth Lesson. 237

js^5\i or tj^^ Jsj: Jjcs "the fact of Zaid's killing

Mohammed".
So also
^^\ v^> "the love of (one's) country".

or rwy'T LJL&J? *^o> "the youth's love of

(his) country",
and with a pronominal suffix:

alia "his killing Mohammed".
love of (my) country".
^s" "my
The preposition & is also used when the Verbal Noun

is employed indefinitely with an adverbial meaning, e.g.

"I rose in honour of Mohammed".

7. A verb can always be strengthened or specialised
in meaning by the addition of a Verbal Noun (cf.

Less. 12, "'). This (called in Arabic L
^i "the
absolute object") is usually derived from the same verb,

e.g. I't.'.k^ "he rejoiced greatly". (In this case the
I0j| '-j>

absolute object is used "for distinguishing" lAjyjJLJ):

but may also be derived from another verb, e.g.
'

j
"he rejoiced greatly".

used with the Passive,
It is also e.g.
"he was struck violently".
Sometimes the Verbal Noun is so used without

an adjective, e.g. Lyo \L>fO
"he struck a striking". (In

this case it is used jsuJlxJLJ i.e. for emphasising.)

Sometimes the Adjective alone is expressed and
the Verbal Noun is understood, e.g. ijoJUw Cya "he

struck violently" for
238 Second Part.

The Verbal Noun may be used thus with a Geni-
tive, or a Suffix or a Demonstrative Pronoun or a
Relative Sentence, e.g.

. LliT J^> uiJLs- "thou fearest the fearing of the

coward" i.e. like a coward.
'
"I struck him this striking" i.e. thus.

"he was struck a striking which
pained him". -G** O
J

8. The Active Participle (J^liil f**\) may also be

used as a Noun, in case which it is followed by
a Genitive, or as a Verb when it is followed by an
Accusative or the Preposition ,3, if it is used in the
sense of the Imperfect, e.g.

"one, who kills men".

JolklT "he, who kills men".
**

3

iJLIJi "he, who strives after knowledge".

But if it is used in the sense of the Perfect, it

can have only the Genitive after it, e.g.
"he, who has killed men".
Exercise 65.
The words
in the following exercises are to be found in the
Vocabulary at the end of the book. The rowels of the Article and
.some common words are note omitted.
Thirty-fourth Lesson. 239

L '

U

l *5
^ *^
U uLli
-e joss- .
UU.I (

MJ

!Xi i/li

iu^O!

) , O ,

Exercise 66.
We rejoiced greatly, when we received the books
you sent (your sending of the books). The love of
one's land a part of -- I
is
(^ faith. praised this

youth's love of his country. We rose in honour of
the prince. They have done this deed from hatred
of their enemies. After bringing excess of greeting
we inform you that the inducement to write it (i.e.
this letter) is to ask concerning your health and your
circumstances. I shall leave the city (my leaving of
the city will be) on the 15 th of November of this year.
- I
rejoiced greatly that your Excellency has perfect
health and security (I rejoice .... at your Excellency's
possessing the perfection of etc.).
240 Second Part.

Thirty-fifth Lesson

Nouns of Place and Time.
\ . Nouns denoting the Time or Place of an action
when derived from the Simple verb
j"*^ (**"*)'
Go, O-o, 6,,o,
are of the forms Js***, Jou/> and '!XAA, e.g.
"
- .. , 9 o,
from ^Jb- "to sit":
^Ji^* "place of sitting, assembly";
, , ^ "O - o -
from r*jtf' "to write":
s
^j&* "office, school";

from "to bury": "cemetery".
jli s^Jj/i

The Plural of these three forms is J*Lix, e.g.

Note 1. These nouns, when derived from verbs, which
O o-
have kaara or fatha in the Imperf. are usually of the form Jou^J

those from verbs with damma in the Imperf. are of the form
<>-o-
JuAftx. But there are many exceptions such as
O o ,. Go,
-&/ "place ofsnnriae, East", v_jJw" place, of sunset,
Weet'j,
O
'
o - 9o- \

\\^M+A "place of praying, mosque," ^J***A "dwelling place",

all from verbs, which have damma in the Imperf.

Note 2. From some verbs more than one form is used e.g.
- -- G -o. G--O ,
from > ^uCT "to write": i^Ji&Q "office" and iyJlXx "library,
book-shop";
- ,, Go, O-o,
from *3$ "to place": *>j* and g&j* "place".
6,0
Note 3. A rarer form in use is oL^ (especially from
verbs whose first radical is or ^5), e.g.
, -, O , O -o
from JOj "to bear children": J^Ly(for ^_^) "time of birth";
Thirty-fifth Lesson. 241

from >Ac "to promise": OULAX (for oLs^s) "time of fulfilling

promise, term";
Go. G , G .<,

so also from the noun c^ "time" oliu/ (for C&**)
"appointed time''.
1
2. These nouns formed from verbs "not sound'
(Less. 28, 1) are subject to the laws which control the
forms of the verbs, e.g.
, 2.- G,o-
from "to settle:
yw (for .yw) "abode";
5 - S . V 9 -O-
from J^ "to alight": J^ (for JJb^) "place" and
G;,, O^o-
8
aJL^ for jJULs^) "city-quarter";
G-, G.o-
from "to rise":
j.15 (JJw (for j.jju) "place, position".

from "to pasture": "pasturage".
J^ ^^s
3.In the Derived forms of the verb the Part. Pass.
is used for the Noun of Place and Time, e.g.

from "to meet: of meeting";
jixJj ^Jtik* "place
,.o,o O-o,oj
from ix*4 "to collect (of water)": &uC*v "marsh";

from JJ> "to pray": Jjl/> "place of prayer".

Nouns of Instrument..

4. Nouns which denote the instrument used in an
~ u o.o it, G .o
action (iJ^t are formed after the patterns: ^Iw,
^J)
and idxix, e.g.
'
^ -- G ,o
from "to open": _.ljci "a key";
gj<s

from JJtf "to sweep": x^llCo "a broom";

from "to weigh": "a balance";
oj^ o tj,y (for a |j_^)
from
^ "to ascend":
sliy (for KxSyo)
"a ladder".

The Plural of ^L and il*L> is. i*GC; of

e.g
Arabic Grammar.
242 Second Part.

The Diminutive.

5. The Diminutive (i*kaJl *J) is formed from
Oo,,
triliteral nouns according to the pattern #&, e.g.

"little dog" from
In the case of words derived from Doubled or
Weak verbs the usual changes take place, e.g. from
Go,
shadow":
G - G ,..

from v_j|j (for y^j) "door":
from j& "youth": j&.
From quadriliteral nouns the form of the Diminutive
is JJUis, e.g.
f' ,(i * O o , )

from ^.St "scorpion
O c - J
Or if there are more letters, the form j^JLoe is

used, e.g.
G ) o , O o - ,

from ^tas. "sparrow":

. If the noun has a Feminine ending, this ending
is attached to the Diminutive, e.g.

from iuUi "fortress":

from -*-L "Salma", (name of a woman):
(

The following Diminutives should be noted:

from yl (for^I?) "father":^ (for JIJj) "little father";

from 2 (for ^i-1) "brother":
J^i (for ^Ii-|) "little

brother";
O o Gs,i-
from c>^>! "sister :
JL^>| "little sister";
O o O~ 2 ,1 Go^,
from "son": "little son";
^j^ (for _^o) ^^ (for ^^vo)
O-o Go
G s,>
from i-ut or v^ivo "daughter": iuuo "hHtle daughter";
Thirty-fifth Lesson. 243

o , * , > 2,s
from 9 J "thing": ^e^i (for ,^-i) or more frequently

ij^i,
"a little thing".
Note. The Diminutives are often used to express endear-

ment or contempt. The form i3_^*s is often used with Proper
rr
names at the present time to express endearment, e.g. ^_y^
from xjjli; ,y^ from Axe; ^>^f- from &JJt
jOlaJf

Exercise 67.
t ,-f >o -- *>.'<! i
o Oc! ^S JOb

.i)JLi i-o v-o ^u LJJ Jc

ol
-

/ ij| .Xs* U^i UU'UM c^oli" *.*>
^AOA

,
L^c I^'L^ (Less. 30, 11)

ll! tv3v^ JLJ!

(*oJI IJ^ ^ iL
L 5cloi (Accus., Less. 16. 4)
16*
244 Second Part

LJ

Exercise 68.

This little
dog very watchful.
is This little
man sweeps the room with the broom. I went to

my house and opened the door with the key. Beirut
is the residence of the Wali. Boy, weigh the wheat
in the balance. The visiting of mosques and tombs
is not allowed during the tune of prayer. I saw the
horses in the pasturage. dear Fatima, give me a
little of this bread. The customs of the East and
those (the customs) of the West are different. When
the king arrived, they fired the cannons. little

son, I ask success from God. I bought this book
in the bookshop.

Thirty-sixth Lesson.

(o^S J^ u^O
The Relative Adjective.

1. The ending ^ attached to a noun denotes
that a person or thing is related to, or connected with
it, generally in respect to a tribe, land, city, business
etc., e.g.
s -- S --
vjj*
"Arabs" (collective); ^^ "Arabian, an Arab";
1 So
yax' "Egypt, Cairo"; ^^OA "an Egyptian, a Cairene",
Oo S"*.*
fie "science"; ^^JLc "scientific";

jl "day"; "daily".
Thirty-sixth Lesson. 245

If the noun has the feminine ending this is ,

dropped in the formation of the Relative Adjective, e.g.
o, , 2
o "nature"; +Ay "natural";

"art"; Uo "artificial";
j 5 .. ..

iJc "Mecca"; J^> "Meccan".

Letters added to the radicals in the formation
o- 8 , -
of the noun sometimes drop, e.g. i^ux/> "city"; J.jw

"pertaining to a city", but not always, e.g. Js-Oc> "iron"
2
"iron" (adjective).
6E j
The words i_jt "father" and +\ "brother", take back
S -c
their original wdw again and so form ^c^j! "fatherly",
2 -

^5^1 "brotherly".

If a noun ends in a or an (I , >j= ,
I--- r
o

^_1_), this is changed into tiaw before the ^ __ e.g.
*o~ 2 -o, -o>
JL*X> "meaning" forms ^yjw "abstract"; Loo "world"
2 o>
forms I^^AJO "worldly".

The same is the case with the hanusa in the ending

\JL-, e.g. sUl "heaven" forms ^lil "heavenly", but
s - ..

SUi "winter" forms ^x "wintry" (without o?i/}.
2 o_ 2 . o,.
From L*J.9 "France" are formed *o os and
2 .

French".

The Plurals of these adjectives are usually regular,

e.g. jrfltl "the Egyptians".
246 Second Part.

2. The Feminine of the Relative Adjectives often
adds to its ordinary meaning that of an abstract idea,
O^o 2-o Ga^o
e.g. oL*o[ "man", j.l~oj.
"human", X-uL*of "humanity".

"God", J[
~
"divine", x "deity".
'
2 o, Oio,

wages".
^
*>**
"month", (.% "monthly", 'iLt^ "monthly

Adjectives.

3. The following forms of the Adjective (*> ^-J)
have been already mentioned (Less. 10):

a) Joiii Active Participle.
o' -

b) J-oii (sometimes also used in Passive sense, e.g:

!uxs "killed").

c) 3^6.

d) o^*.
e) JJ^T (for Colours and Defects).

f) ']j
Pass. Part. (Less. 17, 4).

4. The following forms are also of common occur-
rence:

g) Jo6 especially from intransitive verbs of the

form JJti, e.g. ^JM> "difficult" from ^ju^> "to be
difficult".
6,^ 6 , * f *

h) jje, e.g. Q-JS* "beautiful" from "to be
^--J*
beautiful".

i) Jj^ especially from intransitive verbs of the form

iS, e.g.
^ "joyful" from
'^
"to be joyful".

j) ^ii, e.g. ^ "naked".
Thirty-sixth Lesson. 247

G a, o s -
k) v3l* (intensive) e.g. v.jLxi' "addicted to lying"

from ^S^ "to lie".

Note. The verbs whose 'second radical is ^ or ^ change
G So. G-,
the form Jojti into J*A9 which becomes Jy3, e.g.:

from oL> (j)
"to be excellent"
"excellent";
, -
"
G- r G- G
from v-jtb (^5), to b good" vv^3 (for v^s-Ja and
"good".

5. The form &*$ is also used to indicate one who

exercises a trade or profession, e,g. Jlr (from J^r "to
G s - G s -
"a porter", and so
carry") jl^> "a baker"; J?L3- "a
tailor"; 9UL, "a water-carrier". These words use the
'
Sound plural, e.g. o j&, o-5J^ etc>

6. The Elative (j-y^ixjT L\ see Less. 10, 37) is

always formed from the three radicals, e.g. Ju^b (Root
9 * o G * ^
>) "long"; 3_>^>! "longer"; js-o* "excellent"

more excellent".

Some adjectives, such as the Participles of the
Derived forms and words of the form Joist cannot form
Elatives. In these cases such phrases as the following
are used:
G-OJ ,,0x>>-o
j^gJcs* "diligent" tol$a>f ytft "more diligent" lit.

more as to diligence.
>-o #.*.*.,
&}*,\ "black" !ojj* j^i! "blacker" lit. stronger as
to blackness.

7. If the second part of the comparison is not a
noun but a whole sentence or an adverbial determination,
248 Second Part.

it is preceded by U* (for U ^ with a verb or the

Preposition
(If. -
^ with a
*'
suffix of the Personal
_0,0,o }*(>. -,G
Pronoun, e.g.

(J
*\
o & Li*
j^Jl sjikll *W "the weather is

pleasanter to-day than it was yesterday" or:

v_ftLJ! l^5l lit. "than it
yesterday".
jlj^J?

Exercise 69.

S\ Li jJb xxiL ^1 UJ c,
LljN!

(Proverb)

(Proverb)
Thirty-eeventh Lesson. 249

Exercise 70.

This water-carrier more diligent to-day than he
is

was yesterday. ink is blacker than yours (thy
My
ink). We arrived in Cairo by rail. The Egyptian
is cleverer than the Syrian. If God will, the weather
will be better to-morrow than it was yesterday. This
Englishman prouder (stronger as to pride) than that
is

Frenchman. The porters are more diligent than the
tailors. The crowd at the festivities was greater than
we thought. We went further away than we in-
tended. This wine is excellent, it is more excellent
than that, which we drank yesterday.

Thirty-seventh Lesson.

1. Words may be divided according to their meaning
into: a) Class names ^lf\
JLJ): b) Proper names (puSty

2. The Class- names are divided into:
(,. > o e > *

a) Concrete ( o^. ^J), whether
Nouns as Jo^
6 ~ & -

"man", ^js "horse" or Adjectives as wJ^ "riding",

Jjl> "sitting".
*o, id Go
Abstract whether Nouns as
b)
Go.
(^*iw fp S
^le
">'-

"science", J^s* "ignorance" or Adjectives as ^*
O, Q ,

"understood", ,&> "concealed".
Abstract nouns when used in a general sense and
without further determination always take the Article, e.g.
O- - >- * 5 E
iJLyo=i iicl^Jt "bravery is a virtue ;

so also with names of material,, e.g.

pGjJw LLsjlj L^S\ "gold and silver are two

metals".
250 Second Part.

Proper Names.

Proper names are always definite and so can
3.
O > , So-
be the subject of a Nominal sentence, e.g. -Jj^ jy^
Zaid is a man".
Proper names are either Simple or Compound.
The Simple may consist of three or more radicals,
9 o- G-o -

Ja'far.
e.g. AJJ Zaid; ^a*^
The Compound may consist of:

a) Two names placed together, e.g. <Aiiju Ba'albek;

or b) A noun with a Genitive, e.g. jJJl .js^c 'Abdallah,

!
Imruulkais,
* -

or c) A sentence, e.g. t^ Jajlj' Ta'abbata sharran (lit.

he carried mischief i.e. a sword, under his armpits.
4. Personal names are of three kinds:
O o G o, o-o -

a) The Name in the strict sense (t) as jo

b) The Kunya (iJS) or name containing a term
of relation such as "father, mother, brother etc.", e.g.

c) The Nickname (<^M) usually given to a man, when
he has grown up referring to some quality in him or
event with which he has become associated etc., e.g.

ilaj (properly "a duck"), iLas (properly "a 'basket").
Note 1. Some Proper Names always have the Article as
t -'
O^lsM (lit. the ploughman).

Note
2. The name 0mar ia distinguished from Amr by
C c

the fact that the latter has always an otiose at the end in the +,

Go, o, *o-
Norn, and Gen., e.g. and The Accus. of both is
^j*^ *j+&- tj+c.

For the Declension of the Proper names and for exercises
see Less. 41.
Thirty-eighth Lesson. 251

Thirty-eighth Lesson.

The Feminine.
1. For the formation of the Feminine see Less. 2.

Certain Substantives are feminine without a special
ending:
60*
c*>)t* earth, land. staff.

Jjt viper.

% well.
OJU
scorpion.

war (sometimes axe.
masc.). i Paradise (masc.
house. J
when it means
I
"park").
coat of mail (some
times masc., always cup.
masc. when used
in the meaning of catapult (some-
times masc.).
"smock").
razor.
*?' /bucket (sometimes
^ \ masc,). !i fire.

^
s
mill.

wind (sometimes
sandal.
|
*) soul (with the
I masc.).
6 oC meaning "per-
sun. son" in count-
/hyena (sometimes ing, it is masc.
| masc.). "breath-
jUl
foot (of verse). is masc.).

2. The following words are of Common Gender:
G -

[
thumb (usually masc.). .M veil.

hare (usually fern.). finger.
252 Second Part.

man. morning.

breast, natural disposition.

JjUS fox.
G - - f
wing (usually hinder part.
^*" I masc.). j~g
s - condition (usually 6 , nuptials (masc.
^ I

1 fern.).
, w^ (

J
with the meaning
j
I "bridal feast").
3li> shop.
honey.

neck.
_1^L> shop. spider (generally
fern.).
&j 8 P irit -
G ~
w-s horse.
Jus*** path.
dUl boat.
ifjui night journey. so (kettle (generally
knife. ^ Us neck.
\ fern.).

weapon.
^^5 bow.
(masc. with Go,
) meaning"Sultan"). ^ people.

peace. Js^f liver.

JLk ladder. c\S shank.
- -.heaven (masc. with
f o ,
** ( meaning "roof"). O LJ tongue.
"^ (night (generally
;*_^* market. "***
i masc.).
G ,
j
musk (generally
-oui barley.
[ masc.).
G - fa measure used , . intestines (general-
^
f

,
I for corn etc. ( ly masc.).

o\^o way. ,JU salt (generally fern.).
f- ,' f
people (generally
peace. u-M masc.).
Thirty-eighth Lesson. 253

3. Collectives denoting irrational living beings and
from which nouns of unity ending in y (Less. 2, 4)
_
cannot be formed are Feminine, e.g. J^o- "horses" Joj
"camels".
4. Those Collectives from which nouns of unity
Q O-
can be formed are of Common gender, e.g. J^ "bees",

idli" "a bee" etc. The names of the Letters of the

alphabet are also of Common gender, but are gene-
j , ) o^e> > Io
rally used as Feminines, e.g. a^oai! oaJ^I
5. The Feminine ending ^L. (the *UJ{ *
} ya*
Jill
C- , jo., 3 2
or a-jj^aiLo ^Ll! see Intro. 6, Note 2) is used in the

following cases:

a) Some Substantives have it, e.g. ^$^<i>
"remem-

brance"; LJO "world" (properly fem. of the Elative of

J,o "low"; LjjJt is used for "this present world"

in contrast with
Sy>^! "the future world").
'

b) Adjectives of the form
o ^> take as their Fe-

minine jjti, e.g. otlcafr 9"angry", Fem. (jr
*x=* (but not
-o*. O
adjectives of the form O^U3 (with nunation), e.g. o l

"repentant", Fem.
c) The Feminine of the Superlative is of the form

<M e -g-

Ly "great"; _^H? "the greatest" (masc.);
^JJ^I
"the greatest" (fem.).

& "high'
r

;
jI5T "the highest" (masc.); LuH "the

highest" (fem.).
254 Second Part.

d) The following should also be noticed:
Masc. i^5! "the first"; Fern. j^M.
"the other";

ill "feminine"
L
f7j (no Masc.)
J^ "pregnant"
G s
6. The Feminine ending i.\
(the so-called JjJI

"the lengthened alif") is used:

a) with some Substantives, e.g. *L^w> "desert",
v
"greatness, pride .

b) with Adjectives of the form Jjii! denoting Co-
9 * ti

lours or Defects (Less. 10, 2), e.g. o_^wi "black", Fern.

ib^J.
7. Some Adjectives have no special ending for the
G
Feminine, those of the form .J^*i when they have
e.g.
o _ 0,0
a Passive meaning as J^os ii^l "a slain girl"; also
9 f"
those of the form Jye when they have an Active mean-
G ) . '-' - o

J _^^*^ x*jl "a patient girl"; also certain Ad-
ing as
<3

jectives which can only refer to women as Jw*Ls
O (,} O -

"pregnant" ^-to-* "one who gives suck", jsL "barren".

Note. Foreign words are treated as Femininee, even when

they were originally Masc., e,g. _jj^Lai3 "consulate",
"protest" (legal).
Exercise 71.

^5/6 ^ (Less. 15, 3 a) U3 (supply: J b)
Us
Thirty-eighth Lesson. 255

^S u ^.i aJ to LkLji i

i

LI : JO vl^ Lo

U3 ^ Lajf ^La JIS

l> Us $ L 1 Jo <

I Jo U Js vJlS
0/ Le
J J^cl A-oUJt l U

i^u! ^JJ! Us JI5 oU Jis
cUu] ^ ib> us JS

ol^l life oU

JJU T Jfe
256

b.lj5 auvXi (jo Q* J^s k>Lto
UaxJij aJ JjJs *ju ulS .tjot

Exercise 72.

When I went out of the city, I met two women,
the one of them (was) white and the other black.
The lazy girl has not done what I commanded her. -
This world is the house of transitoriuess, and the other
world is the house of eternity. The sheikh gave me
many horses. The memory of the friend will be
lasting. No tree is found in the desert. The
condition of my not djlJj) good.
friend is My soul
yearns to meet thee thy meeting).
(for Hind is a
patient girl. The pride of men will be punished.
The minister has received the highest grade of this order.

Thirty-ninth Lesson.

(oj&ai; JST Jjijf)

Number.
1. For the three Numbers: Singular (oJL), Dual (e&)
O ci *

and Plural see Lessons 3, 4 and 5.
(^>)
2. The Sound Plural (JL, Masculine is
|^)
used for:

1) Masculine Proper Names (except those which
end in g), e.g. ^iC.
Thirty ninth Leason. 257

2) Diminutives of Proper Names and Class Names

which indicate rational beings, e.g. ,-^t (Dimin. of

111), Plur.
^I*I; J^>j "little man", Plur. Q_jJU>j-

3) Participles, which form their Fern, in s, e.g.

