Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.

H))

2000-E-41

118

cos ω t:
ω A + [1/CR1]B = 0 ⇒ A = -B/ω CR1
sin ω t:
-ω B + [1/CR1]A = I0/C
-ω B + [1/CR1][-B/ω CR1] = I0/C
B = I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]
A = -[I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]/ω CR1
Complete solution
V(t) = Ke-(1/CR1)t + [-[I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]/ω CR1]sin ω t + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]cos ω t
At t = 0+
V(0+) = Ke-(1/CR1)0+ + [-[I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]/ω CR1]sin ω (0+) + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]cos
ω (0+)
I0sin ω t [R1 + R2] = K(1) + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]
I0sin ω t [R1 + R2] = K + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]
K = I0sin ω t [R1 + R2] - [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]
V(t) = [I0sin ω t [R1 + R2] - [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]]e-(1/CR1)t + [-[I0/C[-ω 1/C2R12]]/ω CR1]sin ω t + [I0/C[-ω - 1/C2R12]]cos ω t
Q#6.29: Consider a series RLC network which is excited by a voltage source.
1. Determine the characteristic equation.
2. Locus of the roots of the equation.
3. Plot the roots of the equation.
Solution:

R

L
C

V(t)
i(t)

For t ≥ 0
According to KVL
di 1
L + ∫ idt + Ri = V(t)
dt C
Differentiating with respect to ‘t’
d2i i
di

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

2000-E-41

L

119

+ +R =0
dt2 C
dt
Dividing both sides by ‘L’
d2i i
Rdi
+
+
=0
(i)
dt2 LC
Ldt
The characteristic equation can be found by substituting the trial solution i = est or
by the equivalent of substituting s2 for (d2i/dt2), and s for (di/dt); thus
1
2

s +

R

+
LC L

s=0

2)
ζ =0


n

ζ =1
ζ→∞

σ

ζ →∞
-jω

n

ζ =0
1
s2 +

R
+

s=0

LC L
Characteristic equation:
as2 + bs + c = 0
Here
a
b
c

s1, s2 =

-b ± √b2 – 4ac
2a

1
R
L
1
LC

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

R

R
±

L

2

2000-E-41

120

1
-

4(1)

L

LC

s1, s2 =
2(1)
R

R
±

L

2

1
-

4(1)

L

LC

s1, s2 =
2

2

R

R
±

L

2

1
-

4(1)

L

LC

s1, s2 =
2

4

R
= 2L

R
±

2L

1
-

2L

R
= -

2

R
±

4(1)
4LC

2

1
-

2L

LC

radical term

(ii)

Hint: 4 = 2
To convert equation (i) to a standard form, we define the value of resistance that causes
the radical (pertaining to the root) term in the above equation as the critical resistance, Rcr.
This value is found by solving the equation
2
R

1
-

2L

=0
LC

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))
R = Rcr
2
Rcr

1
-

=0

2L

LC
2

Rcr

1
=

2L

LC

Taking square root of both the sides
2
Rcr

1
=

2L

LC

Rcr

1
=

2L

LC

Using cross multiplication
L
Rcr = 2
C
Hint:

1

=1

R
ζ =

ζ =

Rcr

R

C

2

L

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Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

2000-E-41

1
ω n=

LC

R
2ζ ω n =
L
1
ω

2
n

=

LC
Substituting the corresponding values in equation (i) we get
s2 + 2ζ ω ns + ω n2 = 0
roots of the characteristic equation are
Characteristic equation:
as2 + bs + c = 0
Here
a
b
c

s1, s2 =

1
2ζ ω
ω n2

-b ± √b2 – 4ac
2a

s1, s2 =

-2ζ ω

±

n

√(2ζ ω

n

)2 – 4(1)(ω

2(1)
-2ζ ω

n

±

s1, s2 =
2

√4ζ 2ω

2
n

2

Simplifying we get

s1, s2 = -ζ ω

n

±

ω n√ ζ

n

±

ω n√(0)2 – 1

2

–1

when ζ = 0
s1, s2 = -(0)ω

– 4ω

n

2

2
n

)

n

122

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

2000-E-41

s1, s2 = ± ω n√–1
s1, s2 = ± jω

n

Hint: √–1 = j
3)
500 Ω
1H
1 × 10-6 F

R
L
C
Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii)
500
= 2(1)

500
±

2

1
(1)(10-6)

2(1)

(ii)

= -250 ± √62500 - 1000000
= -250 ± √-937500
= -250 ± √937500√-1
s1, s2 = -250 ± j968.246
1000 Ω
1H
1 × 10-6 F

