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TIUCHUN VIT NAM

TCVN 2290: 1978


Nhm T

Thit b sn xut - Yu cu chung v an ton


Manufacturing equipment - General safety requirements
Tiu chun ny quy nh nhng yu cu chung v an ton i vi kt cu ca thit b sn xut trong tt c cc ngnh kinh t quc dn cng nh yu cu i vi c cu v ni dung ca loi tiu chun v yu cu an ton i vi thit b sn xut trong h thng tiu chun an ton lao ng. 1. Quy nh chung 1.1. Thit b sn xut phi an ton khi lp rp, tho d, vn hnh, sa cha, vn chuyn v bo qun, khi s dng tng b phn hoc ng b hoc c h thng cng ngh. 1.2. Trong qu trnh vn hnh thit b sn xut khng c pht sinh nhng cht c hi lm bn mi trng xung quanh (khng kh, t, nc...) vt qu mc quy nh 1.3. Thit b sn xut phi c m bo an ton bng cch: Chn cc nguyn l hot ng, cc s cu to, cc b phn an ton ca kt cu; ng dng c gii ho, t ng ho v iu khin t xa; ng dng cc phng tin bo v; Thc hin cc yu cu v cng thi hc (ECGONOMIC); a cc yu cu an ton vo ti liu k thut lp lp, vn hnh, sa cha, chuyn v bo qun. 1.4. Thit b sn xut phi an ton v chy, n. 1.5. Thit b sn xut khi vn hnh theo ti liu k thut quy nh, khng c gy ra nguy him do tc dng ca m, bc x mt tri, rung xc, p sut v nhit cao hay thp, cht xm thc, ti trong gi. 1.6. Thit b sn xut phi an ton trong qu trnh s dng. 2. Yu cu chung v an ton 2.1. Yu cu i vi cc b phn ch yu ca kt cu. 2.1.1. Vt liu c s dng trong kt cu ca thit b sn xut khng c nguy him vc hi. Khng cho php s dng cc nguyn vt liu mi, cha qua kim tra nh gi v sinh v an ton. 2.1.2. Cc b phn v thit b sn xut (trong c: dy dn in, ng dn, dy cp phi tnh ton m bo kh nng khi xy ra h hng ngu nhin khng gy nguy him. 2.1.3. Trong kt cu ca thit b sn xut c trang b cc h thng kh nn, thu lc vcc h thng khc th phi m bo an ton theo yu cu ca tng h thng . 2.1.4. i vi cc b phn chuyn ng ca thit b sn xut, nu c nguy c gy ra nguy him th phi che chn an ton, nhng khng c lm mt chc nng ca chng. Trong trng hp khng th p dng cc bin php che chn th phi c trang btn hiu phng nga. 2.1.5. Cc b phn cu to ca thit b sn xut khng c c nhng gc nhn, cnh sc b mt g gh c th gy nn nguy him (nu cc loi khng thuc chc nng k thut ca thit b). 2.1.6. Kt cu ca thit b sn xut phi loi tr kh nng tip xc ngu nhin ca ngi vi cc phn nng v qu lnh ca thit b.