"writer", Plur. "official", Plur.
j'
O >*J'^; jy& OJy _y>U;
> J

"believer", Plur. ^^j-u^.
'5s-
4) Nouns of the form ,31*3 which denote workers
O 5
at a trade or profession (Less. 36, 5), e.g. -bLi.

"tailor", Plur. >blli.
5) Relative Adjectives (Less. 36, 1), e.g.

"Egyptian", Plur. o &f*.
6) Adjectives of the form jJist denoting Elatives,

e.g. ^l Plur.
a /^Ti.
The following Plurals should be noted:
6 o O-- i * <>

son (for yj), Plur.
^1 o yLj (also slLl)
o - - -*- .

,J!c
world, ^^^
earth, also
O^! o-^9 ^
^!;')

Jpf family, Q ^f (also

master,
o,,
Also the Fern, iu** "year", Plur. _^*/ (as well as

Arabic Grammar.
258 Second Part.

3. The Sound Plural Feminine is used for:

1. Feminine Proper Names, e.g. Jvi>, Plur.

also for Masculines ending in Plur.
, e.g. xilk,
G- \.
o^b f

2) Many Class names ending in g, e.g. sjb> "city-

quarter", Plur. o^L>.
3) The Feminines of Adjectives, whose Masc. takes
G ,

the Sound Masc. Plur., e.g. oLjtf "female writers",
- G S c

"tailoresses", o^a* "Egyptian women".

4) Adjectives the Feminine of which end in \$
or *!_^ (Less. 38, 5, "greatest"
6), e.g. ^'^S (fern.),
G ,.* > * "- O^,o-
Plur. o'y.*/ (rare); Plur.
i!y^> "green" (fern.), ol^^ai-.
5) Names of the Letters of the alphabet and of
Ot O^SOs^j
the months, e.g. vjji "alif", Plur. olllt; the month
^-^
Muharram, Plur.
oU^.
6) Verbal Nouns of the Derived forms, e.g. J^Jtl
O ^ i, Oi , -
"written work", Plur. oLaJu"; "disposal", Plur.
vJyaj

But the Verbal Nouns of the II. and IV. forms
have also Broken Plurals, e.g. jj_^xaj' "picture", Plur.
'
C- - o , ,
"false news", Plur.

7) Diminutives of words denoting things and irra-
G o-* e ,o- >

tional beings, e.g. ^* "little dog", Plur. oL*K.
8) Foreign words, even when they denote male
* G .., - - -

persons, e.g. lit (Turkish) "Aga", Plur. oJ_^t; (L^lyi-)

i>!_^ (Persian) "Sir", Plur. ol>!^; J^o (5La) (Tur-

kish) "Bey", Plur. ol.
Thirty-ninth Lesson. 259

Note. ^iXoJLS (Less. 38,7, Note) makes Plur.

Another form is A-Ju^i, PI or. oL
*

Note the two following words:
u
bath" 3
Plur. oULU-; SL^, "heaven", Plur.
~j.Us>

or o!_^) cf. Less. 36, 1.

Note 1. The Sound Fern. Plural of the Participles (espe-
cially of the Pass. Part.) is often used with a Neuter meaning,
G - ^ G > o ^ .- O , o^
e.g. oLufc' or o!oy>-jx "existing things", olijL^ "created
'
things".
Note 2. Of words derived from verbs that end in ^ or ^5
o - - o \,
typical Sound Fern. Plurals are: from s^Lo (also written H^Jlo

cf. Intro. 6, Note 3) "prayer", Plur. o!_^>; from U6 "young
G --. G ,.,
girl", Plur. oLxs or oj^Xs.

Broken Plurals.
4. The most frequently used forms of the Broken

Plural are:
(jZ&t i^>)
A. From triliteral nouns.

1. jjd (rare).
O , G Go,
Fjom Jo:l5; e.g. wobo "companion", Plur. w^ 5
.

2. ji'.

a) From jJS (adjectives denoting colours
and de-

Plur. "black", Plur.
fects), e.g.
^]p 'blue", ^j; !>jTi

3^1; ^f "white", Plur. JL> (for ja^);

b) From *& (fern, of the preceding), e.g. Ms^J

"blue" (fern.), Plur.
j.
260 Second Part.

c) From jJS, e.g. jslTl "lion", Plur. oJLf;
jfo (for
Plur. 3 o, cf. Note to 5.
Jjo) Chouse", J
3. 3i.
G-o G.o- G-o
From xUa (rarely *!), e.g. K*La "piece", Plur.
'
G - Ga "G-O G O^
Ja3; iJU (for idUU) "religion", Plur.
G-'G^O-
JJU; H^ "manner
'G,'
of life", Plur. ^; x-^> "tent", Piur. ^^3-.

-OJ -o> ,> s
a) From iJLi, e.g. x*^ "rank", Plur.
v^J,; iU
G _> G^ j G - >

"dome", Plur. vJ: s,^^ "form", Plur. j^a.

b) From (cf. Less. 38, 5), e.g. -l "other"

^>\ (without nunation); ^jIxJl "the greatest"
(fern.), Plur.

(fern.), Plur. j.
G*o^
c From iJixi (especially from words with medial

3
or ^ e.g. xl/o "dynasty",
Plur. 5JJ;
i^S "village",

Plur.
^.
d) From xlls (rare), e.g. iU "beard", Plur. ^
5. Jo

a) From 5l*3 (but not from words in which the

second radical is doubled or from those that end in

3 or ^) t e.g. olir "book", Plur. wJb'.
o
b) From J^oe (but not from words, the third radical
*
of which is
^ or ^5), e.g.
G. G-
^^ G *>
"way", Plur.

c) From iJu*9, e.g. xjjj^i "city", Plui\ Jw*.
Thirty-ninth Lesson. 261

9 6 , ,

d) From Jjja, e.g. J^ "messenger, ambassador",

Flur.
jJJ.
Go, G , , Go, Oj>
e) From Joe or Joe (rare), e,g. u&~ u roof ', Plur. ^jJu,.
Go* 6 ,, G ,E
Note. Joe is often met with beside Jots (see 1), e.g. ^X**l
G
G o tt>

"Jion", Plnr. Jsj*l or %Xw5.

6. Jue.
'
G oi Go. G- Go,
a) From Joe, e.g. v_Ji "dog", Plur. v

G ; s
"lance", Plur. _.U
; ;
vj "wine-skin", Plur.
' '
- ,

"garment", Plur. LjUi; g-^ "wind", Plur. l^.
G >- G /- O *.
b) From Joe, e.g. Jcj^ "man", Plur. JLa*,.
'

G ,- G,-- G - ,

c) From Joe and iJLs, e.g. Jsx> "mountain", Plur.

3u>; Plur. vji,;
ili^ "neck", ^b (for j^3) "house",
Plur. the meaning "land").
jlo (with A
d) From J^i (but not when used with Passive
G ',O -
meaning), e.g. ^..y "generous", Plur. ^ty.

From idi', e.g. sS,' "piece of paper", Plur.
e)
Oo- O^o-. -
^.
f)
From ^ixs, e.g. iLs^j "sheep" Plur. TL*j.

Gfc, Go, G-
a) From jJJ, e.g. vXxc "slave", Plur. ^^c..
G - G , G
b) From Joe, e.g. ; 1^> "ass", Plur. -tg^s*-

8. J^i.
Oo^ Oci-- O>jOo
a) From Joe, e.g. vIJ| "heart"; Plur. v-^JLii; jjlc
'O O o , G j > g /
"science", Plur. ,._^Lc; ^^ "troop", Plur.
262 Second Part.

"right", Plur.
gj&>\
G
tH>
> >
"bead", Plur. JL3 ,J; ^
"house", Plur. o_^-o.
G .- G ,E G >& G .,
b) From Jj*, e.g. Js~t "lion", Plur. o^t; ^^JU

"king", Plur. ^Ju.

c) From J^tli (but not when second radical is
G
doubled, or the medial radical is , or
L?), e.g.
j^>lu,

"witness", Plur.

9. Joe.
G - G . G= , G -

From Joib, e.g. ,SLs> judge ,
Plur.
^s>\ (JU

"sleeper", Plur. JJ

10. 3&
G - G - 5 s>
Only from Ju;l5, e.g. ^tf "writer", Plur. oUtf.

11. *l*i.

Only from .j^'J when it denotes rational beings
G ,
and has not 5
or ^ as third radical, e.g. ^jK "writer",

Plur. if; ^5L "seller",
Plur. &j) (for -^11).

12. xiii.

Only from J^ when the third radical is
^ or ^
and the word denotes rational beings, e.g. j!5 "governor",

Plur. s% (for xljj); oais "judge", Plur. sUaS (for iU*ii).

13. Si.
Go.
a) From Joii in words with medial 3 or ^5, e.g.

^ "ox", Plur. s
Thirty-ninth Lesson. 268

b) From Juis when the third radical is
3 or ^, e.g.

(for^l) "brother", Plur. *y>i.
O * -. G 0- o
c) From jbe, e.g. ^l^. "gazelle", Plur. iJ;c..

d) From Jyje when the third radical is
3 or ^, e.g.
G G, o

(for *x^o) "boy", Plur. iU*x3.

14. Joel.

a) From Jj6, e.g. ^' "sea", Plur.

Plur.
^111
b) From JJ6, e.g. "foot", Plur. J^-jt.
jJ^,

c) From jli, e.g. jJs "bolt", Plur. JJsl

d) From Femmines, which do
not end in s, and
which have a long vowel between the second and
G - G j oc 5 ^
third radical, e.g. "arm", Plur.
^o ^o!; ^-^^ "oath",
>oE

(and iL

16. jJb (rare).

From jli when the second radical is doubled, e.g.
G,
"uncle", Plur.

n. u.
a) From JJ6 (jJii especially, when the first radical

^ or the middle radical ^ or ^}, ja^ i
is is e.g. ( "person",
264 . Second Part.

o og G , o ^&s o c, -

Plur. c^o "time", Plur.
u^Ls^t; oli^5; O> J "colour",

Plur. *Jj "day", Pliy.
O tjj]; j[CT (for plj!,]); ?^Ji "thing",
^ o j: *O o
Plur. i'uui! (without nunation, cf. Less. 41, 2 a); Joo

"suckling", Plur. ui; "spirit", Plur.

6^- G , ,

b)
O^,
From Jjii, e.g. ^^ O^osOei
"cause", Plur.

(for ,3^) "condition", Plur. 3[^>!; ^jl (for

Plur. 9Uj

c) From J^li, e.g. ^^L^ "friend", Plur.
'
o -

d) From J^ots (not with Passive sense); e.g.

"noble", Plur. \3y' t ^ (for
^^) "dead", Plur.

e) Note specially ^xc "enemy", Plur. 9t

18.

a) From 5lii, e.g. ^Ij^ "food",
Plur.
O,'c6 O , z G -

"physic", Plur. iu^ol; -.^L- "weapon", Plur. K^JUt; ^[
>4
Imam, leader of prayer", Plur. 'xj? (for xMll); 9^
G, ^, O -> G^ oc
"vessel", Plur. lyoJ; v-jf^' "dust", Plur. *jy>!.

b) From J^*i (especially with Adjectives, the second

radical of which is doubled, or of which the third radical
G , G, os O
is
3 or 13), e.g. Uuc, "loaf", Plur. ioul

proof, Plur. Sol (for S?of); j^ "valuable, dear", Plur.
= S G- oS
pl (for
bj^t).
G j , G > , ,

c) From Jyd, e.g. o^+c "column", Plur.
G (i

d) Note specially ot3 "valley", Plur.
Thirty-ninth Lesson. 265

19.

From J^oc (especially from roots with doubled second

radical, or with final ^ or ^), when it refers to male
O of O .

persons, e.g. (jJvX-o "friend", Plur. iUxot; <~**+L> "phy-

sician", Plur. illbf (for *LJI); Jet "rich", Plur. *Lji].

20. ji.
6
a) From Jyjii usually with Passive meaning, e.g.
- - o- C- , ,o,
xs "slain", Plur. Jj6; *0j> "wounded", Plur. ~> *:
u<

dead", Plur. j,
b) From Sui, e.g. ^i^J 'idle", Plur.

21. iiis.

a) From J4** (f ma l6 persons but not in words

with doubled second radical or ending in 5 or ^}, e.g.

^ ''minister", Plur. i\^.;
e , c- ^
^J& "poor", Plur. t\A.
. *

b) From j^li, e.g. ^cui "poet",
Plur.

c) Note specially &L)J> "Caliph", Plur.

22.
;ii.
O o.
a) From Joe (especially from words with medial
:
Plur.
J, e.g. Jb (for jy) "fire", J^J; J (for

"brother", Plur. .

e 0^ o
b) From Joe (medial J, e.g. o^s "large fish",

Plur.
266 Second Part.

c) From u, e.g. f
"gazelle", Plur. i;

"boy", Plur. ^Uii.
O 2 - -

d) From Ju^, e.g. ^^
G
'
"boy", Plur. oL
O - G
e) From J^cls, e.g. JaiL> "wall", Plur.

^ - ^ .

a) From Jy*, e.g. jJb "district", Plur. JjJb.
b) From J^tli (used as substantive, but not medial

3 or ^5), e.g.
J^li
"rider", Plur. o'il^; C.U (for sljJb)

"youth", Plur. ^Li.
c) From ^lii, e.g. ll^ "brave", Plur. ^1*^.

d) From JjSi (Colours and Defects), e.g. "lame",
^1*
Plur.
*^.
Exercise 73.

^ ^5 J-i

ij txi *j
L
^
x j to

(see Less. 38, 7)
Thirty-ninth Lesson. 267

cr
* .* -- &S , ^ G

fyj Jj.0*! ^

g
'

j^j ioj^j i| 3 (supply: "good!" Less. 47, 6)

>I
Exercise 74.

The Commander of the Faithful sent ambassadors
to the kings. The governors are the officials of the
Caliphs. to God, the Lord of the
Praise (belongs)
worlds. have not seen my friends for (since) five
I

years. There were many vegetables in the market.

We sat down to take (3(S VI.) the food and drink
we had with us (what was with us of foods and drinks).
- Five
prayers on each day are incumbent on the
Moslems. The highway robber (cutter of the ways)
demanded money from us. The manner of life
(Plur.) of the first (Plur.) will be a warning to the last

(Plur.j. A
preacher wished to say, "Improve your
hearts", and he said, "Skin your dogs". We said
farewell to our (the) dear friends. Kings have pages
(youths) and slaves. In Beirut there are many
schools for boys.
Second Part.

Fortieth Lesson.

Broken Plurals of triliteral nouns continued.

24. ifcty.
'
o o - .-,d

a) From j^clj, e.g. L^'6 "rider", Plur. Jj
^ly;
coast", Plur. J*=>[^*.
O- '- O^ > ^

b) From jJUli, e.g. xiobs- "novelty", Plur.
i ~ O , i^-
A3_> (for XjLix3L>) "nobles", Plur. u^^ (for

"slave-girl", Plur. ty>- (for ^ty?-) cf. Less. 41.

25. JJUi.

From Feminine nouns, which have a long vowel
*" >
>:
between the second and third radicals, old
e.g. ^_^
J--O,, > * , * . ,

woman", Plur. Plur.
_J^S; xJw^ "letter",
"wonderful thing", Plur. ^o^.
Note specially -^xa "pronoun", Plur.

26. (with Article

a) From ^Sils, e.g. ^!^ Ac "maiden", Plur. J !L\C (with

Article
^lA*!?).

b) From jjJ, e.g. ,^3 "legal decision", Plur. 3 ji
O o- *G oS

c) Note specially A-J "night", Plur. JLJ; J^l

"people, family", Plur. fy "inhabitants"; y^J "earth",

Plur. {l "lands".
Fortieth Lesson. 269

27.

a) Is used with 26 b; so and u^Ls.
a,
^!Ac
b) From JoU (Feminine, but not that of the Super-

lative), e.g. ( jl> "pregnant", Plur. JL>.

c) From ^i, e.g. ^ilr "idle", Plur. iLLr.

d) From ijL*i (with final ^ or ^5), e.g. pJ> "gift",

Plur. Cup; xlu "fate, death", Plur. ClU; iUc,' "flock",

Plur. "subjects".
jilej

e) From xitli (with medial ^ and also final
s or ^c),

e.g. 'i^ "corner", Plur. bl^'.

B. Broken Plurals of quadriliteral nouns.
1. The three forms that occur have been mentioned

already hi Less. b.
28.

"star", Plur.vlj'ly'; slbli "bridge", Plur.

Nouns formed from triliteral roots by prefixing
o, and take the same forms of Plural as quadri-
t
j.

literals, hence the forms: Jodtf, J^l and ^' e.g.

iJ^p' "experience",
Plur.
^f^', c*-^ "school", Plur.

J^ (for JJb?) "place", Plur. JL# (for JJi>');

"the greatest", Plur. (31 "the nobles".

29.

From quadriliterals, which have a long vowel be-
O - o I

tween the third and fourth radical, e.g. ol^i*- "Sultan",

Plur. Ju^* "lamp", Plur
^xki-1;
270 Second Part.

, - - o ~
"coffer", Plur. /-ijjUjo; ^U "window", Plur.

^c~ "throne", Plur. ^~\j>', '^.^ "desert", Plur.
( ^U.
So (as in 28) from triliterals with prefixes arise

the forms J^Ui', J**fcUx and JtgclsT, e.g. jj_^oj' "picture",

Plur.
Jjj'uai' (cf. Less. 39, 2); ZliL "key", Plur. ^oUx;

"letter", Plur. J-uulX*; jwJl/t "crown", Plur. JuJI??;

"false news", Plur. U^f,! (cf. Less. 39, 2).
> S~ * > ,

There is also a form J^cl^s, e.g. u-ysls- "buffalo",

Plur. JLyo!^>;
^S "law", Plur. ^-Jl^S.

Note ^iLo "dinar", Plur..
specially: _J-ota; O |^JO
"diwan, collection of poetry",

30. xJJ

a) From many Relative Adjectives (cf. Less. 36, 1),
So, O-^S-o*
e.g. jj^w "Moor", Plur. /O^'UM; j^t "Armenian", Plur.
G, ,2*' S . o- O- --

Xix^h ^50! job "man of Bagdad", Plur.

b) From certain quadriliteral nouns indicating
persons (whether with long vowel before the last radical
O a -
or not), especially from Foreign words,
e.g.^L> "giant",
e. ., , o , o * G..-S
Plur.
BjjU^; oLcwl (Persian) "teacher", Plur.
'
G j ^,^
"philosopher", Plur. Ka^iLs; ^aiu-t "bishop",

Plur. x&l!; SSi "angel", Plur.

Note 1. In nouns that contain more than four radicals
O > * o-
the extra letters generally fall out, e.g. o^Xxc "spider", Plur,
, o , > , >

v O i-ie, but not always, e.g. -4^-J' "interpreter", Plur.
Fortieth Lesson. 271

Note 2. Many nouns have different forms of Broken
G o.,
Plural with different meanings (see Less. 5, 3, Note 2), e.g. ,-**.
G,oc G ,,
"
"eye, spring, notable person", Plur. ,-rff-^ and n,*** eyes,
o , 035 GO. G .

springs", (J-kcf
G
"notables"; ^Xxt "slave,
G
servant", Piur. Jy^
> o .

and Oy^t "slaves", oUc "servants of God".

Note 3. From some Plurals a second Plural is formed,
G ..

sometimes Sound, sometimes Broken, e.g. /afjJs "way", Plur,
G,, G.,, G. 02 .

Plar. of the Plur, olS-b; Jo "hand", Plur. Joi, Plur. of
j^jto,
,S - O, _ 5
,E
Plur. Obi; Sli[ "vessel", Plur. &-u!, Plur. of Plur.
^1.1.

2. In many Relative Adjectives the Feminine ending
a gives the sense of the Plural. (Properly it is an
abstract Collective cf. Less. 36, 2), e.g. ^^ "mariner",

iJ^. "mariners"; ^^o "Sufi (mystic)", iUs^o "Sufis".

In like manner the Feminine of some words of

the form 3ls is used, e.g. ^{JS "bowman, Cawass",
X-w5y> "bowmen, Cawasses".
3. The following Irregular Plurals should be noted :

2 G -- G *
.1 "mother", Plur.

"mouth" (cf Less. 7, 2), Plur. i^i.
j

G . G^_ O ^oS G , G
9U "water" (for U for y),Plur. s^xj and !

uyo (for 8!

*aJi "lip" (for x^i), Plur. $lLi.
- G,,, 9- G-
lw "sheep" (for *P^ii), Plur. Lii and six*;.

G< - G --
iixi "maid-servant", Plur. Suj and ot^oi..
s- o - G - o G , o

Hlt "woman", Plur. 9LJ and s^J and
272 Second Part.

Plur.
^Llj^* "man", ^Gl usually
Go, 2 >

"bow", Plur. H> and

Exercise 75.

15,1
*lj ofj
ji

viUi5 * .Xj ^A;/ JUil 5 Li

a*> U ^ U, v^jJ! ^U UJU oli'

IJ^P kl i ^1 lbJ I^- ! L

Lo *> U yUi

s

0^*0

j.yI [>.
Fortieth Lesson. 273

tot jiJK

cr
'

u

Jo

Exercise 76.

A had a slave (from the slaves),
certain philosopher
and one day the philosopher said to his slave, "I wish
to go to one of the baths." The soldiers bound the
prisoneid with (the) chains. This man was one of
the dearest of his friends, Who will pay the expenses
of the journey? In this land I saw many schools,
in which the scholars learn the sciences; and their
teachers are of the learned. Inform me soon of th hy
condition (Plur.), for thy friendship is dearer than all
existing things. Kiss the hands of the brothers and-
sisters. The most honourable ruler and the most
noble Sultan, possessor of the greatest happiness and

of the highest (Superlative of U) rank, God perpet-

uate his days and raise his standards! Amen. --- All
the travellers both men and women (what was be-
tween the men and the women) were smitten with
seasickness. The rains pour down like the mouths
of the wine-skins.

Arixbic Grammar.
274 Second Part.

Forty-first Lesson

Declension of the Noun.

f-cl)
8ee Lessons 6 and 7.

1. Nouns are either Indeclinable ({/**), e.g.

"Cautionl", ^iLi "Qatam" (name of a woman), or De-
Q ,*o>
clinable
(uyt*).

The Declinable are either Triptotes
(O^AO**)
i.e.

*e > ,

having three case-endings "a
(Less. 6, 2 a), e.g. J^
man", or Diptotes (OJAOJU .*i) i.e. with two case-

endings only (Less. 6, 2 b and Note 1), e.g.

