# Chapter 3 Force And Pressure

3.12.1 Arah Mata Angin Understanding Pressure

ITeach – Physics Form 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Pressure
Pressure

Pressure is defined as the force acting per unit area. Force, F Pressure, p = -------------Area, A p = F/A The unit for pressure is Newton metre square (Nm-2) or Pascal (Pa). Contoh An elephant weighing 40,000 N stand on area of 0.1 m2 exert 40,000 / 0.1 = 400 kPa pressure on the ground.

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan
Tekanan

Tekanan ditakrifkan sebagai daya yang bertindak seunit luas. Daya, F Tekanan, p = -------------Luas, A p = F/A Unit bagi tekanan ialah Newton per meter kuasa dua (Nm-2) atau Pascal (Pa). Contoh Seekor gajah dengan berat 40,000 N berdiri pada suatu tempat seluas 0.1 m2 memberikan tekanan 40,000 / 0.1 = 400 kPa pada tanah.

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Pressure
Applications Of High Pressure

Scissors high pressure enables a scissors to cut easily

Running shoes spikes on base of shoe exerts high pressure to increase grip on the ground.

Ice skates high pressure melts ice enabling skater to move easily

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan
Aplikasi Tekanan Tinggi

Gunting Tekanan tinggi membolehkan gunting memotong dengan mudah
Kasut luncur Tekanan tinggi mencairkan ais, ais yang cair memudahkan peluncur bergerak

Kasut lari Tumit kasut memberikan tekanan tinggi untuk menambah genggaman pada permukaan

ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Pressure
Applications Of Low Pressure

Large wheels of tank low pressure on ground so that tank will not sink.

Snow shoe prevents Eskimo from sinking into the show

Large feet of camel exerts low pressure on sand so that camel will not sink into the sand.

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Bab 3 Daya dan Gerakan

Memahami Tekanan
Aplikasi Tekanan Rendah

Roda tangki yang besar Tekanan rendah menghalang tangki daripada terbenam

Kaki unta yang besar Memberikan tekanan rendah pada pasir supaya unta tidak terbenam ke dalam pasir

Kasut salji Menghalang Eskimo daripada tenggelam ke dalam salji

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Chapter 3 Force And Pressure

2.1 Arah Mata Angin 3.2 Understanding Pressure In Liquid

ITeach – Physics Form 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Pressure In Liquid

Pressure In Liquid

An object immersed in a liquid experienced pressure due to the weight of the liquid acting on it.
Pressure in a liquid acts equally in all directions.

water tin Holes

Water jet

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Dalam Cecair

Tekanan Dalam Cecair

Suatu objek yang direndam ke dalam cecair akan mengalami tekanan disebabkan oleh berat cecair yang bertindak ke atas objek.
Tekanan dalam cecair bertindak sama rata dalam semua arah.

Air Tin Lubang

Air terpancut keluar

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Pressure In Liquid
Pressure In Liquid And Depth

Pressure in liquid increases with depth.

Strongest jet of water comes out of the lowest hole. The deeper the hole, pressure  Bubbles in carbonated increases in volume as it rises to the top as pressure increases with depth.

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Dalam Cecair
Tekanan Dalam Cecair dan Kedalaman Cecair

Tekanan dalam cecair bertambah dengan kedalaman cecair.

Air terpancut keluar paling kuat pada lubang yang paling rendah. Semakin dalam lubang, tekanan  Semakin tinggi isipadu gelembung udara dalam minuman berkarbonat, semakin banyak gelembung udara naik ke atas permukaan minuman kerana tekanan bertambah dengan kedalaman cecair.

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Pressure In Liquid
Pressure In Liquid And Density At the same depth, pressure exerted by a denser liquid is greater than pressure exerted by a less dense liquid.

water

Cooking oil

Water : density = 1000 kg m-3 Distance of water jet from can - far

Cooking oil : density = 800 kg m-3 Distance of oil jet from can - near

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Dalam Cecair
Tekanan dalam Cecair dan Ketumpatan Pada kedalaman yang sama, tekanan yang dihasilkan oleh cecair yang lebih tumpat adalah lebih tinggi berbanding tekanan yang dihasilkan oleh cecair yang berketumpatan rendah.

