3GPP R8 LTE Overview

조봉열, Bong Youl (Brian) Cho
brian.cho@intel.com
Intel Corporation
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Books on LTE
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Books on LTE – cont’d
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Contents
 LTE Overview
 LTE Radio Interface Architecture
 LTE Downlink Transmission
 LTE Uplink Transmission
 Summary
LTE Overview
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Terminology
 LTE (Long Term Evolution)
 Evolution of 3GPP Radio Access Technology
E-UTRA
 SAE (System Architecture Evolution)
 Evolution of 3GPP Core Network Technology
EPC (Evolved Packet Core)
 EPS (Evolved Packet System)
 Evolution of the complete 3GPP UMTS Radio Access, Packet
Core and its integration into legacy 3GPP/non-3GPP networks
 E-UTRAN + EPC
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3GPP LTE
 LTE focus is on:
 enhancement of the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA)
 optimisation of the UTRAN architecture
 With HSPA (downlink and uplink), UTRA will remain highly competitive for
several years
 LTE project aims to ensure the continued competitiveness of the 3GPP
technologies for the future (started at Nov. 2004)
 Motivations
 Need for PS optimized system
 Evolve UMTS towards packet only system
 Need for higher data rates
 Can be achieved with HSDPA/HSUPA and/or new air interface defined by 3GPP LTE
 Need for high quality of services
 Use of licensed frequencies to guarantee quality of services
 Always-on experience (reduce control plane latency significantly)
 Reduce round trip delay
 Need for cheaper infrastructure
 Simplify architecture, reduce number of network elements
 Most data users are less mobile
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Detailed Requirements*
 Peak data rate
 Instantaneous downlink peak data rate of 100 Mb/s within a 20 MHz downlink
spectrum allocation (5 bps/Hz)
 Instantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50 Mb/s within a 20MHz uplink spectrum
allocation(2.5 bps/Hz)
 Control-plane latency
 Transition time of less than 100 ms from a camped state, such as Release 6
Idle Mode, to an active state such as Release 6 CELL_DCH
 Transition time of less than 50 ms between a dormant state such as Release 6
CELL_PCH and an active state such as Release 6 CELL_DCH
 Control-plane capacity
 At least 200 users per cell should be supported in the active state for spectrum
allocations up to 5 MHz
 User-plane latency
 Less than 5 ms in unload condition (ie single user with single data stream) for
small IP packet
* 3GPP TR 25.913, Technical Specification Group RAN: Requirements for Evolved
UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN), Release 8, Version 8.0.0, Dec. 2008
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Detailed Requirements
 Average user throughput
 Downlink: average user throughput per MHz, 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA
 Uplink: average user throughput per MHz, 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink
 Cell edge user throughput
 Downlink: user throughput per MHz at 5% of CDF, 2 to 3 times Release 6 HSDPA
 Uplink: user throughput per MHz at 5% of CDF, 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink
 Spectrum efficiency
 Downlink: In a loaded network, target for spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site), 3 to 4
times Release 6 HSDPA )
 Uplink: In a loaded network, target for spectrum efficiency (bits/sec/Hz/site), 2 to 3 times
Release 6 Enhanced Uplink
 Mobility
 E-UTRAN should be optimized for low mobile speed from 0 to 15 km/h
 Higher mobile speed between 15 and 120 km/h should be supported with high
performance
 Mobility across the cellular network shall be maintained at speeds from 120 km/h to 350
km/h (or even up to 500 km/h depending on the frequency band)
 Coverage
 Throughput, spectrum efficiency and mobility targets above should be met up to 5 km
cells, and with a slight degradation up to 30 km cells. Cells range up to 100 km should
not be precluded.
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Detailed Requirements
 Spectrum flexibility
 E-UTRA shall operate in spectrum allocations of different sizes, including 1.25 MHz, 2.5
MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz in both the uplink and downlink. Operation
in paired and unpaired spectrum shall be supported
 Co-existence and Inter-working with 3GPP RAT (UTRAN, GERAN)
 Architecture and migration
 Single E-UTRAN architecture
 The E-UTRAN architecture shall be packet based, although provision should be made
to support systems supporting real-time and conversational class traffic
 E-UTRAN architecture shall support an end-to-end QoS
 Backhaul communication protocols should be optimized
 Radio Resource Management requirements
 Enhanced support for end to end QoS
 Support of load sharing and policy management across different Radio Access
Technologies
 Complexity
 Minimize the number of options
 No redundant mandatory features
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LTE System Performance
 Peak Data Rate
150.8
302.8
51.0
75.4
1) ~14% reference signal overhead (4 Tx antennas in DL)
~10% common channel overhead (1 UE/subframe)
~7% waveform overhead (CP)
~10% guard band
~(1/1) code rate
2) ~14% reference signal overhead (1 Tx antenna in UL)
~0.6% random access overhead
~7% waveform overhead (CP)
~10% guard band
~(1/1) code rate
1)
2)
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LTE System Performance – cont’d
 Downlink Spectral Efficiency
 Uplink Spectral Efficiency
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LTE Key Features
 Downlink: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)
 Less critical AMP efficiency in BS side
 Concerns on high RX complexity in terminal side
Uplink: SC-FDMA (Single Carrier-FDMA)
 Less critical RX complexity in BS side
 Critical AMP complexity in terminal side (Cost, power Consumption, UL coverage)
 Single node RAN (eNB)
 Support FDD (frame type 1) & TDD (frame type 2 for TD-SCDMA evolution) <cf> H-FDD MS
 User data rates
 DL (baseline): 150.8 Mbps @ 20 MHz BW w/ 2x2 SU-MIMO
 UL (baseline): 75.4 Mbps @ 20 MHz BW w/ non-MIMO or 1x2 MU-MIMO
 Radio frame: 10 ms (= 20 slots), Sub-frame: 1 ms (= 2 slots), Slot: 0.5 ms
 TTI: 1 ms
 HARQ
 Incremental redundancy is used as the soft combining strategy
 Retransmission time: 8 ms
 Modulation
 DL/UL data channel = QPSK/16QAM/64QAM
 Hard handover-based mobility
Making MS cheap as
much as possible by
moving all the burdens
from MS to BS
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LTE Key Features – cont’d
 MIMO SM (Spatial Multiplexing), Beamforming, Antenna Diversity
Min requirement: 2 eNB antennas & 2 UE rx antennas
 DL: Single-User MIMO up to 4x4 supportable, MU-MIMO
 UL: MU-MIMO
 Resource block
 12 subcarriers with subcarrier BW of 15kHz “180kHz”
 24 subcarriers with subcarrier BW of 7.5kHz (only for MBMS)
 Subcarrier operation
 Frequency selective by localized subcarrier
 Frequency diversity by distributed subcarrier & frequency hopping
 Frequency hopping
 Intra-TTI: UL (once per 0.5ms slot), DL (once per 66us symbol)
 Inter-TTI: across retransmissions
 Bearer services
 Packet only – no circuit switched voice or data services are supported
 Voice must use VoIP or CS-Fallback
 MBSFN
 Multicast/Broadcast over a Single Frequency Network
 To support a Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast System (MBMS)
 Time-synchronized common waveform is transmitted from multiple cells for a given duration
The signal at MS will appear exactly as a signal transmitted from a single cell site and subject to multi-path
Not only “improve the received signal strength” but also “eliminate inter-cell interference”
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Resource & Channel Estimation in OFDM
 Time-frequency grid
 Time-frequency grid with known reference symbols
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E-UTRAN Architecture*