"idle", *c "Omar".
2. The following are Diptote:

a) Broken Plurals of the forms ^SUsf, j.*i

S, JJUi and j^JUi also the Plurals

3^1 (from Jjf "first"), ^1 (from ^T "other") and

(from 9^ "thing").

b) The Feminine forms *S&, jli, jis and
(Less. 38, 5, 6), e.g. t\*Je "desert", tl> "white",

"angry", \gjf& "remembrance", ^Jl/ "greatest".

c) Nouns of the form jjd>], the Feminine of which

is slxs or joe (denoting colours, defects or elative), e.g.

i3j*f "black", ^S\ "greater".
Forty-first Lesson. 275

6 -OS
On the other hand
J^f "widower" makes a Feminine
6.,o
XJLs.1 "widow".

d) Adjectives of the form the Feminine of
oSL*i
which is
jS, e.g. OL^ (Fern, lafc) "angry".

On the other hand
^Uxi (Fern. xiUxi) "companion
at table".

e) The Numerals which end in s when they stand

alone as pure numbers, e.g. xx~ v^*aj x&Li "three is

the half of six".

f) Most Proper names (see Less. 37, 3, 4) includ-
ing all that end in whether Masc. or Fern. e.g.

x&; all that end in t>\ or ^JL
tejo (masc.), iuJal^

those that end in
e.g. *E/j, J&*\ ^!_, e.g. ^ulll,

Uii; also the Proper names
that correspond in form
o
with a verbal form whether Perfect or Imperfect, e.g.

^Zii (name of a tribe), J^>t, ^-jjj;
also many others as

1U, ^J^ (name of a woman). ^>^\& .

Proper names on the otherTriptote hand are
o iG o- S
O G, o G
when they are 1) of the forms Joe, Jue, Joe, e.g.
*x^,
"e
"Zaid", 3 !iU Amr", -jj "Noah", jJ0 (but also il*

and so with other names of women); 2) originally

Participles or Adjectives, e.g. ^- (properly "beauti-

ful"). iAl(properly "happy"),o{jj (properly "desired"),

(properly "praised"); 3) certain single names as
6,0- .

etc.
276 Second Part.

3, All Diptotes, when they are made definite by the
Article or a Possessive suffix or a following Genitive
are treated as Triptotes (see. Lees. 6, 3), e.g.

ftl*37 ^ from the matters,

, from his matters,
**

from the boy's matters.

4. The nouns, which end in in _ (arising from

iwun, iyun and uyun) e.g. cto (for _^!o) "caller", yds

(for
O
fcls), "judge", (for ^
6i
."wish", change:

iwun, iwin, iyun, iyin, uyun, uyin into In,
iwu, iyu, uyu, into o,
iwi, iyi, uyi, into i,

iwu, iyu, uyu, iwi, iyi, and.uyi into I (cf. Less. 6, 3,
Note 2 and Less. 28, 2) e.g.

"judge" Nom. and Gen. Sing.

,, Accus. Sing.

"two judges" Nom. Dual.

Gen. and Accus. Dual.

li ''judges" Nom. Plur.

Gen. and Accus, Plur.

With Article:
^liff "the judge" or "of the judge"

Nom. and Gen. Sing.

.
Accus. Sing.

The Broken Plurals, which are Diptotes and are
derived from ver1 3 .--hose third radical is 5 or ^5, have
as endings m
the Nom. and Gen. in, in the Aceus. iya,

e.g. from slU- "slave girl", Plur. Nom. and Gen. ,U>
f
Forty-first Lesson. 277

Accus.
(^f^s-;
from ^^s& "legal decision", Plur. Nom.
(

and Gen. j&, Accus. ^Lxi.

5. Nouns, which end in an (written J_!L or ^5- )

as Uac "stick" (for j>oc), ^vX^ "guidance" (for ^JN^),

"Mustafa" (for ^0*3*) are alike in all cases of
JtL*2s>
(

the Singular; so also are the Diptotes as "re-
(j^o
membrance", LOO "world".
o
6. The noun
cr
jt "son" drops' its alif, when it

conies between the name of the son and that of the
father. The Proper name preceding it loses its nun-
ation, e.g.

jj+s. ^j j^ "Zaid the son of 'Anir". But if the

^1 happens to begin a new line the alif is retained.

It is also retained if the word is used predicatively
^1
(cf. Intro. 11, 4 b), e.g.
o ., } a Go, c
"Zaid is the son of Amr".
22+B ^jj sXfj

Exercise 77.

> - ^ - , > af- > * o * o> , s , ,

(see. Less. 7, 2) l3 .a! -J/ A-JLt jo^i
^vX (jf^Jb ^U-JL,

e Li
^
o, ,

L
(

c5Ul (oJlXs tjai^ bf ol
278 Second Part.

&U! Js+c Ll b J,

Exercise 78.

Strike him with the stick. Five is the half of

ten. The Caliph el-Mu'tasim was acquainted L.I?
C
and Imperf.) with AH, the son of el-Junaid el-Iskaft
f
and el-Mu tasim said to the son of Hainmad, "Go to
the son of el-Junaid and tell him to prepare to be-a-
guest to me" and he came to him and said to him,
"Prepare to be-a-guest of the Commander of the Faithful,
for to be a guest of Caliphs is a great thing (is great).
It was said to a boy, "Does not thy teacher cloths
thee?" And he answered, "Verily, if my teacher
had a house filled with needles, and Jacob came and
with him the prophets as intercessors and the angels
as pledges, to borrow from him a needle with which
to sew the garment of his son Joseph, which was torn,
he would not lend (Perf.) him it; then how should he
clothe me?" _______

Forty-second Lesson.

The Use of the Cases.
6 >o
(A word in the Nominative is called
p^y>, in the
O>o^ 6jo- jo-
Accusative wa^a, in the Genitive s? or
Forty-second Lesson. 279

1. The Nominative (jsj)
is used for:

a) The Subject in a Verbal sentence (Jcli) and that

of a Nominal sentence (sSoJLo). See Less. 11,6.

b) The Predicate of the Nominal sentence
See Less. 11, 6.

c) The word following the Particle of Address Ljl

(always used with the Article) and after G (in the Sing,
without nunation), when it is not made definite by a
following word. See Less. 48.

d) The Attribute of, or word in Apposition to
another word in the Nominative.
a
Note. The Predicate of sentences beginning with ,-.t or the
kindred particles (see below 2 h) is put in the Nominative.
G o -

2. The Accusative (v^xaj) is used for:

a) The Object ( 4^0), e.g.

"I struck Zaid".

"Thee we serve".

"I struck him".
sJiijio

Note 1. In Arabic most verbs denoting *'to come" are
w . -.'Go > O OS
transitive. The transitive verb is called ^.Xjuii J*ftJl, the

intransitive
^j^OT JoUII.
Note. 2. For the government of theAccus. by the Verbal
Noun and the Participle see Less. 34, 6, 8.
b) The Absolute Object or Cognate Accusative
see Less. 34, 7.
Go,
c Determinations of Time and Place O& see

Less. 45, 5, e.g.
^jf "to-day", {j; "to-morrow",

"in the morning", xL Jw "(during) a whole year".
280 Second Part.

"he looked right and left", t^ U VsU,
"he travelled by land and sea".
To this class belong many words in the Accus.

used as Prepositions, e.g. ^jtL> "behind", *i "above",

^^=' "under", etc.

d) Determinations of the Aim or Purpose, e.g.

2 Ul'Jl ^3 "I rose to honour him"- (cf. Less. 34, 6).

e) Determinations of Condition (3ls-) for which the
Participle and Verbal Noun are used generally, e.g.

sL>. "he cauae riding".
\Ls\j
O o,
f) Specification (j^i) with the meaning "in regard
to, in", e.g.
o - o * o >, o O c.
"
Zai d greater in regard
3J cr LJLc ^1 Jv.)
is

c
to knowledge than Amr".
ill! w^3 "be good in regard to soul" i.e.
"rejoice
heartily".

g) The Predicate
(^>] of and its sisters (cf.

Less. 30, 12), e.g.

yj>.j JJj ^ "Zaid was a man".

h) The Subject after the following particles:

o \
"truly", oa "for", ^yCJ "but";

^1 "that", ^ "because", ^ "as if";

v^yJ "0 would that!", J*^ "perhaps"; e.g.

*jfe LXJ-' ."{
"J C'g
or tSu:
'V
*jl5 ...I
iwJs
"truly, Zaid
l^ l^

i)
The noun after the ^ that denies absolutely

jJL=S ^^IlJ ^' i.e. ^ for the denial of the class) cf.
Forty-second Lesson. 281

Less. 45, 3 p 3. The noun loses its nunation, e.g.

no escape", JLi ^ "there
yu $ "there is is no doubt",

xJLs? $) jo i "there is no escape from
*^JiJI ^, (or
the matter" i.e. "the matter is absolutely necessary".

j) The Noun after the Particle of Address b if it is

followed by a Genitive, e.g. Jj? jJI G "0 Abdallah",

U-^jlT ^J!
"0 ruler of the Faithful 1"

k) The Noun after the Conjunction +, when it
i * %, G o^
means "with", e.g. l.t3
Oyj,
"Zaid with his brother".

1)
A
word, which is an Attribute of, or in Appo-
sition to another word in the Accus.

Note 1. Many verbs take two objects in the Accus. e.g.
O, jOrf,
oUik "I thought Zaid (to be) a physician".

Note 2. The Accusative often stands in single expressions
especially Exclamations ,
where a verb is to be supplied, e.g,
* , * * G? O

&$*2 ^5>t "welcome!", where ^X> is understood, i.e. "you
t O -

have come to friends and an agreeable place''; ^Lj-* "slowly",

where ^J^A\ "go" is understood.
2- ,
3. The Genitive > or <aa> is used iu the
following:
a)
A Noun "
which is connected with another by
^
Annexation (wU3|), see Less. 6, 4.

Note. Arabian grammarians say that the Xi^/tot, has the

force of one of the prepositions u, ^ or ^5, e.g. J^ *X^ =
o- > .i<i-iO? > ' '

jo^J 1,5^X1
'
1
(^UJ "the boy who
!
(belongs) to Zaid";
, o 60, o,o
"a garment of
i*.^; silk'; Vj*
5 Z
"the prayer of sunset".
282 Second Port.

b) A Noun after a Preposition
(^ ^j>} see Less. 44.
A
Noun which is an Attribute of or in Appo-
c)
another in the Genitive.
sition to
In connection with a) it should be noted that
some nouns combined with a Genitive in Arabic corre-
spond to English Adjectives, Adverbs etc. :

1) 3^ "whole", i.e. "all, every, the whole", e.g.
o. i . * {, i - ,0.0 i. ,

fjj JJ" "every day ; Js^f,, ^S "each ; juuxlt Jj' "the
"
whole city"; yJJJl J^ a^ men" (also ^f LT^O;
^ JJ" "everyone who"; U ]s "aU that (Rel.)".

Similarly **=> and &$ "whole" are used for "all",

e.g. (jJJJ? > or ^iLT idbtf "all men".
Go-'
2) ,jaju properly "a part", i.e. "one, some", e.g.

QajJ "one of the poets" i.e. "a certain poet" or
*(JL$
"some poets".
Q O
3) JjLo "likeness" corresponds to the English "as,

like", e.g. jjj JJU "like Zaid", idi* "like him", or
"as he".

4) ^^ properly "an other" means "except", e.g.

science"
jjjjf <j^*> "except

5) j*L properly
"an other than" often corresponds
to the prefixes non-, un-, im- "a
etc., e.g. L-ytIT ^i
non-Arab"; ^1*
" ^ "im-possible".

6)

Gen. Accus.
#*-<^>^
^-^JL^
Fern.
..
both .

E.g. gjjb-^rt & "both the men"; U^ir "they both"

(cf. Less. 7, 1).
Forty-second Lesson. 283

7) Ctj "a many of i.e. "many a" always followed

by an Indefinite Noun, e.g.
"
vJ^Jil OsS f*
'
Jw>j' Vj manv a noble man have
I met".
Emphasis.

4. A noun can be emphasised by:

a) Repetition (JJaSfT js-^LJjf "literal emphasis"), e.g.

'fj
*[=> ''he came running (quickly)".

"I saw thee" (cf. Less. 43, 3).

b) The use of special words (^jjuil OvJ'UJt

"emphasis according to the sense"). Such words are:

jUb (Plur. ,JJ5) and ^ (Plur. ^13) "self
1

, e.g.

x*ii j^j zL> "Zaid himself came". One can also

say x**sixj of
f ' ' " 8' , 5 Oa -

The words JJ', 5-^*> and KsU are also used for

Emphasis (see above 3, 1).

The Permutative.

(ixln "the substitution")
5) The Permutative must follow immediately the
jo ) , p.o

word for which it is substituted (*.; OvXi!)..

There are four kinds of substitution:
a) The substitution of the whole for the whole

(j^IT ^ JjO? ixl) i.e. where the Permutative is exactly

equivalent to the word for which it is substituted, e.g<

j sL> "Zaid, thy brother came";
284 gecoud Part.

"the people of

the city, the great and the small, came to me".

b) The part is substituted for the whole ((jzauJ! JjJ

e.g.

xLS "kiss him the hand" i.e. "kiss his hand";

j v_ju Jt jw/i "he ate the loaf, half of it" i.e. "he

ate the half of the loaf".

c) A possession or quality is substituted for the

name (&*&&[! i3o i.e. Permutative of inclusion"), e.g.
'
J ye, * f) o^ , , og
joy vXjj ^*>-^! "Zaid, his garment pleased me" i.e.

"Zaid's garment pleased me"; v^^^ssOwo "I &JL*s>
Ijyjj
praised Zaid, his beauty" i.e. "I praised Zaid's beauty".

d) A word is used to correct the previous one

(JaiiS! ^ Jo "the Permutative of error"), e.g. (j*o s-Jio -^j^
"I passed by a dog (no, I mean) a horse".

Exercise 79.

XJLJ

Jo "^ xi! c>>^U-> 'i-*J
Forty-second Lesson. 285

JliJi 3^-

.

J^ yil xj^ LX^ olyuaJl Ji

3
286 Second Part.

r5 ^ L t
^

(used as an exclamation) fJaJ| jJfflj tJt
V^> ^ 3y> ^

(be comforted!) ll^e
^ ill! wJ?

Exercise 80.

It is necessary to go away (there is no escape
from going away). It is necessary that I give thee
what thou demandest. The captain was extremely
astonished at what (Co) had happened to me. The

sea was calm and the atmosphere clear and the weather
still. I travelled in the direction of (making for SJaa

Egypt and you travel in the direction of Syria. I

pray (3tl) God that he may bring you safe to your
country. We
wept bitterly and that hour was a
very grievous hour. That man was intelligent, pious,
of noble character, of noble soul. Verily calamities
do not cease following me, since I went out from the
city. She sighed in despair (the sigh of the despair-
ing) and her sighing was increasing my pain and
sorrow (me as to pain and sorrow). I have no

power to withstand calamities. We have only death
before us (there is not before us except death).
Throw us both into the sea, or preserve us both.
Since the main purpose (most important of purposes)
of our high dynasty is the rooting out of the causes
of encroachment and of evil by sea and land, we are
legally and morally compelled to (that we) make war
on all ships of the Corsairs.
Forty-third Lesson. 287

Forty-third Lesson.

Pronouns.
o
3. The Personal Pronoun (jt+*o) is either Independent
or Suffixed (cf. Less. 8, 1), and may be in the Nomi-
native or the Accusative.
For the Independent Pronoun see Less. 3, 6.

Note. If the conjunctions ^, O "and", 6 "verily" are pre-

fixed to_^S> or ^ the sometimes loses its vowel, e.g. _^, ^s etc.

3. The Independent Pronoun in the Accusative is
as follows:

3. Masc.
j him. U] them both ?uj
them.

3. Fern.
lfl>j
her.
UflT[ you both ^bj
2. Masc. SCt thee. IfCt you.
"s r "a

2. Fern. ^JU
^Cj
us
^tj me.
-
1.
Kj
4. The Independent Pronoun in the Accus. is used:
a) With a verb to emphasise the Pronoun, e.g.

j>l*jtj
"vsHjj
"Thee we serve".

b) If two Pronouns are Direct Objects of a verb,
> a - o

e.g. U J^LLft! "he gave it (to) me"; but it is also
- oS
possible to say xollacf. It is also used as the Object

after a Verbal Noun, e.g. C|
^
JLJott "my giving it

(to) him".
c) Independently as a Warning, without a verb, e.g.

^U "take carel", see Less. 48, 2.
288 Second Part.

5. For the Suffixed Pronoun see Lees. 8, 2, 3.

Note 1. The letter ^5 is often omitted in the cry
v.^
for

,3. "my Lord I" (cf. Less. 48, 1 Note), and in the Pronoun J,, e.g.

>* >*
(for JsjSi "fear me".

Note 2. The Pronoun s often refers to a whole sentence and
a a - i

is then called a ^L*J! j*+te', it is translated "it" or omitted in
translation.

6. If the Personal Pronoun is to be emphasised it
is repeated in the Independent form, whether it has
already been contained in the verbal form or expressed
as a Suffix, e.g. fi| \&AJO "I struck", Gt
^jfo "he
struck me".
The Emphatic Pronoun "myself, himself" etc. is ex-

pressed by the use of U*AS (Plur. (j^aJt), ^xt (Plur.
o S G ^ .,

or oU> (Plur. ofy>) with the Pronominal suffixes

(cf. Less. 42, 4 b), e.g. x**aj or x*-^j Jw "Zaid

himself; so also ^^-ijf ($?. "the matter itself, this
same matter".
7. The Reflexive Pronoun in the Accus. is also ex-
o , o^ r-,
pressed by ^^^j, ^AC, oto (with their Plurals) and the

Pronominal suffixes, e.g. j^wii jJs "he killed himself".
If the Pronoun depends on a Preposition, it is
t o - > p - 5
enough to use the Pronominal suffix, e.g. LA J,
-

oJe>l
"1 took something for myself".

8. The Reciprocal Pronoun "one another" is expressed
o, #.-*..-*'-
by the use of ^a*j "one, some", e.g. ui*j 'uL*i=ju 'Jj^Lw
"we have helped one another".
G o-
After Prepositions the ^>aj need not be re-

peated, e.g.
Forty-third Lesson. 289

( r
-

^Ju*jJl
Ijj "the soldiers approached
one another".
9. For the Demonstrative Pronoun and the Inter-

rogative Pronoun see Less. 9 for the Relative Pronoun
;

see Less. 31.

Exercise SI.

&.. 5- ^ S ,>-*- - j OS o, , ,o
Joa L*
Ug o'liuxll J^it
fH^i ^ Q^ L^
1 *

ju|j^ ^UJt U>Lj

UoLaS' Uu , lil ik> U

^^JiL o/ c^il J

L,

Arabic Grammar.
290 Second Part.

Exercise 82.
You have struck us. We ourselves have com-
manded this. The beggar demanded an alms from
us and we gave it him. My giving it was (a) good.
You will offer yourselves to destruction. You
have demanded the same matter as we have demanded.
The two parties were entangled with one another.
Those shepherds asked me if I was the person sought.
I began to comfort myself and cheer my spirit

Truly, what has
- -
(raise myself) with vain hopes.
befallen me is by reason of my deceiving thee. Let
us throw ourselves into the sea and die at once.
The captain commanded a sailor to separate us from
one another. Remember my freeing thee from the
hands of the robbers.

Forty-fourth Lesson.

Particles.
O o-
1. The Particles
(^_iy>)
are divided into Prepositions,
Adverbs, Conjunctions and Interjections.
Prepositions.

2. The Preposition is called
~^\ Jy>-, the word go-
O >'o ,

verned by a preposition is
^^*, and the preposition
i > O ^c, i. ,>
with its noun is
^yfd^ jL=M.
3.Prepositions are: A. Inseparable, consisting of
one letter always attached to the following word; B.
Separate, which stand alone and are either true par-
ticles or nouns in the Accus.

A. inseparable Prepositions.

1) uj "in, by. with" etc.

Verbs denoting "to adhere", "attach", "seize",

"begin", are construed with o e.g. /sic. "to hang on",
[jo "to begin with".
Forty-fourth Lesson. 291

"To believe in" is
^ ^\, e.g. *JjC vJUT "I believe
in God".

"To swear by" is vj ^J, e.g.
^|^ ^^^\ "I

swear by my head". Sometimes the verb is omitted.

After lot "See! Behold I" ^ is used (but the noun

Nom. may be used), e.g.
alone in the jt jj ji-j? &
Behold a man came (or
Jo-j ^J).
In negative sentences, if the predicate is a noun,
vj is often prefixed to it, e.g.

u^lfc y ylJ he is not a rider (or

j?
U they are not aware (or

Many intransitive verbs of motion become transi-
tive, when they are followed by ^ and the object to

which the motion refers, e.g. $>** Jt he came with

a thing, i.e. he brought it.
(This vj is called AJjuJcft *U)
^ Of S
Note. The expression oaf ^L means "at the price of my
father thou art to be redeemed", i.e. "thou art so dear to me,
that I would redeem thee at the price of my father". (This is

called JujJxi !
*L, the ba of redemption.)

2) and 3) o and '$ "by" hi an oath, e.g.
:
dS and

&& "by God", (o occurs only in this expression.) If

however a verb is used in the oath, o must be used.
4) J "for, to, because of".

& is used to express the Dative and denotes posses-

sion (= "have", see Less. 8, 5).
As a Conjunction
(with the Subjunctive of the verb)
it denotes "in order that, so that".
19*
292 Second Part.

It denotes the English "of, when it follows an in-
o, G ,
determinate noun,
G
e.g. JojJ
* '
v^ a DO ^ f (belonging

to) Zaid"; J, ^oLo a friend of me i.e. one of my
friends.

It is used especially for the editor of a book, e.g.

^*2tt *W" u^*^ The Stories of the Prophets

of (i.e.
written by) Tha'labl.

,3 also denotes "for the benefit of" (opposite of

jot)
and so denotes a creditor (j^ the debtor), e.g.

f^> v_J j tikllc vi, thou owest me a thousand dirhams.

It is also used to denote the Purpose and the
Cause, e.g.
>

Js I rose to help him.

. for this reason, therefore.
iJ JJ I

Note 1. 3 o'j' "to say to" often means, especially in the

Passive, "to call, name", e.g. a) (&&>) J^ be was (is) called.

Note 2. ^ is changed to i3 before Pronominal suffixes

(except with the 1st p e rs.), e.g. *I, l^ etc. It is also changed

to 3 after the particle of address U e.g. v^sSJJ L "0 wonder",
^

Jojj
L "O Zaid!" (i.e. -come and help Zaid!).

5) 3 "as, like" is usually counted among the

prepositions, although it is really a noun meaning

"similarity", e.g. "like Zaid".
joj?
It is not used with Pronominal suffixes.
Forty-fourth Lesson. 293

B. Separate Prepositions.

1) lj "to, unto, until".

Is nearly related in meaning to ^ and serves to
express motion towards a place, e.g.

iJjjCtl j,f sLa- he came to the city.