Air

Minyak masak

Air : Ketumpatan = 1000 kg m-3 Jarak pancutan air daripada bekas - jauh

Minyak masak : Ketumpatan = 800 kg m-3 Jarak pancutan air daripada bekas - dekat

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Pressure In Liquid
Pressure In Liquid, p = hrg

weight of liquid Pressure = -------------------area mg = ----A

h

Liquid density = r •x Area = A

(rV)g = -------A
r(Ah)g = ---------A = hrg

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Dalam Cecair
Tekanan dalam Cecair, p = hrg

Tekanan =

Berat cecair -------------------Luas

mg = ----A

h

Ketumpatan cecair = r •x Luas = A

(rV)g = -------A
r(Ah)g = ---------A = hrg

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Pressure In Liquid
Applications Of Pressure In Liquids

Dams hold water to store or generate electricity.

The base of a dam is thicker than the upper part to withstand the higher water pressure at the base of the dam as pressure in water increases with depth.

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan dalam Cecair
Aplikasi Tekanan dalam Cecair Empangan hidroelektrik

• •

Empangan menyimpan air untuk menjana tenaga elektrik Bahagian bawah empangan mestilah lebih tebal daripada bahagian atas untuk menahan tekanan air yang tinggi pada bahagian bawah empangan kerana tekanan bertambah dengan kedalaman.

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Pressure In Liquid
Application Of Pressure In Liquids – Water Tank

Water tank in a house is placed below the roof.

Water pressure forces water to flow out from the taps.

P

Water flowing out from tap Q on the first floor is stronger than water flowing out from tap P on the third floor.

Q

Explanation The distance of tap Q on the first floor from the surface of the water in the tank is bigger.

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan dalam Cecair
Aplikasi Tekanan dalam Cecair – Tangki Air

Tangki air bumbung.

dalam

rumah

diletakkan

dibawah

Tekanan air memaksa air keluar daripada paip. P Air yang mengalir keluar daripada paip Q di tingkat satu adalah lebih kuat daripada air yang mengalir keluar daripda paip P di tingkat tiga.

Q

Penerangan Jarak antara paip Q dengan permukaan air di dalam tangki adalah lebih tinggi.

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Pressure In Liquid

Infusion – the transfer of saline solution to a patient.

Applications Of Pressure In Liquids

h

The saline solution is hung at an elevated position so that the pressure of the saline solution can flow into the veins of the patient, overcoming the blood pressure of the patient.

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan dalam Cecair

Infusi – Pemindahan larutan bergaram kepada pesakit.

Aplikasi Tekanan dalam Cecair

h

Larutan bergaram digantung pada kedudukan menegak supaya tekanan daripada larutan bergaram dapat mengalir ke dalam pesakit, mengatasi tekanan darah pesakit.

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Chapter 3 Force And Pressure

3.3 Understanding 2.1 Arah Mata Angin Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure

ITeach – Physics Form 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure

Gas Pressure  Gas molecules are constantly in motion.  These molecules collide with each other and with the walls of the container containing the gas.  A pressure (gas pressure) is exerted by the molecules of the gas colliding with the sides of the container.  The more energy a gas has, the more energy its molecules will have, and the more pressure will therefore be exerted.  If there is more gas inside a given container, there will be a higher number of average collisions with the sides of the container, and more pressure will therefore be exerted.

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Gas dan Tekanan Atmosfera

Tekanan Gas  Molekul-molekul gas sentiasa bergerak dengan rawak.  Molekul-molekul gas berlanggar antara satu sama lain dan juga dengan dinding bekas.  Tekanan (tekanan gas) yang dihasilkan oleh molekul gas adalah disebabkan pelanggaran molekul-molekul gas dengan dinding bekas.  Semakin banyak tenaga yang diperolehi molekul gas, semakin banyak pelanggaran molekul gas dengan dinding bekas, maka semakin tinggi tekanan yang dikenakan.  Jika terdapat lebih banyak gas didalam suatu bekas, semakin tinggi purata pelanggaran antara molekul dengan dinding bekas, maka semakin tinggi tekanan dikenakan.
ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure
Our Earth is surrounded by a thick layer of air. Atmospheric Pressure The air molecules are constantly on the move. All objects will experience a pressure (called atmospheric pressure) due to these air molecules colliding with them.

Air pressure is all around us

The magnitude of the Earth’s atmospheric pressure is 1.01 x 105 Nm-2 at sea level. Atmospheric pressure decreases with height above sea level as the density of air decreases. This causes air molecules colliding with the object.