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TIUCHUN VIT NAM

TCVN 2290: 1978

2.1.7. S thu v to nhit, cng nh s thi hi nc ca thit b sn xut trong gian sn xut khng c vt qu mc quy nh. 2.1.8. Ni lm vic ca cng nhn trn cc thit b sn xut phi an ton v thun tin khi thc hin cc thao tc. Trong trng hp cn thit m bo cho cng nhn khi nh hng mi trng c hi bn ngoi th thit b sn xut phi c bung iu khin. Kt cu v vic b tr bung iu khin khng c gy ra nguy him, c hi, v tr ngi thao tc ca cng nhn. 2.1.9. i vi nhng thit b sn xut khi vn hnh i hi ngi cng nhn phi i li th phi b tr li i thun tin c v mt cu trc ln kch thc v sn thao tc, thang ln xung.... 2.1.10. Trn cc thit b sn xut c b tr gh ngi iu khin, th kt cu ca gh phi, c kh nng iu chnh ln, xung, quay, c im ta lng, t chn cho ph hp vi nhn trc hc v yu cu v v sinh lao ng. 2.1.11. Trong cc trng hp cn thit, thit b sn xut c trang b n chiu sng cc b ph hp vi iu kin sn xut (mi trng chy n, m cao...) th phi tr kh nng xy ra tai nn in. 2.1.12. Cc h thng iu khin thit b sn xut phi m bo tin cy khng gy ra nguy him khi cc h thng chc nng ng thi hot ng. 2.1.13. Cc thit b bo hiu, cc b phn t ng dng my v ngt thit b ra khi ngun nng lng khi c s c hay khi lm vic ch nguy him phi c b tr y trong kt cu ca thit b sn xut. 2.1.14. Khi cn thit, thit b sn xut c phanh hm, th phanh hm phi m bo an ton v ph hp vi yu cu quy nh trong cc tiu chun c lin quan. 2.1.15. Thit b sn xut c b phn ng t ngt, th kt cu ca loi khng c gy ra nguy him khi b phn ng t ngt lm vic. 2.1.16. Cc b phn ca thit b sn xut cng nh c cu kp cht, nng h hay truyn ng phi c trang b cc phng tin ngn nga kh nng gy ra nguy him khi mt mt phn hay ton phn nng lng (in, thy lc, kh nn ) cng nh khinng lng c phc hi. 2.1.17. ngn nga tai nn in (k c trng hp cng nhn thao tc nhm) thit b sn xut phi tun theo nhng yu cu chnh sau y: Cc phn dn in ca thit b sn xut c th gy ra nguy him phi c cch liv che chn cn thn; Cc phn kim loi ca thit b sn xut c th c in p nguy him th phi nit (ni khng) hoc phi c cc bin php bo v khc; B tr nhng phn dn in h nm kn trong thn my hoc trong t in khoca chc chn; Trong s mch in ca thit b sn xut phi c thit b ngt mch tp trung khi li in. Khi cung cp in cho thit b sn xut bng ngun in ring phingt in p ngun chung m khng cn ngt in p mch in ca thit bsn xut. 2.1.18. Kt cu ca thit b sn xut phi loi tr c kh nng tch t cc in tch tnh in vi mc nguy him.. nhng thit b sn xut c mch cha cc in dung phi c thit b kh ccin tch d. 2.1.19. Cc thit b sn xut trong qu trnh lm vic sinh l cc cht c, chy n th phi lp theo b phn ht thi. 2.1.20. Khi cn thit th cc thit b sn xut phi c b phn x l cc cht c hi nguy him. i vi cc cht khng x l cng nhau c th phi c bin php ring. 2.1.21. Kt cu ca thit b sn xut phi m bo loi tr hoc lm gim n, rung, siu m n mc cho php. Page2

TIUCHUN VIT NAM

TCVN 2290: 1978

2.1.22. Thit b sn xut, trong qu trnh lm vic sinh ra nhng tia bc x c hi, th cn phi c phng tin bo v. 2.2. Cc yu cu i vi b phn iu khin. 2.2.1. Cc b phn iu khin thit b sn xut cn ph hp vi nhng yu cu c bn sau: C hnh dng, kch thc, b mt m bo lm vic an ton v thun tin; B tr gia chng vi nhau nm trong vng thao tc hp l nht. Khi b tr phi tnh lc iu khin, Hng chuyn ng, trnh t lm vic v 1 s s dng chng; Lc iu khin khng vt qu mc v tn s s dng quy nh. 2.2.2. Vic iu khin thit b sn xut thuc cng mt nhm phi m bo thng nht (tay gt, bn p, nt bm, dng c o, dng c kim tra kch thc, quy tc iu khin, bng ch dn du hiu...) Hng quay ca v lng, tay bin, cnh tay n, bn p... cn ph hp vi nhng quy nh ban hnh i vi tng nhm thit b. 2.2.3. B phn iu khin thit b sn xut phi m bo tin cy hoc c kho lin ng loi tm nhng thao tc khng ng trnh t hay c s , bng ch dn ghi ch r rng. 2.2.4. Kt cu v b tr b phn iu khin cn loi tr kh nng t ng hay m thit b sn xut trong qu trnh vn hnh. 2.2.5. C cu x l s c (nt hm, tay hm...) phi sn mu , ghi ch r ngha v phng php s dng, t ni thun tin cho ngi vn hnh. Mu tn hu ca c cu x l s c phi bn lu hn thi gian phc v ca thit b sn xut. 2.2.6. i vi cc b phn iu khin thit b sn xut do nhiu ngi vn hnh cng mt lc th phi c kho lin ng bo m trnh t thao tc cn thit. Trong trng hp c mt b phn no ca thit b sn xut c kh nng gy nguy him nm ngoi tm nhn thy ca ngi vn hnh th phi trang b thm b phn ng ngt s c ph. 2.3. Cc yu cu i vi phng tin bo v trong kt cu ca thit b sn xut. 2.3.1. Phi c y cc phng tin bo v trc khi lm vic hoc c kho lin ng khng ch khng cho thit b sn xut lm vic khi khng c phng tin bov hay khi phng tin bo v b h hng. 2.3.2. Phng tin bo v phi lun gi c chc nng lm vic ca n, khng b mt tc dng (gim tc dng) khi pht sinh nguy him hoc khi c ngi tip xc gn vng nguy him. 2.3.3. Phng tin bo v phi tc dng cho n khi cc yu t nguy him (c hi) khng cn tn ti na. 2.3.4. S hng hc ca bt k mt phng tin bo v no cng khng c lm ngng tc dng ca cc phng tin bo v khc hoc gy thm nguy him. 2.3.5. Phng tin bo v phi b tr v tr thun tin cho vic kim tra v vn hnh. Trong cc trng hp cn thit phi dng nhng trang b t ng kim tra phng tin bo v. 2.3.6. Cc loi bao che kiu quay, bn l, di ng, cng nh cc np y, ca m, tm chn trong cc bao che hoc trong v my cn phi c c cu loi tr kh nng tho, m ngu nhin v khi cn thit phi c kho lin ng m bo ng-ng qu trnh lm vic khi tho m bao che. 2.3.7. phng nga nguy him cn s dng nhng b tn hiu bng m thanh, nh sngv mu sc. 2.3.8. B tn hiu phi b tr v tr c th nhn thy v nghe i vi ngi vn hnh hay nhng ngi lm vic trong phm vi vng nguy him c lin quan n. Tn hiu bo ng (tn hiu nguy him) phi d phn bit vi cc loi m thanh khc. Page3

