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Agent Malformations Rubella* Cataract, glaucoma, heart defect, deafness, erosion of the teeth CMV* Microcephaly(small brain), blindness, mental retardation HSV Microphthalmia(small eyes), microcephaly, retinal dysplasia HIV Microcephaly, growth retardation Toxoplasmosis Hydrocephalus, cerebral calcification, microphthalmia (brain gets hard, and most brain gets blocked ) • Syphilis • Mental retardation, deafness (damage of organ of corti)

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Thalidomide Limb defect, heart malformation pheocomlia Aminopterin Anencephaly, hydrocephaly, cleft lip and palate Phenytoin Facial defect, mental retardation, fetal hydantoin syndrome Valproic acid Neural tube defects, heart, craniofacial and limb anomalies Warfarins Chondrodysplasia, microcephaly ACE inhibitors Growth retardation, fetal death Cocaine Growth retardation, microcephaly, gastroschisis, abnormal behavior Trimethadione Cleft palate, heart defects, urogenital and skeletal abnormality Amphetamines Cleft lip and palate, heart defects

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Industrial solvents Low birth weight, craniofacial and limb defects Lead Growth retardation, neurological disorders Mercury Neurological symptoms Lithium Heart malformations Alcohol Fetal alcohol syndrome, short palpebral fissures, maxillary hypoplasia(small face), heart defects, mental retardation Cigarette smoking Intrauterine growth retardation, premature delivery

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Ethisterone, norethisterone Masculization of female genitalia, fused labia, clitoral hypertrophy (mini penis) Diethyl stilbestrol Malformation of the uterus, uterine tubes, upper vagina, vaginal cancer, malformed testes = male & female reproductive system Maternal diabetes Heart and neural tube defects Maternal obesity Heart defects, Omphalocele (intestine outside the cavity)

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