eNB
MME / S-GW MME / S-GW
eNB
eNB
S
1
S
1
S
1
S
1
X2
X
2
X
2
E-UTRAN
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Functional Split b/w E-UTRAN and EPC*

internet
eNB
RB Control
Connection Mobility Cont.
eNB Measurement
Configuration & Provision
Dynamic Resource
Allocation (Scheduler)
PDCP
PHY
MME
S-GW
S1
MAC
Inter Cell RRM
Radio Admission Control
RLC
E-UTRAN EPC
RRC
Mobility
Anchoring
EPS Bearer Control
Idle State Mobility
Handling
NAS Security
P-GW
UE IP address
allocation
Packet Filtering
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Security Key
Receiver
Authentication
Relay
Base Station
Handover
Function
Service Flow
Management
RRC
BS
PMIP Client
AAA Client
Authenticator
Location Register
Idle-Mode &
Paging Control
DHCP
Proxy/Relay
Service Flow
Authenticator
Security Key
Distributor
ASN GW
WiMAX R3
WiMAX R6
Data Path Function/FA
WiMAX
Control Functions
(Similar to 3GPP MME)
WiMAX
Data-Path Functions
(Similar to 3GPP S-GW)
WiMAX R4
CSN
ASN
Compare with WiMAX ASN-GW
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EPS is all PS (IP) based
* Qualcomm
2G initial
architecture
(GSM)
(1991)
2G+3G
architecture
(GPRS/EDGE/UMTS)
(2000)
IMS
Introduction
(2004)
EPS
architecture
(2008)
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3GPP Architecture Evolution
Towards Flat Architecture
* NSN
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Duplexing
 FDD
 TDD
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LTE Modulation Schemes
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UE-eNB Communication Link
“Single and same link of communication for DL and UL”
 DL serving cell = UL serving cell
 No UL nor DL macro-diversity
 Hard handover-based mobility
- UE assisted (based on measurement reports) and network controlled
(explicit handover command) by default
- During handover, UE uses a RACH-based mobility procedure to access
the target cell
- Handover is initiated by the UE when it detects a Radio Link failure
condition
 Load indicator for inter-cell load control and interference coordination
- Transmitted over X2 interface
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OFDMA: Interference Coordination

Cell-A
Cell-B
Cell-C
A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 A5
B5 C5
A1 A2 A3 A4 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 A5 B5 C5
C2 C3 C4 C5
P
o
w
e
r
B2
C1
A5 A4 B5 B4 A3 A2 A1 B3 B2 B1
good users weak users
good user weak user
weak users
good users
B1
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ICIC* in LTE Standards
 Inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC)
 To aid downlink ICIC
 Relative narrowband transmission-power indicator
 A cell can provide this information to neighboring cells, indicating the part of the
bandwidth where it intends to limit the transmission power. A cell receiving the indication
can schedule its downlink transmissions within this band, reducing the output power or
completely freeing the resources on complementary parts of the spectrum
 To aid uplink ICIC
 High interference indicator
 The high-interference indicator provides information to neighboring cells about the part of
the cell bandwidth upon which the cell intends to schedule its cell-edge users. Because
cell-edge users are susceptible to inter-cell interference, upon receiving the high-
interference indicator, a cell might want to avoid scheduling certain subsets of its own
users on this part of the bandwidth.
 Overload indicator
 The overload indicator provides information on the uplink interference level experienced
in each part of the cell bandwidth. A cell receiving the overload indicator may reduce the
interference generated on some of these resource blocks by adjusting its scheduling
strategy
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OFDMA: Frequency Selective Gain
 Loading gain by “frequency selective scheduling”
Localized subcarrier assignment Distributed subcarrier assignment
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Multi-cell Broadcast in OFDM System
Broadcast vs. Unicast transmission
Equivalence between simulcast transmission and multi-path propagation
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E-UTRA Frequency Band*
* 3GPP TS 36.101, E-UTRA: UE radio transmission
and reception, Release 9, V9.0.0, June 2009
Korea?
Korea?
Japan, Korea?
Europe?
China?
US?
China?
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LTE Spectrum Fragmentation
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E-UTRA Channel Bandwidth*
 1RB = 180kHz 6RBs = 1.08MHz, 100RBs = 18MHz
 6RBs (72 subcarriers) with 128 FFT, 100RBs (1200 subcarriers) with 2048 FFT
* 3GPP TS 36.101, E-UTRA: UE radio transmission
and reception, Release 9, V9.0.0, June 2009
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OFDM Parameters
LTE Radio Interface Architecture
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LTE Protocol Architecture (DL)
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PDCP and RLC
 PDCP
 Header compression and corresponding decompression
 Ciphering and deciphering
 Integrity protection and verification
 RLC
 Transferring PDUs from higher layers, i.e. from RRC or PDCP
 Error correction with ARQ, concatenation/segmentation, in-sequence
delivery and duplicate detection
 Protocol error handling (e.g. signalling error)
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EPS Bearer Service Architecture
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EPS Bearer Terminology
 Quality of service
 GBR bearer: Guaranteed bit rate
 Non-GBR bearer: No guaranteed bit rate
 Establishment time
 Default bearer
 Established when UE connects to PDN
 Provides always-on connectivity
 Always non-GBR
 Dedicated bearer established later
 Can be GBR or non-GBR
 Every EPS bearer
 QoS class identifier (QCI): This is a number which describes the error rate and
delay that are associated with the service.
 Allocation and retention priority (ARP): This determines whether a bearer can be
dropped if the network gets congested, or whether it can cause other bearers to be
dropped. Emergency calls might be associated with a high ARP, for example.
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QCI (QoS Class Identifier)
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Logical Channels: “type of information it carries”
 Control Channels
 Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
used for transmission of system information from the network to all UEs in a cell
 Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
used for paging of UEs whose location on cell level is not known to the network
 Common Control Channel (CCCH)
used for transmission of control information in conjunction with random access, i.e.,
used for UEs having no RRC connection
 Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
used for transmission of control information to/from a UE, i.e., used for UEs having
RRC connection (e.g. handover messages)
 Multicast Control Channel (MCCH)
used for transmission of control information required for reception of MTCH
 Traffic Channels
 Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)
used for transmission of user data to/from a UE
 Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH)
used for transmission of MBMS services
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Transport Channels: “how”, “with what characteristics”
 Downlink
 Broadcast Channel (BCH)
 A fixed TF
 Used for transmission of parts of BCCH, so called MIB
 Paging Channel (PCH)
 Used for transmission of paging information from PCCH
 Supports discontinuous reception (DRX)
 Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)
 Main transport channel used for transmission of downlink data in LTE
 Used also for transmission of parts of BCCH, so called SIB
 Supports discontinuous reception (DRX)
 Multicast Channel (MCH)
 Used to support MBMS
 Uplink
 Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH)
 Uplink counterpart to the DL-SCH
 Random Access Channel(s) (RACH)
 Transport channel which doesn’t carry transport blocks
 Collision risk
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DL Physical Channels
 Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
 실제downlink user data를전송하기위한transport channel인DL-SCH와paging 정보를전송
하기위한transport channel인PCH가매핑
 동적방송정보인SI (System Information) 값들도RRC 메시지형태로DL-SCH를통해전송되
므로이역시PDSCH로매핑
이경우는전체셀영역으로도달될수있는능력이요구되기도함
 Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
 UE가cell search과정을마친후에최초로검출하는채널로서, 다른물리계층채널들을수신하
기위하여반드시필요한기본적인시스템정보들인MIB (Master Information Block)를전송하
기위한transport channel인BCH가매핑
 Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)
 방송형데이터를전송하기위한transport channel 인MCH가매핑
 Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
 매subframe마다전송, only one PCFICH in each cell
 Informs UE about CFI which indicates the number of OFDM symbols used for PDCCHs
transmission
 Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)
 Informs UE about resource allocation of PCH and DL-SCH
 HARQ information related to DL-SCH
 UL scheduling grant
 Physical HARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)
 Carries HARQ ACK/NACKs in response to UL transmission
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UL Physical Channels
 Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
 Uplink counterpart of PDSCH
 Carries UL-SCH
 Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
 Carries HARQ ACK/NAKs in response to DL transmission
 Carries Scheduling Request (SR)
 Carries channel status reports such as CQI, PMI and RI
 At most one PUCCH per UE
 Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
 Carries the random access preamble
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LTE Channel Mapping
Downlink
Uplink
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<cf> WCDMA DL Channel Mapping
BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH CTCH DTCH
BCH
(DL)
PCH
(DL)
RACH
(UL)
FACH
(DL)
DSCH
(DL)
CPCH
(UL)
DCH
(UL&DL)
P- CCPCH S- CCPCH PRACH PDSCH PCPCH DPDCH
SCH,CPICH,AICH,
PICH,DPCCH
Logical Ch
Transport Ch
Physical Ch
Cont rol Plane User Plane
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BCCH and PCH on PDSCH
* Qualcomm
LTE Downlink Transmission
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Frame Structure: Type 1 for FDD
where, Ts = 1/(15000 x 2048) seconds “the smallest time unit in LTE”
Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms

