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Buddhism HSC Depth Study

The focus of this study is the contribution of significant people, ideas, practices and ethical teachings to an understanding of Buddhism as a living religious tradition. The study of Buddhism is to be of the whole tradition where applicable 98U
Recap of Studies of Religion

Principal Beliefs of Buddhism

Buddhism is generally perceived to be a religious tradition that is focused on the practical aspects of everyday life and ethical behaviour. It has been called an atheistic religion as it has no formal doctrine of God, sin, salvation or eternity as exists in many other religious traditions. There is no heaven or hell for they, as well as everything in this world, are really illusory. Buddhism is, in some ways a form of nihilism. The central philosophical core of Buddhist teaching is essentially the impact of cause and effect. That is, if anguish (suffering) is the effect, the aim of Buddhism is to get rid of the cause (desire).

The Five Truths of Buddhas Teachings.

Addressed to the enlightened nature of people who are beginning to awaken. Intuition of perfection is the seed of Buddhahood awakening within us. Our suffering in the world has a cause and a cure. Suffering is relieved by getting in touch with the ultimate reality of ourselves, the universe and everything. Our salvation is our own responsibility /believe nothing just because you have been told it- check it out for yourself.

The Three Jewells

The Three Jewels are sometimes called the Three Treasures, the Triple Gem or the Three Refuges.
Three Jewels of Buddhism Buddha The person Sangha The community of monks

Dharma The teaching

1. I take refuge in the Buddha (the person) 2. I take refuge in the dharma (the teaching) 3. I take refuge in the Sangha (the community of monks)

The Four Noble Truths

The essential doctrine of Buddhism is the Four Noble Truths and the teaching developed by the Buddha. This teaching incorporates the Middle Way and the Noble Eightfold Path.

Why are the Four Noble Truths significant?

Start with the Paragraph below and read The Four Nobel truths from Thorsons Principles of Buddhism. The Four Noble Truths are significant because they underpin the whole religion of Buddhism. Failure to recognise the presence of Dukkha renders all of Buddha's teachings as irrelevant. Understanding the fundamental human predicament (feeling unsatisfactory, driven by craving) can be ceased, allows the binds of these cravings to drop away and with it all that limits and constricts, resulting in freedom/ enlightenment/ realisation/ Nirvana.

The Eightfold Path

The Noble Eightfold Path is the means to be rid of suffering. It has been called the Middle Way, as the Buddha wished to avoid the extremes of asceticism and indulgence, but neither is it a compromise between the two. The Middle Way has its own demands even if it is not a severe path. The Noble Eightfold Path is primarily concerned with three aspects of life, morality, spiritual discipline and insight.

The Marks of Existence

The three Marks of Existence are important in Buddhism. These relate to the difficulty of understanding life, as life is an illusion and marked with these three things, anicca, dukkha and anatta.

The Five Precepts

The five precepts are a set of training principles Buddhist believe that by following them they will have a more positive mental state. Buddhists practice this behaviour to become more like Buddha, and to take a step closer to enlightement.

The Five Precepts

to abstain from taking life. to abstain from taking what is not given. I to abstain from sexual misconduct. to abstain from false speech. to abstain from taking intoxicants that cloud the mind

The Dalai Lama

Bodhisattva Enlightened Chooses rebirth to help otherscompassionate- Bodhisvatta Reincarnated Buddha

The Bodhisattva is a great being who practices compassion, sympathy and joy, and so attains the stage of the beloved only child. Parents are very happy when they see their son at peace. The Bodhisattva, who has reached this stage, sees all beings like a parent sees his only son seeing him practice goodness, the parent is delighted. (Mahaparinirvana Sutra 470

The Dalai Lama

Clip- dalai lamas rules for living


Historical and Cultural Context

View the YouTube clip and make notes about the historical and cultural life of Buddhism and the Dalai Lama
Clip show first 10 to 15 minutes

Outline the meaning of the Dalai Lama

Mongolian title meaning ocean of wisdom Tibetans believe that the Dalai lama is an enlightened being, who has chosen rebirth as a way to be of benefit to all living beings. Tibetans refer to His Holiness as Yeshe Norbu= Wishfulfilling Gem OR Kundun= The Presence

Outline the selection process for determining a new Dalai Lama

Clip- Trailer Kundun- shows the selection process of the Dalai Lama

Outline the selection process for determining a new Dalai Lama

Upon death of the current Dalai Lama, his monks institute a search for the Lamas reincarnation- a small child. This search typically requires a few years. Each possible candidate is tested. This takes the form of presenting a selection of possessions- some belonging to the previous Dalai Lama, Familiarity with those is considered the main sign of reincarnation. Kundun shows this process via the selection of a bell, bowl, eyeglasses and walking stick, The reincarnated Dalai Lama is then brought to Lhasa to be trained by the other hands.

