Some of the amazing projects Werner Von Braun sees in our future are: interplanetary "tugs"; fantastic experiments

in the vast emptiness of space; holidays on the Moon for adventurous tourists; incredible lunar harvests; Moon babies; and awesome Martian discoveries. But there is also a sober warning f rorn the renowned space scientist ma n must look to the stars or he will face a futile struggle against doomsday!

Photos from

NASA

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Astronaut Ronald Evans performing extravehicular activities (far left) during Apollo 17 mission. At left are the Apollo 17 Command and Service modules as seen from Lunar Module Challenger. Below is an artist's conception of a space shuttle (light to a permanent space station.

There are signs, however, that we outgrowing this planet. A patchwork of proposals has been advanced for solving our basic problems-like overpopulation, for example-some of which involve tampering with the basic instincts of human nature. Nobody asks what this will do to the human race. Advanced thinkers are obsessed with cutting man down to fit his world, simply because it does not occur to them there can be any other way out. But, unless our efforts to fly in space are indeed no more than foolishness, why not set ou r mi nds to consid eri ng the possibilities it offers? The drive into space, useless as it may seem to Arnold Toynbee, Lewis Mumford and others, indicates man's awareness that unless he can break away from the Earth, he may be struggling futilely against a doomsday timetable. Some scientists have suggested that it is an instinct for survival which is driving man into space. Whether that is true or not, exploration does open the door on a planet which otherwise could become a prison. Technologically there are no permanent obstacles to establishing a new ecological niche on the Moon or another planet. A toehold is all we need to begin with, a nd that toe hold is withi n our capabi lity today. We have demonstrated more than once the ability to transport men and equipment to the Moon, remain there several days achieving complicated scientific objectives, and then return to Earth. It is not so great a jump to establishing the first lunar base for people to work and live there, in an environment our astronauts describe as exhilarating, endlessly interesting, and from which we are extracting knowledge valuable to us on Earth. The biggest obstacle is the failure to recognize that we do indeed have a future in space. The really significant opportunities in space may have to wait for the younger generations who will tear away the blinkers that limit our vision. The first space age children are now growing up. They are looking for a future which will break the mold of the past. In time, they will find that space offers them just that. Meanwhile, the spacemen's job is to prepare the way to the best of our ability and the money we have to spend. The 14 1/2 years since Sputnik have provided a solid foundation for more important developments. It is heartening that these advances have been shared in varying degree by many nations and people allover the world and I look forward to even greater international participation. Now that the Apollo program has ended, we are entering a new phase. The next key technological development will be the reusable Earth-to-orbit rocket vehicie, or space shuttle. So far, we have relied upon what is essentially a ballistic missile to send payloads into orbit or on trajectories beyond Earth, either manned or unmanned. While we have not done too badly with the ballistic system during the initial exploration of space, it is now becoming obsolete. NASA's space shuttle is the prototype of later, fully reusable vehicles of far greater performance and efficiency. Because techno(Continued on page 76)
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MOON BASE, MARS STATION (Continued from page J 3)
logical development is inherent in its design, the shuttle, (unlike the ballistic rocket) is the beginning, not the end of a line of future spacecraft. It will create a whole new technique for exploring space because the ability to use it again and again will cut costs considerably, not only in the launch and orbiting of spacecraft, but in reducing the design and test costs of payloads and vehicles to be launched. The shuttle is well designed as a transport system for the more extensive exploration and use of the Moon. To support such lunar activities, we have looked into the possibility of a reusable nuclear powered shuttle working in conjunction with Earth-and lunar orbiting space stations. Chemically powered shuttle craft would be used as the supply links between Earth and its orbiting station, while the nuclear powered craft would ply between the Earth station and a similar lunar orbiting station. In addition to the shuttle, the design of a space tug has also been studied by NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and European space interests. To start with, such a vehicle would be useful as an auxiliary propulsive device to supplement shuttle capability. For delivering and retrieving payloads beyond the range in low Earth orbit of the early shuttle design, an additional powered stage such as the space tug will be needed. In lunar operations, the space tug could be designed as a lander and a base for exploring parties descending from the orbiting lunar station. They could stay on the surface much longer, and