R
L
C
Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii)

1000
= 2(1)

1000
±

2

1
-

2(1)

= -500 ± √250000 - 1000000
= -500 ± √-750000
= -500 ± √750000√-1

(1)(10-6)

(ii)

123

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

2000-E-41

s1, s2 = -500 ± j 866.025
3000 Ω
1H
1 × 10-6 F

R
L
C
Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii)
3000
= 2(1)

3000
±

2

1
(1)(10-6)

2(1)

(ii)

= -1500 ± √2250000 - 1000000
= -1500 ± √ 1250000
= -1500 ± 1118.034
= (-1500 + 1118.034), (-1500 - 1118.034)
s1, s2 = -381.966, -2618.034
5000 Ω
1H
1 × 10-6 F

R
L
C
Substituting the corresponding values in equation (ii)
5000
= 2(1)

5000
±

2

1
-

2(1)

= -2500 ± √6250000 - 1000000
= -2500 ± √ 5250000
= -2500 ± 2291.288
= (-2500 + 2291.288), (-2500 - 2291.288)
s1, s2 = -208.712, -4791.288

(1)(10-6)

(ii)

124

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

2000-E-41

125

Q#6.31: Analyze the network given in the figure on the loop basis, and determine the
characteristic equation for the currents in the network as a function of k1. Find
the values of k1 for which the roots of the characteristic equation are on the
imaginary axis of the s plane. Find the range of values of k1 for which the roots
of the characteristic equation have positive real parts.
Solution:
1H

+

i2
1Ω

K1i1

+
-

1Ω

V1(t)

1Ω

i1

1Ω
i3

1F

Loop i1:
For t ≥ 0
According to KVL
V1(t) = (i1)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i2)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i3)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i3)(XC)
1
XC =
j2π fc
ω = 2π f
j2π fc = jω c
jω = s
1
XC =
sc
c =1F
1
XC =
s(1 F)
1
XC =
s
1
V1(t) = (i1)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i2)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i3)(1 Ω ) + (i1 – i3)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))
Simplifying

s
1

V1(t) = i1 + i1 – i2 + i1 – i3 + i1

1
- i3

s
1
V1(t) = (3 +

s

1
)i1 – i2 – (1 +

s

)

(i)

s

Loop i2:
For t ≥ 0
According to KVL
(i2 – i1)(1 Ω ) + i2(XL) = 0
XL = jω L
s = jω
XL = s(1 H)
XL = s
Substituting
(i2 – i1)(1 Ω ) + i2(s) = 0
Simplifying
i2 – i1 + si2 = 0
(1 + s)i2 – i1 = 0

(ii)

Loop i3:
For t ≥ 0
According to KVL
Sum of voltage rise = sum of voltage drop
Sum of voltage rise = k1i1

(a)
1

Sum of voltage drop = (i3 – i1)(1 Ω ) + (i3 – i1)

s

Substituting in (a)
1
(i3 – i1)(1 Ω ) + (i3 – i1)

s

+ (i3)(1 Ω ) = k1i1

Simplifying
1
(i3 – i1)(1 Ω ) + (i3 – i1)
1
i3 – i1 + i3

1
- i1

s

s

+ (i3)(1 Ω ) - k1i1 = 0
+ i3 – k1i1 = 0

s

+ (i3)(1 Ω )

2000-E-41

126

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))
1

2000-E-41

127

1

-

+ k1 + 1 i1 + 2 +

i3 = 0

s

(iii)

s

Equations (i), (ii) & (iii) can be written in matrix form
1

1

3+

-1

-

1+

i1

s

V1

s

-1

(1 + s)

0

i2
=

1
-

0

1

1 + k1 +

0

2+

s

i3

0

s

A

X

B

Determinant of A =
1
3+

1
(1 + s) 2 +

s

1
- (0)(0)

+ (-)

(-1)

2+

s

1+

1
(-1)0 – (-)

s
After simplifying
Characteristic equation:
(5 – k1)s2 + (6 – 2k1)s + (2 – k1) = 0
When k1 = 0
(5 – 0)s2 + (6 – 2(0))s + (2 – 0) = 0
5s2 + 6s + 2 = 0
as2 + bs + c = 0
Here

1 + k1 +

(1 + s)
s

1
-

s

1
(0)

- (-1)

