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4G Mobile Systems

4G Mobile Systems

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Published by: Nung Ning on Jun 18, 2012
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4G mobile systems (IMT-Advanced: WiMAX and LTEAdvanced

Nut Jira-aroon, Nuttanont Promdontree, Dr.Prapun Suksompong Electronics and Communication Engineering Program Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University
Abstract — 4G or LTE-Advanced involved two important algorithms which perform maximization performance, such algorithms are orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) and single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA). SCFDMA, a modified form of Orthogonal FDMA (OFDMA), is a technique for high data rate uplink communications in future cellular systems. SC-FDMA has similar throughput performance and the same overall complexity as OFDMA. A principal advantage of SC-FDMA is the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), which is lower than that of OFDMA. OFDMA is considered the most appropriate technique for achieving high data throughput for downlink. On other hand, SC-FDMA is currently a strong candidate for the uplink multiple access scheme in the Long Term Evolution of cellular systems under consideration by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). These proposed paper; we focused on an overview of SC-FDMA. We also analyze the effects of different number of users on subcarrier mapping and PAPR. Among the possible subcarrier mapping approaches, we find that localized FDMA (LFDMA) results in higher throughput than interleaved FDMA (IFDMA). However, the PAPR performance of IFDMA is better than that of LFDMA.

going through the standard OFDM modulation. For this reason, SC-FDMA inherits all the advantages of OFDM over other well-known techniques such as TDMA and CDMA. In SC-FDMA as well as OFDM, equalization is achieved on the receiver side after the FFT calculation, by multiplying each Fourier coefficient by a complex number. The advantage is that FFT and frequency domain equalization requires less computation power than the conventional time domain equalization. SC-FDMA has drawn great attention as an attractive alternative to OFDMA, especially in the uplink communications where low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) greatly benefits the mobile terminal in terms of transmit power efficiency and manufacturing cost. SC-FDMA is currently a working assumption for the uplink multiple access scheme in 3rd Generation Partnership Project Long Term. B. 3GPP Long Term Evolution: 3GPP’s work on the evolution of the 3G mobile system started with the Radio Access Network (RAN) Evolution workshop in November 2004. Operators, manufacturers, and research institutes presented more than 40 contributions with views and proposals on the evolution of the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN). They identified a set of high level requirements at the workshop; reduced cost per bit, increased service provisioning, flexibility of the use of existing and new frequency bands, simplified architecture and open interfaces, and allow for reasonable terminal power consumption. The objective was to develop a framework for the evolution of the 3GPP radio access technology towards a high data-rate, low-latency, and packetoptimized radio access technology. The study focused on means to support flexible transmission bandwidth of up to 20 MHz, introduction of new transmission schemes, advanced multi-antenna technologies, signaling optimization, identification of the optimum UTRAN network architecture, and functional split between RAN network nodes.

I. Introduction
A. SC-FDMA Single-carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) is a frequency division multiple access scheme. Like other multiple access schemes (TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, OFDMA), it has been used for multiple users to a shared communication resource. Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) is a promising technique for high data rate uplink communication and has been developed by 3GPP for its next generation cellular system, called Long-Term Evolution (LTE). SCFDMA is a modified form of OFDM with similar throughput performance and complexity. This is often viewed as DFT-coded OFDM where timedomain data symbols are transformed to frequencydomain by a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) before

The first part of the study resulted in an agreement on the requirements for the Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN). Key aspects of the requirements are as follows.  Peak data rate: Instantaneous downlink peak data rate of 100 Mbps within a 20MHz downlink spectrum allocation (5 bps/Hz) and instantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50 Mbps (2.5 bps/Hz) within a 20 MHz uplink spectrum allocation.  Control-plane capacity: At least 200 users per cell should be supported in the active state for spectrum allocations up to 5 MHz.  Coverage: Throughput, spectrum efficiency, and mobility targets should be met for 5 km cells and with a slight degradation for 30 km cells. Cells ranging up to100 km should not be precluded.  Spectrum flexibility: E-UTRA shall operate in spectrum allocations of different sizes including 1.25 MHz, 1.6 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz, and 20MHz in both uplink and downlink. LTE is a next generation mobile system from the 3GPP with a focus on wireless broadband. LTE is based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with cyclic prefix (CP) in the downlink, and on Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) with cyclic prefix in the uplink. It supports both FDD and TDD duplex modes for transmission on paired and unpaired spectrum.