Identify the name of the current Dalai Lama

His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso - An incarnation Avalokitesvara = manifestations of a Bodhisattva (Buddha) of Compassion = Holy Lord, Gentle Glory, Compassionate defender of the Faith, Ocean of Wisdom

6th July 1935

1937 1941 (age 6)

Born Lhamo Dhondrub in a small village called Takster in NE Tibet- a peasant family
Recognised as the reincarnation of his predecessor the 13th Dalai Lama, and thus an incarnation Avalokitesvara, the Buddha of Compassion Began his monastic education in Lhasa By 1959- age 250 completed his Geshe Lharampa degree (Doctorate of Buddhist Philosophy) -80000 Peoples Liberation Army Soldiers invaded Tibet - assumed political leadership as head of state of Tibet Rumours that Dalai Lama would be kidnapped by Chinese military - Crowds gathered outside Dalai Lamas summer palace to protect Dalai Lama; beginning of Tibetan Uprising

1950 1959 10 March

Clip= Dalai Lama and peace

1980 1981

Met Pope John Paul II at the Vatican and also in 1982, 1986, 1988 and 1990- open the door to a progressive pacification between peoples. Talked with Archbishop of canterbury, Dr Robert Runcie and with other leaders of the Anglican Church in London. Also with catholic and Jewish leaders. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and in turn receiving worldwide praise and applause with exception of China- peaceful solutions based on tolerance and mutual respect


17th March, 1959


Escapes from Lhasa and crosses the border into India (30 March) where he was granted political asylum
-Established a government in exile in Dharamsala, India. -Worked on saving Tibetan refugees and culture -Promoted economic development through creation of Tibetan educational system- promoted Tibetan language, history and religion (Buddhism) The Dalai lama introduced a democratic constitution based on Buddhsit principles and Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a model for a future free Tibet Initiated a series of journeys which have taken him to over 46 nations Met with Pope John Paul IV at the Vatican


Since 1967 1973

His Holiness (the 14th Dalai Lama) Tenzin Gyatso was born in 6 July 1935 in Taktster (NE Tibet). As the reincarnation of his predecessor this Buddha of Compassion becomes both the political and religious leader of Tibet. In 1950 all this changes as the Peoples Liberation Army invade Tibet. Within 10 years and due to the Tibetan Uprising the Dalai Lamas safety is ensured only with his escape from Lhasa into India. A government in exile is established in Dharamsala as the global response to this crisis is zero. Through an educational system the culture of Tibet is preserved and developed. The Dalai Lama introduced a democratic constitution in 1963 basing its principles on Buddhism and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Subsequently establishing a model for a future free Tibet- a goal that motivates his global dialogues today.

Outline the historical and cultural context of the 14th Dalai Lama

The 14th Dalai Lama
Dalai Lamas views on life and humanity

Summary of Contributions from extra resource

Contribution to the development of Buddhism 1. Preservation and expansion of Tibetan Buddhism 2. Promotion of world peace and freedom of Tibet- Supports peace in political and international world- enhancement of Buddhisms role in world peace- Tireless worker for rights and freedom 3. Promotion of Buddhism through outreach to other religions- Aims to develop religious understanding- tireless worker between religions- interfaith dialogue I always believe that it is much better to have a variety of philosophies, rather than one single religion or philosophy. This is necessary because of the different mental dispositions of each human being. Each religion has certain unique ideas or techniques, and learning about them can only enrich ones own faith. Contribution to the expression of Buddhism Transformation of Buddhist teachings- addresses made to Buddhists and nonBuddhists- teachings grounded in the basic teachings- Eightfold Path and the Five Precepts- makes it relevant to contemporary MAIN MESSAGE??? Compassion, love and kindness Tha dalai Lama is authentic- evident in his relationships with all people

Compassion Happiness Kindness Pure and sincere heart Acceptance of death Relationships with others My message is the practice of compassion, love and kindness Dalai Lama Clip about the Dalia lamas teachings

The Dalai Lamas contributions derive from his teachings which are based on:

Activity- refer to your resource booklet Read pages 1 and 9 and highlight and annotate the Dalai Lamas teachings. Link these teachings to the 5 precepts and the Eightfold Path

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

If the Vinaya stands on the basis of abstention by monks/ nuns from many areas of life, the five abstentions laid down for lay people are much more universal in their aim. They require abstention from: Killing living beings Taking what is not freely given Engaging in sexual misconduct Speaking falsely Taking drink and drugs that confuse the mind The Buddha lays down modes of behaviour that are not only ethical in tone, but are also guaranteed to give success in interaction with other people with whom a man does business dealings, but in all other areas of life.

The Five Precepts

Activity: Refer to work booklet and summarise the teachings

Compassion/ Happiness
My message is the practice of compassion, love and kindness Compassion can be put into practice A happy frame of mind should never be disturbed Every being wants happiness not suffering The essence of Buddhism is compassion 1. Sense of brotherhood 2. A good heart these three are common across all religions 3. Respect for others Self must be placed last Compassion for other must motivate all our desires and thinking

Whatever we desire is also desired by others

Our own selfishness (source of all problems

Our sense of kindness (natural source of goodness) If you are unable to exchange your happiness for the suffering of other beings you have no hope of attaining Buddhahood or even happiness in this present life.