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Gas dan Tekanan Atmosfera
Permukaan Bumi diselaputi selapis tebal udara. Tekanan Atmosfera Molekuk-molekul udara sentiasa bergerak dengan rawak. Semua objek akan mengalami tekanan (tekanan atmosfera) disebabkan oleh molekul-molekul udara sentiasa berlanggar dengan objek. Magnitud tekanan atmosfera Bumi ialah 1.01 x 105 Nm-2 pada paras laut. Tekanan atmosfera berkurang dengan ketinggian pada paras laut. Ini kerana ketumpatan udara berkurang pada ketinggian yang tinggi. Ini menyebabkan molekul udara berlanggar dengan objek.

Tekanan udara di sekeliling kita

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure
Existence Of Atmospheric Pressure
The Magdeburg Sphere

Vacuum

18 horses were required to pull apart the sphere. Water vapour Metal can water

Amospheric pressure

Can is sealed Low pressure

Atmospheric pressure
Heat Metal can is cooled by pouring cold water

The metal is crushed because of the atmospheric pressure is greater than the air pressure inside the metal can.
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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Gas dan Tekanan Atmosfera
Kewujudan Tekanan Atmosfera
Hemisfera Magdeburg

Vakum

18 ekor kuda digunakan untuk menarik kembali sfera itu Wap air Tin besi Air

Tekanan atmosfera Tin dibungkus Tekanan rendah

Tekanan atmosfera
Haba

Tin besi disejukkan dengan menuang air sejuk ke atas tin Tin itu remuk kerana tekanan atmosfera lebih tinggi daripada tekanan udara di dalam tin.
ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure

Applications Of Atmospheric Pressure

Rubber Sucker For Hanging Objects

Drinking Straw

Siphon

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Gas dan Tekanan Atmosfera

Aplikasi Tekanan Atmosfera

Penyedut plastik digunakan sebagai pemegang untuk menggantung objek

Straw minuman

Sifon

ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure
Applications Of Atmospheric Pressure

Rubber Sucker For Hanging Objects

Partially vacuumed (low pressure) Atmospheric pressure

hook

The atmospheric pressure outside which is higher than the air pressure inside causes a force to press the rubber sucker securely against the wall.

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Gas dan Tekanan Atmosfera
Aplikasi Tekanan Atmosfera

Penyedut Plastik Sebagai Pemegang untum Menggantung Objek Ringan

Separa vakum (tekanan rendah)

Cangkuk

Tekanan atmosfera Tekanan atmosfera di luar penyedut plastik adalah lebih tinggi daripada tekanan udara di dalam penyedut plastik. Tekanan atmosfera yang bertindak di luar penyedut menekan penyedut plastik dengan ketat pada dinding.

ITeach – Fizik Tingkatn 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure
Applications Of Atmospheric Pressure

Drinking Straw

The higher atmospheric pressure forces the liquid to flow up the straw into the mouth (region of low pressure).

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Gas dan Tekanan Atmosfera
Aplikasi Tekanan Atmosfera

Penyedut Minuman

Tekanan atmosfera yang bertindak ke atas permukaan cecair menjadi lebih tinggi daripada tekanan udara di dalam penyedut apabila udara disedut keluar daripada penyedut minuman. Tekanan atmosfera pada cecair yang tinggi mombolehkan cecair dipaksa naik ke dalam penyedut dan memasuku mulut.

ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure
Applications Of Atmospheric Pressure

Siphon

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Gas dan Tekanan Atmosfera
Aplikasi Tekanan Atmosfera

Sifon

Tekanan atmosfera Tiub getah Air

ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure
Instruments Used To Measure Gas Pressure And Atmospheric Pressure Instrument used to measure gas pressure

Bourdon gauge

Instruments used to measure atmospheric pressure

mercury barometer
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Aneroid barometer

Fortin barometer

Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Tekanan Gas dan Tekanan Atmosfera
Alatan untuk Menyukat Tekanan Gas dan Tekanan Atmosfera Alatan untuk menyukat tekanan gas

Tolok Bourdon

Alatan untuk menyukat tekanan atmosfera

Barometer Merkuri
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Barometer Aneroid

Barometer Fortin

Chapter 3 Force And Pressure

2.1 Arah Pascal’s Principle 3.4 Applying Mata Angin

ITeach – Physics Form 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Applying Pascal’s Principle

Transfer Of Pressure In Water, Pascal’s Principle

Push in

Glass flask

Piston

Water

When the piston is pushed in, water will shoot out of the holes in the flask in all directions and with equal speeds. This shows that pressure in water is transferred uniformly throughout the water.