#0 #1 #2 #3 #19
One slot, T
slot
= 15360×T
s
= 0.5 ms
One radio frame, T
f
= 307200×T
s
=10 ms
#18
One subframe
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Frame Structure: Type 2 for TDD

One slot,
Tslot=15360Ts
GP UpPTS DwPTS
One radio frame, Tf = 307200Ts = 10 ms
One half-frame, 153600Ts = 5 ms
30720Ts
One subframe,
30720Ts
GP UpPTS DwPTS
Subframe #2 Subframe #3 Subframe #4 Subframe #0 Subframe #5 Subframe #7 Subframe #8 Subframe #9
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Frame Structure: FDD/TDD
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DL Slot Structure
 : Downlink bandwidth configuration,
expressed in units of
 : Resource block size in the
frequency domain, expressed as a
number of subcarriers
 : Number of OFDM symbols in an
downlink slot
RB
sc
N
RB
sc
N
DL
RB
N
DL
symb
N

DL
symb
N OFDM symbols
One downlink slot
slot
T
0 = l 1
DL
symb
÷ = N l
R
B
s
c
D
L
R
B
N
N
×
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
R
B
s
c
N
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
RB
sc
DL
symb
N N ×
Resource block
resource elements
Resource element ) , ( l k
0 = k
1
RB
sc
DL
RB
÷ = N N k
The minimum RB the eNB uses for LTE
scheduling is “1ms (1subframe) x 180kHz
(12subcarriers @ 15kHz spacing)”
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Definitions
 Resource Grid
 Defined as subcarriers in frequency domain and OFDM symbols in time domain
 The quantity depends on the DL transmission BW configured in the cell and shall fulfill
 The set of allowed values for is given by TS 36.101, TS 36.104
 Resource Block (1 RB = 180 kHz)
 Defined as “consecutive” subcarriers in frequency domain and “consecutive” OFDM
symbols in time domain
 Corresponding to one slot in the time domain and 180 kHz in the frequency domain
 Resource Element
 Uniquely defined by the index pair in a slot where and
are the indices in the frequency and time domain, respectively
110 6
DL
RB
s s N
RB
sc
DL
RB
N N
DL
symb
N
RB
sc
N
( ) l k,
DL
RB
N
DL
RB
N
DL
symb
N
1 ,..., 0
DL
symb
÷ = N l 1 ,..., 0
RB
sc
DL
RB
÷ = N N k
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Normal CP & Extended CP
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Resource Blocks Allocation
* Award Solutions
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Resource-element groups (REG)
 Basic unit for mapping of PCFICH,
PHICH, and PDCCH
 Resource-element groups are used
for defining the mapping of control
channels to resource elements.
 Mapping of a symbol-quadruplet
onto a resource
-element group is defined such that
elements are mapped to resource
elements of the resource-element
group not used for cell-specific
reference signals in increasing order
of l and k
) 3 ( ), 2 ( ), 1 ( ), ( + + + i z i z i z i z
) (i z
) , ( l k
n
+
0
n
+
1
n
+
2
n
+
3
n
+
4
n
+
5
n
+
6
n
+
7
n
+
0
n
+
1
n
+
2
n
+
3
n
+
4
n
+
5
n
+
6
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DL Physical Channel Processing
 scrambling of coded bits in each of the code words to be transmitted on a
physical channel
 modulation of scrambled bits to generate complex-valued modulation symbols
 mapping of the complex-valued modulation symbols onto one or several
transmission layers
 precoding of the complex-valued modulation symbols on each layer for
transmission on the antenna ports
 mapping of complex-valued modulation symbols for each antenna port to
resource elements
 generation of complex-valued time-domain OFDM signal for each antenna port