Kindness and compassion= the essence of Buddhism Deeper faith = being human = basic quality that determines all other aspects of life ie ability to go in right direction By developing a sense of respect for others and a concern for their welfare, we reduce our own selfishness, which is the source of all problems, and enhance our own kindness which is a natural source of goodness

Kindness of heart

Peace and sincere heart

Our mental peace Absence of anger, attachment, jealousy, hatred= real enemy inside self A sincere heart has NONE of these = good heart = basic thing World peace Presence of a true feeling of brotherhood = concern for your fellow being A sense of universal responsibility = a step towards solving global issues

Absence of inner peace= an affliction/ a source of destruction = very source of unethical conduct Anger is the real destroyer of our good human qualities; an enemy with a weapon cannot destroy these qualities, but anger can. Anger is our real enemy

Death= part of life/ a concept/ end of gross consciousness, gross body = unavoidable therefore should be accepted- depart quietly, with sincerity and in peace (Note for Buddhists the subtle level of consciousness called clear light does not recognise death nor birth (Tibetan Book of the Dead) This is the rationale of the enlightened adherent

There is an interaction between humans and the natural environment. The inanimate world is equal to the animate world of living beings. Buddhism perceives the environment, in general, to be composed of infinitesimal particles; in particular, it views human beings as part of nature and for this reason there is, naturally a link between human-kind and our environment. Buddhist texts explain how one should behave in regard to nature. Humankind will suffer if nature is unbalanced. Individuals have a duty to the environment. The physical health of Buddhists can be greatly affected. Conservation is needed for survival

Other Religions
Enrichment can occur through dialogue- ethics and spiritual practice- links to compassion, love, meditation and tolerance. I feel that dialogue could go very far and reach a deep level of understanding

1. 2. 3.


Read through the resource booklet and pages 10-12 of the work booklet to find information on the following contribution: ANNOTATE Preservation of Tibetan Buddhism Promotion of Buddhism through outreach to other religions Simplification and clarification of Buddhist teachings and authenticity of the Dalai Lama Promotion of world peace

Contribution of the Dalai Lama to the development and expression of Buddhism

Complete the table by referring to your resource booklet annotations and read pages 8-12 Contribution of the Dalai Lama to the development and expression of Buddhism Preservation of Tibetan Buddhism -Establishment of a Tibetan educational system whilst in exile eg monasteries -Focus on religion and culture -Whilst in Tibet, Tibetan Buddhists came into contact with other religions Impact of the Dalai Lama on Buddhism

Ensured the survival of Tibetan Buddhism and in turn the future development through Sangha

-Realisation that Buddhism is not the only religion -Has broadened the tolerance of adherents But now that weve left Tibet, we had a chance to come into contact with other religious traditions and learn about them.

Translation of the Tibetan Book of the Dead in 1951 = A way of life- The Great Liberation

-Faciliates Western Societys access to this ancient source of strength and guidance eg (practices in hospices)- understood/ appreciated beyond Tibetexpansion of Buddhism - adherents have access to Tibetan philosophy on life, true self and therefore reality

Contribution of the Dalai Lama to the Impact of the Dalai Lama on development and expression of Buddhism Buddhism Promotion of Buddhism through outreach to other religions -Has visited 46 countries, spoken with world leaders -- has grounded his identity in Buddhism yet he is respectful of differences among various religions remaining open to the beauty, goodness and truth found in other religions -Raised a greater awareness of Buddhism- catalyst for recognition of Buddhism as a legitimate member of interfaith dialogue- adding to its expression as a world religion -Acts as a role model for acceptance of diversity/ awareness of differences- clarifying Buddhist philosophy

Contribution of the Dalai Lama to the Impact of the Dalai Lama on Buddhism development and expression of Buddhism Simplification and clarification of Buddhist teachings and authenticity of the Dalai Lama -Has made numerous addresses to Buddhist/ non Buddhist -Eg Australia 2009: parliament of World religions (Melbourne) Tibets environmental crisis was more urgent tha ta political solution to this countrys future. -Has adapted Buddhist teachings to contemporary context eg world peace and environment -Has modelled teachings on peace eg Tibet -Has demonstrated tolerance, compassion and kindness -Practicality- Tibet is Chinas neighbour -Intelligence- starting place is knowledge

-Has attracted new adherents eg in Australia Buddhism increased from 1.1% In 1996 to 19.9 in 2001- 2.1% in 2006 -Has raised the profile of Buddhism as he models the relevance of its teachings for today It is the law of the universe that retaliation, hatred and revenge only continue the cycle (Dalai Lama) . This needs to occur is a more peaceful, happier and harmonious future is desired. -Articulates and models the importance of Buddhas teachings on non-violence/ passive resistance as the only path to acceptable autonomy