In relation to time it
expresses continuance up to
a certain point of time, e.g.

tLph\ Si *loofcST Q, from beginning to end.
Notice specially ^5 (abbreviated see Intro
^M gjf ,

16) "and so forth", "et caetera".

With sufiixes: xJjt "to him", "Jl "to me", etc.

2) j^- "up to, as far as".

Is not used with suffixes.

It is sometimes used to mean "even" and then
exercises no influence on the case of the following

word, -e.g. L^ J&> iX^J? vilf? "I ate the fish,

even its head".

3) jc "over, on, against".

With suffixes: *llc "on him"; J^ "on me" etc.

Used of on the way.
place. ($*& j*
he sat at table.

a city on a river.

Notice specially:

j* to look (with pleasure) at a thing.
t^jb IJaj'

^ o
&'^S>[ }
> to examine into a thing.
294 Second Part.

iudc (or -J^i) 'i he fainted (lit. it was made

dark upon him).
ojo*, >,,
Peace be on you! (the greeting of
fXJlc j.XvJ!
Moslems to one another, the answer being ..^LJl ^Xlitj).

&Iic ajff
x^ God's mercy be upon him.

jJL^
&IL. Jj| jjj God give him blessing and

peace (see Intro. 16).

Used in a hostile sense:

ftlL
-j:>
he went out (to war) against him.

So with verbs denoting anger:

tiUlc OVA^CC I was angry with thee.

Used with Adjectives:
a-- 6- O o , , i

/J* ( J^w)
v_^suo dU -3 that is too hard (easy) for me.

"To incite to" ,j^ cx>; "to induce to" jst j^, e.g.

Jdr I have induced him to
^ tie (do) something.

J^ is also used to indicate that a burden, duty
or debt lies on one, e.g.
, ^ \} 0*

Jkc a duty incumbent on a man.
(jto^s

vc v^?. it is the duty of such and such a one.

o io^ you owe me this (see A, 4).
^ . cT-

Jvc Jv*u5 a preference over.

Common expressions with j* are:

jfi gU? according to ...

o J^t on the supposition that.
Forty-fourth Lesson 295

so far as possible.

bring him here to me.

lit: - on the head and tlie e^ e)
willingly, with pleasure.

I conjure thee by God.

4) ^ "from, instead of".

With il^ "from him",
^1^ "from me";
suffixes:

lie "from us", etc.

Used of place = away from, and so is used with
verbs denoting to flee, avoid, restrain oneself, forbid,

hinder, defend (with many of these verbs ^ can be
used), e.g.

^ ^c
(or .1* to prevent from ....

(or ^^ vwixs^ to avoid ....
s - J O"*^ o^ '**^ ^ ^ e ^en d someone or some-
thing.
It is also used with verbs meaning to uncover,
reveal, open and ask, e.g.
*. J^ QC ^jt^iS to uncover something.
0,05 o, o- -f-
*.^ .\ Ooi^ ^c. JLv
to ask about someone or
something.
In the sense of the Latin de "concerning", e.g,

it is told concerning Solomon.

To indicate the source of information, e.g.

^iLsl Q* lf=> it is told on the authority of

ash-Shafi'l.
296 Second Part.

It is sometimes used of time, e.g. voy> QC-
"shortly, soon".
Notice specially:

11^ ST '^o} May God be pleased with him (see
Intro. 16).

^ ^Le apart from.

5) "in".

With suffixes: *o in him, ~& in me etc.

It expresses rest in place or time and answers the

questions "where?" and "when?", e.g. J |3jT & in the

house, iilljl JsJ> J, in this year.

Sometimes it expresses motion to a place, e.g.
- )9* * ~~
^1 3, jj>5
he fell into the cistern.

It also denotes "among", e.g. LLo ^ who among us.
It is used with verbs of speaking and thinking:

to speak about .....
to think over ....
* -. ^

^ -& g J^obf to consider something.

Also after the verbs of desiring: ,3 v ^;1 *

for something; ^ r J _h to yearn after.

"To multiply by" is ^ v-j-xa, e.g.

iiSls v-Jytot multiply three by seven.

6) jJ, ^jJ, 5jJ "with" (Latin "apud").

With suffixes aJLxJ with him, J,jJ with me etc.;

with him, ^xl with me; is rarer than
Forty-fourth Lesson. '297

7) 5^8 (rarely ^) "with".

With suffixes xLs with him, ^ with me etc.

It denotes association in place or connection in
time, e.g.
^x lL he travelled with me.

I came to thee at sunrise.

It often means "to have something with one", e.g.

XeLw (j^ I have a watch with me.

It also translates the English "besides", e.g.

<u besides his being a stranger.
Lo^ tSjl

Notice specially:

tiUj ,* in spite of that.

^A in spite of the fact that, although.
o?
S) (lr "from".

With suffixes .w from him, Lx from us etc.
o ^
Used of place (often interchangeable with ^c):

cr T > he went out from the tent.

It is used with verbs denoting to go out, to free,
to fqrbid:

yL't ^ B1I
J^cl I take refuge in God (to free

me) from evil.

Used of time:

cr
from mornin g to evening.

Sometimes used (like j^) to mean "since".

^, since two years i.e. two years ago.
Second Part.

It is also employed witn verbs and nouns denoting
nearness, as iL, ^ji e.g.

0^3 I approached the enemy.
6
3 near us.

Notice specially:

xi/> l he sold to him.
e> * o ..a,-.. ',
s^ Q^ (v^j') v^ to wonder at something;
so with other verbs of feeling:

o
^
e
' ^i
1* }
to rejoice at .....
Q. J?;**** pleased at ......

The word "than" after a Comparative is expressed

ty Ir;
~
e.g.
O . OiO ^ J _. O JC

v.JlXJi Q, e ^1 swifter than the dog.
"A certain" is often expressed oy cr preceded by
a word indefinite in the Sing, and followed by the
same word definite in the Plur. e.g.

a certain merchant.

It is also used partitively (jjixoJJdl)
followed by a
definite noun in the Plur. to indicate an indefinite
number or quantity, e.g.
~A o o j ^S <* -

o he has already shown you some

of his signs, and to indicate material, e.g.

^ wood.
or j^
It is very often used after U to explain (p^^
what is intended by the particle, e.g.
Forty-fourth Lesson. 299

o l/ U what is with me in the way
of wealth i.e. the wealth, which I have.
*01 ' J>0
U what you have done to

us in the way of kindness i.e. the kindness, which
you have done us.

9) jJJ, 5J> "since" (for ^3 ^,).
Is not used with suffixes.
It is sometimes followed by the Nominative, e.g.
.20.0 o, .
? >
\> - *>- -
\

JUO) JU/> <SU1.
"^ U , ,

(
I have not seen
01 , <,i . ,*. . f you since Sunday.
_ (Jb.) JOLx
dUj^ U j

Nouns used as Prepositions.
4. Of the Prepositions, which are really nouns in the
Oo .

Accusative (oJ>), the following are the most common:

1) fU "before, opposite" (of place):

jLuf before, opposite the castle.

*U before the judge.

2) jou "after" of time or rank (opposite of jjjs):

oixR jJu after the birth (of Christ).

3) ^A "between".

When two words are dependent on ^, then if

both are substantives the not be repeated, but
^^o need
if one (or both) is a
pronoun it is always repeated, e.g.
c
between Zaid and Ainr.

^j between thee and thy brother.

between me and thee.
800 Second Part.

^ U and ^jll
UAS are often used with the same

meaning as ^.
^
"partly
U and ^.o sometimes mean "both
partly":
and" or

^eJ^ yfj& ^.o U (SL>. both poor and rich came to us.

4} ;i# i

M
5)
l'f
jLftJj
I

6) v^Js? "under, below" of place or rank (opposite

to y).

-s2* ci^ under 1
a tree.

'

below the king (in rank).

7) sto^- "opposite":

siJo> opposite the house.
jfjJ?

8) 3^> "round about".

idjsXtl i^5> round about the city.

9) JjU- "behind":

(jtfb v_IL>
behind my back.

"on
10) ^o this side of, under, without":

JJJJ .y^o
on this side of the river.

%jvc j^ dU>Jo ^+,3 may the cheek of the enemy
be under thy feet.

With the meaning "without"
*
QJ jo* J
**
or
o ^i ^"

may be used instead of 3 o;

o (or
^^0 ^ or
g 3 Jo) o ^o
without that.
Forty-fourth Lesson. 301

Note. For the meaning of tiU.^ and JjO see Less. 48, 2,

11) ,kie "with, at":

Used of place:

jJji ^Jl>- I sat with (beside) him.

Used of time:

jw^iJ! fj&> ^ic d->
h e came at sunrise.

It is often used with the meaning "to have".

iu (or ^ or J,) ^OOLC I have wealth.

Note. ttXi^
^kXic means "according to my opinion it is so".

12) (jto^c (or ^ Itojc) ''instead of, in place of":

tiU5 otolr: tJ^P oj^i I took this in place of that.

13) iy "on, over, above": of place and rank

(opposite of o^?):

a^wixJl -*js on the tree.

viVllt ijs above the king (in rank).

14) JJ3 "before" of time (opposite of JsjJ):

oi*Il ^ before the birth (of Christ).

15) Jjo "before" of place (more often *UI):

before the house.
jbJ! J.5JO

16) ^ "towards":

o-iJl j^? towards the West.

Note, j^ is used as a substantive in all Cases with a
following Genitive in the sense of "like" or "about".
o, jo- Oj-

j^ ^ a man
like Zaid.
Jc?.,
302 Second Part.

J^. AJlo
>s=o o. -A I passed by about a hundred men.

17) s]jj "behind, on the far side of:

behind them.

behind (on the far side of) the mountains.

5. Two prepositions often occur together. In this
case, if the second was originally a noun, it must be
put in the Genitive, e.g.

JJU.J ^ from between them i.e. from the midst of them.

L** cr
fr m ver i.e. above.

from under i.e. underneath.

from with.

cr from on i.e. down from.

^ or o j)Jo without.

ij^
before.

cr, after.

Exercise 83.

xUJ *JOUc ^ yolj Uj" oJo^ ^50! Jlsj ^i

^Las A) ifiiLLw L^JC?.^' i^SU jijJ! *J
/Jo'
Forty-fourth Lesson. 03

_

xJLc XxS L

ilf

, 3

UG JlJ
?
^ iS
304 Second Part.

U A] oc^w* Jo

Exercise 84.
I have (in) this day experienced (jtiUs) indescrib-
able joy (what is not described in the way of joy).

I shall speak to thee about this matter I was
(^U;).
very disturbed on examining your letter which came

(o^ Part. Act.) to his Excellency our lord and father
(the excellency of our lord the father), may God protect
him!, and although I almost turned away (in spite of
my being I turned away) from the mind of his Excel-
lency what disturbed him, yet I was not able to con-
tent my thoughts with the least (of what is) possible,
and for this reason I find myself disturbed (of the
mind), hoping that you will honour me (the being ho-
noured Verbal Noun of
^Jjuj by giving me in-

formation (sJbl); and we pray for you the continnu-
ance of health and wellbeing. What I have learnt
Forty-fifth Lesson. 305

of thy indisposition hps grieved me, and I have prayed
God that He will clothe thee with the garment of re-
covery, for He can do all things (He over every thing
is powerful). Perhaps our lord will bring thee what
will rejoice thee. The sheikh was extremely astonish-
ed at our answer.

Forty-fifth Lesson.

Adverbs.

1. Adverbs are either 1) Particles, Inseparable or
Separate, or 2) Nouns used only in the Nom. or Accus.

Inseparable Particles.

2. The Ad verbs, which are Inseparable Particles are:

a) 1 a particle used to indicate a question (= J^p

see Less. 2, 5) (called the -Ljfcu-^T <-Jy>); but only when
no Interrogative pronoun occurs in the sentence, e.g.:

|jJ (or viiii j^) Jjbi! hast thou done this?

but \Sj> JJ ^ who has done this?

I in a double question; see ^t.
pf

b) tj
a particle used to give a Future meaning
to the Imperfect (see Less. 13, 4). It is a shortened

form of Jl "at the end".

(xLxil O^MW) xbtdLw I shall do it.

c) 5 a particle used for Emphasis, "certainly, truly",
often omitted in translation, e.g.:
Arabic Grammar. 20
Second Part.

j
truly. I have done it.

Especially with the Modus Energicus (see Less. 15):

ejJLutoS I shall certainly strike thee.

Also in an Oath:

dj*ju by thy life.

3 is often used before the Predicate of a Nominal
which begins with below 3e).
sentence, ^ (see
It is often used to introduce the apodosis of a

sentence beginning with ^J (see Less. 47, 5).

Separate Adverbial particles.
3. The most important separate particles are:

a) and KM (related to 1,31, see Less. 46, 2b)
yj[ 1

"in that case, then' , e.g.:

let us go then.

b) y\ (for 1 and 3) "not" in an Interrogative
sentence :

US <b$t shall I not do it?

So pi for 1
and.jj.

o) "or" in a double question:
jt
f ,

^ *t xUsii shall I do it or not?

d) U (for f and U) "not" in an Interrogative
sentence:

ajdtii U! hast thou not done it?

e) Jj? "truly, certainly" (see Less. 17, 5).

.j|
introduces Nominal sentences, the subject
following in the Accus the Predicate often strengthened
,

by A (see above 2 c) following in the Nom., e.g.:
Forty-fifth Lesson. 307

fc

, <L 5 verily, Zaid is

^ ol I
intelligent.

It may be used with Pronominal suffixes, the

pronoun then being a subject, e.g. *J{ verily he, J,t

and ill and Ujrt verily we.
^ilf verily I,

f) Ujt (for .t and U) is always at the beginning
of a sentence and limits the word or clause at the
end of it by its meaning "only", e.g.:

olSJ^llT Ult the alms are for the poor only.
sfjtitt

g) y "i.e., that is" (= ,yj).

h) ^l "where?"

^.Tf ^. "whence?"

^Tt l[
"whither?"

ULi "wherever".

i) Jo "but rather, no on the contrary, but".

j) jj "yes certainly" as answer to negative sentences.

"there"
k) ^
I) JKJ>
before the Perfect expresses the completion
or certainty of the action and can sometimes be trans-
lated "already", but is often to be left untranslated.

With the Imperfect it means "sometimes".

m) _bJii "only" always placed after the word it

modifies.

n) Jai "never", follows a verb in the Perfect with
a negative, e.g.:

Jai
iOJ^
u I have never seen him.
20*
808 Second Part.

0) "$S "not at all, by no means".
p) *$ "not, no".

As particle of Denial y) before the Imperf.
1) (J&!
Indie, with Present or Future meaning:

LSf i I do it not (or I shall not do it).

2) As particle of Prohibition ^) followed by
(Jtt
the Jussive with the meaning of the" Imperative:

do it not.

3) As particle of Complete Denial (j- ty

(see Less. 42, 2i) not (no)" It is followed
"there is

by a noun in the Accus. without nunation:

yu y there is no escape (at all).

q) .J "not" is used before the Jussive, which then
has the meaning of the Past:

b j he did not.

r) UJ followed by the Jussive means "not yet".

s) ^J "not" (see Less. 14, 3 Note) isfollowed by
the Subjunctive, which then has the meaning of a
Future:

iL2? ^ I shall not do it.

t) U "not" is followed by either Perfect or Imperfect

Note. For as particle of Denial see Less. 46, 2c) Note.
Q
u) J^o "when" also used as a Conjunction.

v) p*i (rarely f*l) "yes" derived from ^ "(what

you say) is agreeable".
Forty-fifth Lesson. 809

w) Jj> Particle of Interrogation (see Less. 2, 5).

jjdta J^ haet thou done it.

In an indirect question it denotes "whether", e.g.:

^y^^IsAJ? ^& ,3^*3-1
tell me whether thou hast

expected me.
$& (for jJ> and ^) "not" in an Interrogative sentence.

x) Up "here", or in a strengthened form uib>

(sometimes written U$P).

y) <iJlI$> and iiJU? "there"

Nouns used as Adverbs.
4. nouns, the Accusative of which are used
Many
as Prepositions, are used as Adverbs and are then
Indeclinable ending always in u, e.g.:

^^ cr "whence".
o'

or
U "not yet".

jJs^ "before".
'
^^ "whither".

"wherever".
"above".

1 "below". ^ in the ex P ression

"nothing else,
^*
only this".
5. Most nouns used as Adverbs are employed in
the Accusative (see Less. 42, 2, c, e), e.g.:

little". ~*l3 "inside".

U ^LJLs "seldom" ^,^ "outside".

"much, very". IJRX "together".

"often". ik^ "altogether".

T
verv ^ -

!
f "for ever" (with
neg. "never").
310 Second Part.

i.L^j "by day".
'-
^ "one day, once". ^L^ "on the right hand".
" ol '
'
<(1
"on the left hand".
-' of Future
((sign
Lxc "to-morrow".

uto
*'.<".
"always".
.., .
,,,,
^ .--
"
how "'
("often", (later
^LJ "by night .

4, { .pe^pV-).
L*jL ^ (for U ^^ i "there is nothing like")

"especially".
G
yrj> (from the noun ^>
tl "time") in j&*&- "then,
at that time", so also O^i^ "at that time".

XXrJt "altogether".

at one time at another time.

jo, "alone" is used with suffixes, e.g.

I alone,
aJos^ he alone, etc.

Note. For some Verbs which are usually translated into

English by Adverbs as ^^-^ etc., see Less. 30.

jj: and jjJ "perhaps" are often used with suffixes,

e.g. !J perhaps he, JkJ (rarely ^^al) perhaps I.

oJ "would that" with suffixes &;oJ would that he,

xX-J (rarely ^^1 whould that I.
Forty-fifth Lesson. 311

Exercise 85.

&* cr 34-

USli L ?
V 1
^ t>

LolL

Lit
jc^J!

olLl? U
312 Second Part.

t Q^Diitt ,utttJf ^)0o oju i*3i v^OLfii i^XJo %^s-
f
Oo

liiLi LLM fJ^[s
JJ^ f ^^^^ L5->^*l5 ^-^j^ 1

^f y\ viJUl ul UiL il^o ^? jx 'uij^f o^,
iii

Truly, he can both speak and write the Arabic
language (he knows the Arabic language speaking and
writing). Permit me to see from time to time that
trusty slave, nay rather the true friend Sa'ld. You
must have patience my friend. Jainila said: Art
thou trusting in that O Sa'id? and he said Yes.
I hope that (Perhaps that) the journey will be pleasant
to you, for the land of Egypt is a cheerful land especially
in the winter season. I beseech thee by th head
of thy father, that thou deliver me from this trouble
and command thy men to carry me from this place
whither you wish. He gave us permission to dwell,
wherever we might wish. One party of us travelled
northwards and a party of us travelled southwards.
How can that be? The prince said: Is she the
princess Salma? He said: Yes prince. Then
the prince turned pale (the paleness came upon SLc
the face of the prince). The best is that we return
to where we were. Bonaparte (o^Li^j) journeyed
from Egypt secretly to his country in the latter days
of the year 1799 A. D., then the Mamlukes and the
people of Egypt prepared together to fight the French,
and they were not able only to drive them out of it.
Forty-sixth Lesson. 313

They two journeyed together to the pkce where he had
prepared for them what was necessary. Some of
the inhabitants of the village came to us and began
to ask us "Whence?" and "Whither?" I alighted
then from the back of my horse. I said to her:
What do you think? Shall we show enmity and resist
them, or not? And she said: No, we shall not resist
them. And I said: What shall we do (is the deed)?
Shall I hand over to them my weapons and myself,
that they may take me captive, and perhaps kill me?

Forty-sixth Lesson.

Conjunctions.
1. The Conjunctions are either Inseparable of
Separate.
The Inseparable are:

.
a) and b) s and ^J "and" (called in Arabic v_Lc <_L=>
"particle of union".

5 joins two independent words or sentences, while

v_j, which usually joins sentences only, indicates a
development in the narrative and may often be trans-
lated "and so" "and then". It is also generally used
to join two sentences when there is a change of subject.

With a following verb in the Subjunctive o means
"so that".
as
For o with the Predicate of Nominal sentences with U
see 2 f.

Por'O in the Apodosis of Conditional sentences see Less. 47, 5.

with a following Nominal sentence or a Suffix
^13
means "for".
314 Second Part.

^
between two sentences, of which the second is

a Nominal sentence often means "while". Such a
Gs G, o >
sentence introduced by 3 is called a iJJL> ^Ju> "sen-
tence of condition", e.g.:

viJb >
Jsj; JS )

(
Zaid stood up, while he wept
o, .,, GO- -,
(Zaid stood
/
up weeping).

also with change of Subject:
, GO,, GO, - -
Zaid went away and 'Ainr
f
remained (while Amr
remained).

The ^ is usually dropped, when a Verbal sentence
follows :

, . o , Go,
(^^*iij jo: zL> Zaid came, while he laughed
(laughing).

The waw of Condition $^\ is sometimes used

before a Nominal sentence which has no Participle or
Imperfect :

Go, ,^Go,
yi sL> Zaid came, and in his hand

a sword (with a sword in his hand).

For _j
as Preposition with Accue. = with" see Less. 42, 2 e.

For _5
with the Genitive see Less. 44, 3 A, 3.

c) j "so that" (for the Prep, j see Less. 44, 3 A, 4)

with following Subjunctive:
^ .,0-0 - > o *

(3U! v-Jdj-J J,sL> he came to me so that he might
demand the wealth (to demand the wealth),
oE & ,
With the^ same meaning are used ^.^ jjj;
and

negatively: !^
!

,
^LlXJ "so that not".
Forty-sixth Lesson. 315

3 with the Jussive (nearly always in the 3 rd Person)

expresses a demand:

,_^Lj let him write I

With the particle sJ the loses its vowel: wJ&Jb
(see Less. 14, 3).
2. The usual Separable Conjunctions are:

a) ot "when, since, after, because" with following
r Verbal sentence.

b) 16! "when, if" originally used of time, but often
of condition (see Less. 47); in indirect questions =
"whether".

31 and lot also mean "behold!", in which case the
former always followed by a Verbal sentence, the
is
latter by a Nominal sentence in which the Subject is
either in the Nominative or takes (see Less. 44, 3 A, 1): ^
'
man camel
(^) ^
o . > ~ o , . } behold, a
jo jo!
j

means "whenever" (see Less. 47).

c) "if, whether" introduces Conditional sentences
y[
or indirect Questions (see Less. 47).

o 5 means"and if, even if, although". C7^J
?
= " verily if '.

Note. There is also a particle of Denial
y[, e.g.:
& oE , o > os o
1
juo*c| lycl
LAX vi>uL ...t I have not seen anything of

her, that I despise.

d) 5] (for ^t
and i) has the following meanings:

1) "if not", 5C "and if not" i.e. "otherwise".

2) "except, only" preceded by a negative. (This ^
is called a zJi^\ J!> i.e. "particle of exception"), e.g.:
316 Second Part.