OFDM signal
generation
Layer
Mapper
Scrambling
Precoding
Modulation
Mapper
Modulation
Mapper
Resource
element mapper
OFDM signal
generation
Scrambling
code words layers antenna ports
Resource
element mapper
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Channel Coding
 Turbo code
 PCCC (exactly the same as in WCDMA/HSPA)
 QPP (quadratic polynomial permutation) interleaver
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
56
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
000 001 011 010 110 111 101 111
64-QAM
0 1
0
1
QPSK
00 01 11 10
00
01
11
10
16-QAM
Modulation
 PDSCH, PMCH: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
 PBCH, PCFICH, PDCCH: QPSK
 PHICH: BPSK on I/Q
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
57
DL Layer Mapping and Precoding
 Explained in MIMO session
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
58
DL OFDM Signal Generation
 OFDM Parameters
N = 2048 for Af=15kHz
N = 4096 for Af=7.5kHz
 Check with resource block parameters
 (160+2048) x Ts = 71.88us
(144+2048) x Ts = 71.35us
71.88us + 71.35us x 6 = 0.5ms
 Normal Cyclic Prefix = 160 Ts = 5.2 us
Normal Cyclic Prefix = 144 Ts = 4.7 us
Extended Cyclic Prefix = 512 Ts = 16.7 us
Extended Cyclic Prefix for MBMS = 1024 Ts = 33.3 us
( )
s , CP
0 T N N t
l
× + < s
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
59
DL Physical Channels & Signals
 Physical channels
 Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
 Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
 Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)
 Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
 Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)
 Physical HARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)
 Physical signals
 Reference Signals
 Cell-specific RS, associated with non-MBSFN transmission
 Aid coherent detection (pilot)
 Reference channel for CQI from UE to eNB
 MBSFN RS, associated with MBSFN transmission
 UE-specific RS
 Synchronization Signals
 Carries frequency and symbol timing synchronization
 PSS (Primary SS) and SSS (Secondary SS)
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
60
Equivalent Channel/Signal Mapping
Across Different Systems
LTE WCDMA/HSPA WiMAX
PDSCH HS-PDSCH, SCCPCH DL Data Burst
PBCH PCCPCH DCD, Preamble
PMCH DL Data Burst
PCFICH FCH
PDCCH HS-SCCH, E-AGCH,
E-RGCH
DL-MAP, UL-MAP
PHICH E-HICH DL Data Burst
Cell-specific
Reference Signal
CPICH Pilot Signal (common)
UE-specific Reference
Signal
With secondary
scrambling code
Pilot Signal (dedicated)
Sync Signal SCH Preamble
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
61
DL Reference Signals
 Cell-specific reference signals
 Are transmitted in every downlink subframe, and span entire cell BW
 Used for coherent demodulation of any downlink transmission “except” when so-
called non-codebook-based beamforming is used
 Used for initial cell search
 Used for downlink signal strength measurements for scheduling and handover
 Using antenna ports {0, 1, 2, 3}
 MBSFN reference signals
 Used for channel estimation for coherent demodulation of signals being transmitted
by means of MBSFN
 Using antenna port 4
 UE-specific reference signals
 Is specifically intended for channel estimation for coherent demodulation of DL-SCH
when non-codebook-based beamforming is used.
 Are transmitted only within the RB assigned for DL-SCH to that specific UE
 Using antenna port 5
* Antenna port is different from physical antenna. One designated RS per antenna port.
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
62
Cell-Specific Reference Signals
 When estimating the channel for a certain RB, UE may not only use the
reference symbols within that RB but also, in frequency domain, neighbor
RBs, as well as reference symbols of previously received slots/subframes
 Pseudo-random sequence generation
 is the slot number within a radio frame.
 is the OFDM symbol number within the slot.
 The pseudo-random sequence c(i) is a length-31 Gold sequence.
 The complex values of cell-specific reference symbols is based on length-31
Gold pseudo-random sequence. The length-31 Gold psuedo-random
sequence is generated with the seed, based on the slot number, symbol
number, cell identity, and cyclic prefix type.
( ) ( ) 1 2 ,..., 1 , 0 , ) 1 2 ( 2 1
2
1
) 2 ( 2 1
2
1
) (
DL max,
RB ,
s
÷ = + · ÷ + · ÷ = N m m c j m c m r
n l
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
63
Cell-Specific Reference Signals – cont’d
 While the sequence itself if 2
31
-1
bits in length, the number of bits
from the sequence selected for
transmission is based on the largest
channel bandwidth, which is
currently 20 MHz.
* Qualcomm
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
64
Relationship with Cell Identity
 504 unique Cell ID:
 168(N1) Cell ID groups, 3 (N2) Cell ID within each group
 Cell ID = 3xN1+N2 = 0 ~ 503 index
 504 pseudo-random sequences
 One to one mapping between the Cell ID and Pseudo-random sequences
 Cell-specific Frequency Shift (N1 mod 6)
 1 RE shift from current RS position in case of next Cell ID index
 Each shift corresponds to 84 different cell identities, that is 6 shifts jointly cover all
504 cell identities.
 Effective with RS boosting to enhance reference signal SIR by avoiding the collision
of boosted RSs from neighboring cells (assuming time synchronization)
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
65
Cell-Specific RS Mapping

0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l
O
n
e

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
T
w
o

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
s
Resource element (k,l)
Not used for transmission on this antenan port
Reference symbols on this antenna port
0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l
0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
0
R
0
R
0
R
0
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l 0 = l
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
6 = l
F
o
u
r