-Show that happiness is the basic purpose of life Inner peace= peace= reconciliation= forgiveness Inner peace- tolerance, knowledge, compassion HAPPINESS= basic purpose of life = innate spiritual nature of people

-Has inspired adherents and demonstrated the key to happiness -Accessibilty to Buddism as he himself is regarded as an authentic person He has authority not only of wisdom but experience- on this rests the authority of his ethics. (P.D. bRyan) - We see ourselves as the opponent; for what is the oponent but a being in ignorance, and we ourselves are also ignorant of many things (Dalai Lama

1st Precept: To Refrain From causing Harm to Other Living Beings The ST and W link to peace Dhammapada 2 Good Begets Good Dhammapada 183 Do Good and be Good Dhammapada 291 Not Hatred for Hatred

Contribution of the Dalai Lama to the development and expression of Buddhism Promotion of world peace - Worked for the freedom of Tibet by proposing a 5 point plan and addressing heads of state

Impact of the Dalai Lama on Buddhism

Advocated that responsibility for world peace not only lies with world leaders but individually ie peace begins with inner peace

Promoted teachings on peace through talks with other countries and acceptance of Nobel Peace Prize (1989)

Enhancement of Buddhisms role in world peace Articulates and models the critical aspect of Buddhism- KNOWLEDGE (of ultimate reality) In our struggle for freedom TRUTH is the only weapon we possess Increases the relevance of Buddhism today as he models this deep sense of peace and tranquillity by applying Buddhist teachings to global concerns- forward looking and constructive proposals arising from this ancient tradition Preserves Buddhist teachings whilst articulating their relevance to modern times

Continued to advocate non resistance in Tibet despite Chinese violence/ killings of Tibetans during anti Chinese demonstrations in 2008 and beyond

Increases the appreciation of Buddhist teachings on peace and in turn increases the possibility of world peace via the Buddhist philosophy of interdependence and thus a universal responsibilty

Contribution and analysis of impact

Go back to pages 10-12 and after each contribution write one to two sentences of analysis of the impact- refer to the table on pages 13-16 to assist To analyse you must draw out implications

Contribution and impact

1. Preservation of Tibetan Buddhism IMPACT: survival and subsequent expansion of Tibetan Buddhism As a consequence Tibetan Buddhism is more accessible, understood and appreciated beyond Tibet. Adherents around the world have access to Tibetan philosophy on life, true self and therefore reality. This in turn provided the Mahayana and Theravada schools an opportunity to integrate into their appreciation of Buddhist Dharma the unique Vajrayana perspective

2. Contribution: Promotion of Buddhism through outreach to other religions. IMPACT: greater acceptance of Buddhism Following on from this is the recognistion of Buddhism as a legitimate member of interfaith dialogue and Mention how it is a world religion Mention the Dalai Lamas identity and what his identity enhances- link to being a role model

2. Contribution: Promotion of Buddhism through outreach to other religions. IMPACT: greater acceptance of Buddhism Following on from this is the recognition of Buddhism as a legitimate member of interfaith dialogue and in turn adding to its expression as a world religion. The fact that the Dalai Lamas identity is grounded in Buddhism enhances his acceptance as a role model of diversity and tolerance, and the legitimacy of

3. Contribution: Promotion of world peace and freedom of Tibet IMPACT: Enhancement of Buddhisms role in world peace What does the Dalia Lama articulate? Link to knowledge, peace

3. Contribution: Promotion of world peace and freedom of Tibet IMPACT: Enhancement of Buddhisms role in world peace The Dalai Lama articulates and models the critical aspect of- knowledge of reality and in turn portrays the relevance of Buddhisms deep sense of peace and tranquillity with regard to global issues of peace. Offering, in turn, constructive proposals arising from the wisdom of this ancient tradition.


4.Contribution: Simplification, clarification and embodiment of Buddhist teachings Impact: a deepening of understanding of Buddhist teachings- continued growth of Buddhism The Dalai Lama articulates the links between peace, poverty and the environment- what does he draw on?

4.Contribution: Simplification, clarification and embodiment of Buddhist teachings Impact: a deepening of understanding of Buddhist teachings- continued growth of Buddhism The Dalai Lama clearly articulates the links between peace, poverty and environment by drawing upon the wisdom of Buddhas dharma, As a consequence he offers the world a clear model of deep understanding based on Buddhist teachings and He has authority, not only of wisdom but experience- on this rests the authority of his ethics. P.D. Ryan


He lives a contemporary life embedded in the wisdom of this ancient philosophy Role models Buddhist leadership in the solution of international conflicts= new ways of applying Advocates peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect informed by his historical, cultural and religious heritage: truth, courage and determination as our weapons Acceptance speech 1989= Nobel Peace Prize Recipient

Draws upon the wisdom of the emperor Asokas edict No 7: Honours men of all faiths: it is much better have variety of religions, a variety of philosophies because of the different mental positions of each human beings learning about them can only enrich ones own faith. World Congress of Faiths- interfaith service held in his honour As a Bodhisattva of Compassion (chosen rebirth) he workd in a way to be of benefit to ALL living beings- the whole contemporary world. Evidence by his global political and spiritual work as he travels the world since 1967 addressing contemporary issues. These include environmental concerns= the worlds most urgent suffering.