2? ^1 *K $ there is no god except God (Allah).

e) lt\
(for
and C) only in:
^1

^ H' )
"either or".

ufc
- ui
\

|

f) Ui "as for" with a following Nominative, the

Predicate being always strengthened with a o, e.g.:
C, ^ *9 - - *>- OS-o > * SS *>

.\*l& j^s- _^s
g^-55 J^
1*1 as f<> r Mt. Hennon,

it is a lofty mountain.

(jj^kJf j ajL^* vsJbJ! U as for the dog, I met

him on the road. (According to Arabian grammarians
vlsij? is the Subject, all the rest is Predicate.)

g) f "that" with following Verbal sentence, the

verb being rarely in the Perf., nearly always in the
Imperf. Subjunctive (cf. Less. ,17, 6 a).

^= "as though";
^ "because".

With Negative: 31 (for and ^) "that not"; 5ii
^T
"so that not".

h) ^5 "that" with a Nominal sentence, a later verb
being in the Indicative.
With suffixes: 21 "that he", ^f or j.1
"that I",

'JJ! or Qf "that- we" etc.

In 1]? the suffix is often JULi? Less. 43, 5,
'^Jo (cf.

Note 2).
In compounds:

?.

"just as if", "it is as if".
Forty-sixth Lesson. 817

^ "because".

Q* ^, ^1
A "except that, yet",

i) 3! "or"; jf U "either or" (see above e).

With the Subjunctive ^ means "unless that,
until that".

j) Ulo (more rarely iJLo) "while",

k) JLs
"then, thereupon" often followed by ^.
1) (
&s> "until" (= o? ^1); with a Nominal sentence

often
~J J.
m)
Subjunctive.
^ or
J^jG
"in order that" with folio whig

With Negative *f and il*J "hi order that not".

n) Jj\J and ^& "but", the former being followed by a
verb or noun in the Nominative, the latter only by nouns

in the Accusative or Pronominal suffixes: *I*J "but he",

or "but I", llki or lk! "but we".
^yld ^JXJ
o) LJ "when, after" with following Perfect to be
translated usually by the Pluperfect.

p) _jJ "if" in Conditional sentences referring to a
mere supposition (see Less. 47).

with the meaning "would that!" before
^f JJ often
nouns and pronominal suffixes:

^= ''although".

With Negative: UJJ; $Jj; py'"if not",

q) U "so long as" (kj*j JJT U "the U of continuance"),

is often used in compound Conjunctions:
318 Second Part.

U jJu "after".

Ulu and UAJ> "while".

U ,jJi "before" (always with the Imperf.).

It is often used also to generalise, e.g.:

U3I I
"whenever". U ^yl*'
"whenever".

UJ[ )
"if ever". Lilf "as often as".

In these cases it is followed by the Perf. or the
Juss. in the sense of the Present.

r) jo "when", Lo -*x "whenever".

s) JCL* or t\x> "since".

Exercise 87.

LJLs &I

o cr
,c -,,o
! A-JLc

*J

j^, J3

'ui!! A] to l^JLij

JJJ JeL
Forty-sixth Lesson. 319

UJI j, Lattt
^Lj joiii !jj>

11 4* iLir oliUf J^c 1
liiit bi . !

iJoLt

JsiJl

"

*5 to

J il ^y9 ^ *I

Ub

,
320 Second Part.

j o ^ - *. ~ . o ~ jo.S
U sXjLA2t Igti^j ^f *JUi Ojiils ii\J3 ,3

j,

.Jot e

*i)uJ! L^JU

I.
(UI ^toLaJl
aJ 6ls ^ '*&? "^ Us

JO JU? ^J

uudt

LJ j
l
^J
lots

Exercise 88.

As she went out of the hall into the
for Jamlla,
inner court, and behold by the side of the door of the
hall a large door. No one sees him without being
Forty-seventh Lesson. 321

attracted to him (except, an'd he is attached by his
love). As for Sa'ld, he was amazed at the prince,
because he had not seen during his life a man like
him. And when the prince had determined to jour-
ney to Egypt, he called his two sons to accompany
him. And while they were so engaged (were in that),
there was a knock at the door (the door was knocked)
and behold the servant. I have not seen any good

in my coining that (o) I should return. And the
two, and those who were with them continued travel-
ling, until they came to the pool of the Ezbekiya, and
behold a park, which a canal encircled. And it was,
when he rode his steed, as though he and the saddle
were one piece. While I was examining one of the
books, I lighted upon the following sentence. After
all had left, I went
chamber. to I had not
my
finished my speech, when
heard the sound of
(until) I
the firing of a gun, and I prepared to defend myself
as soon as I should see the first person of them, be-
cause it seemed to me that there was no deliverance
possible (that there was not of anything which was
possible to us in the way of deliverance) except that.
do not permit that, so long as thou hast not said
I
to me what thy name is. Before I finished my
speech, I saw my friend. Inform ine when thou hast
returned hither. Then I commanded Hasan to bring
me large stones that we might build for us a fortress
safe from the weapons of the enemies. Joy came

__
upon me until from the excess of what rejoiced me, it
made me weep.

Forty-seventh Lesson.

Conditional Sentences.
Conditional sentences consist of a Protasis or sen-
o & .

tence containing the condition (Jb-i) and an Apodosis
o - ,
or main sentence (?ff>> or (jl^s- = "answer").
Arabic Grammar. 21
822 Second Part.

2. The Protasis is introduced by the Conjunction

or fcM if the condition is regarded as
(J/Jjf v_3j5>) o [

possible or likely; by if it is purely hypothetical or
impossible.
3. In both parts of the Conditional sentence the

perfect or the Jussive may be used in the sense of the
English Present or Future.
There are thus four possible cases:
a) The perfect is used in both parts :

, - , i o , , O o, , , , o
SJM v_*03 if Zaid goes I shall
vi>^o Jo^ o go
with him.
b) The Jussive is used in the Protasis, the Perfect
in the Apodosis:

c) The Perfect is used in the Protasis, the Jussive
in the Apodosis:

d) The Jussive is used in both parts :

Note. After in a Conditional sense the Jussive is
!3[
"*i
scarcely ever used. With _jJ the Perfect (rarely Imperf. Indie.)
is used in both parts.
4. If the verb in a Conditional sentence is to ex-
press the meaning of the Past, it must be put in the

Perfect and be preceded by
'^jf\

^JiyLf ^JS
committed a crime.
^ jjJjf js^ excuse (me), if I have

The Perfect is used after Jj in the sense of the
English Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive or Poten-
tial. When it has the meaning of the Pluperfect *]?

may be placed before it:
Forty-seventh Lesson. 823

*Li _P if thy Lord had

wished, He would have made men one people. (Ko-
ran 11, 120.)

5. If the Protasis begins with then the Apodo-
o ,

bis must be introduced by <*J.
a) If it is a Nominal sentence:

*1
y5' tfjji 4\*\ if he wishes that, then the
ul
matter is his (i.e.
to do as he likes).

b) If it is a Verbal sentence expressing a Wish,
Command or Prohibition (the verb being in the Impe-
rative or Jussive):

*J JJb IJJ^ vl^l^ ^j if you see Zaid, tell him.
c) If it is a Verbal sentence which begins with

one of the particles \J^, (^^ oo, Lo (not), or
^J;

iS * *? * '* *& if he steals '
one

of his brothers has already stolen before him (Koran
12, 77).

Instead of vis the particles ot or t3t "behold" some-
times occur.

If the Protasis begins with _^J,
the Apodosis may
be introduced by 3:

^
had wished
U1^JT Ix^T
to be treacherous, he
LXJ
j^fe. y 3|J|

would have taken
^J if he

the purse in its entirety.
Sometimes the Apodosis
6. is omitted and must
be supplied from the context:
it 3 ^i e
Ui>J
if you go back
on your word, (good); otherwise I command that you
shall be killed.
324 Second Part.

7. "If not" is expressed by , p ^ i^3 or

If a Nominal sentence follows ^J, one can use

_^J
is also used with the meaning "if only" to ex-
press a wish.
8. A sentence introduced by any of the following
words is treated as a Protasis:
"he who, if '-j
o- ( anyone". '^^ "wherever"

** U** "whatever"
1 '

"which; if any
^ j
'-
o

^ ,
)

^ v
"when
n
.

"whoever".

"what, if
^ ^ (
U
/..
|"
I
when-
ever".
U-f any-
1 thing" "where".
^fj
^'everyone who".
ULf "whenever".
^ wherever p..

where". if "however".

when it In both parts of such
has a general sense.
sentences the Perfect or the Jussive is used in the sense
of the English Present or Future:

3li 3L> (j*
^ anyone seeks, he attains (will attain).
Note. Sometimes an Imperative is used in a Conditional
sense as a Protasis:

IXLo rv^J (JL&
(ji**
live contented (if tbou livest con-

tented), thou wilt be a king.

Exercise 89.

'^ 3& J^ '^J ]
CJ*
Forty-seventh Lesson. 825

. . .

cr

. J J

O *U U =

ill-
826 Second Part.

o]
"

cr

lib Js <J
t
3 (good) j Lfc,li

^^ cr

i]

Exercise 90.
honour thee greatly and
If the matter is so, I will
make thee chief over men.
all If a man passes
my
by you, tell me, and God will requite you with good.
I said to (in) myself: If God makes easy for me a

way to escape, it is well and if not, the matter is his
;

and He will do what He pleases. When the light
of the morning had dawned, my spirit was refreshed,
although I had despaired of deliverance. If I had
known that I should happen to meet thee in this place,
I would have experded all my energy in receiving thee.
thou fulfillest my need, I shall be indebted to thee
If
for such a pleasure, that the kings of the earth could
not pay the weight of a grain of it; and if you re-
ject my request, then thrust me into this sea. If I
demand thee (fern.) from thy father now, there is no
Forty-eighth Lesson. 327

doubt that he will send me back disappointed. When
(the) age thwarts us, then there is nothing for us but
to take refuge in (the) fair patience and to rely on
God. When she shows rebellion, he shows stub-
bornness.

Forty-eighth Lesson.
> , OEO.O, > i .o >

(o-^b cr^ u

Interjections,

1. The Vocative is expressed by the particles b

Fern, l^ui (but the Masc. is often used for the

Fem.)_or ijjt b.
-i.e. ,i,Z ,

and l^j| b are followed by the noun in the
i$j|

Nominative with the Article:

Jo-jGjI l>\ b scholar! (see. Less. 16, 4 and

Less. 42, 1 c).

b is by the noun in the Nominative
followed
without Article (and without Nunation in the Sing.) if
the
perspnaddressed is .present and tne~ noun is not
determined^ by any following words, e.g.

jjj b'
boy! j^t^ b Mohammed!
but S$ b O boys!
If the person addressedis absent or the noun is

by some word
determined or words after it, then 'thjT
noun is put in the Accusative, e.g. :

b O careless! (not addressed to any one par-

ticular person).
328 Second Part.

jJ^I ujJLa G thou, who climbest the mountain!

I jJI
f
! C Abdallah!

Note 1. [> is sometimes written without alif, when the
following word begins with alif, e.g. :

->b my brother!. ^y> welcome!

Notice specially:

ciot [>.
my father! s-et li O mother!

^ 'rf O my Lord! (see. Less. 43, 4 Note 1).

Note 2. The noun that follows 'rf often takes the Vocative

ending s!-^- (see below on !^).

Note 3. For L followed by i see Less. 44, 3 A 4 Note).

2. Some of the commonest Interjections are:

1,1, 1, T, T, 1, \$ Ah!
t^
Oh! The following noun often has the ending

\ oder *\ in pause, e.g.

JuJ\ \2
or sLiLl
1^
O sorrow!

lL*c> grief!

^ Alas! also with suffixes: iLj
O o-
Alas for
Go-
theel
O o-
Notice also the Substantives ^u. *x> and AJ
used (also with suffixes) as Interjections, e.g. :

Woe tothee. jjj JL' Woe to Zaid.

The form ^LI with the Vocative ending may also
be used.

IP See there!

tJli See there he is!
Forty-eighth Lesson. 329

LP Come! with the Preposition o: Come, let us go!

ol^lp Far from it I

Jf, vJI Fie!

-o and ^o ;so Bravo!
o' c c*
u
(Fern, of the Elative vlujLI best") Hail!

or ^1 j^ Hail to thee! \i&
j also
!^> (Zx^
and in the Plural
J^jt "Hither!"
olP (properly the Imper. IV. of \ "to come")

"give, bring here!" also used in the Fern.

^Jjj and (jCJuo
"Beware!" (from Perf.
Jj.j
see
Less. 44, 4).

4U and Jjlit
"Beware!" (see Less. 42, 2).

3. Certain nouns are used in the Accusative a$
Interjections (cf. Less. 42, 2 l,~Note).

Welcome!

Strange!

Slowly!

Welcome!

^ Welcome to thee!
-
((lit. "Hearing and obeying".) At your
^ ( service i

iJ Us Alas for thee!

4. Many religious expressions are used interjec-
tionally,- e.g.:

aUt or or very God!
JSr LJ Commonly ^1
S iffi.
5B?^' By God !
Second Part.

Thanks to God!

If God will!

In the name of God the
Compassionate, the Merci-
ful!

or
God forbid! (lit. "I take
Jit
refuge in God").
There is no might and no
power, save in God the
Mighty (Expression of
!

astonishment and alarm.)
What God will !
(Astonish-

I ask P ardon of God! (Used
if iiilt f
to decline a compliment.)
|

Praises constantly appended to the name of God:

Praised be He!

Exercise 91.

UL> (Proverb)

viJLai

'ul Lo L
Forty-eighth Lesson. 381

U ^ fl K>J> o

,5 Us) ^J

idU Ul U oL?

Jif ^J ef L

(3 -d- Jo

LI
jT j^Ji u

UJ(c via/ U oJ ^eaJ Li jJu
332 Second Part.

Exercise 92.

Hither, Arabs, and follow (Jll) in the track of
this bold man. Come, let us take a walk in the
garden Ah, !
my God, what is this strange chance
which has united ine with my friend in this raging
sea ? Woe, truly misfortunes come upon me and
strike me; Ah, why dost thou threaten us, O sea?
O would that I had been slain among the Arabs!
Praised be the Exalted, the Mighty who has protected
us from dangers and guarded us from troubles and
brought us back to Beirut safe from harm (Plur.).
Ah, O my precious, who has brought thee to this
place? Alas for his (to him from) disturbing dream !

Forty-ninth Lesson
tT^ ^
Arabic Verse.

o^
1. Prose is called in Arabic j& ("scattering"),
Oo - O o-
Rhymed Prose is
Poetry is
pu ("ordering"). ^s^.

2. Arabic Poetry
(J^ has both Rhyme (ilils) and

Metre
o^ (
^) or the latter being quantitative.
An Open syllable is short, a closed syllable long
(see Intro. 13, 1).
Forty-ninth Lesson. 333

Note. The Pronominal suffix v and the second syllable in
Lit may be either long or short.

3. Every Verse or Line (o^ Plur. olL?) consists
O o - O - o
of two Half-verses (J&* or

At the end of the Verse i.e. in Pause (>_aij)
the
Nunation is dropped and sometimes the vowel is omitted
altogether.
In long poems the firet half-verse must end in the
rhyme of the poem.
Sometimes in poems in Rajaz metre (see below 5, b)
there is no common rhyme, but the first half of each

verse rhymes with the second.
4. The number of Feet in use is eight. They are
indicated by means of the letters o ? 6 '(as
in the
forms of the verb):

b)

c)

d)

e) b

f) %*** -^ - -

g)

h)

These Feet are subject to certain changes, e.g.:

a) L,3jj - - becomes 4jje - - ~

b)
Second Part.

~ _ becomes

g)
M ,
(rare)

If Catalexis (rejection of the last syllable) occurs
at the .end of a verse, then w _ _ is changed to w _;
_ _ to etc. These are also subject to the
changes given above.
A verse is formed by repetition of the same foot
or by a combination of several feet.
5. The sixteen Arabic Metres are:
Forty-ninth Lesson. 335

"'"
a) J

usually with Catalexis _^*s in the second, sometimes
also in the first half- verse:

"How many an evil hast thou warded off, and
how many a dominion hast thou protected so that it
became firm."

b) j>^t (especially in didactic poems; such a poem

being called sj

"Said Muhammad ibn Malik: I praise my Lord
God, the best Ruler."
(Beginning of the Alftya of Ibn Malik.)
In this metre Catalexis of the last foot (change
^ ^. w _ to ^ -L )
is very common. If there is no
rhyme common to the whole poem, the first half-verse
also has the Catalexis, e.g.:
336 Second Part.

"Says he, who hopes in his forgiving Lord, Yaliya
ibn Mu'ti Ibn 'Abd-unnur".
c
(From Addurra al-Alftya
by Yahya Ibn Abd al-Mu'ti az-Zawawi).

*** cr
"Poor is the greedy man, rich the contented."

d) J^ I
(usually with Catalexis in both half- verses) :

^S 'UojJt

"Thrust away the world, for it is of its customs
to humble the exalted and to exalt him who is low."

e) \j)\ (almost always with Catalexis):

e.g.:
Forty-ninth Lesson. 337

"When thou surpasses! men of whom thou art, it
is musk were a part of the
as if blood of the gazelle."

f) j-oixft (also with Catalexis of the second half-
verse):

e.g.:

o-o. o - G

0-*J jj pi
V^S

"My heart tells me that thou art my destroyer;
my soul is thy ransom, whether thou knowest it or

knowest it not." Umar Ibn
( al-Fari4.)

g)

At the end of the first half-verse the
^

usually changed to ^ic.^.

Catalexis may occur at the end of the second
half-verse.

JJ Us

"Stay (both of you), let us weep over the memory
of a beloved one and a place at the edge of the sand-
hill between ad-Dakhfll and Hauraal."
(Imru'ulqais.)
Arabic Grammar. 22
388 Second Part.

h) 4j"*fi (sometimes with Catalexis of the second

half- verse):

e.g.: ^j t

"The soul said to ine: death has come to thee, and
thou abidest in the house of rebellion; provide thyself
with piety; and I said: cease, provision is not taken
to the house of the Generous."
(Aba Nuwas.)

i) Jb ^t (often with Catalexis at the end of the

second half-verse):

e.g.:

"Night and the horses and the desert know me,
also the sword and the guest and paper and the pen."
(al-Mutanabbl.)
Forty-ninth Lesson. 839

a>
e.g.: . -a i E &

"Imagine not that tbou in the future wilt he m
poetry as we; for the hen has feathers but it does
not fly."
(Ibn ad-Dahhan.)

k)

As a rule the oS|^*a/> becomes oiUax, and the

at the end of each half- verse becomes

X-^JU? ^

"The furthest distance of the fair maid is the
miserliness (of her affection), which consists of a distance
such as no camel can undertake to travel."
(al-Mutanabbl.)
340 Second Part.

"And when passion pervades the heart of a lover
then every eye has a proof of it."
(al-Mutanabbl.)
"

m)

.

u JJic ^Si

"The youth has intelligence wherewith to live, in
so far as his foot guides his leg."

The other three metres
;k=JI,
and
^ioo^I
are not used by the older poets.

Exercise 93.

Examples of the more usual Metres.
> , - jt/t

O.

1
Se Leas. 30, 5.
Forty-ninth Lesson. 341

_.** 1. O, -a
cr ^l

AJSJX

L# used parenthetically "stranRe!"

Uaed as a triptote by poetic license.
342 Second Part.

il

* l U

r^ir 345

u u

See Lees. 7, 2.
Forty-ninth Lesson.

(Riddle.)

(Solution:

.s?

f

fix U

Exercise 94
.

iuL ^ o

1
A collection of four letters.
See Less. 44, 3 A, 1. Note.
344 Second Part.

ol

urff oi .;jyT
c
i

lb*t
345

Supplement,

Selections.

From the Koran.
Sura 1.

l!|

X. ft

Sara 112.
-O. 0* >,

.XL ,J
ft j^Ji jftl ft Jc^! &\

O . Z J> J

Sura 113.

U
^ ^^ ft

131
846 Supplement.

Sura 114.

,5

Fables.

(from

oo

kr 1>J! 1 jCJLc S!
;3U I^JlSi

JliJl

_
_
> U

U <dl ju joti til Jo xli
Supplement. 347

to xllij UlaS idlftJi sA# U**J

U, to' 3 3jJj|
j

:

i U It>i *JJi' V '*\ *J ^'Je sti' U?

J > i- - -oft - .-&
A>b J^JJl sLxAJt Joai "j J^^l

to LU.U vJjo; * to
348 Supplement.

O K u $%

Utj ^3l Ojl I b jJ'JS.vxi oU>

Ss ia)d> e^j U-o v^J% jl^ tiUUijJ

iuii ^ JILJI wJjJl JjJ to I&Jf IvXP (iCl^

'
UiJl ,

| l^J
to UP > U J oJUe /JJ jS

(yUUI j JJii

(From xj' iJLJ f).

See Leas. 30, 5.
Supplement. 349

jiaiu
(

lii dUo

^I^ ^ftxiuto ,jU d)J

U xx.lJs.Jl
350 Supplement.

Us

f Jo ^ *J

s U LJ 6U

cr%
Jo

oU > Jo^S ^15 jSx iJI, ^UC> jjU

to
li
JJuJJ J-J5 Lu^Lc, i
All^ ^jJ! ) to i
Supplement. 351

LJLs

o^Jt Q
^5? J^> g^l J^to iUS L^J

v^L, J^i J] ^ ww ,^JL>Jo o^xf

oUIl

(From uA*lMl vJukLS by Madame Rosa Sahib.)

^^* &^o 5 *
tf
3 ^o^.Ji ,5 U
*Jj^
^jo Lo
LC^J O l iul

X* t^lS ^UDj! LtiJlil

LLi J^sJL

J^JL. v^i^Ji u-Ji^ xtf 1^1
352 Supplement.

U jls xotill

iols

s
J U. C)
lkJiJ!

c>! J udL-, ^5 JJI K

'JiJLLx !A5>! oJL-,1 lo lif

u jfc ^ xS J

li

gjJkJJ J> i

cr e -Hs cr e o cr

t *J J^l *J
I^US O t

p>?-jJl ^Jy- <: ^w >
^

iL
ttbo,
Supplement. 353

oJi U
UiJUax iJsj>| v^i*j Ic lil UaufiJl to ^jXJl LfLo^J ^

Description of Kairo.

x2x
(From J KxiSy^ ^^ax^ by Q !JOJ
y^l ^ lju y^ gvJbs?. Oyu gJL> g/>L5J|

J.J jj/UiJl ^,|yi

Jou

O

Arabic Grammar.
354 Supplement.