Pascal's principle states that pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted equally to every part of the fluid, as well as to the walls of the container.

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Aplikasi Prinsip Pascal

Pemindahan Tekanan dalam Air, Prinsip Pascal

Ditolak ke dalam

Kelalang kaca

Omboh

Air

Apabila omboh ditolak ke dalam, air akan keluar daripada lubanglubang yang terdapat pada kelalang dalam semua arah dengan laju yang sama. Ini menunjukkan tekanan dalam air dipindahkan secara seragam ke setiap bahagian cecair.

Prinsip Pascal menyatakan bahawa tekanan yang dikenakan ke atas suatu cecair yang tertutup akan dipindahkan secara seragam ke setiap bahagian cecair.

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Applying Pascal’s Principle
Applications of Pascal’s Principle – Hydraulic Jack

A hydraulic system can produce a large force by using a small force. F1 Area = A1 Liquid F2 Area = A2

According to Pascal’s Principle

the pressure acting on the small piston is the same as the pressure acting on the big piston.

That is

F1 F = 2 A1 A 2

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Aplikasi Prinsip Pascal
Aplikasi Prinsip Pascal – Sistem Hidraulik Ringkas

Sistem hidraulik boleh menghasilkan daya yang besar dengan menggunakan daya yang kecil. F2 F1
Luas= A1 Cecair Luas = A2

Mengikut Prinsip Pascal

Tekanan yang bertindak pada omboh kecil adalah sama dengan tekanan yang bertindak pada omboh besar.

Maka

F1 F = 2 A1 A 2

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Applying Pascal’s Principle
Applications of Pascal’s Principle – Hydraulic Jack

Example of the use of hydraulic system in a mechanic’s workshop

Air compressor

Ground

F1 Oil

F2

Small cylinder

Large cylinder

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Aplikasi Prinsip Pascal
Aplikasi Prinsip Pascal – Jek Hidraulik

Contoh penggunaan sistem hidraulik di dalam bengkel kereta.

Pemampat udara

Tanah

F1

F2

Minyak

Silinder kecil

Silinder besar

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Applying Pascal’s Principle
Applications of Pascal’s Principle – Hydraulic system in car brake Break pedals

Small cylinder

Force

Break drum Break pedals

Break pedals

When a small force is directed onto the brake pedal, the pressure produced will be transmitted via the brake fluid to the car’s tyres.

This produces a large force on the brake pedals which slows down the rotation of the wheels.
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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Aplikasi Prinsip Pascal
Aplikasi Prinsip Pascal – Sistem Hidraulik dalam Brek Kereta Pedal brek

Silinder kecil

Daya

Gelendung brek Pedal brek

Pedal brek

Apabila daya yang kecil dikenakan kepada pedal brek, tekanan yang dihasilkan akan dipindahkan melalui cecair brek kepada tayar kereta.

Ini menghasilkan daya yang lebih besar pada pedal brek dan menyebabkan putaran roda kereta menjadi semakin perlahan.
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Chapter 3 Force And Pressure

2.1 Arah Mata Angin 3.5 Applying Archimedes’ Principle

ITeach – Physics Form 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Applying Pascal’s Principle

Buoyant Force

Archimedes discovered that an object that is partially or fully immersed in a fluid experiences an upwards force on it. This force is known as buoyant force. This buoyant force is caused by the higher fluid pressure acting on the base of an object compared to the fluid pressure acting on the top surface.

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Aplikasi Prinsip Archimedes

Daya Keapungan

Archimedes mendapati objek yang tenggelam penuh atau tenggelam separuh penuh di dalam cecair akan mengalami daya ke atas. Daya ini dipanggil daya keapungan. Daya keapungan disebabkan oleh tekanan cecair yang tinggi bertindak pada bahagian bawah objek berbanding tekanan cecair yang bertindak pada bahagian atas objek.
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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Applying Archimedes’ Principle
Buoyant force – Example Of Buoyant Force Acting On Objects. Buoyant force A piece of cork, pushed below the surface of the water and released, will immediately rise to the surface. The cork is buoyant because the cork is acted on by buoyant force.

cork
weight

A ship made of iron can float on the surface of the sea due to the buoyant force F which is balanced by its weight mg.

Air bubbles released rise to the sea surface due to the buoyant force acting on them.