II. System Configuration of SC FDMA

(QPSK) , 16 level amplitude modulation (16-QAM) and 64-QAM. The system adapts the modulation format, and thereby the transmission bit rate, to match the current channel conditions of each terminal. The next part of transmitter is the modulation symbols, {xn} into blocks each containing N symbols (numSymbol). The first step in modulating the SC-FDMA subcarriers is to perform an N-point discrete Fourier transform (DFT), to produce a frequency domain representation {Xk} of the input symbols. It then maps each of the N DFT outputs to one of the M(>N) orthogonal subcarriers (totalSubcarriers) that can be transmitted. As in OFDMA, a typical value of M is 512 subcarriers and N = M/Q is an integer submultiple of M. Q is the bandwidth expansion factor of the symbol sequence, i.e. if all terminals transmit N symbols per block, the system can handle Q simultaneous transmissions without channel interference. DFT output of the data symbols is mapped to a subset of subcarriers, a process called subcarrier mapping. The subcarrier mapping assigns DFT output complex values as the amplitudes of some of the selected subcarriers. Subcarrier mapping can be classified into two types: Localized mapping and Distributed mapping. In localized mapping, the DFT outputs are mapped to a subset of consecutive subcarriers thereby confining them to only a fraction of the system bandwidth. In distributed mapping, the DFT outputs of the input data are assigned to subcarriers over the entire bandwidth non-continuously, resulting in zero amplitude for the remaining subcarriers. A special case of distributed SC-FDMA is called interleaved SCFDMA, where the occupied subcarriers are equally spaced over the entire bandwidth. Figure 2 is a general picture of localized and distributed mapping.

Fig.2: Localized mapping Vs. Distributed mapping Fig.1: Transmitter and receiver structure of SC-FDMA and OFDMA systems. SC-FDMA configuration is started from the transmitter converts a binary input signal to a sequence of modulated subcarriers. To do so, a baseband modulator transforms the binary input to a multilevel sequence of complex numbers {xn} in one of several possible modulation formats including binary phase shift keying (BPSK), quaternary PSK
It maps each of the N-DFT outputs to one of the M(> N) orthogonal subcarriers that can be transmitted. A typical value of M is 512 subcarriers and N = M/Q is an integer sub multiple of M. Q is the bandwidth expansion factor of the symbol sequence. If all terminals transmit N symbols per block, the system can handle Q simultaneous transmissions without co-channel interference. The result of the subcarrier mapping is the set X l (l = 0, 1, 2… M − 1) of complex subcarrier amplitudes, where N of the amplitudes are non-zero.

An example of subcarrier mapping is shown in Figure 3. The example assumes three users sharing 12 subcarriers. Each user has a block of four data symbols to transmit at a time. The DFT output of the data block has four complex frequency domain samples, which are mapped over 12 subcarriers using different mapping schemes. SC-FDMA inherently offers frequency diversity gain over the standard OFDM, as all information data is spread over multiple subcarriers by the DFT mapping. However, the distributed SC-FDMA is more robust with respect to frequency selective fading and offers additional frequency diversity gain, since the information is spread across the entire system bandwidth. Localized SC-FDMA in combination with channel-dependant scheduling can potentially offer multi-user diversity in frequency selective channel conditions.

shaping filter can be applied to transmit signal to further improve PAPR. To evaluate the pulse shaping on SC-FDMA, we convolved each transmitted symbol waveform with a raised cosine pulse truncated from −6T to +6T, where T seconds is the symbol duration. No pulse shaping was applied in the case OFDMA. The impulse response of a raised cosine filter can be explained by equation 2. (Equation 2) Where the parameter α (0 ≤ α ≤ 1) is referred to as the roll off factor. Lower values of α introduce more pulse shaping and more suppression of out-of-bandsignal components.