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the space tug would be much larger-as tall as a five-story building. The space tug could also be used to transport supplies and personnel between the space' station and a permanent Moon base. The tug would first be carried to Earth orbit in the shuttle's cargo bay. It could then be used either manned or unmanned to place payloads in orbit or to carry out missions impossible. with the shuttle alone. It could launch interplanetary probes and other scientific spacecraft, retrieve satellites for repair or adjustment on the ground, or even repair them in orbit. With the shuttle, space tugs and orbiting stations at work, we shall have made a very long step indeed toward the use of space. The shuttle will be able to carry "sortie modules" -completely equipped and manned laboratories stowed snugly in its cargo bay-and thus there will be many opportunities for scientists and engineers to experiment in the weightless and hard vacuum conditions of space. The larger, permanent space station facilities will increase these opportunities even further. Manufacturing things is one of the possibilities scientists want to explore. The weightlessness of space can be used for novel manipulation of materials, and even for modifying the behavior of certain chemical and physical processes. Pharmaceutical serums, for example, can be made that much purer in space, because the disturbances of convection and buoyancy in fluids can be suppressed. Progress in genetics is also limited on Earth by convection and the effect of gravity on fluids. Cattle breeding and plant development could benefit by such space experiments.

In the space lab, it would be possible to melt materials without their being in physical contact with a vessel. This is im.portant in the processing of highly reactive materials or those which must be kept very pure. Other applications of the space laboratory include the production of sophisticated composite materials, the growth of large, perfect crystals from solutions and vapors, and the production of almost perfect spherical shapes, such as ball bearings, in the low gravity field of the craft. Under weightless conditions we may also be able to manufacture a material consisting of a dispersion of one solid uniformly throughout another. On Earth, the effects of gravitation result in a separation of phases because of differences in density. In addition, convective heat transfer causes circulation patterns without a melt which scatter the strengthening fibers or whiskers in a disorganized way. The zero gravity of space should produce a more uniform dispersion, leading to a higher .strength material or one with better mechanical properties. With the shuttle flying, the permanent, multimanned space station becomes a feasible proposition-at least for the U.S. One of the chief reasons for postponing the space station in our program, apart from a 'shortage of money, is the high cost of supporting such a facility with existing launch vehicles and spacecraft. People might even take holidays in space. Conceivably some entrepreneur, before the end of the century, will cash in on the public's fascination with the unusual experiences offered by the less frequented spots in the world. People who travel to(Continued on page 78)

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day to Antarctica and the Seychelles would jump at the chance of shuttling to a Hilton Hotel in space. Pan American World Airways has already received thousands of applications for the first space trip, and once the shuttle has shown its ability to operate with efficiency and safety, passenger traffic could be expected to expand. Such a development is no more fantastic than landing the first men on the Moon and would do more to promote the uses of space than tens of thousands of words of mine. The opportunity to look at the Earth, and later the Moon, from a "resort" in the sky, would prove irresistible to the more adventurous, and once they had shown the way thousands more would follow. The experience would be more than a bizarre event in one's life. It would bring home as nothing else the limits as' well as the singular beauty of the world we live in. Many people wonder how useful the Moon and Mars are going to be. The Apollo expeditions and the Mariner Mars orbiter have brought both the Moon and the Red Planet into sharper focus. We know a great deal more about these two very different heavenly bodies than we did even a short while ago. Conclusions are, however, still tentative. From our geophysical experiments on the Moon, we find that the seismic energy released is far less than on Earth, There are few, if any, deep moonquakes. This implies that the Moon does not undergo mountain building and continental drift. In all probability, it lacks a molten core. Deliberate impacts of some of the used Apollo parts produced seismic signals that lasted for hours-similar impacts on Earth would produce signals that would die out within minutes. From the analysis of seismic signals, there is no indication of any near-surface layering of the kind we find on Earth. Seismometer data also show evidence of meteorites the size of large grapefruit striking the surface. These impacts have happened at a rate of about one per month within a radius of a little more than 100 miles, somewhat less than predicted earlier. The rocks brought back from the Moon are similar to volcanic rocks on Earth, except that their chemical composition differs considerably. For example, in terrestrial volcanic rocks, the amount of titanium occurring as Ti02 rarely exceeds three percent. On the Moon, the range is between four and 14 percent in samples brought back so far. Strong evidence suggests that the Moon has had a volcanic history. At least four separate melting periods have been detected. There is also evidence that the lunar surface is being changed, extremely slowly, by the erosive effect of the solar "wind.': Experiments with lunar dust in NASA's Houston laboratory have produced some odd effects on plant growth. When a little of the dust is used as a fertilizer, spinach, lettuce, and radishes grow 30 percent better than in normal earth. Dr. Charles Walkinshaw, a plant pathologist, has tested 35 species and 1,500 plants and finds that they grow faster and stronger than control specimens growing