A hot-air balloon rises from the surface of the Earth due to buoyant force acting on it.
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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Aplikasi Prinsip Archimedes
Daya Keapungan – Contoh Daya Keapungan Bertindak Pada Objek Daya keapungan Sebiji gabus ditolak ke bawah permukaan air dan segera dilepaskan, gabus itu segera naik ke permukaan air selepas dilepaskan. Gabus itu terapung kerana daya keapungan bertindak pada gabus itu.

Gabus
Berat

Kapal yang diperbuat daripada besi boleh terapung dipermukaan laut kerana daya keapungan F yang bertindak pada kapal adalah sama dengan berat kapal mg.

Gelembung udara yang dibebaskan di dalam laut naik ke permukaan laut disebabkan oleh daya keapungan bertindak pada gelembung udara itu.

Belon udara panas naik ke atas udara disebabkan daya keapungan bertindak pada belon itu.
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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Aplikasi Prinsip Archimedes
Daya Keapungan dan Berat Cecair Tersesar, Prinsip Archimedes Berat batu di udara = W1N

Penimbang spring

W2N Bikar Eureka

W2N

Berat batu dalam air
Berat bikar kosong Berat bikar dan air Air keluarKehilangan berat batu Berat air yang tersesar Bikar Air tersesar Daya keapungan

= W2N
= W3N = W4N = (W1 – W2)N = W4– W3)N

Tali

Batu

Kehilangan berat batu

=

=

Berat air tersesar

(W1 – W2) = (W4 – W3) Prinsip Archimedes menyatakan bahawa daya keapungan yang bertindak pada objek yang tenggelam adalah sama dengan berat cecair yang disesarkan oleh objek.
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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Applying Archimedes’ Principle
Buoyant Force And Weight Of Liquid Displaced, Archimedes’ Principle Weight of the stone in air Spring balance Thread W2N Eureka beaker W2N = W1N

Weight of the stone in water = W2N
Weight of the empty beaker = W3N Side mouth Weight of beaker and water = W4N Loss in weight of the stone = (W1 – W2)N Weight of water displaced = W4– W3)N

Stone

Beaker Water displaced

Loss in weight of the stone

= buoyant force =
(W1 – W2) = (W4 – W3)

weight of water displaced

Archimedes’ Principle states that the buoyant force on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced by the object.
ITeach – Physics Form 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Applying Archimedes’ Principle
Applications of Archimedes’ Principle – The ship

Ship Sea water Buoyancy force

Weight Plimsoll line

A ship floats because it displaces sea water with a weight equals to its own weight. When more loads are put into the ship, the ship will sink further.

The ship will sink when the ship is overloaded. To prevent ships from sinking, a plimsoll line is marked on the hull of all ships to show the limit which are safe for the ship.
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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Aplikasi Prinsip Archimedes
Aplikasi Prinsip Archimedes – Kapal

Kapal Air laut Daya keapungan

Berat Garis Plimsoll

Sebuah kapal terapung kerana berat kapal adalah sama dengan berat air yang tersesar. Apabila lebih banyak beban dimasukkan ke dalam kapal, kapal itu akan tenggelam dengan lebih dalam.

Kapal akan tenggelam apabila kapal itu terlebih muatan. Garis plimsoll ditanda pada sisi kapal untuk menunjukkan aras di mana ia boleh dibebankan.
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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Applying Archimedes’ Principle
Sea surface Buoyant force = weight of submarine Applications of Archimedes’ Principle – The Submarine Empty tank

Buoyant force = weight of submarine

Tank partially filled with water

Buoyant force < weight of submarine
To stay afloat on sea surface, the ballast tank is emptied of water.

Tank fully-filled with water

Buoyant force = Weight of the submarine

To stay stationary below the surface of the sea, the ballast tank is partially filled with water.
To sink into the sea, more water is pumped into the ballast tank.
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Buoyant force = Weight of the submarine

Buoyant force < Weight of the submarine

Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Aplikasi Prinsip Archimedes
Permukaan laut Daya keapungan = Berat kapal selam Aplikasi Prinsip Archimedes – Kapal Selam Tangki kosong

Daya keapungan = Berat kapal selam

Separuh daripada tangki dipenuhi air

Daya keapungan < Berat kapal selam
Untuk terapung di permukaan laut, tangki-tangki ballast mestilah kosong.