Depth Study-Buddhism 3X3

Put these sub heading on the front and back page of the 3 by 3 Sacred texts and WritingsBeliefsContext of the Dalai Lama- refer to cultural and historical worksheets Definition of ethics Ethical guidance Outline of Wesak

Person-the 14th Dalai Lama

1 and 2 combined 1. Preservation of Tibetan Buddhism IMPACT: survival and subsequent expansion of Tibetan Buddhism EXAMPLES 2. Promotion of Buddhism through outreach to other religions. IMPACT: Greater acceptance of Buddhism
3. Promotion of world peace and freedom of Tibet IMPACT: Enhancement of Buddhisms role in world peace EXAMPLES



Outline of synagogue

4. Simplification, clarification and embodiment of Buddhist teachings Impact: a deepening of understanding of Buddhist teachings- continued growth of Buddhism EXAMPLES

Buddhist Ethics- Environmental Ethics

Students learn about: Environmental ethics Students learn to: Describe and explain Buddhist ethical teachings on environmental ethics

Essentially, according to Buddhist teachings, the ethical and moral principles are governed by examining whether a certain action, whether connected to body or speech is likely to be harmful to one's self or to others and thereby avoiding any actions which are likely to be harmful. (1st precept) In Buddhism, there is much talk of a skilled mind. (Right Mindfulness- 7th) A mind that is skilful avoids actions that are likely to cause suffering or remorse.

Buddhist Ethics
Moral conduct for Buddhists differs according to whether it applies to the laity or to the Sangha or clergy. A lay Buddhist should cultivate good conduct by training in what are known as the "Five Precepts". The five precepts are training rules, which, if one were to break any of them, one should be aware of the breech and examine how such a breech may be avoided in the future.

The resultant of an action (often referred to as Karma) depends on the intention more than the action itself. Buddhism places a great emphasis on 'mind' and it is mental anguish such as remorse, anxiety, guilt etc. which is to be avoided in order to cultivate a calm and peaceful mind.

Buddhist Ethics

Buddhism and Environmental Ethics

Clip- environmental ethics. Refer to worksheet

Sources of Buddhist ethical teachings

In Buddhism, ethics are based on a number of sources. These include the Five Precepts and the accumulated knowledge/wisdom of the Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path and the Three Marks of Existence. For Monastic Buddhists these sources extend to include the Vinaya. It is also logical for Buddhist to draw upon a vast range of Sutras or Suttas for guidance given that they are the written records of Buddhas teachings
The path of recognising your own mind (knowledge = 1st step) Seeking truth/practising compassion= meaningful life

4. Explain how natural imagery reveal the ethical and philosophical guidelines on environment within Buddhism (In your response make reference to sacred Buddhist texts and focus on the imagery of trees and water)

Buddhas birth, enlightenment and death all took place in the shadows of trees and the Dharma was often taught at their foot. Consequently there is an inextricable link between humans and nature underpinning Buddhist philosophy. After reaching enlightenment, Buddha spends time under the bodhi tree in a reflective mood. When he is tempted by Mara, into doubting the authenticity of his experience Gutama touches the earth- this gesture means he looks towards the earth as a support and witness of good against evil: this is one of Buddhisms most celebrated themes especially in art, and as a result it reinforces the relationship between humankind and our environment. This relationship is further enhanced by the imagery of banyan tree as it has the ability to put down roots from its spreading branches (Ryan) and thus in turn symbolises the spreading of the Dharma. Similarly without branches or foliage represents as immortal man as it/he/she cannot come to full growth. Consequently spreading of the Dharma links to core philosophy in Buddhism- the importance of knowledge or the absence of ignorance. In Buddhism ones life and ones mode of knowledge are inseparable and as a result Buddhism equals environmental ethics. One of the greatest elements is water and in Buddhism its imagery is used to represent the First Noble Truth, the Truth of sorrow. The tears shed by beings in the long, long round of Samsara are greater than the waters of the sea (Saramati)

1. Humans should be in harmony with the environment and therefore care for it. - Environmental suffering or disharmony is caused by humans seeing themselves as separate. This elfish point of view is a damaging delusion which places narrow limits on humans responsibilities towards the environment. The Dharma teaches everything is interconnected and that when ever we harm another or the environment, we are harming ourselves. Contemporary Example: Dalai Lama 10th June 2011- called fro countries to diminish greenhouse gases without waiting for other nations to act first After all every nation belongs to the world. If a global crisis happens everybody suffers. - Adherents should therefore implement the 5 precepts in particular the 1st and 2nd, as a means of gaining harmony within and with the environment (Pauling)