III. Implementation on MATLAB
This section is divided to 3 parts which are PAPR comparison between OFDMA and SC-FDMA (IFDMA mapping, LFDMA mapping), Effect of multiuser in difference subcarrier mapping on SCFDMA and Allocation frequency on LFDMA. A. PAPR comparison between OFDMA and SC-FDMA Fig.3: Subcarrier mapping example The result of the subcarrier mapping is the set Xl of complex subcarrier amplitudes, where N of the amplitudes are non-zero. As in OFDMA, an M-point inverse DFT (IDFT) transforms the subcarrier amplitudes to a complex time domain signal Xm. Each Xm then modulates a single frequency carrier and all the modulated symbols are transmitted sequentially. SC-FDMA offers similar performance and complexity as OFDM. However, the main advantage of SC-FDMA is the low PAPR (peak-average-power ratio) of the transmit signal. PAPR is defined as the ratio of the peak power to average power of the transmit signal. PAPR can be explained by equation 1. PAPR (Equation 1) Fig.4: Comparison of CCDF of PAPR for IFDMA, LFDMA, and OFDMA with total subcarrier =512 system, 16 subcarriers per user with QPSK Figure 4 show that SC-FDMA signals has lower PAPR than OFDMA signals. Also LFDMA incurs higher PAPR compared to IFDMA but, compared to OFDMA, it is lower.

PAPR is a major concern at the user terminals, low PAPR makes the SC-FDMA the preferred technology for the uplink transmission. PAPR relates to the power amplifier efficiency at the transmitter. Lower PAPR allows operation of the power amplifier in higher efficiency. To evaluate PAPR of individual system configurations, we have simulated the transmission of 105 blocks of symbols. After calculating PAPR for each block, we present the data as an empirical CCDF (Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function). The CCDF is the probability that PAPR is higher than a certain PAPR value PAPR0 (Pr{PAPR >PAPR0}). SC-FDMA modulated signal can be viewed as a single carrier signal, a pulse

B. Effect of multiuser in difference subcarrier mapping on SC-FDMA

compared to IFDMA. Also, we figure out the fact that raised-cosine pulse shaping and number of subcarrier increase PAPR of LFDMA. Another noticeable is that when we are shifting frequency of the first subcarrier to the last subcarrier, the higher PAPR normally occurs at the middle of subcarrier. It means that user who is using frequency in the middle will has lower battery life due to higher PAPR. In addition, the values of PAPR are rising when the number of subcarriers is increase.

V. FUTURE WORK AND RESEARCH PLAN
The research plan of this project shown in the table. Fig.5: Comparison of CCDF of PAPR for IFDMA and LFDMA with total subcarrier = 512 system, 16 subcarriers per user, and number of user =1,8,16,32 users. Figure 5 show that increasing of number of user also increases the PAPR of SC-FDMA with IFDMA and LFDMA mapping. C. Allocation frequency on LFDMA

References:
[1] E. Dahlman, S. Parkvall, & J. Sköld, 4G LTE/LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband, Elsevier, 1st ed., 2011 [2] F. Khan, LTE for 4G Mobile Broadband Air Interface Technologies and Performance, Cambridge, 2009 [3] H. G. Myung, J. Lim, & D. J. Goodman, Single Carrier FDMA A New Air Interface for Long Term Evolution, Wiley, 2008 [4] H. Ekström et al., Technical Solutions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 44, no. 3, Mar. 2006. [5] H. G. Myung, J. Lim, & D. J. Goodman, Single Carrier FDMA for Uplink Wireless Transmission, IEEE Vehic. Tech. Mag., vol. 1, no. 3, Sep. 2006 [6] K. Tachikawa, W-CDMA Mobile Communications System, Wiley, 2002 [7] 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP); Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Physical Layer Aspects for Evolved UTRA, http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/htmlinfo/25814.htm. [8] 3GPP TS 36.211 v8.4.0, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical Channels and Modulation, Release 8

Figure 6 Shifting first frequency of LFDMA with total subcarrier = 512 system, 16 subcarriers per user. Figure 6 show that shifting subcarrier from first subcarrier to last subcarrier. Peak PAPR occur at the middle of total number of subcarrier.

IV. Conclusions
These proposed, we analyze the PAPR of SCFDMA signals and compare it with the OFDMA. It is shown that SC-FDMA signals indeed have lower PAPR compared OFDMA. Specifically, we also analyze the PAPR of IFDMA and LFDMA. The result has shown that LFDMA have higher PAPR

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