Tangki dipenuhi air

Daya keapungan = Berat kapal selam

Untuk berada dibawah permukaan laut, separuh daripada tangki ballast dipenuhi air.
Untuk tanggelam ke dalam laut, lebih banyak air dipam ke dalam tangki ballast.
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Daya keapungan = Berat kapal selam

Daya keapungan < Berat kapal selam

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Applying Archimedes’ Principle
Application of Archimedes’ Principle – The hydrometer

hydrometer hydrometer Asid

Lead shots

Lead shots

The hydrometer is used to measure the relative density of a liquid.
It is used to check the condition of a car battery by determining the relative density of the acid in the battery which is not supposed to fall below 1.20
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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Aplikasi Prinsip Archimedes
Aplikasi Prinsip Archimedes – Hidrometer

Hidrometer Hidrometer Asid Butir-butir plumbum

Butir-butir plumbum

Hidrometer digunakan untuk mengukur ketumpatan cecair.
Ia digunakan untuk memeriksa keadaan bateri kereta dengan menghitung ketumpatan asid di dalam bateri di mana nilainya tidak boleh kurang daripada1.20
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Chapter 3 Force And Pressure

2.1 Arah Mata Angin 3.6 Understanding Bernoulli’s Principle

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Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Bernoulli’s Principle
Bernoulli’s Principle

Bernoulli’s Principle states that the pressure of a fluid decreases as the velocity of the flow of the fluid increases and vice versa.

pressure of a fluid

velocity of the flow of the fluid

pressure of a fluid

velocity of the flow of the fluid

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Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Prinsip Bernoulli
Prinsip Bernoulli

Prinsip Bernoulli menyatakan bahawa tekanan bendalir berkurang apabila halaju bendalir bertambah.

Tekanan bendalir

Halaju bendalir

Tekanan bendalir

Halaju bendalir

ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Bernoulli’s Principle
Bernoulli’s Principle - Example

 A sheet of paper is held in a horizontal plane in front of the lips.  Air is blown across the top of the paper.  The free end of the paper is seen to rise.  The flow of air at high speed creates a region of low pressure across the top of the paper.  The still air beneath the paper is at a higher pressure and a net upward force lifts up the paper

ITeach – Physics From 4

Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Prinsip Bernoulli
Prinsip Bernoulli - Contoh

 Sehelai kertas diletakkan pada satah mengufuk dihadapan mulut.  Udara ditiup merentasi bahagian atas kertas itu.  Bahagian kertas yang dihujung kelihatan terjongket ke atas.  Apabila udara bergerak melalui bahagian atas kertas, tekanan di atasnya menjadi lebih rendah daripada tekanan atmsofera di bahagian bawah kertas  Tekanan atmosfera di bahagian bawah kertas menolak kertas ke atas.

ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Bernoulli’s Principle
Bernoulli’s Principle

 A filter funnel is inverted and ping-pong ball is held under it.

blowing Filter funnel

 When air is blown through the funnel, the pingpong ball does not drop when released, but is held up beneath the funnel.
 The air flows around the ping-pong ball at high speed and creates a region of low pressure.

Ping-pong ball  The air beneath the ball is at atmospheric and a net upward force holds up the ping-pong ball. Atmospheric pressure

ITeach – Physics From 4

Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Prinsip Bernoulli
Prinsip Bernoulli

 Corong turas diterbalikkan dan bola ping-pong diletakkan di bawahnya.

Udara ditiup Corong turas

 Bola ping-pong tidak jatuh ke bawah semasa dilepaskan apabila udara ditiup melalui corong turas.

 Udara yang ditiup melalui corong turas menyebabkan tekanan udara di atas bola pingpong menjadi lebih rendah daripada tekanan atmosfera normal. Bola ping-pong  Ini membolehkan tekanan atmosfera di bahagian bawah bola ping-pong menolaknya ke atas. Takanan atmosfera

ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Bernoulli’s Principle
Lift Due To The Difference In Pressure LIFT Air flows faster causes low pressure on top of the wing WING AIR

 The diagram shows the cross section of the wing of an aeroplane.  This shape is called an aerofoil.  The shape of the wing causes air to flow faster over the top of the wing compared to the lower part of the wing.  Hence a region of high pressure exist below the wing and a region of low pressure exist above the wing.  This difference in pressure causes a resultant force to act on the wing in an upward direction.  This force is called “lift” .  This lift enables an aeroplane to ascend.
ITeach – Physics From 4

Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Prinsip Bernoulli
Daya Angkat Disebabkan Perbezaan Tekanan DAYA ANGKAT