without lunar dust. To his great surprise, Dr. Walkinshaw found that his lunar material contained little or none of the chemical elements present in conventional fertilizers-usually nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous. In the lunar dust there is no nitrogen, and only very small amounts of potassium and phosphorous. The dust does' contain many minerals in lower concentrations, such as magnesium, iron, cobalt, and manganese. Although these elements are present in Earth soil, they apparently are not in sufficient amounts to make good plant food. Not only is the rate of growth increased in 'lunar-fertilized plants, Walkinshaw says, but the crops produced are more nutritious. He believes the experiments suggest better uses for Earth soil rather than the idea that we have found a super fertilizer. Walkinshaw's findings may have a bearing on the future use of the Moon by permanent colonies. Such colonies would, of course, depend on extractingwater from lunar materials. Plants will have to sustain the life of the colony, and if Walkinshaw's experiments are any indication, the lunar farmers will produce some fantastic crops. "The early Moon bases will most likely be underground, with crew quarters, control centers and other work areas const~cted 'and then covered"with soil and rocks. Later, lunar craters may be fitted with domes and the interiors filled with a breathable atmosphere, while workshops and quarters are built into the crater walls. The domes will either be constructed of a material which filters out the Sun's intense radiation, or the domes will be masked during the day, much as the astronauts now shield their faces with the visors of their helmets. Despite women's lib-or perhaps because of it-there will undoubtedly be ladies present in the lunar colonies; and since the Moon has always been associated with romance, we can confidently expect a normal biological issue. Assuming that we have permanent bases set up about the year 2000, we can be quite certain that the first Moon baby will appear not long after. The Moon is a relatively "dead" world, but Mars appears to be more dynamic. There is strong evidence of active volcanoes and of both glacial and wind erosion taking place-so the planet is still evolving. Indeed, Mars has turned out to be even more dynamic than we had hoped before the prolonged scanning of its features was made possible by Mariner 9's cameras and instruments. We have seen the great volcanic piles whose crisp edges and lack of craters make us think they are young, geologically speaking. There is a great chasm 60-odd miles wide running along the Martian equator for more than 3,000 miles. Geologists believe that this was formed by breakage along faults. There are many subsidiary valleys leading into it, also formed partly by faulting and partly by volcanic eruptions. But as we trace these . back, we find little tributary valleys in curved patterns. The complexity of these patterns leads us to think that it was water which formed these small erosional channels.

Scientists have estimated that something like 100,000 gallons of water per day are generated on Mars, and that the sources are very likely the volcanoes. The two most common constituents coming from terrestrial volcanoes are water and carbon dioxide.' If that is also true of Mars, we have an abundant source of water. Mars's surface is therefore quite different from what we find on the Moon because of three major differences. It is a planet still evolving dynamically and chemically; there is an atmosphere-very, very thin by Earth standards, to be sure, with very small amounts at most of the atmospheric constituents with which we are familiar on Earth-and water vapor is present. Water may also be underground, although some scientists believe it may not be potable. . To explain the apparent water-erosion effects discovered, there is the hypothesis that water may flow in a 25,OOO-year cycle. What happens is that during this cycle, the tilt of Mars's axis is different with respect to the Sun, causing the polar caps to vary in size. At one time the south cap is very large, and the north cap small, and vice versa. When the tilt is changing, there is a great de~l"more atmospheric activity. It is at this time when the water which might be locked up in the caps may become available to form streams and rivers, and more water vapor may enter the atmosphere, so that under the right conditions there may even be heavy rainfall. Not all scientists subscribe to this theory,

