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Problem 21.4
Description: An electron has been accelerated from rest through a potential difference of## V. (a) What is the electron's kinetic energy, in electron volts? (b) What is the electron's kinetic energy, in joules? (c) What is the electron's speed? An electron has been accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 600 V. Part A What is the electron's kinetic energy, in electron volts?
PartB What is the electron's kinetic energy, in joules?
Part C What is the electron's speed?
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Problem 21.11
Two 2.20 em x 2.20 em plates that form a parallelplate capacitor are charged to ± 0.708 nCo Part A What is the electric field strength inside the capacitor if the spacing between the plates is 1.40mm? PartB What is potential difference across the capacitor if the spacing between the plates is 1.40 Innl? ANSWER: Part C What is the electric field strength inside the capacitor if the spacing between the plates is 2.80 IIUT.? ANSWER: PartD What is the potential difference across the capacitor if the spacing between the plates is 2.80 Il.lJIl?



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Problem 21.22
Part A What is the magnitude of the electric field at the dot in the figure?
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Problem 21.63
A proton is released from rest at the positive plate of a parallelplate capacitor. It crosses the 4 capacitor and reaches the negative plate with a speed of 5.40x 10 m/s. PartA What will be the proton's final speed if the experiment is repeated with double the amount of charge on each capacitor plate?
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Problem 21.69
A proton is fired from far away toward the nucleus of an iron atom. Iron is element number 26, and the diameter of the nucleus is 9.0 fm (1015 m). Assume the nucleus remains at rest.
Part A
What initial speed does the proton need to just reach the surface of the nucleus? Express your answer using two significant figures.
Problem 21.75
The plates of a 3.0 nF parallelplate capacitor are each 0.25 m2 in area. Part A How far apart are the plates if there's air between them? Express your answer using two significant figures.
Part B If the plates are separated by a Teflon sheet, how thick is the sheet? Express your answer using two significant figures.
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Capacitance: A Review
Description: Multiplechoice questions on concept of capacitance. Use after Introduction to Capacitance. Some questions are repetitions of those in other problems. This fact may get some students frustrated. Learning Goal: To review the meaning of capacitance and ways of changing the capacitance of a parallelplate capacitor. Capacitance is one of the central concepts in electrostatics. Understanding its meaning and the difference between its definition and the ways of calculating capacitance can be challenging at first. This tutorial is meant to help you become more comfortable with capacitance. Recall the fundamental formula for capacitance: C=Q/V, where C is the capacitance in farads, Q is the charge stored on the plates in coulombs, and V is the potential difference (or voltage) between the plates. In the following problems it may help to keep in mind that the voltage is related to the strength of the electric field E and the distance between the plates, d, by V=E.d. PartA What property of objects is best measured by their capacitance? ANSWER:
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the ability to conduct electric current the ability to distort an external electrostatic field
.;. the ability to store charge Capacitance is a measure of the ability of a system of two conductors to store electric charge and energy. It is defined as C = Q/V. This ratio remains constant as long as the system retains its geometry and the amount of dielectric does not change. Capacitors are special devices designed to combine a large capacitance with a small size. However, any pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (or vacuum) has some capacitance. Even an isolated electrode has a small capacitance. That is, if a charge Q is placed on it, its potential V with respect to ground would change, and the ratio Q/V is its capacitance C. PartB Consider an airfilled charged capacitor. How can its capacitance be increased? Hint B.1 What does capacitance depend on? Capacitance depends on the inherent properties of the system of conductors, such as its geometry and the presence of dielectric, not on the charge placed on the conductors. Specifically, capacitance depends on the area A of the conducting plates and the distance d between the plates and is given by
where eo is a constant called the permittivity of free space. ANSWER: (" Increase the charge on the capacitor.
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Decrease the charge on the capacitor.
(" Increase the spacing between the plates of the capacitor. (.' Decrease the spacing between the plates of the capacitor.
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Part C
Increase the length of the wires leading to the capacitor plates.
Consider a charged parallelplate capacitor. How can its capacitance be halved? Check all that apply. ANSWER:
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Double the charge. Double the plate area. Halve the charge. Halve the plate separation.
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PartD Consider a charged parallelplate capacitor. Which combination of changes would quadruple its capacitance? ANSWER:
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Double the charge and double the plate area. Halve the charge and double the plate separation.
(" Double the charge and double the plate separation. (" Halve the charge and double the plate area. (.' Halve the plate separation and double the plate area. (" Double the plate separation and halve the plate area.
Energy in Capacitors and Electric Fields
Description: Several questions about the energy of charged capacitors, energy density, and energy of an electrostatic field. Students are asked to calculate the energy of a charged capacitor by two different methods. Learning Goal: To be able to calculate the energy of a charged capacitor and to understand the concept of energy associated with an electric field. The energy of a charged capacitor is given by U = Q.V/2, where Q is the charge of the capacitor and V is the potential difference across the capacitor. The energy of a charged capacitor can be described as the energy associated with the electric field created inside the capacitor. In this problem, you will derive two more formulas for the energy of a charged capacitor; you will then use a parallelplate capacitor as a vehicle for obtaining the formula for the energy density associated with an electric field. It will be useful to recall the definition of capacitance, C = Q/V, and the formula for the capacitance of a parallelplate capacitor, , where A is the area of each of the plates and d is the plate separation. As usual, eo d is the permittivity of free space. First, consider a capacitor of capacitance C that has a charge Q and potential difference V.