a
n
t
e
n
n
a

p
o
r
t
s
0 = l 6 = l 0 = l
2
R
6 = l 0 = l 6 = l 0 = l 6 = l
2
R
2
R
2
R
3
R 3
R
3
R
3
R
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 0
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 1
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 2
even-numbered slots odd-numbered slots
Antenna port 3
Overhead Normal CP Extended CP
1 Tx ant 4.76% 5.56%
2 Tx ant 9.52% 11.11%
4 Tx ant 14.29% 15.87%
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
66
MBSFN RS Mapping
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
67
MBSFN RS Mapping
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
68
UE-specific RS on top of Cell-specific RS
 UE-specific RS (antenna port 5)
 12 symbols per RB pair
 DL CQI estimation is always based on cell-specific RS (common RS)
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
69
Cell ID with PSS & SSS
 504 unique physical-layer cell identities
 168 unique physical-layer cell-identity groups (0~167)
 3 physical-layer identity within physical-layer cell-identity group (0~2)
 Primary SS (PSS) and Secondary SS (SSS)
SSS (Cell ID Group)
PSS (Cell ID index
within a Group)
Physical Layer Cell ID
• • •
0 1 2
• • •
0 1 2 …
0 1 2 3 … 167
• • • • •
• • •
0 1 2
• • • • • • • • •
0 1 2 3 4 5 501 502 503
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
70
Synchronization Signals
 SS is using single antenna port
However, SS can be with UE-transparent transmit antenna scheme (e.g.
PVS, TSTD, CDD)
 Primary SS (PSS) and Secondary SS (SSS)
0.5ms slot
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
71
Primary Synchronization Signal
 The sequence used for the primary synchronization signal is generated from a frequency-
domain Zadoff-Chu sequence (Length-62)
 For frame structure type 1, PSS is mapped to the last OFDM symbol in slots 0 and 10
 No need to know CP length
 The sequence is mapped to REs (6 RBs) according to
 Cell ID detection within a cell ID group (3 hypotheses)
 Half-frame timing detection (Repeat the same sequence twice)
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
=
=
+ +
÷
+
÷
61 ,..., 32 , 31
30 ,..., 1 , 0
) (
63
) 2 )( 1 (
63
) 1 (
n e
n e
n d
n n u
j
n un
j
u
t
t
( ) 61 ,..., 0 , 1 ,
2
31 ,
DL
symb
RB
sc
DL
RB
,
= ÷ = + ÷ = = n N l
N N
n k n d a
l k
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
72
Secondary Synchronization Signal
 The sequence used for the second synchronization signal is an interleaved concatenation
of two length-31 binary sequences (X and Y)
 The concatenated sequence is scrambled with a scrambling sequence given by PSS
 The combination of two length-31 sequences defining SSS differs between slot 0 (SSS
1
)
and slot 10 (SSS
2
) according to
where
 Blind detection of CP-length (2 FFT operations are needed)
 The same antenna port as for the primary sync signal
 Mapped to 6 RBs
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= +
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
5 subframe in ) (
0 subframe in ) (
) 1 2 (
5 subframe in ) (
0 subframe in ) (
) 2 (
) (
1 1
) (
0
) (
1 1
) (
1
0
) (
1
0
) (
0
1 0
0 1
1
0
n z n c n s
n z n c n s
n d
n c n s
n c n s
n d
m m
m m
m
m
30 0 s s n
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
73
Synchronization Signals – cont’d
 Cell ID group detection (the set of valid combination of X and Y for SSS are 168)
 Frame boundary detection (the m-sequences X and Y are swapped b/w SSS
1
and SSS
2
)
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
74
Structure of SSS
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
75
LTE Cell Search
Primary SS
Symbol timing acquisition
Frequency synchronization
Cell ID detection within a cell group ID (3
hypotheses)
Half-frame boundary detection
Secondary SS
Cell group ID detection (168 hypotheses)
Frame boundary detection (2 hypotheses)
CP-length detection (2 hypotheses)
BCH
40ms BCH period timing detection
eNB # of tx antenna detection
MIB acquisition (Operation BW, SFN, etc…)
PCFICH  PDCCH reception
SIB acquisition within PDSCH
Map Cell ID to cell-specific RS
Random access with PRACH
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
76
PCFICH
 The number of OFDM symbols used for control channel can be varying per TTI
 CFI (Control Format Indication)
 Information about the number of OFDM symbols (1~4) used for transmission of PDCCHs in a
subframe
 PCFICH carries CFI
 2 bits 32 bits (block coding) 32 bits (cell specific scrambling) 16 symbols (QPSK)
 Mapping to resource elements: 4 REG (16 RE excluding RS) in the 1
st
OFDM symbol
 Spread over the whole system bandwidth
 To avoid the collisions in neighboring cells, the location depends on cell identity
 Transmit diversity is applied which is identical to the scheme applied to BCH
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
77
PCFICH Processing
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
78
PHICH
 HARQ ACK/NAK in response to UL transmission
 HI codewords with length of 12 REs = 4 (Walsh spreading) x 3 (repetition)
 3 groups of 4 contiguous REs (not used for RS and PCFICH)
 BPSK modulation with I/Q multiplexing
SF4 x 2 (I/Q) = 8 PHICHs in normal CP
 Cell-specific scrambling
 Tx diversity, the same antenna ports as PBCH
 Typically, PHICH is transmitted in the first OFDM symbol only
 For FDD, an uplink transport block received in subframe n should be acknowledged on the
PHICH in subframe n+4
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
79
PHICH Processing
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
80
PCFICH/PHICH RE Mapping
symbol
S
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
 Example for 5 MHz BW LTE
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
81
PDCCH
 PDCCH is used to carry DCI where DCI includes;
 Downlink scheduling assignments, including PDSCH resource indication, transport
format, HARQ-related information, and control information related to SM (if
applicable).
 Uplink scheduling grants, including PUSCH resource indication, transport format, and
HARQ-related information.
 Uplink power control commands
 DL assignment
 Regular unicast data – RB assignment, transport block size, retransmission sequence
number
 Scheduling of paging messages – acts as a “PICH”
 Scheduling of SIBs
 Scheduling of RA responses
 UL power control commands
 UL grant
 Regular unicast data
 Request for aperiodic CQI reports
 Power control command, cyclic shift of DM RS
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
82
PDCCH DCI Format
DCI
Formats
Usage Details
0 UL grant For scheduling of PUSCH
1
DL
assign-
ment
For scheduling of one PDSCH codeword (SIMO, TxD)
1A
For compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword (SIMO, TxD) and
random access procedure initiated by a PDCCH order
1B
For compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword with precoding
information (CL single-rank)
1C
For very compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword (paging, RACH
response and dynamic BCCH scheduling)
1D
For compact scheduling of one PDSCH codeword with precoding &
power offset information
2 For scheduling PDSCH to UEs configured in CL SM
2A For scheduling PDSCH to UEs configured in OL SM
3
Power
control
For transmission of TPC commands for PUCCH/PUSCH with 2-bit
power adjustment
3A
For transmission of TPC commands for PUCCH/PUSCH with single bit
power adjustment
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
83
Downlink Assignment
 Major contents of different DCI formats: not exhaustive
 DCI format 0/1A indication [1 bit]
 Distributed transmission flag [1 bit]
 Resource-block allocation [variable]
 For the first (or only) transport block
 MCS [5 bit]
 New-data indicator [1 bit]
 Redundancy version [2 bit]
 For the second transport block (present in DCI format 2 only)
 MCS [5 bit]
 New-data indicator [1 bit]
 Redundancy version [2 bit]
 HARQ process number [3 bit for FDD]
 Information related to SM (present in DCI format 2 only)
 Pre-coding information [3 bit for 2 antennas, 6 bit for 4 antennas in CL-SM]