Threefold Learning
Stage on path Step 1 (par 18 and 19) = the First Precept To refrain from causing harm to other living beings = the key to one's relationship with the world = ethical conduct =skilful conduct
Buddhist practice re the environment Voluntary simplicity in the form of eating lower down on the food chain= minimises the damage/ no unnecessary harm- this is recognition that all life feeds off other life. Humans can minimise the damage by eating as far down the food chain as possible. This benefits other beings and cultivates virtues that eventually are radically transformative therefore in turn bring greater benefit to all beings. The Buddha allowed his monks to eat meat only when they were ill or accepting the generosity of others The advantages of vegetarianism (eating from vegetable sources) extends beyond the slaughter of animals (use of water, land, chemical fertilisers and insecticides are used to convert vegetable protein to animal protein- meat) Educate others in implementation of environmentally sustainable agriculture and forestry eg environmentalist monks (Phrakhuru Pitak) in Thailand

Step 2 (paragraph 20, 21 Cultivation of greater cognitive and affective and 23) concentration or integration through = Fifth precept meditation- adherent moves away from greed, (MEDITATION) hatred and delusion towards a greater facility To refrain from clouding of mind and positive emotion that permeates all aspects of one's life the mind with drink or drugs an ecologically minded Buddhist could take = leads to awareness and up the practice of the positive emotion of mindfulness loving kindness (metta). They would start by This links to the directing metta towards themselves, then a meditation and thus the friend, then an enemy and finally to all beings 7th and 8th step on the = cumulative transformative effect- loving Eightfold Path. kindness directed towards self, friend, neutral The importance of person, enemy, and finally towards all living beings. manfulness is illustrated in the Dhammapada 1 (sacred writing) "Mind is the forerunner of all, Mind is chief...' Monk Phra Sonkit's ecology meditation

Step 3 The cultivation of wisdom links to the Four Noble Truths, the Three Marks of Existence- the Transformative Power of wisdom

this consists of practices that penetrate the nature of reality - the interconnectedness of all things = ecological science and therefore belongs to the broader context of Dharma practice care and concern for all living things which includes nature and the environment compassionate activity unbounded by self- referential craving

Explain the relationship between tree ordination and environmental ethics

A tree ordination ceremony involves chanting, sanctification of water and wrapping the largest remaining tree with a monks orange robes. As a result the community forest is sanctified and protected (preserved) which inturn protects peoples livelihoods is no harm caused to other life (First Precept)

Explain the relationship between Environmentalist Monks and Buddhist ethical teachings
Environmental Monks demonstrate an ecological interpretation. Buddhist ethical teachings as work are visible and the use of Buddhist ritual is modified to transmit their teachings. Consequently they reinvent human relationships with nature (ie new knowledge). In turn these monks challenge the dominant trend of ecological capital (Escobar 1996), despite the historical link between the Sangha and the Siamese state, redefining the concept and implementation of development.

Analyse the influence of Buddhist ethical teachings on Phrakhru Pitak and the Thai society (Refer to PPT)
The skilful conduct, mediation and transformative power of wisdom (Threefold Learning) incorporates basic Buddhist principles. This is what monk Phrakhu Pitak Nanthakhun draws upon as he deals with witnessing human- induced suffering (shooting of a mother monkey). As a result of this formative experience Phrakhu Pitak incorporates a message of environmental responsibility of humans into his teachings, and consequently influences members of the Thai society. However preaching is not enough and he actively engages in conservation work (tree ordinations to raise awareness of the value of forests) and actively teaches villagers about environmental conservation. These activities along with pha pa ceremonies (seedlings for reforestation in lieu of forest robes) culminate in sustainable ecological practices within Thai society, the Buddhist ethical teachings drive him to actively seek out the cause of the suffering arising from environmental degradation, In turn he re-examines environmental degradation. In turn he re-examines Buddhist teachings, adapting interpretations and practices subsequently developing a liberation ecology.

Explain how Phra Somkits environmental action is the application of the First Precept and the construction of new knowledge. (Refer to PPT)

Phra Somkits environmental action is focused within his own village. His starting point was modifying the practice of bindabatthis time donating land to this monk rather than food.Following from the First Precept (To refrain from causing harm to other living beings) and as a means to protect the forest, Phra Somkit began a model integrated- agriculture farm. This is a significant/ observable application of minimising damage and skilful conduct. Right knowledge (Step One on the Eightfold Path) is the key to ones relations with the world and the current environmental degradation is the cause of much suffering (dukkha). Thus education is important (new knowledge) in the protection of the natural environment. Through Phra Somkits model farm, new knowledge is shared and in turn he encourages these visitors to return to their farms and engage in sustainable development practices such as integrated agriculture and growing food for subsistence rather than for sale.