however, believing that the erosion patterns' we see would have been generated much longer ago than in 25,OOO-year l cycles. Some temperature profiles taken by the Mariner orbiter indicate a range of temperature from 240 degrees of about 270 degrees Kelvin at the surface, which is roughly about minus 20 degrees to plus 10 degrees Fahrenheit'and"this was in the afternoon about four p.rn. Mars time. However, in the region of the north polar hood there are temperatures invariably of about 150 degrees Kelvin, or about minus 190 degrees Fahrenheit. This is low enough for the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to condense, and we could have a dry ice snow storm, Mars's gravitational force is roughly one-third that of Earth's, so that an object weighing 100 pounds on Earth would weigh only 37 pounds on Mars. This might seem a little less giddy than the one-sixth gravity of the Moon. although we ha've never received any complaints about the latter from the Apollo astronauts. It would seem, then-although I have not described many of the features of Mars relayed to us. by Mariner 9-the prospective colonists would find rather rugged conditions there, but not nearly so rugged as the Moon, and not much worse than in Antarctica where colonies of scientists live the year round. They may have to put up with very large dust storms every 15 years or so, the like of which has never been seen in the Sahara or anywhere

else. We collected thousands of Mariner 9 pictures of one of these awesome storms that apparently covered most of the planet. The space shuttle could be used to get a manned expedition to Mars. The scenario that follows is fiction today," but it needs not be so for long. The principle barrier is the skeptical mood that some of the public is displaying toward the idea of sending men to other planets. Because we have got used to trying to save money, our imaginary voyage to Mars will not be a full-scale landing on the surface with all its attendant costs. Instead, our objective is a modest orbit and a preliminary recon.naissance for the landing missions to take place sometime in the 1990s. Completely assembled, our spacecraft for the voyage to Mars will weigh 4 million pounds. The command module, containing five astronauts and their life sup- , port systems, weighs as much as' a fully-loaded Boeing 737 at takeoff. The mission will take 60 days from Earth orbit departure to return. ' As the nuclear rocket comes up to full-rated power, its thrust produces a gentle 0.01 G force on the crew, and as this thrust continues over the next 60 hours the spacecraft spirals out of E~rth orbit. When a terminal velocity of 100,000 feet per second is reached, the spacecraft enters the Mars trajectory. . About 30 days and 50 million miles later, the crew fires the rocket again, this time for 32 hours, to bring them into a Mars orbit 200 miles above the surface. As they circle the planet, the astronauts
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take photographs and make other observations and experiments for several days. Then they fire a 17-hoor burn which places the vehicle on a trajectory back to Earth, and at the appropriate time slow down into orbit around the Earth. In orbit, the crew transfers to a shuttle and returns to base. The same concept could be used for a manned Mars landing, replacing the command module with a module containing descent and ascent modules, water and food, surface vehicles, and other equip,-ment and experiments. On arrival at Mars, the landing party would probe the

planet with unmanned landers to find out the conditions at particularly interesting potential landing sites. These landers would scoop up soif and fly the material back to the orbiting spacecraft. After making a biological and geological analysis of the Martian soil, the crew would go down in a larger vehicle. At the end of their mission, the astronauts would return to the mother ship in their ascent vehicle, activate the nuclear engine to escape from Mars and enter the trajectory for Earth, going into Earth orbit as before. Leaving the space vehicle in orbit, the crew would return to Earth base with their Mars material in a shuttle. Their space

ship, refueled and resupplied by shuttle, would be ready for subsequent expeditions. Of course, manned exploration will be only one phase of space activities. There will be extensive applications in Earth orbit too-in communications, navigation, Earth resources, meteorology, geodesy and many other fields. The prospect for man's use of this vast new "ocean" are limited only by his vision. Skeptics have always ridiculed man's desire. to reach out for the infinite-and throughout history they have always turned out to be wrong. THE END

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