 Number of transmission layer
 HARQ swap flag [1 bit]
 Transmit power control (TPC) for PUCCH [2 bit]
 Identity (RNTI) of the terminal for which the PDCCH transmission is intended [16 bit]
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
84
Uplink Grants
 Major contents of DCI format 0 for UL grants: not exhaustive
 DCI format 0/1A indication [1 bit]
 Hopping flag [1 bit]
 Resource-block allocation [variable]
 MCS [5 bit]
 New-data indicator [1 bit]
 Phase rotation of UL demodulation reference signal [3 bit]
 Channel-status request flag [1 bit]
 Transmit power control (TPC) for PUSCH [2 bit]
 Identity (RNTI) of the terminal for which the PDCCH transmission is intended [16 bit]
 The time b/w reception of an UL scheduling grant on a PDCCH and the
corresponding transmission on UL-SCH are fixed
 For FDD, the time relation is the same as for PHICH
 Uplink grant received in downlink subframe n applies to uplink subframe n+4
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
85
PDCCH Processing
C-RNTI DL-SCH
SI-RNTI BCCH
P-RNTI PCH
RA-RNTI RA Response
TPC-RNTI TPC
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
86
System Information
 Master information block (MIB) includes the following information:
 Downlink cell bandwidth [4 bit]
 PHICH duration [1 bit]
 PHICH resource [2 bit]
 System Frame Number (SFN) except two LBSs
 Etc…
 LTE defines different SIBs:
 SIB1 includes info mainly related to whether an UE is allowed to camp on the cell. This includes info about the
operator(s) and about the cell (e.g. PLMN identity list, tracking area code, cell identity, minimum required Rx
level in the cell, etc), DL-UL subframe configuration in TDD case, and the scheduling of the remaining SIBs.
SIB1 is transmitted every 80ms.
 SIB2 includes info that UEs need in order to be able to access the cell. This includes info about the UL cell
BW, random access parameters, and UL power control parameters. SIBs also includes radio resource
configuration of common channels (RACH, BCCH, PCCH, PRACH, PDSCH, PUSCH, PUCCH, and SRS).
 SIB3 mainly includes info related to cell-reselection.
 SIB4-8 include neighbor-cell-related info. (E-UTRAN, UTRAN, GERAN, cdma2000)
 SIB9 contains a home eNB identifier
 SIB10/11 contains ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System) notification
 More to be added
 MIB mapped to PBCH
 Other SIBs mapped to PDSCH
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
87
BCH on PBCH
 To broadcast a certain set of cell and/or system-specific information
Requirement to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell
 BCH transmission
 The coded BCH transport block is mapped to four subframes (slot #1 in subframe #0)
within a 40ms interval
 40ms timing is blindly detected (no explicit signaling indicating 40ms timing)
 Each subframe is assumed to be self-decodable, i.e. the BCH can be decoded from a
single reception, assuming sufficiently good channel conditions
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
88
BCH on PBCH – cont’d
 Single (fixed-size) transport block per TTI (40 ms)
 No HARQ
 Cell-specific scrambling, QPSK with ½tail-biting Conv. Code, Tx diversity(1,2,4)
 BCH mapped to 4 OFDM symbols within a subframe in time-domain at 6 RBs
(72 subcarriers) excluding DC in freq-domain
 PBCH is mapped into RE assuming RS from 4 antennas are used at eNB,
irrespective of the actual number of TX antenna
 Different transmit diversity schemes per # of antennas
 # of ant=2: SFBC
 # of ant=4: SFBC + FSTD (Frequency Switching Transmit Diversity)
 No explicit bits in the PBCH to signal the number of TX antennas at eNB
 PBCH encoding chain includes CRC masking dependent on the number of
configured TX antennas at eNB
 Blind detection of the number of TX antenna using CRC masking by UE
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
89
PBCH Processing
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
90
LTE Cell Search
Primary SS
Symbol timing acquisition
Frequency synchronization
Cell ID detection within a cell group ID (3
hypotheses)
Half-frame boundary detection
Secondary SS
Cell group ID detection (168 hypotheses)
Frame boundary detection (2 hypotheses)
CP-length detection (2 hypotheses)
BCH
40ms BCH period timing detection
eNB # of tx antenna detection
MIB acquisition (Operation BW, SFN, etc…)
PCFICH  PDCCH reception
SIB acquisition within PDSCH
Map Cell ID to cell-specific RS
Random access with PRACH
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
91
LTE Cell Search – cont’d*
PSS/SSS, BCH, (RACH)
1.4
3
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
92
PDSCH Processing
1) RS
2) PSS & SSS
and BCH
3) PCFICH
4) PHICH
5) PDCCH
6) PDSCH
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
93
Resource Block Allocations
 Localized allocation
Distributed allocation
 „Simple bitmap‟ whose size is equal to the number of RBs of the system
 Merit: The most flexible signaling of resource block allocation
Demerit: High overhead
 Not used in LTE
 LTE has 3 resource allocation type
 Type0: grouped bitmap
 Type1: grouped bitmap, enable 1 RB allocation
 Type2: VRB/PRB for localized & distributed
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
94
Resource Allocation Type0
 Reduce the size of bitmap by grouping (RBG)
 Bitmap points the group, not the individual RB
 Cannot allocate 1RB in wide system BW
 5MHz LTE example
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
95
Resource Allocation Type1
 Reduce the size of bitmap by grouping (RBG)
 Bitmap points the individual RB within a selected subset
 The number of subsets is equal to RBG size in type0
 Can allocate 1RB in wide system BW
 3 fields
 Subset ID: used to indicate the selected RBG subset among P subsets
 Frequency shift bit: one bit to indicate whether to consider a shift of PRB within an RBG
 Bitmap: each bit of the bitmap addresses a single PRB in the selected RBG subset
 10MHz LTE example
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
96
Resource Allocation Type2
 Does not rely on a bitmap
 Basically „frequency-contiguous‟ allocation
 Using VRB to PRB mapping, distributed allocation can be enabled
 2 values
 Start: a RIV (resource indication value) defines the index of the starting VRB
 Length: length of virtually contiguously allocated resource blocks
 5MHz LTE example
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
97
PRB and VRB (LVRB, DVRB)
 Physical resource blocks are numbered from 0 to in the frequency domain.
 The relation between the physical resource block number in the frequency domain
and resource elements in a slot is given by
 A virtual resource block is of the same size as a physical resource block.
Two types of virtual resource blocks are defined: LVRB and DVRB
 Virtual resource blocks of localized type are mapped directly to PRBs such that virtual
resource block corresponds to physical resource block .
Virtual resource blocks are numbered from 0 to , where .
1
DL
RB
÷ N
PRB
n
) , ( l k
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
RB
sc
PRB
N
k
n
VRB
n
VRB PRB
n n =
1
DL
VRB
÷ N
DL
RB
DL
VRB
N N =
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
98
DVRB
 Virtual resource blocks of distributed type are mapped to PRBs as follows
 Consecutive VRBs are not mapped to PRBs that are consecutive in the frequency domain
 Even a single VRB pair is distributed in the frequency domain
 The exact size of the frequency gap depends on the overall downlink cell BW
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
99
Resource Allocation Overhead
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
100
DL Frame Structure Type 1
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
101
DL constellation & frame summary
* Agilent
LTE Uplink Transmission
LTE/MIMO 표준기술
103
UL Slot Structure
 : Uplink bandwidth configuration,
expressed in units of
 : Resource block size in the
frequency domain, expressed as a
number of subcarriers
 : Number of SC-FDMA symbols in
an uplink slot
RB
sc
N
RB
sc
N
UL
RB
N
UL
symb
N