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Find the energy U of the capacitor in terms of C and Q by using the definition of capacitance and the formula for the energy in a capacitor. Express your answer in terms of C and Q. ANSWER:
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Find the energy U of the capacitor in terms of C and V by using the definition of capacitance and the formula for the energy in a capacitor. Express your answer in terms of C and V. ANSWER:
All three of these formulas are equivalent:
2 Depending on the problem, one or another may be more convenient to use. However, any one ofthem would give you the correct answer. Note that these formulas work for any type of capacitor. Parte
A parallelplate capacitor is connected to a battery. The energy of the capacitor is Vo. The capacitor remains connected to the battery while the plates are slowly pulled apart until the plate separation doubles. The new energy of the capacitor is V. Find the ratio VIVo. Hint C.l Determine what remains constant As the plates are being pulled apart slowly, what quantity or quantities remain constant? ANSWER: r capacitance only
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Since the geometry of the capacitor is changing, its capacitance changes, too. However, the voltage remains constant, since it must equal the voltage provided by the battery. Hint C.2 Identify which formula to use Which formula for energy is most convenient to use in this case? ANSWER:
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PartD A parallelplate capacitor is connected to a battery. The energy of the capacitor is Vo. The capacitor is then disconnected from the battery and the plates are slowly pulled apart until the plate separation doubles. The new energy of the capacitor is V. Find the ratio VIVo. Hint D.l ANSWER: Determine what remains constant As the plates are being pulled apart, what quantity or quantities remain constant?
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The charge remains constant, since the capacitor is disconnected and the charge therefore literally has nowhere to go.
1!o2'Hint D.2 Identify which formula to use Which formula for energy is most convenient to use in this case? ANSWER:
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In this part of the problem, you will express the energy of various types of capacitors in terms of their geometry and voltage. Part E A parallelplate capacitor has area A and plate separation d, and it is charged to voltage V. Use the formulas from the problem introduction to obtain the formula for the energy U of the capacitor. Express your answer in terms of A, d, V, and appropriate constants. ANSWER:
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Let us now recall that the energy of a capacitor can be thought of as the energy of the electric field inside the capacitor. The energy of the electric field is usually described in terms of energy density u, the energy per unit volume. A parallelplate capacitor is a convenient device for obtaining the formula for the energy density of an electric field, since the electric field inside it is nearly uniform. The formula for energy density can then be written as
where U is the energy of the capacitor and V is the volume of the capacitor (not its voltage). Part F A parallelplate capacitor has area A and plate separation d, and it is charged so that the electric field inside is E. Use the formulas from the problem introduction to find the energy U of the capacitor. Hint F.l How to approach the problem Recall that for the uniform electric field E between the plates of a parallelplate capacitor,
v = V.d, where V is the potential difference between the plates and d is the distance between the two plates. You can use this relation to rewrite the equation for energy U = Ii c.V2 in terms of the electric field and the geometry of the capacitor (i.e., the area of the plates and the distance between them).
Express your answer in terms of A, d, E, and appropriate constants. ANSWER:
As mentioned before, we can think of the energy of the capacitor as the energy of the electric field inside the capacitor. Part G Find the energy density u of the electric field in a parallelplate capacitor. The magnitude of the electric field inside the capacitor is E. Hint G.t How to approach the problem Since the electric field outside a parallelplate capacitor is essentially zero, the volume that you are looking for is the volume of the space between the two plates. ttfHint G.2 Volume between the plates Recall that the volume V of a solid with two parallel bases of the same shape and sides perpendicular to the bases is given by V = A.h, where A is the area of each of the bases and h is the distance between the bases. Note that the space between the plates of a parallelplate capacitor is such a solid. Express your answer in terms of E and appropriate constants. ANSWER:
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Note that the answer for u does not contain any reference to the geometry of the capacitor: A and d do not appear in the formula. In fact, the formula
describes the energy density in any electrostatic field, whether created by a capacitor or any other source.
Electric Fields and Equipotential Surfaces
Description: Find the work done to move a unit charge from and to given points on a diagram showing equipotential surfaces, and compare the magnitude of the electric field at these
points. The dashed lines in the diagram represent cross sections of equipotential surfaces drawn in 1
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Hint A.1.I Equipotential surfaces Recall that an equipotential surface is a surface on which the electric potential is the same at every point. Express your answer in volts. ANSWER:
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Hint A.2 Potential difference and work Recall that the potential difference (in volts) between a point a and a point b equals the work (in joules) done by the electric force to move a 1 C charge from a to b. Express your answer in joules. ANSWER:
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Hint B.2 Potential difference and work Recall that the potential difference (in volts) between a point a and a point b equals the work (in joules) done by the electric force to move ale charge from a to b. Express your answer in joules. ANSWER:
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PartC The magnitude of the electric field at point C is Hint C.l Electric field and equipotential surfaces Since the diagram shows equal potential differences between adjacent surfaces, equal amounts of work are done to move a particular charge from one surface to the next adjacent one. It follows then that if the equipotentials are closer together, the electric force does the same amount of work in a smaller displacement than if the equipotentials were farther apart. Therefore, the electric force, as well as the corresponding electric field, has a larger magnitude. ANSWER:
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greater than the magnitude of the electric field at point B. less than the magnitude of the electric field at point B. equal to the magnitude of the electric field at point B. unknown because the value of the electric potential at point C is unknown.
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