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Exercise 5

**1. The Euler equations for one dimensional unsteady ﬂow read: Ut + Fx = 0 where ρ U = ρu ρE 1 E = c v T + u2 , 2 H=E+ p ρ .
**

and

(a) Write the components of the ﬂux vector F = (F1 , F2 , F3 )T as a function of the conserved variables U = (U1 , U2 , U3 )T (b) Determine the Jacobi matrix A = ∂ F /∂ U of F and formulate the quasiconservative form of the Euler equations. (c) Transform the quasiconservative form into a non-conservative form: V t + aV x = 0 where ρ V = u p

(1)

.

(d) Derive the characterstic form of the Euler equations with a diagonal transformation of the non-conservative form given by Eq. (1).

30

**Computational Fluid Dynamics II
**

Exercise 5 (solution)

1. (a) with ρ U1 U = U2 = ρu ρE U3

follows the ﬂux-vector

ρu F1 F = F2 = ρu2 + p = u(ρE + p) F3 whereas

U2

2 U2 U1

+p U2 U1 (U3 + p)

2 1 U2 2 U1

p = (κ − 1) U3 −

⇒

F =

U2 U1

U2

2 U2 U1

+ (κ − 1) U3 −

1 2

2 U2 U1 2 1 U2 2 U1

U3 + (κ − 1) U3 −

∂Fk ∂Ul

**(b) Jacobi-Matrix with the elements Akl =
**

0 − 1 (3 − κ) U2 2 2

U2 U1 ((κ U2

1 1

1

U2

0

U2

1

A =

(3 − κ) U2 U1

U3 − 1) U2 − κ U3 ) κ U1 − 3 (κ − 1) U2 2 2 U1 2

κ−1

U2 κ U1

**0 1 0 1 − 2 (3 − κ)u2 (3 − κ)u κ−1 = κu u((κ − 1)u2 − κE) κE − 3 (κ − 1)u2 2 quasi-conservative form from
**

∂F ∂x

=

∂F ∂U ∂ U ∂x

= A ∂U ∂x

Ut + AUx = 0

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**(c) non-conservative form V = (ρ, u, p)T ρt + uρx + ρux = 0 ut + uux + (1/ρ)px = 0 pt + upx + ρa2 ux = 0 ρ V = u p
**

⇒

Vt + a Vx = 0

with

u ρ 0 a = 0 u 1/ρ 2 0 ρa u

(d) eigenvalues from |a − λI| = 0 are λ1 = u, λ2 = u + a, and λ3 = u − a eigenvectors, with (a − λi I)xi = 0 follows (u − λi )x1 + ρx2 + 0 =0 i i 0 + (u − λi )x2 + 1/ρx3 =0 i i + (u − λi )x3 = 0 0 + ρa2 x2 i i this equation system is under-determined, hence choose one component x3 = 0 x2 = 0 λ1 = u choose x1 = −1/a2 ⇒ 1 1 1 λ2 = u + a choose x3 = 1/2 ⇒ x2 = 1/2ρa x1 = 1/2a2 2 2 2 ⇒ x2 = −1/2ρa x1 = 1/2a2 λ3 = u − a choose x3 = 1/2 3 3 3 gives the eigenvectormatrices T resp. T

−1

**−1/a2 1/2a2 1/2a2 0 1/2ρa −1/2ρa T = (x1 x2 x3 ) = 0 1/2 1/2 the characteristic variables follow from dW = T
**

−1

T

−1

−a2 0 1 ρa 1 = 0 0 −ρa 1

dV

this gives the characteristic form of the Euler equation

**−a2 dρ + dp dρ dw1 −1 dW = dw2 = T du = ρadu + dp −ρadu + dp dp dw3 λ1 0 0 Λ = 0 λ2 0 0 0 λ3
**

Wt + ΛWx = 0 with

32

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