1 + k1 +
s

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))
a
b
c

s1, s2 =

2000-E-41
5
6
2

-b ± √b2 – 4ac
2a

s1, s2 =

-6 ± √62 – 4(5)(2)
2(5)

s1, s2 =

-6 ± √36 – 40
10

s1, s2 =

-6 ± √-4
10

s1, s2 =

-6 ± √-1√4
10

s1, s2 =

-6 ± j2

10
s1, s2 = -0.6 ± j0.2
s1, s2 = (-0.6 + j0.2), (-0.6 - j0.2)
When k1 = 1
(5 – 1)s2 + (6 – 2(1))s + (2 – 1) = 0
4s2 + 4s + 1 = 0
as2 + bs + c = 0
Here
a
b
c

s1, s2 =

-b ± √b2 – 4ac
2a

4
4
1

128

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

s1, s2 =

2000-E-41

-4 ± √42 – 4(4)(1)
2(4)

s1, s2 =

-4 ± √16 – 16
8

s1, s2 =

-4 ± √0
8

s1, s2 =

-4 ± 0
8

s1, s2 = -0.5, -0.5
When k1 = 2
(5 – 2)s2 + (6 – 2(2))s + (2 – 2) = 0
3s2 + 2s + 0 = 0
as2 + bs + c = 0
Here
a
b
c

s1, s2 =

-b ± √b2 – 4ac
2a

s1, s2 =

-2 ± √22 – 4(3)(0)
2(3)

s1, s2 =
s1, s2 =

-2 ± √4 – 0
6
-2 ± √4
6

s1, s2 =

-2 ± 2
6

s1, s2 = 0, 0.667

3
2
0

129

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

When k1 = -1
(5 – (-1))s2 + (6 – 2(-1))s + (2 – (-1)) = 0
6s2 + 8s + 3 = 0
as2 + bs + c = 0
Here
a
b
c

s1, s2 =

-b ± √b2 – 4ac
2a

s1, s2 =

-8 ± √82 – 4(6)(3)
2(6)

s1, s2 =
s1, s2 =

-8 ± √64 – 72
12
-8 ± √-8
6

s1, s2 =
s1, s2 =

-8 ± √-1√8
6
-8 ± j2.828
6

s1, s2 = (-1.334 + j0.472), (-1.334 - j0.472)
Q#6.32: Show that equation 6-121 can be written in the form
ζω
i = ke- nt cos (ω n√1 - ζ 2 t + φ )
Give the values for k and φ in terms of k5 and k6 of Eq. (6-121).
Solution:
Let

k5 = kcosφ
(i)
k6 = -ksinφ
(ii)
2
k = (kcosφ ) + (-ksinφ )2
k = k2cos2φ + k2sin2φ

2000-E-41

6
8
3

130

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

2000-E-41

k = k2(cos2φ + sin2φ )
k = k2(1)
k = √k2 = √k52 + k62
Dividing Eq. (i) by (ii)
kcosφ

k5
= -cot φ =

-ksinφ

k6

-1 k5
φ = cot k6
Using the trigonometric identity
cos (x + y) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y
Q#6.33: A switch is closed at t = 0 connecting a battery of voltage V with a series RL
circuit.
(a) Solution:
sw
t=0
R

L

V
i

For t ≥ 0
According to KVL
di
V = iR + L
dt
Dividing both sides by ‘L’
di
R
V
+
i=
dt L
L
This is a linear non-homogeneous equation of the first order and its solution is,
Thus

131

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))
R
P=
L
V
Q=
L
Hence the solution of this equation
i = e-Pt∫ QePtdt + ke-Pt
V
i = e-(R/L)t∫

e(R/L)tdt + ke-(R/L)t
L
V
∫ e(R/L)tdt + ke-(R/L)t

-(R/L)t

i=e

L

e(R/L)t
∫e

(R/L)t

dt =
d
dt

(R/L)t

L e(R/L)t
∫ e(R/L)tdt =

R

Substituting
V

L e(R/L)t

i = e-(R/L)t

+ ke-(R/L)t
L

R

V
+ ke-(R/L)t

i=

R
i(0-) = i(0+) = 0
Substituting i = 0 at t = 0
V
+ ke-(R/L)(0)