O
ux
^ j^ Jo

ji U e; U
I L

Ojtf ^jLi W/ j^Jt VjLi
^ JOI

u x

cr

1
See Tntro. 17.
Supplement. 355

U ;

v3>s?.
'

LgJ

Ju x it isjiJ{ Jii

cr

lax>o

U J sjJLJt

io-i-

U3I u^^wo ASj L^o-i 3 'L
356 Supplement.

eUJ J^j. lo xJlt ^oK U.

oic ,jcJ! LgxuJLS 8j0LfiJf

,3 &*5-SJl

LLJUJ|
/L,

Ui'L

JOLc Jjih***git u^>LxJ! J 4* sLo JJis

i iiiuoLs*.
A-w^jJwa
us Bj5>'lftjS
^Lu JOLc ^
-
Jv*j JUJI

$5 L^LyOo ^^^ 'L^/^J !y!c ^ ^ 4^
!

5 ^[p- U^au
Supplement. 357

From the Romance

uX idLJJi

jJl jLa UC *Ju

UJ!

j,l JyjJl ^Las oUc^S! liJUc

Uo! UJ^I swca9 L

,5

UL,
858 Supplement.

iudS iLytoU! iwUJj liUJUIt f JO Jo

<J
Ujl5
gjo ^ *JL4^- -j
goo Jo,
^La

Ouu3 Xs^jctt dJLj Q, BL^St
-Ato J UL

jytfl
t ^Jlbi UJL. x^ O tf
3 o!>

^
lJ^JI

jJLT LinL^-l
O t Ltt

U LJU^J
c^a^
&\
^ 8 J^>
o^!
JJJ ,5

JJJI r ^ ,5 i^jU! o, U^rS
e.
V-Jj^aJ! iuyuo ^x jA**it liJJsJ>3 l^Jis
i3Uwe iuUXit
^ liJoo J;> J^t i

^ x3 lilxxi-t 1X
li^ ri^J! J,t

UJLso ,JNJ> .ot.Liv:^; U j-y-Ji Jc^
X* aJu^lS Uc

8jJb

J. ^-
Supplement. 359

j xJu~3 j, fcyCaJf LJUcl o/3 UT so^Jl \^i- Uxj

UJ J*> t *

,5 ^J d)JJ ^ ^=s oUT 005 ^Ui
tO
^.AJIJ
xo jjrX^Jl J,! Cyo^t> S

SOo. l^o U^^ls ULa 13^^ 8p

U

J
tf xi^ xV

cr ^ M'^ '4^ c>

J| coJis oU 'wu^uj, UCc il LJ^3 Juu Lpls x

J^-J! J^,! ^ o

CT 4
i^
^.Ju- L^jL, LgaLq ^i J.I
360 Supplement.

Jo aul^

v>J> liJv> bUJ! ULo UJb

J^ ^ oyllL. Mj'ub

J,! JU ULT, A) oto.fi lots xx-o J,l

j JwiUs O^u iOx
j^XJt ^w v-^JSi5

*3u*J!

JJis Jo a^Ljj vii^'uos ^3 (J* *5 ^iSJ

J
^ Li*c
*y>!

o .ijXiu ^ r
bf JC

-

U
^
L^JLc (
Supplement. 361

,5 .IsJl
Up^as wlaj u, U*4i b
&u,
r

,iXJi

'JJ ,*i ^JMWO
JS

A^O L<XI ,j Xxlfclt ^sC LU*^ wXJJj ^5^; ^J X.J.S

o^Jt ^ LuJJij jd*\ u* Lo'uS

l
Ui^.
iuJ5 wf U

o!
_

x^5 JO,
Supplement.

,i)J j i

LULflj
Ui J-aiJl jjfj
UJL5

LXi! yj I j^ U Jb"
^ i4^> J^-JI Lb

>r
ijJl vJj UcJj iJuias bXiJ ^L^ U

JO

Q t

'u3u

p- U

O ls eU3 ^ Xa5 J L^iJ! vXp-I^S! *Wt Jyju Lxx4>> Uil3

UaLJj
Supplement. 363

Extracts from Journals,

1. From the Egyptian journal \j&\.
f
LUI io

^ LLJt

yk Kiui! L^Jl^Xc XJLiU

iT jo u^^ LLJI ii^>
^ ^L xJi
o'uCu\i!!

!

LoUi

LoUi
:
.iJb L<.*^g
-^Jlill Lpy

Uo^ ,5

A? j ^iUaJ' JU^iAAJl ^^1 Jlji*
364 Supplement.

xjJsJLJ! C

3 LJle

AJJL^I!
8yil5>

U

! slOo X^jJ^JI gib ^J
r

Ut vX.

tf U l^xL^ ^^1 JwJ

*
/> J

o l
^ LoLb U l^Jt

Cur LH) L
j^?

X*aSU*U i^Jjili oUIali J^i' Ul P.
Supplement. 365

*1JI ijjJ

if

jo*

jJb

ft!

Attf >w-JU _^IJ &
JU j ^LJ^ x^vXi^

A-JL*Ji Bo'ju-J!
^10 ^ A-JLLJUJi fel^Ji
o
Supplement.

UJJ
U xLs?

cr

io'Lc J, Xs
jj'UaJl

L^,Lju-t
Supplement 367

*jUJ!

oL3j All jSU,

J^Utt ^-

cr u cr cr

LpJJj L^KU U&13

cr
i
^ JJo J

U c*lj oLJLkJt iL
368 Supplement.

2. From the Syrian journal 3L^t O

tf Ui-o Co

0^*0 O l^ xJLc U

U^JLsolS

t
j .xixs. !^ JJ! JLJ!

Jo ^ Jo iC^cuJJ ^
OJ5;
U ij^ ij ^o
U=>! xi!
Supplement. 369

iuo'iiii yJUJI j *JLc (jaJiJ! ^JiJt O l

*-Ji U^I! (iLJ! VJ'JLS. B!! Us JJ

vs^' ^ Ki> r.

x!
AS,

.3 -bLSjJJj iU^I a, ^5 U

^ *Ji* xolkJUJ! iUUJl Sj

Arabic Grammar.
870 Supplement.

yi it

&XAA oU
syu iJjLLj so^U5 J,!jt

*aU0|j fetyitt
Supplement. 871

U x^S
u, JJJ

i
CT
l sJoUJl ^ Js^>

L>t>t
xJJ ii>-^J^ Ip
^> oLa-f^-J V

^b ^1^ ^5^X5
J
JNJ> ^5^

&.J5

jj

See Lesa. 34, 4.
372 Supplement.

^H jS'waJ

Letters,
Invitations.

*!jsAlI ^^L-JI iCcLJi r
oUJ!

CT

^ XcUaJli ii

J |jJb
Supplement. 373

Js

>iLol

!

^ iJoLc vc

>J Lo

Private letters.

L,
374 Supplement.

yCi O i

&UJ| (TJ-^ xU^XJ! dU ,.000 Lo!

fJ*ST ^'u^x Luis

w* r
b|
r
L^| jj>

Business letters.

3!>J!
Supplement. 875

xLjij *x* u, vj|^> UJ Ojj
f&4
SJ^UU! vJuoJ J^o US' Ifil3 fc

o>Lo

ULi iJu* U I^L-jS
!

Ut to!

! XOJ Pt

ci jo j,t

yac.

, yu.Jt j sicljli or o^. u

cr -j< "^ e.
cr
376 Supplement.

^y^U! goLJl L

,Xjl_xXj LxSy^io Lo! o>j*J *!jxs^l! u-o>-L, xOu v

^'I J03 lJ fc

U
U r^^ J^ o 5

Uu ut v3Lb!

L^J? j,^ I J

U

Receipts, Leases etc.

^ L,
Supplement. 377

XJl
tJ^ B^LJI olSjf ^ o yCi 8,^13
ii

Mv Ki~ xTt IT

r..

-XS^LS
^ o^Jls-

*I
c^ tf
^Jya it
jtll

If.,

Jl Jaiis

-tf. "$ J*j!>
378 Supplement.

^Otf Q U*i[s 'AsLaaA
y+1 x

vil ail

'^J j&S* . . . &Lw . .

JdJl

JJLJt
^l,! ^ IAT *J' fe j^> vj wel^l
l KUi it KJuuxit o ^ XJUxUt

,**

ft]
_^P (
Supplement. 379

,4)JU

-
Jl ^1

9
_->

iLo^UJl iU
380 Supplement.

*-J!

(iJJ iuU 8

1JJ> J^ Ui/

Jail

31- ^!
381

Vocabulary
of words (arranged according to roots) in the
Exercises and Selections in Part II.

NB. The vowels in brackets after a verb indicate of the
2nd radical in the Imperf. vn. verbal noon. n. pr, proper
= =
name.

1

.
particle of interrogation.
-E
^0-o
IV. to let

0^ ,
X. to hire

tJot (with negative) never. s.s*t and
;L>] reward, price,
o-o o- o s
plur. j>[ needle. hire hireling.
8jj ^x>!
> 10 o ,s OE
Ibrahim, Abraham. Jo-1 period, death Jo-^
f*S>jj|
'
9
for (the sake that
Jo j camel (coll.).
o e. o
of),

60 S-o J*>1 for the sake of.

JJ son
KAJ daughter, girl

fern.
^X>| one
os 2 -s
v-)!
(jj|) father -(jr^i fatherly. ULJ sunday.
j )&
f n. pr. of the court-
(u) to take, get (with
fool of Hamn Arrashld. imperf.) to begin to HI.
-E to blame VIII. to take for
Jji (a)
to refuse. 6 o E
-s oneself vn. *X>I taking
Jt (i) to come with CJ to O ,-
Jc>U conception.
bring o !
following.
'=>] V. to be late fern.
-- f>\
yi II. to move V. to be
0, 0-^ plur. other
jS>\
influenced o z
^i plur.jli'l
and j*s>\ end
6--- last,

ruins, antiquities iJji'U
c to the last man.
notable matter.
382 Vocabulary.

S-o G 6 .02
plur. s>=>l and wO I hare.
o <,"" s ->
brother o>->t plar. plar. lion.

sister.
_ O-E jo*! captivity all,
o! II. to discipline V-JOi
o of
-s. entirely ^-y! prisoner
training ^^ trained, war.
S - (a) to be afflicted V.
cultured ^0! of good 9 ^
training. to vex oneself
V
O? H. and IV. to transmit,
carry out, accomplish. Alexandria.

j when,
since (conj.) &J 3] o , os
'at that time. (^| plar. 9Uwt name, (see

behold! when, if- the Ismailia (a

then. quarter of Cairo).
o , o

.ol to permit (with UJ)
- IV. stall.

- ,* 6
to announce X. to ask Jwot X. to root out J-
G &
o
permission oo| permission origin
_ Xo5 altogether.

- O0l ear. horizon.

& IV. to injure (a58vn|0 sir

damage. my master.

October.

^-
,1 n. to date. ,..
JJ'f II. to assure V. to be
V OC ^jfr

assured.
plur. o^l^t earth, land.
-,E GOB ^t,
,
(a) to be sleepless vn. J* J (n) to eat vn. J*l J^U
.Vj
food.
G,o
clerus -
u^jA^I
oc
arnants, albanians. Of the definite article.
Vocabulary.

fern. plur. )*! yesterday.
who, which.
t II. to hope V. to con-
AJ| (a) to become accustomed G ,E r, ^^.

to II. to edit - III. to
aider JwJ plur. ^U T hope.
c
be familiar with Jj] rf (a) to be safe IV. to
G.~ G >i.
plur. Obit and O^Jt thousand believe (in v-J) VIII. to rely

book.
on Q^t safety iolot

pain. O
I*-!
O r oZ 2 -oS reliability, deposit yyt
^U ! a German J.U German
I

- ,-2
true, Emin (n. pr.)
Loll! Germany.

ij a god SI God, Allah.
believer
Q*^ a reliable
person.
O c ,

^X| to
- unto until.
5 E
jl i| and that.
> jt Q!
l!
or (in an alternative).
S - -s ,|if-^]ifnot,else-^|-i
mother
l{ |U! before (prep.).
at only o !
^] except that.

U>! as for.

.] truly, verily LJJ only.
emperor.

to command, (with accus.
j*l (u) - -to*i<
of the person and i_J of the JAnatolia,Asia Minor,
"
OoE , ,%
oE -oS
thing) jA \
plur. y !^ 5

>o! fern, cio! thon L4Jui
9 >
o>oc
command; plur. .^x! matter
G E yon (dual) ^t you (plur.).
y>l Emir, Prince . E Got
rJ! in. to be friendly
G E
^f
jA^J Prince of the amiability amiable
(j***-^
"
S G . o G
faithful imperial ...L*oj plur. fjJj man
^_5jjyt
- -
G >i* G^ , o

y>Lc an official. woman.
884 Vocabulary.

- (j;j^J ^5* that iB >
j*bo] English (coll.)

English (adj.). c>! (Jot i) II. to strengthen.

V. to be slow
Suj plur.
5' "" *
JU4 and vessel.
^I3
{
where

V. to equip oneself
- fem '^- 5
< with 8 8n -) what

o.o^
equipment.
Ji^l
* ^ ^ ^
H. to greet
- jil plur.

Jlit family.population^orthy

- t welcome -
UJ* with, through, in ^b
ability, worthiness.

without
o ! Ui since <conj.).

Ijlj
Europe. pope.
C -L 60 G,^
XSjl factory.
rO plur. ,lj I well.

-
g8 e gjf para (a turkish com.).

jl n. pr. Aug-usta.
0*S
^^
/.
Paris-
G^
I instrument, machine Oj) to be bad (jig
mis-
- ^
fem. beginning fortune.
4s '
first,

? the day before

yesterday
- Juthe first * (u) to decide.

il VII. to break out.

...1 CM il) to come (of time^
1 (a) to seek (with
j- O ^ G
^ plur. l^ and ^ sea,

a t and si^i ah !
river (the Nile),
s
^. steam , c.L
<ju place of refuge.
Vocabulary. 385

. low (in price). OLflj'j oranges (coll.).

JJR avarice
= -
^ 1
.
avaricious.
2 j
jj
in. to leave
'~j^\
yesterday.
Jo V. to be scattered Jo
O 2 i - Jo cold J,L cold (adj.)
-
escape ^ Jo ^ it must be.
powder.
fJo VUL to begin tJy^o
beginning, elements j j* (u) to come out.
Q
jtjOj elementar. to move about, be restless.
5-kjJ

J to IV. to
^ (u) lighten

full moon. send forth lightning ,_
o o
<P
Jo an extraordinary thing. lightning.
- - - 0,0
^o in. to bless Ki'-j pond.
Jjo substitute ( ^ Sjo
' Berlin.
O o.
instead of iujo suit of
clothes.
^xj n. pr. Barmecide.

Jo body. G - o j

KS> J space of time.
tJo to appear, seem good - o - o j

Go . 5 . - ...LCwd garden.
^Jo Bedouin (coll.) (j:*
Jo

Bedouin
J^} VII. to take pleasure in
(adj.) iLplj plur. O > o *

contented.
j|_jj desert.
- -

g courage JJj brave.
OiXj (u) (J^2H) to strive.
io II. to bring good news
J land ioj plur. t^^ o
X. to rejoice t:"*-* and
'

desert, plain .
^i! o outward,
external. ^Lio n. pr.
UTT*-''-?
human.
o -- 9 -

wl^j diploma i^j^ creator
~2 -
yaj IV. to see.

^5ji innocent. <**j (u) to stamp.
Arabic Grammar. 25
Vocabulary.

*zi some (3 to 10) & tyL early, in the morning
'
o.. JS

plur. *jl*ccu wares. Ju _jj? n. pr. Abu Bekr.
*- *-
t r
Jdxj hero Julioj idleness.
tJo (i) to weep (over Q*) vn.

IV. to conceal within
^.ybj
o -
^jku belly.
Ju but, rather.
5 ,
viiou (a) to send.
Jo V. to be wet through.

JoLj (u) to be distant VIII.
*-b nightingale.
G o>
to remove ^Xiu distance
G .. o.,

Jyj*J far, distant Joo
plur. Q>>-*J-? land
after (prep.) sJou after-
O c - O . native XjvXLJ the natives.
\

wards J Oots after (conj.).

j one, some, another (see Jb (u) to reach II. to make
Less. 43, 8).
o - to reach vn.
jb suddenly,
^b delivery sum
^JLy>
hatred. of money.

JJb mule (coll.). ^b? piebald.

j to put to the test
-
LiJ vn. to be desired. (u)
TTT, to be anxious about
xXJb (Persian) thin cotton
lur m}Bfortune.
material.

ox. finger-tips.
yb

(a) to remain. IV. to seaport.
^yb
G
retain 9Ub stay, life
p i ur. and
Gs - G o

,<w and X-Jb remainder. j son and
G ^^
Bey. plur. oUo daughter, girl.
Vocabulary. 387

(i) to build VIH. to o Beyrout.

build for oneself 5**J plur.
(go i) to sell - vn.
'
G, C.E G,
j /md ^ build- and F-t*
jju plur. w^

vag (
: sLo on the (Turkish) Bey.
ground of.

explanation, proof
cheerful.
J clear ^ between

fine, brilliant.
bile.

j V. to take possession.
6 -os tiU Lo woe to thee!

plur. v-JljJ? door,
o (a) to follow, belong to
gate
G --
u) to reveal
- IV. to v - to P urette ~ H P lnr -

G ,o 6- -

^L*J'I follower iuuli' plur.

post.
issue, consequence
G- ,

Kiu buffet, bar.
.o tobacco.
>j police.
I
O

,-0' straw.

_jjLo piano. - *
-..
1

business L5j^
^Lf "'
oL (c>cu a and i) to spend the 6 -

business (adj.) f>& plnr.

night plur. o G 9 t

house. merchant.
jlsp
- s .
-
.-:

to become white *& under (prep.) J,Lx^
lower.
- '
white tinner .

soft, delicate.
- tinning'
(u) to leave, give up -
beer " ;
3 n. pr. TurkB.
388 Vocabulary.

j thermometer. fig (coll.).

- o s
ninth. revenge ^ jl
to take revenge on.
j to become tired IV. to
G - - O -o firm, sure.
weary >_^*J' P lur - ^*^^
" Pleiads (stars), candlestick
weariness tired. yy
o -o,
j misfortune. fox.

J u) to repent.
during
- c ,Lii|
two -
Oji' mulberry (coll.).

second xoli' a second.
u) to long for.
^sti (,*)jJ'
Vocabulary. 389

""

v-jji plur. u.
>Lo garment. (i) to run, flow, happen
IV. to carry out vn.
OX. Go - G -- _
j
G s -
current (month).
L*J>- giant,
powerful. i - OC
o , , e ,
p- plur. 5fj>S part.
J^*>- plur. Ol*>- mountain.
G..C, ,
island
j_p- plur. jjUs" (also
cheese.
n. pr. of a palace near Cairo)
> corpse.
- -
^ijii Algeria jtp-
w> (i) to be new, exert one-
butcher.
self V. to be renewed

^j=>- grandfather
- !X> very
respectable.

G
reward, payment.
new.

V. to acquire information
wall worthy. G ,
^JwX>

spy.
strife,

(u) I. and VI. to dare
oar.
boldness,

jar.
body,

V. to dare, n. pr. Ja'far.

-
n. to tempt, try. follow-
to make; (with
&> *

bud. ing imperf.) to begin to.
plur. (*tj> s -K
Geography.
wound.

(i) to dry.
plur. journal.
hard, rough.

e -> V. to drink in draughts.
> (i) to be exalted IV. to
OjS* excavating. G
G.o , show honour- J^i> exalted.
v5ij~7*- journal, announcement.
390 Vocabulary.

G ->o ,

X. to have a thing j_^$*s>- crowd, public.
brought. g GS G-o..,
Q> and &is>- demon ***=
v>d> (i) to lash II. to bind
Go G , ,
garden mad.
(a book} JJb- plur. O>Ls-

G
company - ^L> plur.
> to be ready II. to equip,

mosque union, as- 9s o
r
G . .o ,

sembly. prepare
high school.
camel
a) to be ignorant

beauty XJu.-> n. pr. very ignorant.

sentence, sum total : firmament.

wholesale. IV. to answer,
Vocabulary. 391

corrrespond plur. (i) IV. to love vn.
6, oS *"*S - * O ^

answer. and x^ love vy*J>
O - OS
plur. <
JL.js-1 friend, beloved
o!_^> steed &>>>- excellence i. - E
o - , >~ o c the poets)
(in >^>t more
J^>- (elative

excellent.
loved ioj^ beloved (fern.).
t ink.
u) to act wrongfully

towards (j*) HI. to be
Abyssinian.

neighbour to j^-t" tyranny pi ur Jlls- pregnant.
.

'

s -
jls- -plur. Q'^^T*- neigh- jj> until, so that.
G , -
bour >'
j!>:? neighbourhood. o> (u) to incite.

to be allowed ^s> ( u) to make the pilgrimage
jL> (j>>- u)
VI. to exceed. 2 - 2 -
- - vn. <s^> _L>- pilgrim
cb*. (^>s* u) to be hungry
n. pr. al-Hajjaj,
o^
p jJ hunger jjL= governor for the Caliph
c
Abd
hungry. al-Malik.

(u) to conceal.
iiL>- (v5^> u) to ramble about.

Plur.
/\& jewel. j^ stone j^" lap s^^
room.
G , * O
?- i) to come vn.
,

Jc^ plur. Q^^" partridge.
it. 2 -
vXs> (n) to limit *Xs- plur.

P^r. LJ>^.C> pocket.
boundary up
o
Gizeh (near Cairo). to J>jJsJ- iron.

*"
> J
II. to narrate to V.
plur. iji^> army.
to relate VI. to converse
'' * i - S

century. plur.
892 Vocabulary.

narrative, conversation
-* , G, ,
burning.

^*^>- beautiful, also n. pr.
plur. v_Jjy> letter (of the
alphabet), particle. beauty.
Vocabulary.

00 , !..

j*a5 anguish L*os>- i\i to Ka-Ji=> truth -
make oneself comfortable. real.
O
(u) to happen IV. to wisdom *yi>- plur.
O > >

get (money) &j*x>- acquire- (,IX4X>- Persian) ruler,
O
ment (ie) J^oL5> governor, judge ~x>

result products. government, court

-iteS" (u) to appear, come physician, wise -

II. to make ready III. to court.
converse with IV. to bring
(i) to relate IH. to
presence
presence (also used as a title) imitate AjLs> narrative,
story.
present, ready,
J> (u) to loosen, settle, inhabit
railway station.
VH. to be loosed
(i) to smash. entrance (of a period of time)

z=" happiness. ^bLs> a thing allowed
W rf 2 ,-
surround. 0^2^ -
(u) to plur. place

name quarter (of a town)
jj| a of the Caliph

Omar. belonging to a place.