SAYAP

Aliran udara yang lebih laju di atas sayap menyebabkan tekanan udara di atas sayap menjadi lebih rendah daripada tekanan di bawahnya. UDARA

 Rajah menunjukkan keratan rentas sayap kapal terbang.  Bentuk ini dipanggil aerofoil.  Sayap kapal terbang yang berbentuk aerofoil menyebabkan udara mengalir lebih laju pada bahagian atas sayap berbanding bahagian bawah sayap.  Maka, kawasan yang mempunyai tekanan tinggi terhasil di bahagian bawah sayap manakala kawasan yang bertekanan rendah terhasil di bahagian atas sayap.  Perbezaan tekanan menyebakan satu daya ke atas atau daya angkat ke atas sayap-sayap.  Daya yang terhasil dipanggil daya angkat.  Daya angkat membolehkan kapal terbang bergerak di udara.
ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Bernoulli’s Principle
Applications Of Bernoulli’s Principle – Insecticide Spray Fine nozzle

Atmospheric pressure

Insect poison liquid

Narrow metallic tube

When the piston is pushed, air flows out from the nozzle at very high speed.

According to Bernoulli’s Principle, a region of low pressure is created at the nozzle.
The higher atmospheric pressure then pushes the insect poison liquid up through the narrow tube towards the nozzle. The liquid insecticide mixes with the air is then ejected as a spray of fine droplets of insecticide.
ITeach – Physics From 4

Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Prinsip Bernoulli
Aplikasi Prinsip Bernoulli – Penyembur Racun Serangga Jet

Tekanan atmosfera

Racun serangga

Tiub logam

Apabila omboh ditolak, udara keluar daripada jet pada kelajuan yang tinggi.

Mengikut prinsip Bernoulli, kawasan yang mempunyai tekanan rendah terhasil di jet.
Tekanan atmosfera yang tinggi menolak cecair racun serangga melalui tiub logam ke jet. Campuran racun serangga dan udara di keluarkan dalam bentuk titisan-titisan halus cecair.
ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Bernoulli’s Principle
Applications Of Bernoulli’s Principle – Bunsen Burner When the gas supply is turned on, the gas rushes out of the jet at high speed. This creates a region of low pressure in the Bunsen burner.

The higher atmospheric pressure outside pushes air into the Bunsen burner through the air hole.
The mixture of air which contains oxygen and the gas is then burnt to produce flame.

Mixture of gas and air

Air is sucked in Jet To the gas supply
ITeach – Physics From 4

Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Prinsip Bernoulli
Aplikasi Prinsip Bernoulli – Penunu Bunsen Apabila bekalan gas dihidupkan, gas bergerak melaui jet pada halaju yang tinggi. Ini menghasilkan kawasan bertekanan rendah di sekitar jet.

Tekanan atmosfera yang tinggi di luar penunu memaksa udara masuk ke dalam penunu melalui lubang udara.
Campuran udara yang mengandungi oksigen dan gas akan terbakar dan menghasilkan asap.

Campuran udara dan gas

Udara dipaksa masuk

Jet Ke bekalan gas

ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

Chapter 3 Forces and Pressure

Understanding Bernoulli’s Principle
Applications Of Bernoulli’s Principle - Carburettor From the petrol tank Jet

Valve needle

Air in

x

Throttle

Petrol

Float

Mixture of petrol and air

 The carburettor produces a mixture of air and petrol which then flows into the engine cylinder of a car for combustion.  Air flows fast through the narrow section X producing a region of low pressure.  The higher atmospheric pressure in the petrol tank pushes the petrol through the jet into region X where the petrol is mixed with air.
ITeach – Physics From 4

Bab 3 Daya dan Tekanan

Memahami Prinsip Bernoulli
Aplikasi Prinsip Bernoulli - Karburetor Daripada tangki petrol Jet

Injap jarum

Udara masuk

x

Pendikit

Campuran petrol dan udara
Petrol Terapung  Karburetor menghasilkan campuran udara dan petrol yang akan mengalir ke dalam silinder enjin kereta untuk pembakaran.  Udara mengalir dengan laju malalui bahagian sempit x. Aliran udara yang laju menghasilkan kawasan yang mempunyai tekanan rendah..  Tekanan atmosfera yang tinggi di dalam tangki petrol menolak petrol melalui jet masuk ke dalam kawasan X di mana petrol bercampur dengan udara.
ITeach – Fizik Tingkatan 4

The End

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