Person-the 14th Dalai Lama

1 and 2 combined 1. Preservation of Tibetan Buddhism IMPACT: survival and subsequent expansion of Tibetan Buddhism EXAMPLES 2. Promotion of Buddhism through outreach to other religions. IMPACT: Greater acceptance of Buddhism
3. Promotion of world peace and freedom of Tibet IMPACT: Enhancement of Buddhisms role in world peace EXAMPLES 4. Simplification, clarification and embodiment of Buddhist teachings Impact: a deepening of understanding of Buddhist teachings- continued growth of Buddhism EXAMPLES


Practi ce-

1st Precept To refrain form harming Include contemporary examples You could also include 5th precept

Outline of synagogue

Threefold Learning -Ethical conduct- 1st precept -Effective meditation- 5th precept -Transformative power of wisdom 4 NT and 3 MED Images from nature- tree, roots, water, wilderness- link wilderness to enlightenment

Describe the practice Demonstrate how Wesak expresses the beliefs of Buddhism Analyse the significance of Wesak for both the individual and the community

For your 3X3 think about: The ritual action of bathing Buddhas head The ritual action of offering gifts to Buddha Ritual action of kneeling and bowing 3 times and prostration (show reverence to the Triple Gem)

Copy at the bottom of page 2- DESCRIBE THE SIGNIFICANT PRACTICE OF WESAK Wesak celebrates the Buddhas birthday, enlightenment and death. It is the most important day in the Buddhist calendar. Wesak is about celebrating and remembering the Buddha- NOT ABOUT WORSHIP. Wesak is about celebrating the life of Buddha and his teachings. STRUCTURE: - Preparation- homes are cleaned and decorated. - Morning- begin before dawn with gathering at temple- hoisting of flag and singing of hymns, Puja service followed attended by lay and monks. - Temple ceremony components: adherents kneel and bow three times, chanting, the taking of the 3 refuges (the Three Jewels) bathing of Buddhas head, offering of gifts, initation for new Buddhists - Afternoon: meditation, distributing food to monks and charitable donations to the poor. - Evening: ceremony of chanting Dharma/Dhamma and circumambulation (moving around a scared object)

Read your resource booklet and annotate. Focus on: 1. What Wesak is 2. Ritual actions 3. Beliefs expressed 4. Importance for individual and community 5. Schools of Buddhism and differences.

Reconstitutes a vital historical event. Provides ordinary Buddhists with an experience to bring forth some of their key beliefs around the importance of enlightenment and what Buddha feels holds people back from enlightenment Sets aside a sacred space It commemorates, gives thanks and celebrates key events of the past. Is a key memorial ritual- it celebrates all of the most important events of Buddhas life Is the most spiritually significant day of the calendar


Wesak joins Buddhists together as a Sangha and expresses their gratitude and joy for the three jewels. Allows Buddhists to deepen contact and friendships with fellow members of the Sangha.(Importance for individual and the community)

Ritual action
Gather at the temple for Puja service Ceremonial hoisting of the Buddhist flag and singing Buddhist hymns

Expression of beliefs

Significance to individual/communit y
-Provides a sense of solidarity -Allows adherents to deepen contact and friendships with fellow members of the Sangha -Hymns evoke emotion and create a spiritual climate conducive to communal reflection - reaffirms key beliefs ie 3 Jewels= refuge (a place of safety in difficult times) for individuals Note: communal= past, present and future


-hymns are in praise of the 3 jewels, the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha Buddha- Siddhartha Gautama= perfect wisdom= perfect compassion Sangha- community of Buddhists = the most important belief in Buddhism Colours of the flag are symbolic of different beleifs

Ritual action

Expression of beliefs
In honour of the 3 jewels The number 3 is significant in Buddhism. Links to Siddhartha's conception elephants circling his mother (circumambulation -3 jewels and precepts (ethical teachings) -Note: chanting of sacred scriptures ie Buddhas teachings (Sutras)

Significance to individual/ community

-Reaffirms and reminds the individual of the 3 most important things in Buddhism -Link concept of refuge to 4 Noble Truths and Eightfold path

Kneel and bow three times

Group chanting followed by taking the 3 refuges and the 5 or 8 precepts and listen to a Dharma talk Taking refuge is the first step on the Buddhist path to inner freedom

-Chanting as a group (sangha) is a powerful way of creating a supportive climate, which assists the entire community on their spiritual journey -The Dhamma talks provides individuals and the community the opportunity to reflect on Buddhist teachings

Ritual action

Expression of beliefs
-1st Noble Truth- suffering -- 2nd noble truth- suffering is caused by desire/greed etc

Significance to individual/commu nity

-Reminds individual and community of the 1st and 2nd noble truths and the need to purify and free their minds from hatred, greed and ignorance -Symbolises Buddhas purification and his birth to the new life of enlightenment

Bathing of the Buddhawater is poured over the shoulders of the Buddha (Focal point in Mahayana variant)

Offerings and gifts are taken to the altar to be offered to Buddhas statue - Flowers significance of lotus flower- fresh if possible) - Candles light and truth) -Incense/joss sticks - Food (vegetarian)