(a) to keep, guard vn.
(i) to swear X. to
make to swear.
Mohafaza
shaving,
(province of Egypt).

dark black.
solemnity, festival.
O , oc
V, to be verified - X. P lar - I dream.
g.
to deserve, be due sweet J_jJb> present,
($>
plur. ,*^- right, troth gift sweetmeats.
394 Vocabulary.

death fever u> (<>5>) III. to tempt
-
^J?
j o> si VHI. to be cunning X.
typhoid fev^r.
to be impossible i3-=-
s^" (a) to praise vn. JC"
> -o O = - j power, year ^^5> (prep.)
9
O^S~t n. pr. vX*^ n. pr. o
round about 0^> plur.
n. pr. O -oS
Ol^5>! condition, state
to become red \ red O , - i -

AJLs> condition ^Ls> (adv.)

immediately UJls- as soon
J*T (i) to carry, induce to
as .> present
Q>) - vn. ] - 5 o -

cunning JJ_*^ exchange
bearer, pregnant
artful
porter.
it is Unavoidable.
to protect.
^J? (i)

fr rf
rys- (i) I. and VHL to contain.

OyjL> wine shop.
xx5>-
D where, since.
X^l>- wheat.
j> (-c>) H. to confuse V.
1
J+ O ..

Us- (u) to bend. to be- confused s- 1

^
<5- ,
J^ (
T ^>)
'
VIU. to need perplexity o^Lo quarter
, O , < G , , of a city.
(^j)
-t
x>Ls- plnr. ob-L=>
time.
and ^J!_j^>- need, matter.

U. to let live, greet
axis.

IV. to make to live X. to
SjL> possession. O - - O I -

be ashamed o
o o-
court-yard. life
^ys- quarter (of city),
3 -

) IV. to surround - settlement, tribe -
iyp*

wall.
serpent \*s- animal.
Vocabulary. 395

S- -
Us* (a) to conceal Vm. to
*Jtj3- cupboard
'hide oneself.
gazine, shop.

e~> rascal.
loss.

9 , ,

,*3- m. to get news IV. to >^*isi> WOOd.
inform VHL to test 2 '

O, ., <3 , o 2 (ji> (n) to concern
jC> plur. jUi>i news.
Jo, OS, special
j^r> bread
baker.
jL=>

to strike, trample on. specially. special.
(i)

-
(i)

-
to seal, close - ^ VIH.

compendium.
to shorten

seal seal-ring.
^-o. g
plur. ...Ux3J> eunuch.
^> (i. u) to serve X. to
0,0
take into service. xAXi- i- n. to dye.
o
service servant to become green
[oLs>
o^^
'L=> maidservant. green
S vegetables.
^jJo> (Persian) Khedive, prince B
'

writing.

ruin

(, te go ou' - IV. to

out vn. -3j3-
bring
"
G ^
HI. to risk (OJ
-
> tribute - -, ,L> outside. <>
.
-'

danger jH3- plur.
dumb.
heart, condition.

VIII. to pierce, cut
oo- VIII. to snatch for

through vn. >. oneself.
896 Vocabulary.

O e, ,

light (in weight), fern.
(j**i*> five

fifty
(a) to be hidden (from
fifth Thursday.
c) IV. to hide.
he who holds back
V. to use a toothpick Satan.

III. to quarrel with
J^> and ,>*> friend, also
VHL to choke (intrans.).
n. pr.
(Persian) sir (used of
> canal. Christians).

(a) to fear II.
H. and IV. to free
to frighten O^j> and
V. to free oneself.
XilJtf fear.
sincere worship
honest. Li- ( -,>> u) to betray, deceive.
t

III. to have intercourse
CfcxJ* disappointment.
with VIII. to be mingled.

III. to disagree with, ,L> (jx3-)
VIIL to choose

contradict V. to remain Jo -

behind VIII. to go up and r^> good, better.
OS,
down iiU> succession thread pU> tailor.

successor, Caliph - r. to

successor -- v_il>
J^> plur. i3_^> horse (coll.).

other than -
KaJLi^ breach
.3- (/**>) II. to pitch a tent,
of law odx^ different
to break (of night)

(u) to create.
plur. ,U> tent.

^> (u) to be empty VIII.
to be alone. AJ!O plur. v-Jt^ beast of burden.

*i wine. [. to arrange flight.
jLOJ
Vocabulary. 397

blood
SjcO invitation plo induce- j.O
(
Vocabulary.

uJ plur. jAJta
Dinar (a gold o (jjO plur. Diwan,

coin). Divan.
o,
3 (u) to approach uij S
O plur. iL medicine.
, 02
world ^ol lowest. JO cock.

time, fate. JO and O religion

O in. to crush the day of
dark-coloured.
judgment.
c
plur. y> misfortune.
wolf.

O (.i-jO)
sickness
, , o , ,

oO (a) to slay s?
Jb David.
slaughter.

(^jO) (u) to
io revolve ,!o Ji-3 languid.

plur. jjO house plur. uO
00-
land -JO monastery
(a) to keep, save.

5jjO turn sjfo plur. -Jl^O
(i) to flow, shed (tears).
circle --
jfj^o period.
o , j^O (u) to mention, remind
director, editor Oo
jjJwo
V. to remember 3^ and
xjjjjwo Mudiriya (Egyptian
' 9 '
i/

province). ^y'o remembrance jtX>
O, O.
-
<-> kingdom XjJLxit JsJjJ! remembrance S^stAi'
certificate, ticket.
the Turkish Empire.
S ,

io
(jjO u)
to last
plo
u ^o (j/3) aroused also

n. pr.
so long as 'u*jto always.
ti)Ji3 fem. tiUJ' plur. i^^J^I
,^O on this side of, before,
that, those.
without (also Oo, O , ,

beware! sin, fault wuJ tail.
Vocabulary. 399

Oi->
3 (a) to go vn. n. pr. of month
v_. a
^y 9

GS-J G
w6 gold. square j-?^ J-ys a square
mile.

30 fern. otJ master, possessor
o , II. to train up.
j
(j^j)
(with gen.) olo plur.
j (i) to lament.
ol<3 person ^J o|i3
one day. ^^?-p (a, i, u) to weigh more
than.
- ?
stall.
to return, withdraw
->-; (i)
'III. to look through IV.
G ) >
^53 C*f3^ u) to taste IV.
-
to give back return.
^_^;
to make to taste
VIII. to tremble.
taste.

plur. its*
(j*\j head,beginning,promontory
<3 ^
ft
chief, captain.
^ (u) to beg, hope
request.
to see, think good
IV. to show VI. to comfort
j and
appear and A sight spacious CA^> A
v-^s-j f
to.
welcome!
aspect. G ^

2 .. **> plur. i5'u>j stage (of a
^Jj lord U^_, perhaps.
G u G ,e>S and
*NJ, plur. Jjjf gain.
journey) '^j
journey.
,o. > i. *
-
Ja?P (u, i) to bind. T; compassion -^>>H
O...OE G,o the all-compassionate i.e. God.
ijOj! fern. four
j-Jji
- -oEo-o j o-
permission, permit
glx^,^! |_jj Wednesday
G . 00} G-oB
ji . fourth 5CJ, plur. ffU.I

a fourth JJSl tender.
400 Vocabulary.

4j (u) to give back, answer, o^j I., and IV. to thunder.
refuse.
E>, (a) to pasture III. $o
S0j IV. to make bad 9^0,
bad. pay attention to
clj
+O, rains.
shepherd A.^ subjects

J^j III. correspond with (of a kingdom) Cr?r*
o_ .,

pasturage.
IV. to send Ju*^ plur.
(a) to wish ,t)
-
"*, (for
> "5 } *

Jo^ message i3>*^ P
lur -
G^O)
'i^f-j
wish,
O .> J

Jw-^, apostle. c' loaf.
, ,

halter.
^j-wj
in spite of.
(u) to anchor.
l*^j
1 -
j (a) to lift up, take away
ijij (u) to sprinkle.
r. o } VIII. to raise oneself
K*^,
Os^ majority (of a child)
"3 J 5 c a raising _*i>J; Turkish
Jy^ upright (X^^Si
=
title ^31 ; exalter, leader.
Harun ar-Rashid
one who leads aright. III. to accompany
fSpj xis^
o * ^j

9'ui, rope. company ( $
companion.
lead i bullet.
(i) to be tender, soft.
jj
n. to set with precious
N^J
stones. V^
'neck.
III. to observe x*J^

IV. to suck (of a child).
oj Jo, (u) to sleep, lie down
"5 , ,

-^ (a) to be content IV. ol^, sleep.

to make contented, satisfy II. to patch &jiij a note
jJ,
VI. to come to terms with.
(short letter).

^i>, II. refresh. j*5 ,
(u) to write.
Vocabulary. 401

* > it is understood among
to ride vn.
(a) ^_^j
9 ft a , oLx wish, will.

f*i]j plur. ^Q^, passenger
9 '-o- ; (3j) II- to terrify
ship. > o ..

; , terror.
centre.

(u) to run.
Rome,
VI. to be heaped up. r., (a) I. and VIII. to be
'
9- -

whole, totality. sufficiently watered JSilg)

narrative, piece (in theatre).
plur. -Lo^ lance. - q-
j, Mejidi = 22 piasters
sand.
30 paras.

-o_j pomegranate (coll.).
Plur. cultivated

AJ (i) to throw land.
projectile.
9 ~>
i plur. {y-*^; monk.
o the Ezbekiyg .a square
Joj^S!
pledge jt&j pledged. in Cairo).

^5 1
u) to be
plur . customer.
9 a-
u) to ? awa7 or ct,; sower,
C'J fe3-' -s.j\
t *'* /
plantation
astray II. and IV. to permit o,, ,
to rest VIII. and X. to * field,
planter

rest ic rest, comfort
t blue name of a
9
L>
jj plur. ^
wind ^^|i
vexatious.
. about to (do something)

*^>j \, plur,
* '
o .

itJ: earthquake.
odour
^j^j spiritual.
- , 9 - 0$ 9 - .

IV. to wish - MJ plur. Q^f time
o^j
>\j (Oj^,)
time.
Arabic Gi 26
402 Vocabulary.

Go, i

5>-, modesty, asceticism. P lur vW-~' cause.
-

o, G oE ., ,,
plur. flower L$j Saturday.
j jl-^ji
> obx> J -9
Jt^ll 5tx>Li! the Azhar J '~
j*+^*-* September.
mosque in Cairo.

n. to marry ;
*JU*X~ praised be He (i.e. God).
Go - --
husband - &: vdfe. ^ wild beast **^ fe -

Go- G ,

Oh (O.:) V. to take as provision ^ seven 1^ seventh
G ,
Oh plur. week.
provisions. jAjLwj

,5; (, 5 : u) to visit ,U visit (i, u) to precede (jf**-

,* lie. precedence UuL* earlier.

j (3jy a, u) to cease - IV. P lur -

to make to cease.
G, ~, G =
(for aJyyw) plur. oui
.

lady x*-w fem.
, A
i) to increase VIII. sixty '

,

to increase : n. pr.
G '
,

-s,L>w ,
and plur.
G,-
SOb increase excess
curtain.
G ,,
- 'O^- G, s ,
Jo tj bidder -- 0>
t^x. yoLi!* prayer carpet

auction.

II. to enter (in a register).
( i) to remove. 6 })
Tj jjj

II. to adorn.
plur. >^ prison.
!^ (^j)
hot.
>--n n. pr. of a woman.
o , S ,

a) to ask (after ^c), beg dam, stoppage.

tj question, request
- 'J, s i x th.

beggar.
Vocabula 453

_-~ (Persian) head, chief. foot (of a hill).

(u) to rejoice
- and , IIL to trayel _
- _
\r joy
^ plur. J !
r ,
dining-table -
secret

*.***
--

glad.
^ couch -

plur. ^ ambassador.

low, under (part.).

o^^o' to dress. ^
plur. .. j*. ship.
to
go to pasture in
p* (a)
the morning II. to cause - - -
to go etc. Jaa** (u) to fall IV. to make
.- to fall - VI. to fall one after
fw street. another.

(Turkish) Your Excellency
- IV ' to intoxicate '

happy, also n. pr.
j O
n. pr. fern. Js^ll to dwe11 ' be
fore-arm.
oo o - o s II. to quieten
ji^v plur. ,Lx*vl current price, o- ,
i^jC*- dwelling, rest
rate. o
to dwell ,.jdx> dwelling
(a) to exert oneself

plur. L^a exertion. .lXw inhabitant,
404 Vocabulary.

> * * oo,
O i o ,,

quiet plur. (j\.SlXv and AJ Utf*
j^w gUw
knife. at your service.
Oo , O
to plunder, rob Q<* butter fat (adj.).
(u) ^rt*
,. 'GO
method. U* II. to name ^| plur.
, oS O - o

plur. x2=ULv! weapon. 9U*I name, noun iLfw
heaven.

(u, a) to flay, p } ur .
tooth, age
-
Sultan of
plur. { -j*y^L* O 1 "
point

imperial. lance- A-M*I Sunnai.e. Moslem
tradition.

L* (a) to be sound II. to
Q_^** and oljJL^
i-* plur.

band over, greet (with Joe) 2

VIII. to take over
year
- ^^ yearly.

p^U
o, , +

peace, greeting &X~
O , o
^p- n. to make easy
good condition p^**! Islim
easy.

safe, also n. pr.
- n. pr.
^ be
u) bftd>

i
n. pr. fern.
^U-JL
n. pr. Solomon.

^L (u) to forget n. to j~* misfortune.
comfort.
2 .
square.
A-*" poison.
to become black
to HI. to
^-
make
(a)
a
permit
generous present to. black >Xy~ plur.

table-doth.
master HJycw, lady
r* (a) I. and VIH. to hear

authority.
IV. to cause to hear vn.
Vocabulary. 405

} j~<
wall (of city)
a^*- Sura l& and *Ul Syria, Damascus
(of Koran). g .
*s ,
,

or
^*Ui Syrian.
x^j^*/ Syria.
*f- *-
condition
lash,
^Li ^Ui
concerning.
-

hour. (.& youth.

(a) to be satisfied.
O^* particle indicating futurity

distance.
be entangled _
u) to drive (cattle), window.
O , <3 ^o
lead
^^ o s
plur-
,
^l^*"' *^i IV. to resemble
doubt.
ii

market ,)* driver.

plur. different.
III. to make equivalent

rest, remainder. (n) to strengthen, bind
-
VIII. to strengthen oneself
o , j Ga o
plur. v_5kXAv sword. ajui violence ^X>-X
'a s
cigar. plnr. *5JcilJ violent, strong.
, o' o .
i evil
to flow.
jJ sparks yyi
i) bad.
406 Vocabulary.

,J-i (a) to drink, smoke vn. fc IV. to make known jui
<5 O ) 9 ,
hair -oui barley
^cLa
v-yi u;!yi drink, wine poet.

V_JJM*X
and drink
\~)^J*A , distract

(} _
-
vj|yi plur. oUyi stocking. from ur.

business, work.
VI. (literally to be wide
j-i
of the breast) to rejoice. compassion.

-Xi (u) to wander about. i (i) to heal,

u) to cleave, be unpleasant
:yi plur. -bjj^i condition.
9 - <>- _ f

brother *J
& plur. ^ jl^A street

2 o.
misfortune, hardship
i legal.
i&? reddish.

honour plur.
Oyi II. to V. to

miserable.
be honoured O-& honour o
o (iUi (u) to doubt doubt.
tiXxi
v_ noble, exalted.
ftjj^i

^50, So,
X& (u) to thank _Xil thanks.
east - eastern >J o 6 , o
^yi jj.-i
plur. jL&ftl form, vowel-
sunrise.
l_3.r

^& Vin. to subscribe to (with l&i (u) to complain '(of
^}.
s -
Jwil (pass.) to dry.

companion.
^00- (u) to smel] .

VIII. to buy sun.
^5j& 9tyi
purchase.
to embrace, surround
5
r
.
' *'>- (u)

coast.
j_y-Si plur. ^bt^M Vin. to contain (with c ^c)
<3o- <5--
v_^oti; plur.
i.J^xxi tribe, people. uWi union ^U-i north
Vocabulary. 407

2 -. o,
left side &+J& A*X the shiitee.

northern. character.
plur.

grey.
salon.
i> (a) to witness HI. to
* * *
IV. to be or do in the
see, take into consideration
G ^ .,
G, , O
JsJ>U morning morning
SoL^i evidence j*-W-

G } t o'o ,
beautiful.
plur. Oj^A witness ^Mjto
Co
honey.
j*j^ patience.
VIH. G s G
tui to be renowned
x^ 5
correctness, health

jfrft plur. and

month VIII. to keep company
renowned. G
with one another u^>Lo
L*i VIII. to desire, wish.
G ,oS O o-
oL^I and v*"^ 5
master,
A (j>i) in. and X. to ask
plur.
possessor, friend.
advice IV. to indicate,
desert.
advice advice. \j&
^ rock, peak.
VIII. to yearn
CJ^A) O , oS
-
concerning.
plur. ^t longing.
name of a month. (u, i) to go out from
^ G > >

i (i) to roast. >
plur. ^a breast.

i (z-.f*" a) to wish ^if" to ^ e Bincere ~ JI -

* oS V- - > to confirm VI. to unite
plur. l-yit thing ^H_^ ~"
a little.
sincerity

*& old man, sheykh sincerity, friendship
o <~<

< -
j
voLo sincere --
rat. Hermon. (JfjJs^s
op
plur. ils^Xxat friend.
M satan, devil.
408 Vocabulary.

HI. and VI. to collide. (i) to crucify

name of a street in Cairo.
IV. to persist in.
j*a
(u) to be sound II.
r,**o II. to declare expressly and IV. to repair, reform
c. , G
V. = passive
^y obvious. -tlo adjustment
f^
- - - O - O - * - > , *
to cry out *J honest
-ryo (u) plur.
-^o O
<r^**
J - - O

and 4-tj-o cry. Saladin &

interest.
-blyo path.
U> H. to pray l&o (or
(i) to spend, use V. to o i ,
v-Jj-o
dispose of VII. to remove '>**>) prayer.
.
Mutasarrif (a n . to determine.

turkieh official)
-
governmental district (in
Turkey). OOLo strong, powerful.

difficult X ^o^
>
chest, box.
difficulty.
O- O

yua youth, smallness # ^jo (a) to make, prepare
0,0 ^
small. VIII. to ****
prepare
ULo IV. to hearken.
work KtUA plur. jju
art.
page (of a book).
Oo 0,oE ?>'
uj>0 plur. oLw^l and O^Xo
to become yellow, pale
* class, genus.
of yellow, pale.

n. to clap the hands.
X. to approve XJJUA* plur.
'
>
\&*o (u) to be pure, clear.
V*jLo misfortune
g
iUo deed (in law). accident.
Vocabulary. 409

O - o 2
plur. o!_^iot voice.
Jv& opposite.

i -
IV. to listen to.
./to (u) to injure VIII. to

soda. *
compel jf plar. j5yto
V. to imagine -
injury t>\j& damage
2 , >
picture, copy necessary.
(Sj)}?
picture.
* -
,

La (Turkish) gLa ^to (i) to strike, coin VIII.
a (gold) piastre. o o .

to be troubled ^-Jyto
blow.
u) to protect.

_Lo (^yo i) to cry out.
J^
^
' (i) to fart

,
,
C
-
V. and VIH.
lyto
r
~IV. to kindle.
jLo (JS-MO i) I.,
O O -
Oo.x> hunt. beast of prey.
to hunt. jW (3/0)
'
Sidon.
weakness

>

- (j^
i)

(with imperf.)
to become,
to begin to.
happen weak _ ^, plar
double
,

Jua (i) to err, wander from
path.
u) to correct
- JajU,
- _ m^
(i,
^ tQ gather
officer -i assemble.

ce-

hyena.
^ contents.
interior ^^^
unrest. j-Uo (^>to u) to shine IV.
to light.
f ,
IV. to lose.

afternoon - ^ ftdd _

plur. environs.
410 Vocabulary.

vLto (/ y) V. to feel oppressed plur. ji^b path,

need. fashion.

IV. to feed plur.
^*JP physician.

GO. 0,0,
^s*Jp cooking ^Jax'
kitchen.
(a) to pierce Jix

5-*b (a) to print vn. *--b thrust of a lance.

XJEAXXT nature ** ;jx b IV. to extinguish.

printing office.
.

&b uniform.
f*b m. to agree with VII.
v-^lb (u) to require, seek vn.
to cover oneself, be shut
G - - o.o G ,<, .

1 tVi in accordance with.
wOUb and xJLb 'O_*Hi/a
P.*
demand.
o ,

J^Lx^lb journal. ^lb (u) to mount, rise, go out
Go, to - VIH. to
(with j*)
,-y5\b milling.
examine (with J>*) X. to
Lilyb Tripoli. G.o .
get information about **JLb
jb (a) to throw down or out o .

countenance Jlb star (at
^Jyb prostrate. birth).

, ' , Go,
to be repudiated (of a
Ojb (u) to chase away O-b f (i)

woman) II. to repudiate
parcel.
IV. to set free, shoot
o >

(jijbj
deaf. bw absolute.

O-b side, place. to quieten oneself.
Ub]
, GO ,
v_b (u) to knock at IV. to ^b to desire -*-b
(a)

cast down the eyes greedinese.
O ), Go,
plur. > and b way - o II. to purify, clean.
Vocabulary. 411

"
s s
*'.- f
plur. uM^tjI? peacock. JJ& II. to give shade to Jci
G j

IV. to obey X. shade Jslax shady.
to be able to do (with accus.)
Ua IV. to become dark
iLcLb obedience Lxf* Go 3 G , ^

(xk oppression *^a
ilcLb* at your service G - ,
darkness *JLb oppressor
obedient.

j9& oppressed
u) to go round.
yb (u) to think, believe, esteem
)
IV. to be able to S .. G ,^

O^3 plnr. Q_^k thought.
do AJiLb power,

^*? (a) to seem, appear IV.
u) to be long II.
to manifest, show X. to
G , ,
and IV. to lengthen \^o get the upper hand j_j^*J
o Go,
length J*J>b long. appearance j^a back
Go> G- -

JjtL table. y$s and Sj-^ midday
1

G ,
5^ VII. to contain (with Jsc) r^u? external.

Jo fold Xcb enclosed.
^c (a) pass, to be anxious about

^o i) to be good, calm
SeUc woollen cloak.
G w ,
oneself vv^3 good
LkC in vain.

,j^b hail!
*** (u) to worship -
1> i) to fly IV. to G , i-
(jxb
G - Go, plur. ^**
slave iJ!

cause to fly Jub and j*b
G , os n. pr. kXow temple.
plur. bird.
jlxb!
e. VIII. to esteem, be ex-
G.o-
jib gazelle.
perienced tears
5 * --.i 8;-*^

juijb plur. tb^y witty person,
sjUc expression.
agreeable, comfortable.
412 Vocabulary.

n. pr. u* *Xe (a) to cease to exist, be
the Abbasids.
8 -oj deprived IV. to deprive
Osman Turks. 6 - -
of (with 2 accas.) r*^*
want.
L raging (of the sea).
^vXc plur. TivXc) enemy
I. and V. to be astonish-
^fc l^c beside.
ed at (with Q,) IV. to Go,
G ,
v^tXc sweet (water)
please v^ astonishment sweetness
G < -

v-jl^Xx: anxiety.