UL
symb
N SC-FDMA symbols
One uplink slot
slot
T
0 = l 1
UL
symb
÷ = N l
R
B
s
c
U
L
R
B
N
N
×
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
R
B
s
c
N
s
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
s
RB
sc
UL
symb
N N ×
Resource block
resource elements
Resource element ) , ( l k
0 = k
1
RB
sc
UL
RB
÷ = N N k
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Definitions
 Resource Grid
 Defined as subcarriers in frequency domain and SC-FDMA symbols in time domain
 The quantity depends on the UL transmission BW configured in the cell and shall fulfill
 The set of allowed values for is given by TS 36.101, TS 36.104
 Resource Block
 Defined as “consecutive” subcarriers in frequency domain and “consecutive” SC-
FDMA symbols in time domain
 Corresponding to one slot in the time domain and 180 kHz in the frequency domain
 Resource Element
 Uniquely defined by the index pair in a slot where and
are the indices in the frequency and time domain, respectively
110 6
UL
RB
s s N
RB
sc
UL
RB
N N
UL
symb
N
RB
sc
N
( ) l k,
UL
RB
N
UL
RB
N
UL
symb
N
1 ,..., 0
UL
symb
÷ = N l
1 ,..., 0
RB
sc
UL
RB
÷ = N N k
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UL Physical Channels & Signals
 UL physical channels
 Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
 Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
 Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
 UL physical signals
 An uplink physical signal is used by the physical layer but does not
carry information originating from higher layers
 Two types of reference signals
 UL demodulation reference signal (DRS) for PUSCH, PUCCH
 UL sounding reference signal (SRS) not associated with PUSCH,
PUCCH transmission
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LTE WCDMA/HSPA WiMAX
PUSCH (E-DPDCH) UL Data Burst
PUCCH HS-DPCCH CQICH, ACKCH,
BW Request
Ranging
PRACH PRACH Initial Ranging
Demodulation RS (E-DPCCH) Pilot Signal
Sounding RS Sounding Signal
Equivalent Channel/Signal Mapping
Across Different Systems
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UL Reference Signals
 UL RS should preferably have the following properties:
 Favorable auto- and cross-correlation properties
 Limited power variation in freq-domain to allow for similar channel-estimation quality for all
frequencies
 Limited power variation in time-domain (low cubic metric) for high PA efficiency
 Sufficiently many RS sequences of the same length to avoid an unreasonable planning effort
 Zadoff-Chu Sequence
 Appeared in IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory in 1972
 Poly-phase sequence
 Constant amplitude zero auto correlation (CAZAC) sequence의일종
 Cyclic autocorrelations are zero for all non-zero lags, Non-zero cross-correlations
 Constant power in both the frequency and the time domain
 No restriction on code length N
- Sequence number p is relatively prime to N
- Sequence length: N
- Number of sequences: N-1
,
,
) (
) 1 (
2
2
2
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
+ ÷
÷
n pn
N
j
pn
N
j
p
e
e
n g
t
t
when N is even
when N is odd
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DRS
 DRS is made from Z-C sequence*, and the DRS sequence length is the same
with the number of subcarriers in an assigned RBs
 DRS is defined with the following parameters
 Sequence group (30 options): cell specific parameter
 Sequence (2 options for sequence lengths of 6PRBs or longer): cell specific
parameter
 Cyclic shift (12 options): both terminal and cell specific components
 Sequence length: given by the UL allocation
 Typically,
Cyclic shifts are used to multiplex RSs from different UEs within a cell.
Different sequence groups are used in neighboring cells.
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DRS Location within a Subframe
 DRS for PUSCH
 Normal CP 적용시PUSCH RS는한슬롯당중앙의SC-FDMA 심볼에위치
Extended CP 적용시PUSCH RS는한슬롯당3번째SC-FDMA 심볼에위치
 DRS for PUCCH
 Format 1x
 Format 2x
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SRS
 기지국이각단말의상향링크채널정보를추정할수있도록단말이전송하는RS
 Reference for channel quality information
 CQ measurement for frequency/time aware scheduling
 CQ measurement for link adaptation
 CQ measurement for power control
 CQ measurement for MIMO
 Timing measurement
 Reference signal sequence is defined by a cyclic shift of a base sequence (ZC)
 SRS 전송주기/대역폭은 각단말마다고유하게할당
 From as often as once in every 2ms to as infrequently as once in every 160ms (320ms)
 At least 4 RBs
 SRS는서브프레임의마지막SC-FDMA 심볼로전송
 SRS multiplexing by
 Time, Frequency, Cyclic shifts, and transmission comb (2 combs distributed SC-FDMA)
 To avoid the collision b/w SRS and PUSCH transmission from other UEs, SRS
transmissions should not extend into the frequency band reserved for PUCCH.
( ) ( ) n r n r
v u
) (
,
SRS o
=
RS
sc ,
) (
,
0 ), ( ) ( M n n r e n r
v u
n j
v u
< s =
o o
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SRS – cont’d
 Non-frequency-hopping (wideband) SRS and frequency-hopping SRS
 Multiplexing of SRS transmissions from different UEs
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Uplink L1/L2 Control Signaling
 Uplink L1/L2 control signaling consists of:
 HARQ acknowledgements for received DL-SCH transport blocks
 UE reports downlink channel conditions including CQI, PMI, and RI
 Scheduling requests
 Channel feedback report
 CQI (Channel Quality Indicator)
 RI (Rank Indicator)
 PMI (Precoding Matrix Indicator)
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CQI
 CQI Table
 MCS where transport block could be received with transport block error rate s 0.1
*Note that there are many more
possibilities for MCS and TBS size
values than 15 indicated by CQI
feedback.
 Reported CQI is calculated assuming the particular RI value
 CQI is a function of frequency, time, and space
CQI index Modulation Coding rate x 1024 Bits per RE
0 Out of range
1 QPSK 78 0.1523
2 QPSK 120 0.2344
3 QPSK 193 0.3770
4 QPSK 308 0.6016
5 QPSK 449 0.8770
6 QPSK 602 1.1758
7 16QAM 378 1.4766
8 16QAM 490 1.9141
9 16QAM 616 2.4063
10 64QAM 466 2.7305
11 64QAM 567 3.3223
12 64QAM 666 3.9023
13 64QAM 772 4.5234
14 64QAM 873 5.1151
15 64QAM 948 5.5547
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UL L1/L2 Control Signaling Transmission
 Two different methods for transmission of UL L1/L2 control signaling
 No simultaneous transmission of UL-SCH
 UE doesn’t have a valid scheduling grant, that is, no resources have been
assigned for UL-SCH in the current subframe
 PUCCH is used for transmission of UL L1/L2 control signaling
 Simultaneous transmission of UL-SCH
 UE has a valid scheduling grant, that is, resources have been assigned for UL-
SCH in the current subframe
 UL L1/L2 control signaling is time multiplexed with the coded UL-SCH onto
PUSCH prior to SC-FDMA modulation
 Only HARQ acknowledgement and channel-status reports are transmitted
No need to request a SR. Instead, in-band buffer status reports are sent in
MAC headers
 The basis for channel-status reports on PUSCH is aperiodic reports