-Shows respect and gratitude to the Buddha for his life and teachings -Offering all that we cherish in the material world -Wither awayimpermanence (anicca) -- burn = light of wisdom -Burn= frangrance of moral conduct -1st precept to refrain from causing harm to other living beings

-Note: impermannecelife is subject to decay and destruction therefore we should value what we have now and live in the present -Reminder of the central teachings such as the impermenance, ethical principles such as refraining from harming living things -Wisdom expels ignorance- 8Fold path=good conduct- good livlihoos and good actions

New Buddhists take the 3refuges and5 or 8 precepts Taking refuge us the first step on the Buddhist path to inner freedom

3 jewels and ethical guidelines

- takinh refuge in the presence of the Sangha provides the individual with spiritual support -It creates a sense of communal solidarity -- it helps to clear the mind and provide an insight into the 2 noble truths which is a crucial step in the path to enlightenment (individual)

Afternoon meditation Meditation- training the mind, reverence and dedication towards Buddha= an essential component of the practice of the Dharma Offering gifts to the poor Expresses veneration of the Buddha- shows gratitude and appreciation to Buddhacompassion Listening to monks tell stories from the Jakata tales

- is crucial to understanding the cause of suffering (1st Noble Truth) -Enablews the adherent to see that suffering is caused by desire (2nd NT) -It is possible to be free (cessation) from wanting, wishing and desiring (3rd NT) -A guide to living, the practice of Buddhism (4th NT)

Ritual action

Expression of beliefs

Significance to individual/communit y
Group solidarity, spiritual support, spiritual; support and advice (community) Chanting reminds adherents of the ideal qualities of the triple gem that each is striving to achieve Also helps to concentrate and develop a peaceful state of mind and advice (community) Reaffirms the key beliefs for each individual

Evening ceremony of 3 jewels chanting, Dharma talk and circumambulation of the Stupa 3 times Lantern procession (Theravadin- Thailand)

Ritual action
Evening procession with candles and lanterns, radiating loving kindness to all living thingsThailand, Indonesia, Sri Lankan (Theravadin) Each person carries 3 flowers, 3 glowing incense sticks, lighted candle

Expression of Significance to beliefs individual/community

Buddhas enlightenment Homage to the Buddhas teachings (Dharma) and his disciples (Sangha) Enhances sense of community Attainment of merit by the individual which helps one to obtain happiness in this life and the next (karma) As a behavioural exemplar for each individual

Symbols incorporated into Wesak

Symbolic object or action Where/ and when Expression of belief Significance to individual/ community

Lotus flower Red= heart Purple= mystic = purity and divine birth

At the base of the shrine - Buddha actually sits on the leaves

Actuality or potential of enlightenment therefore linked to the 8Fold Path- the practice of Buddhism

- Reminder of the goal of enlightenment - To rise above the defilements and suffering of life- our own potential Buddhahood (individual)
Reminds individuals of key belief 8Fold path- each spoke (8) represents a step on the Path

Wheel of life (dharma Wheel)

On altar

Wheel of life/rebirth

Symbolic object or action Buddha image -Sitting posture= central figure in this significant practice

Where/ and when On shrine/altar In the highest position

Expression of belief Representation of embodiment of perfected attributes of the Buddha- serenity, peacefulness, composure, purity

Significance to individual/ community By focussing on the positive of the Buddha, individuals are helped to develop the same attributes eg calmness and inspired to follow the path of Buddha - By expressing reverence for the 3 jewels, adherents are reminded of their importance in their lives

Folding of palms

In the temple during the service

3 jewels

Symbolic object or action

Where/ and when

Expression of belief

Significance to individual/ community


Before Buddha Qualities of the or members of Buddha the Sangha -Loving kindness -Compassion -virtue

Helps individuals to overcome their ego and prepare them to listen to Buddhas teachings -Provides an opportunity for individuals to recall the qualities of the Buddha and subsequently be inspired - expresses deep veneration -Shows respect to the Buddha and his qualities

Analyse the significance of Wesak for individuals and the community

Contemplation and recommitment to the goal of enlightenment
Contemplation of the Buddhas enlightenment experience is a major focus of Wesak. Consequently, many of the ritual devotions are designed to concentrate on the meaning of enlightenment and possibly of it for the individual. Provide an example of this ritual devotion - Buddha - Buddha image - what this symbolises - Significance for the individual - Ritual action of prostration. - Lotus flower

Reinforcement of Buddhist beliefs The reinforcement and reconnection with beliefs, is a second reason why Wesak is significant to the individual
Singing of the hymns Kneeling and bowing Bathing of the Buddha What do these remind individuals of? The offering of gifts The offering of flowers, candles and incense The offerings of vegetarian food- link to 1st precept

Reaffirmation of key beliefs/ strengthening the community/ preserving and ensuring the continuity of the tradition
Early morning ceremony The singing of the hymns Interconnectedness- strengthening communal identity Group chanting The Dhamma talk