L^ orfv. wonderfully
to excuse V. to be
jtAc (i)
wonderful *-*^^ Go >

effaced excuse.
wonderful matter.
jAc
plur. v_AjL 3 . ,
i J-t arabs bedouins
(coll.),
$ (i) to be unable to do (with S S -oE
JjLc joi*.
pr. (3^^ an arab,
^e) _j^ :
plur. j^ old
a bedouin.
woman.
G >.

^ II. to do quickly X. to bride, young woman,

hurry J^ and iJL haste throne.
o s- ^

paid beforehand (i) to offer, give over,
communicate, happen to
adv. quickly. V. to interfere in VIII. to -
w ,
G 0-
iXc number IV. oppose breadth
(u) to coi\nt, (J&f-
to prepare X. to prepare 6 -

6 , - broad.
oneself O^Xc and BXe

number
G
JoJui numerous.
Oc (i) to know II. to inform
VI. to be recognised
VIII. to confess, grant (with
III. to be equivalent to, O r o,

correspond to 0*Xc justice
k_j) *j^w knowledge
O G 11- o t

oolfc good, pleasure.
just

arak -
temperate.
Vocabulary. 413

$>/> battle. Lac (jH*e) stick OL
rebellion.

t (i) to be powerful
Sjc ( a ^a u) to bite
<3

power valuable,
jjjc dear, IV. to support.

jc (i) to determine on (with to be thirsty.

dinner party. o.o - o,
(jkc) ^Vj^ -
&&LC turn, side street
II. to comfort. .
* -

plur. v_Abljc tender feeling.

n. to make difficult Ubc IV. to give VI. to give

difficult. to one another
SUacj gift
Joe II. to show honour to
troops GO <a , <j

l*h,r plur.
.L^tc bone t^^r
soldier.

excellent, extraordinary
honey,
greater part

perhaps.
chastity, trueness.
O , OS
plur. oUxc! herb.
c (u) to pardon (with Q*)
xc to be in J o O , ,
III. company
G * ~ * O o - _^ac pardon *-^Lc good
health.
with ayiXc fern,
yixc ten
- O
-- O o .
>
- ic to summon vXftc
o3j Ae. twenty.
(i)

O , oj O , j

AC V. to eat in the evening, contract Joic plur.
knot.

evening meal-time.
J*ftc plur. intellect

plur. -fi sparrow. intellectual.
plur.

chief city f
Acre
, o, OJOE
and ^xajtX^I t n. pr. of Caliphs. -.".
and JoO perhaps.
414 Vocabulary.

III. to treat (a patient). II to make general or uni-
o _
o .. ..

versal uncle (on the
to feed oJLc fodder ^c
father's side) **J| \^J^
manger.
o *> .>

cousin, wife public,
Jlc II. to hang up IV. to pj+c

kindle - V. to hold fast to universality (_^
'
' x*lc
S ,
(with ij), hang together, be
common people jLt and
S ,>
dependent.
public, general
lc (a) to know II. to teach
t generally.
IV. to inform V. to
Go O ) > VIII. to rely on.
learn *JLc plur.
'
f^f- science
O ., ^ , e. (i) to live long -+. life,
doctrine xa^tc. 3 * > Go * >

J*A Omar
<s
age ^x+e
mark *Jlc wise, learned diminutive of the preceding
O S , O , J C> o^ O
^Lc very learned Jbw 3j+c Amr j*lc flouriehing.
teacher.
f^** deep.
*Jic plur. ...^Jle world.

-4-c (a) to do, have effect
IV. to advertise, inform.
Q!C
IV. to hasten- VI. to transact
business with one another
SLe (u) to be high, loud V.

J+c plur. action, deed,
to. come near ^Lc high r>
S J
- os S district plur. 3U*
,Jkfc! highest, summit (J>c

high, loud, AH (n. pr.) workman- J^*x* manufactury.
S ~ > >

(jr^JLc.
exalted o-'1*^ (God)
rc from, instead of.
is exalted o^Lauc plur. t5L*x o O -

.A with oLLc obstinacy
highest aim.
, -

^^c on ...!
(Jc on condition obstinate.
that.
Vocabulary. 415

neok. i) to blame,
>

address (of a
o i_jic title, letter).
plur. ->**? feast

to concern, refer to
^f. (i)
Christmas.

VIII. to care for Stic pain
o- ..
shame, disgrace.
iulic anxiety.

i) to live V. to
iXfc (a) to impose a condition, G a ,

know III. to make covenant earn a living ij*
1
^ an(i
O o - 30 <5
'

V. to care for iLci^c Ufe A-jLc (pet
-Xg*
contract, epoch.
name (ji^c.) Ayesha (n. pr.
OLc (JjSi u) to return, become
- IV to make to return, of woman) J&LjM wages,
repeat VIII. to be accu-
O ..
plur. jjijLxx provisions.
fitomed <Jc return
cry, howl.
jk>tc plur. custom
Lc.
((^c i) II. to determine

plur. aloe wood,
stick.
(.jxi plnr. Q*^i and Q^*^

eye, spring *-*-^ specimen,
i3Lc (o_j_c. u) to take refuge
(with v-i). proof sick.
cj-^
to need, wish,
jlfc (j^e. u) vc after.

penknife.
si. to deceive III. to for-
II. to put faith in

family. y to breakfast -
lc G>e u) to swim |Lc year. breakfast ^ following

Q Lc
^X.j*) III and IV. to help
- dfty
_ to-morrow.
to ask for help

helper.
^ V and VIIL
oneself.
- to nom>i8h
416 Vocabulary.

v->. (u) to set (of
the sun) c- fresh.

<3 * "*
sunset west c (a) to be or become angry
^>jC- \-jC
g'o, O-o,
- western '. to make angry
*-?j foreign

land v^j^ P^ 1""' *v^ T!'o
strange, extraordinary Pl- O 1* covering.
o + *>

ujyw Maghreb, western land ':: , r
X. to ask pardon.
'O o _ O ^ - * jac
plur. Wjl** moor. ?:>".'.
*JLac. carelessness.
O
to sift.

i L and II. to twitter ..
xJLc
(i) to conquer
o ,, O
.c piastre. victory vJuc usual.
plur.

e-
(a) to make a mistake,
aim.
o,j be deceived.
AJ^ plur. O,i room. .-**
aU IV. to speak harshly.
IV. to drown. ---
IV. to bolt (a door).
O,o
c Gaza. plur. QUlLi youth.

abundant. dear.
jji
,, <5,o 2, 0o,
anxious.
iji plur. o^ji gazelle. j*i anxiety rj*x*

^ overwhehn.
t ^Q) to cover,
i raid
moraL he fainted

/*** (i) to be dark.
JLc VEH. to seize an oppor-
wash. *
J^*c

-ixc to cover
(i) to
*.
iuJU ,
.
.-Ac
, tunity
<5 - -
^ sheep (coll.)

iU-Ot booty.
he fainted.
Vocabulary. 417

X. to esteem unnecessary j? ULl? the first sura of the
S - s ^o
9Lsc song f*f. plur. Koran .- key.

rich. n. to seek (with or

(o X. to call for help.

3 (u) to rage ^iUs act of
.

u) to plunge. violence.
,0
i I. and V. to be Us sedition.
O *

absent, depart Ue
eo,
' sb&
^ii- youth (_^*9) girl.
absence v^^AC distant,
' j^s2
dawn.
X
hidden s_*oL& absent.
's
scrutiny.

J*c. (jAft)
II. to change V. O.o
and ~^Ua^ splendid.
to be changed j-sc
other
O , (, O *
/*-^ honoured.
than, not .* ,-j
(^T
s. 6 .
s
? '*'. '*
to flee ,tJ flight
^ (i)
without
j.jl j*e on the s
condition that. tix' eijcape.

garden, field.
y to ]ook ^ ^^^ '

f
U (^ i) to be cloudy. at (
_ comfort
.

6 -,- joy.
iuLc highest degree. -

to rejoice

Jand, and so, then - ^ 'V? f
(a)

_
- plur.

JQy

O5y heart. j VH. be
to single, alone
a , Oo.
V^AJ II. to crush. *3ji
a piece, parcel.
o o .
G -
-:
*?J6 (a) to *^ P lur U*!/^ -
horse, mare
open ^O3 opening,
o ,y G - j _
Plar - rider -
capture capture U^ Wj>\
^y3
Arabic Grammar. 27
418 Vocabulary.

G - JO, - - -

obiA* (upholstered) furniture. J*a3 (i) to divide II. to

iwo3 opportunity. isolate, cut out J^oi plur.
Go, G
c section, season
j> plur. p2J> branch,
tributary
(stream).
, ,, o j detail.
c 3 to finish (with Q*) IV.
silver.

to empty out, (

G , 3 IV. to make excellent
d empty. Go, G j>
J-02J plur. Ojxoa excellence,

U3 1II. to
II. to separate, isolate
leave V. and VIII. grace ^ ^Uas besides
Go, Gi,, ''"">
to separate difference kindness
fif J**i=aj
excellent.

,
S. 3 fear . *t 3 separation
*>23 (u) to cleave B-Ias religious

party, division feeling.

n P r of woman
ing of the hair. **^ - - -

, -, Go
rub.
*i (a) to make, do Jjp
(u) to
G *o
plur. (3l*l deed, verb.
oven.
plur. o |3l -.<if. -*.

cist viper.
j3i plur.
Frank, European (coll.)

Jis to lose VIII. to seek
Frankish, European. G o,
~j5Fjl
something lost >Jis loss
, O Gm O,,
G Jo*
french.
plur. &J^-*o3 OyiA* wanting, not on hand,

franc, jb plur. *U poor, needy.

3Jtt only.
roomy.
o

is
jurisprudence.
IV. to corrupt,

old Cairo. 3 (u) to let loose.
Vocabulary. 419

& V. and VLH. to think, ^ in U*s while.
Go
consider (with (5) ^Xs and IV.
e -c*' to pour
O-o
a Jo thought.
" ' G
plnr. jl&I i *'
QUOO flood ijajb interest
(on money),
plur. fruit.
e ,

j^-*i bad, ugly.

peasant. Oo-
-O grave.
philosopher.
(i) to seize (with j^),
/Jb dawn. receive VII. to
money
~ e o-
^ii a certain (person) - shrink jjioji seiture,
a certain (adj.). o - o-
O^ receiving of money Xxoo
,*j mouth.
handle.
0,o
cup. jLIiO captain.

to understand X. to -o (a) to receive, take up
(a)
^gi
II.to kiss HI. to correspond
get information about.
to, go to meet IV. to
oli (Oj u) to pass by, escape.
.advance to (with ^c.) VI.

oli (Oji) IV. to benefit, inform to meet one another X.
o- , j
to receive
ojJls plur. JoJ_jS profit. v3^*^ reception
O-o So
&JU5 south J^JJ southern
to acquire (with u>)
Jli (j_ji u) i. <,<*,><,*&
o*<
(J^j^i J^r'LJ-'f upper Egypt
(ajjlj) to save oneself.
o, -

X. to wake up - iJUxi tribe (of Arabs)

J^ before (prep.) ^Lo
x_ji above, on. G -

before (adv.) JjlS coming
^9 beans.
o -- o ,

(y) (only with genit. and (month etc.)
- i^^&i*** future.
Bufiixes) mouth.
420 Vocabulary.

Jcs (u) to kill III. to fight vn. reading,
sslji ol>*
O o , O ., Koran.
JJ3 killing
- Jwy3 killed. j-

J_JJ (u) to be near VIII.
s
(particle of strengthening o o

with the perf.) already to approach ^j* ne igh-
(with imperf.) sometimes.
bourhood near
to be able II. to O
jOo (i)

* '
~ shortly V*
determine value o ,E
j*Xs ,

o o ., G -
plur. ilo! and ^Jilsl relative
amount 5
oli' able

to do (with skiflf - oJU close
(Jo:).

Xs arrive U. to to LuJij about.
(a) to offer,

present V. to come forward,
G j > ape.

advance, precede |jOo
arrival *^Xi foot *0b ijS plur. ijijji (= -J^) piastre.

coming, next (month etc.) an d loan.

plur. l*X5 ancient
ji (a)
to knock (at a door).

r
!JO in front of.
VIn to marry _
to row "

century
- Sl^S spouse.

JJ (i) to persevere, be refreshed ^ , a ,

(of the eye) IV. to confess J plur. ^5$ village.

(with *-)
~
Xl to lead to
* rate (of payment).
G ^^
confess J*
-'-T
determination

'*- Constantinople.
** consolation

dry land, continent to divide, share
8,6 (j)

2,- G - o
residence. -
yw >
plur. jLot part
o'
!Js (a) to read IV. to make division.
to read, send (greeting)
Vocabulary. 421

-*s III. to endure. ioJs
(a) to cut, cut through
s ..

15-b to II.
j>aJ> (u)
to narrate to (with J^ to
jLi
cut to pieces
waylay
VII. to
iUoS narrative, story
be cut off Xjtioi piece
? , fj .
scissors. ^

-Jai flock, herd -i^b"

(i) to aim at, make for,

intend .Xoi and 3 the muqattam hill (near
purpose, aim. Cairo).
> ~

ai IE. to neglect Joti (u) tj sit down S

])!ur. J^.t_^s rule.
shortness j& piur.
castle.
^-*i
bottom (of the sea etc.).

ai X. to investigate. T-o, O <

desert.
i ' ^ai plur. jlai
as VII. to rush.
Jwfii (i) to shut xbls caravan.

si=i (a) to crunch, nibble. U5 VIII. to follow - U5 back
of head, neck.

(i) to decide, be judge,
Jki (i)
to be less than (with
spend, complete VII. to
O - -i, ^5
pass away VIII. to deaire,
^) ULs rarely iJli

gee k _ s-LvsS decision, accom-
plishment, settlement, Kada smallness i)^* small, few
'
- - S ,

(Turkish district) iUxci
_ U ^Uts seldom JJw
poor.
fi O
aflfair (J^S judge.
wJli'VU. to revolve v^*
as cat o ,,
(coll.).
l>lur. ^J^ heart
cordial.
ai IV. to make to drop
Sii II. to imitate.
the land of
l^lfi ^II
AjiLi fortress, citadel.
Egypt.
422 Vocabulary.

b (a) to be disturbed IV. ilfii speech ul&* article
G,. (in a journal etc.).
to disturb / iis unrest.
l5 to rise, occupy one-
(jyj u)
Vocabulary. 423

S III. and V. to endure IV. to honour (with <e)
- o ^os G i, V. to do one a kindness
Jy/ plur. oLj'! and O^*/ GO. o .

P
'
3 -
vineyard *j J" generous.
liver, heart, interior.
1
J
.

be or become large
(u) to
/
-*-
(a) to hate.

or great X. to esteem
GO slumber.
(jf
great or important , , ,
^*J'

pride
s - s -
L/ great. j^O (i) to break
jJt beast
_-u/ plur.j f prey.
O - , G ,

/ (u) to fall on the face. idleness &j~S very
idle.
(u) to write III. to
write to, correspond with (i) to uncover, examine

VIII. to subscribe iuLxi' \_A<J uncovering.
Os-
,
-
X& collection, all.
writing oLu plur. <M

book, letter - office
^ IIL to reward ~-^ a like '

0_o. P t0 '

iUxXx librarv, bookshop "'>,,.
in. to fight hand to hend.
gjtf

i'
fu) to
letter.

be or become nuraer-
^ --

satisfaction.
(i) to satisfy
-
6-
xjUr
_

Go, O.o. S> - 5J
ous
J*3 and .i^ abundance J^ every, all, whole UL^
. GO, whenever.
very rich-
^r*^
Jl^ plur. V d g-

to vex - trouble. _
.
n to 8peak to ni to
converse with V. to speak
to *
(i) lie. -;
*^L3 speech, controversy

grief.

cardinal.

thr ne -

n. pr. Clot Bey.
424 Vocabulary.

(3 (prep.) for, to (conj.) so
how much? how many?
that, in order to !i3J or
bill of exchange.

therefore AJ, II

quantity, amount.
and t3U why?
E
^ so that

reddish brown.
^ because.

n. pr.
not, no, there is not.

U^ perfection, n. pr.
n. pr. Lavigerie.
perfect.

January. y pearl (coll.).

3 III. to suit, be adapted to.
(i) to sweep.

)*AJ (a) to put on (clothes)
Go O ,
vn. clothes,
(j*^ (j*^*
^ a) almost to do.
G -o, G Jo-
u-j^* ad ^j*^JL
G o trousers
u) to be vn.
^^ '*
clothes, clothing.
G
IX* plur. milk.
i^Arft place jx] plur. ^LJ
s in his place. Lebanon.
jLixj

cognac. ^AJ
to
II. answer in the
affirmative.
o .- ,

wallet, purse (j*r{^ J (a) to persevere in icpJ
G , >
pretty.
depth the
Gs o plur.
~^> (of sea).
how? 's*fAjS manner,
^J VIII. to take flight.
contents.

J IV. to oppress (with j^c).
i) to measure J^3
measure.
,*c^J (a) to lick.

O particle of emphasis Jot
HI. to remark

perhaps rJU even if.

glance -xtii^J moment.
Vocabulary. 425

(a) to follow, concern cursed.
.. ,
-
*Ji5-bS plur.
V^*
/S>-I>S appur- .

Mb! k*5) language.
tenance. S , s ,
. G , , 6,0 v_jJ fold LaJ included.
plur. meat i
(yi*J
a piece of meat. y>caJ VIII. to turn to.

plur. LkJ! melody.

beard "

(a) I. and IH. to meet -
a , IV. to throw V. to receive
a - VI. and VHI. to meet -
; X. to fall on the back
Ju IV. to make (sensuously)
oa f 9Lu meeting.
pleasant ikXl pleasure

JuJJ and and
pleasant. CT^

-
y (a) to be necessary
^ bnt

necessary
- i:^ plur.*; U ( with im P erf - in Bense of

need. P*rfO not -

when nce -

^LJ plur. plS tongue, Ian- '

f
guage. to collect IV. to haunt,
S "*

\ , 1 v , infest (with VJ).
(j.aJ plur. t>>j*i5 robber.
'' ^t VIII. to beseech (with
to treat in a friendly

way yo friendliness

lJ friendly, pleasant.
W to flash ~ TV - to cause
to shine, deal with.

(i) to slap. flacae -

(a) I. and VI. play III. V. to sigh.
vJkf!
'
G ,, o-
to jest with V_^JL) plur. _^> if (of
a pure supposition)
G .of <**
U>LJ5 play. J even if.
426 Vocabulary.

S
to blame. ^* 3G,) mejidi (money
f (
r_jJ u)
'
-, . . ?? worth22 piastres and 30 paras).
j-S plur. >>> colour. .^
sff gratis, free of charge.
would that! -
s? (u) to blot out, efface.

not to be.
(u) to stretch) lengthen
-
IV. to help, reinforce V.
v^S
(^jj i) to be fitting, worthy. to stretch oneself, rest VTII. -
to be stretched, prolonged

plur. vJU night (coll.). sJ^o respite, space of time

J house of correction. i>Ou plur. Of*-* material
s
extended.
lemonade.

praise.
II. to soften.
s*

Lc and Jle what? \ Lo what,
that.

U not.
* (u) to pass by IV. to
o , o,
AJU (or xLc) hundred. make bitter passing

^ when? by,
***
course
*>
ZjA
time

i* V.
iJ- once -^ bitter.
to appear (before a
court) Vm. to obey 5
'

.

o-- - plm
JJ^ resemblance, fable
Oo e ,*
o woman -

ol*t as f' e "
J*i* plur. like,

,,r
6
S ^ l )lur "

&J*
meadow.
-
jLi pattern Oli4J' statue.
n. pr. Mercier.
Jwwyo

k^* (u) to be renowned II. to be or become sick
|

(a)
'0,. 6, OE
to praise glory LP-* plur. t>oL*i sickness
o o
noble sick.
Vocabulary. 427

=
Morocco. with, in spite of o
although.

> to murmur. IV. to be

*.% (a) to enter (in a catalogue
os (u) to tarry, stay.

etc.) <*y*-t ! the messiah,
2' , IV. to enable, be possible
Christ - a Christian, -- V. to be enabled to (with

Christian (adj.). possible.

J**A (i) to seize IV. to hold
o o . JUXx machine
back ii)c**x seizure

poor.
& (a) to fill.

> O a-
i^JU salted -.^ta sailor
n. to wish good evening
IV. to be or remain in
x>^L navigation.
the evening 2L*^ evening,

monsieur. 5,0u (i) to possess II. to
e o

give possession of ii\X
JL* (i) to go, walk V. to Goj O ^o
and (iUx plur. i)bLl posses-
walk about *&** S&^ o -
sion, property *iU* plur.
xU plur. (J*\^A cattle.

,0 2 O

_y*ou Egypt, Cairo L2/a*
angel *iUu and
Egyptian, Cairene.

^J#*A (i) to go away, be lost
er _ yjfc kingdom
2 >

course (of time) mamluke, white
slave.
past, last.

(u) I. and IV. to rain

i
plur. jLbil rain. CT who? he who.
428 Vocabulary.

of, from, than. Ju (Oy) piur. Ol^x! wealth,

o >
capital LJt_ys (or J-[^x) a
favour death
Qj~-*
* o. kind of poetry.
obligation, thanks. o
9 to (s^o) plur. sLy water.
s, ..

snce. table.

*.ix (a) to prevent VIII. to i) to incline, bend
6
refuse.
inclination plur.

Memphis. mile.

v-iui* Manuf (a city in Egypt).
u II. and IV. to announce to
3s -
and
(with accue. of person
JL* V. to wish *** fate,
death. \*J of thing) Lo news.

blood.
o barking.
. to be slow,
3
plur. tXj-i article (in a
journal etc.).
profession, trade.
-o (a, i, u) to spring up (of
'

oU (o^x u) to die IV. to water).

f' "'
o VIII. to pay attention,
kill
oy> and and
G- --
o , e
wakefulness
notice iitf'Lo
oL^ death -*- dead.
G <
&AXJ awake, clever.
o , G , b

^* pliJ"- r '^1
' wave.

-^ joiner.
J^j-U the Muski (a street in
^* IV. to complete.
Cairo).
>

(colloquially (_/&*) plur.
fs >
^ plur. v3l^Ft offspring, son.

razor -/*jx Moses,
^ plur. |>^ star
o
r
astrologer clear.
f^-li
mode, fashion.
Vocabulary.

tip (u) to escape sLp escape,
deliverance. $_
Q * j-o, ^
r iow*o relation.
'
death 5 he -

died. a - a - 02
-'^
G -> rf^^ phir. *^U*o| and tfJL*o
^j*L^' copper copper-
smith. textile fabric, tissue.
So, O - o >

^& bees (coll.). iLUo copy.