If a periodic report is configured to be transmitted on PUCCH in a frame when
US is scheduled to transmit PUSCH, then the periodic report is rerouted to
PUSCH resources
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UL L1/L2 control signaling on PUCCH
 The reasons for locating PUCCH resources at the edges of the spectrum
 To maximize frequency diversity
 To retain single-carrier property
 Multiple UEs can share the same PUCCH resource block
 Format 1: length-12 orthogonal phase rotation sequence + length-4 orthogonal cover
 Format 2: length-12 orthogonal phase rotation sequence
 PUCCH is never transmitted simultaneously with PUSCH from the same UE
2 consecutive PUCCH slots in
Time-Frequency Hopping at the slot
boundary
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PUCCH Formats
PUCCH
format
Modulation
scheme
Number of bits
per subframe
Usage
Multiplexing
capacity
(UE/RB)
1 N/A N/A SR 36, 18*, 12
1a BPSK 1 ACK/NACK 36, 18*, 12
1b QPSK 2 ACK/NACK 36, 18*, 12
2 QPSK 20 CQI 12, 6*, 4
2a QPSK+BPSK 21 CQI + ACK/NACK 12, 6*, 4
2b QPSK+QPSK 22 CQI + ACK/NACK 12, 6*, 4
* Typical value with 6 different rotations (choosing every second cyclic shift)
 PUCCH Format 2/2a/2b is located at the outermost RBs of system BW
 ACK/NACK for persistently scheduled PDSCH and SRI are located next
 ACK/NACK for dynamically scheduled PDSCH are located innermost RBs
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PUCCH Resource Mapping
 Format 1
 4 symbols are modulated by BPSK/QPSK
 BPSK/QPSK symbol is multiplied by a length-4 orthogonal cover sequence (a length-3
orthogonal cover when there is SRS), and then it modulates the rotated length-12
sequence.
 Reference signals also employ one orthogonal cover sequence
 PUCCH capacity: up to 3 x 12 = 36 different UEs per each cell-specific sequence
(assuming all 12 rotations being available Practically, only 6 rotations.)
 Format 2
 5 symbols are modulated by QPSK after being multiplied by a phase rotated length-12
cell specific sequence.
 Resource consumption of one channel-status report is 3x of HARQ acknowledgement
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PUCCH Format1 Processing
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PUCCH Format2 Processing
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PUSCH Processing
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PUSCH Frequency Hopping
 PUSCH transmission
 Localized transmission w/o frequency hopping
Frequency Selective Scheduling Gain
 Localized transmission with “frequency hopping”
Frequency Diversity Gain, Inter-cell Interference Randomization
 Two types of PUSCH frequency hopping
 Subband-based hopping according to cell-specific hopping patterns
 Hopping based on explicit hopping information in the scheduling grant
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Hopping based on cell-specific patterns
 Subbands are defined
 In 10 MHz BW case, the overall UL BW corresponds to 50 RBs and there are a total of 4 subbands, each consisting
of 11 RBs. The remaining 6 RBs are used for PUCCH transmission.
 The resource defined by a scheduling grant (VRBs) is not the actual set of RBs for transmission.
The resource to use for transmission (PRBs) is the resource provided in the scheduling grant “shifted” a
number of subbands according to a cell-specific hopping pattern.
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More on hopping w/ cell-specific patterns
 Example for predefined hopping for PUSCH with 20 RBs and M=4
(subband hopping + mirroring)
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Hopping based on explicit information
 Explicit hopping information provided in the scheduling grant is about the “offset” of the
resource in the second slot, relative to the resource in the first slot
 Selection b/w hopping based on cell-specific hopping patterns or hopping based on explicit
information can be done dynamically.
 Cell BW less than 50 RBs
 1 bit in scheduling grant indicating to specify which scheme is to be used
 When hopping based on explicit information is selected, the offset is always half of BW
 Cell BS equal or larger than 50 RBs
 2 bits in scheduling grant
 One of the combinations indicate that hopping should be based on cell-specific hopping patterns
 Three remaining combinations indicate hopping of 1/2, +1/4, and -1/4 of BW
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UL SC-FDMA Signal Generation
 This section applies to all uplink physical signals and physical channels
except the physical random access channel
 SC-FDMA parameters
where N = 2048
 Check with numbers in Table 5.2.3-1.
 {(160+2048) x Ts} + 6 x {(144+2048) x Ts} = 0.5 ms
 6 x {(512+2048) x Ts} = 0.5 ms
( )
s , CP
0 T N N t
l
× + < s
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PRACH
 PRACH는RA 과정에서단말이기지국으로전송하는preamble이다
 6RB를차지하며부반송파간격은1.25kHz (format #4는7.5kHz)
 64 preamble sequences for each cell 64 random access opportunities per PRACH resource
 Sequence부분은길이839의Z-C sequence로구성(format #4는길이139)
 Phase modulation: Due to the ideal auto-correlation property, there is no intra-cell interference from multiple
random access attempt using preambles derived from the same Z-C root sequence.
 Five types of preamble formats to accommodate a wide range of scenarios
 Higher layers control the preamble format
일반적환경(~15km)
넓은반경의셀환경과같이시간지연이긴경우(~100km)
SINR이낮은상황을고려하여sequence repetition (~30km)
SINR이낮은상황을고려하여sequence repetition (~100km)
TDD 모드용
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Different Preamble Formats
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PRACH Location
 One PRACH resource of 6 RBs per subframe (for FDD)
 Multiple UEs can access same PRACH resource by using different preambles
 PRACH may or may not present in every subframe and every frame
PRACH-Configuration-Index parameter indicates frame number and subframe numbers
where the PRACH resource is available.
 Starting frequency is specified by the network ( )
 No frequency hopping for PRACH
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LTE Cell Search & Random Access
Primary SS
Symbol timing acquisition
Frequency synchronization
Cell ID detection within a cell group ID (3
hypotheses)
Half-frame boundary detection
Secondary SS
Cell group ID detection (168 hypotheses)
Frame boundary detection (2 hypotheses)
CP-length detection (2 hypotheses)
BCH
40ms BCH period timing detection
eNB # of tx antenna detection
MIB acquisition (Operation BW, SFN, etc…)
PCFICH  PDCCH reception
SIB acquisition within PDSCH
Map Cell ID to cell-specific RS
Random access with PRACH
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UL Frame Structure Type 1*
1 RB
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UL 16QAM SC-FDMA
* Agilent
Summary
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E-UTRA UE Capabilities*
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Final Message*
* Signals Ahead

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