TIUCHUN VIT NAM

TCVN 2290: 1978

2.3.9. i vi nhng phn ca thit b sn xut c th gy ra nguy him th phi sn mu tn hiu an ton v ghi du hiu an ton. 2.3.10. Thit b sn xut khi xut trc phi c y bao che an ton v c cu bo h. 2.4. Yu cu an ton i vi vic lp rp, sa cha, vn chuyn v bo qun. 2.4.1. Trn nhng thit b sn xut phi c san thit b m bo an ton v thun tin cho vic lp rp v sa cha. 2.4.2. i vi thit b sn xut cng nh nhng b phn ca n khi cn thit phi nng h, nu khng thun tin th phi c thm c cu hoc v tr mc buc. 3. c im vic xy dng tiu chun v yu cu an ton i vi thit b sn xut 3.1. Cc tiu chun v an ton i vi thit b sn xut phi theo ng cc quy nh trong TCVN 2287: 1978 v tiu chun ny. 3.2. Vic quy nh cc yu cu an ton phi xt n c im kt cu, s hot ng ca cc b phn v ca c h thng, chc nng ca thit b sn xut sau khi xc nh c ngun sinh ra cc yu t nguy him v c hi. 3.3. tiu chun v yu cu an ton i vi thit b sn xut phi bao gm phn m u vcc phn sau y: Yu cu an ton i vi cc phn c bn ca kt cu v h thng iu khin; Yu cu i vi vic b tr phng tin bo v trn thit b; Yu cu an ton i vi vic lp rp, sa cha, vn chuyn v bo qun; Phng php kim tra vic thc hin cc yu cu an ton (phng php th nghim); Trong tiu chun c th bao gm cc phn khc hay c th khng a vo mt phn nu trn, nu khng nh hng n an ton ca thit b; 3.4. Phn yu cu an ton i vi cc phn c bn ca kt cu v h thng iu khin phi bao gm cc yu cu an ton quy nh cc c im v chc nng, lp t vn hnh ca thit b sn xut v nhng phn ca chng nh sau: Ngn nga, hn ch tc ng nguy him v c hi c th xy ra n mc cho php; Loi tr nguyn nhn gy ra cc yu t nguy him v c hi trong sn xut; B tr cc b phn iu khin v cc yu cu khc; Trong tiu chun ca tng nhm thit b sn xut ring bit phi ghi r; Phn chuyn ng, dn in v cc phn nguy him khc cn c bao che; Tr s cho php ca c tnh n v phng php xc nh chng; Tr s cho php ca c tnh rung xc, phng php xc inh v phng tin bo v Mc cho php ca cc tia bc x v phng php kim tra; Tr s nhit cho php ca b phn iu khin v b mt ca thit b sn xut Gi tr cho php ca lc tc ng ln b phn iu khin; Cc yu cu i vi thit b bo v lin ng, c cu phanh hm v cc phng php bo v khc. 3.5. Phn yu cu i vi phng tin bo v trn thit b phi bao gm cc yu cu quy nh cc c im ca kt cu, b tr, kim tra v vic s dng phng tin quan st nh sau: Bao che bo v, mn chn v cc phng tin chng siu m, bc x ion v cc bc x khc; Phng tin thi cc ch.t nguy him v c hi ra khi vng lm vic; Kho lin ng bo v; Mu tn hiu ca thit b sn xut; Bin bo phng nga. 3.6. Phn yu cu an ton i vi vic lp rp sa cha, vn chuyn v bo qun phi bao gm cc yu cu c trng cho thit b sn xut, m bo an ton khi thc hin cng vic theo ch dn, trong k c cc dng c nng h v vn chuyn. Page4

TIUCHUN VIT NAM

TCVN 2290: 1978

3.7. Ni dung phn "phng php kim tra vic thc hin cc yu cu an ton" phi theo quy nh trong tiu chun Nh nc hin hnh. 3.8. Yu cu an ton i vi cc chi tit v b phn trong thit b sn xut phi c quy nh trong tiu chun ca chi tit v b phn

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