0=
R
0

e =1

2000-E-41

132

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))
V
k=R
Substituting
V

-V

i=

e-(R/L)t

+
R

R

V
(1 - e-(R/L)t )

i=
R
P = i2R

t
WR = ∫ i2R dt
0
t V 2
WR = ∫
(1 - e-(R/L)t )2Rdt
0 R
(a - b)2 = a2 + b2 – 2ab
t V2
WR = ∫
(1 + e-2(R/L)t – 2(1)(e-(R/L)t))Rdt
2
0 R
t V2
WR = ∫
(1 + e-2(R/L)t – 2e-(R/L)t)dt
0 R
V2
WR =
R
Simplifying

t
t
t
∫ (1)dt + ∫ e-2(R/L)tdt + ∫ (-2e-(R/L)tdt)
0
0
0

V2
WR =

2L
e-(R/L)t -

t+
R

(b)
Li2
WL =
2
LV2

R

L

3L

e-2(R/L)t 2R

2R

2000-E-41

133

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))
(1 - e-(R/L)t )2

WL =
2R

2

(c)
At t = 0
V2
WR =
R

2L
(0) +

e
2L

e R

2L

WR =

L

(1) R

R

V2
WR =

0
R

WR = 0 joules
At t = 0
LV2
WL =
(1 - e-(R/L)0)2
2
2R
LV2
WL =
(1 – e0)2
2
2R
LV2
WL =
(1 – 1)2
2R2

WL = 0 joules
At t = ∞
LV2

WL =
(1 - e-(R/L) )2
2R2
LV2

(1 – e- )2

WL =
2R2

-

L
0

(0) +
R
V2

L
e-2(R/L)(0) 2R

R

V2
WR =

-(R/L)(0)

3L
0

e 2R

3L
(1) 2R
2R

2R

3L
2R

2000-E-41

134

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

2000-E-41

LV2
(1 – 0)2

WL =
2R2
LV2
WL =

joules
2R2

(d)
In steady state total energy supply
W = WR + WL
V2
W =

2L
e-(R/L)t -

t+
R

L

R

3L

e-2(R/L)t 2R

+
2R

LV2
(1 – e-(R/L)t)2
2R2

Q#6.34: In the series RLC circuit shown in the accompanying diagram, the
frequency of the driving force voltage is
(1) ω = ω n
(2) ω = ω n√1 - ζ 2
Solution:
1000 Ω

1H

+
-

100 sin ω t

For t ≥ 0
According to KVL
di
100 sin ω t = L + iR +
dt
Here
ω =ω n
di
100 sin ω nt = L + iR +
dt
1
ω n=

i(t)
1µ F

1
C

∫ idt

1
C

∫ idt

… (i)

135

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

2000-E-41

136

LC
L=1H
C = 1 × 10-6 F
1
ω n=
(1 H)( 1 × 10-6 F)
After simplifying
ω n = 1000 rad/sec
Substituting in (i) we get
di
1
100 sin 1000t = L + iR + ∫ idt
… (i)
dt
C
Differentiating both the sides & substituting the values of L & C we get
d2i
di
i
100 (1000) cos 1000t = (1)
+ (1000)
+
dt2
dt
10-6
Simplifying we get
d2i
di
100000cos 1000t =
+ (1000)
+ 1000000i
2
dt
dt
The trial solution for the particular integral is
ip = A cos 1000t + B sin 1000t
d2ip
dip
100000cos 1000t =
+ (1000)
+ 1000000ip
dt2
dt
(ip)′ = -1000A sin 1000t + B 1000cos 1000t
(ip)′ ′ = -1000000A cos 1000t - B 1000000sin 1000t
(ip)′ = Ist derivative
(ip)′ ′ = 2nd derivative
100000cos 1000t = -1000000A cos 1000t - B 1000000sin 1000t + 1000(-1000A sin 1000t
+ B 1000cos 1000t) + 1000000(A cos 1000t + B sin 1000t)
Simplifying
100000cos 1000t = -1000000A cos 1000t – 1000000B sin 1000t - 1000000A sin 1000t +
1000000B cos 1000t + 1000000A cos 1000t + 1000000B sin 1000t
Simplifying
Equating the coefficients
Cos:
100000 = 1000000B
100000
B=
1000000
B = 0.1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

Sin:
0 = - 1000000B – 1000000A + 1000000B
0 = –1000000A
A=0
ip = A cos 1000t + B sin 1000t
Substituting the values of A & B
ip = (0) cos 1000t + (0.1) sin 1000t
ip = 0.1 sin 1000t
ω

ej t – e-j

ωt

sin ω t =

2j
Here ω = 1000
ej1000t – e-j1000t
sin 1000t =
2j
ej1000t – e-j1000t
ip = 0.1

Transient response
2j

In steady state
At resonance
XL = XC
In a series RLC circuit
Z = R + j(XL - XC)
Z = R + j(XC - XC)
Z=R
V
Im =
Z
100
Im =
1000
Im = 0.1 A
(2) ω = ω n√1 - ζ 2
Determine the values of ω n & ζ substitute & simplify
Do yourself.

2000-E-41

137

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf (Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H))

THE END

2000-E-41

138

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