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“Examining the Influence of Perceived Discrimination During African American Adolescents’ Early Years of High School.” Education and Urban Society 43: 3-25. Retrieved from http://eus.sagepub.com/content/43/1/3.short A study consisting of low-achieving African Americans took place at a large public high school in a midsized southeastern city. The high school held approximately 1,200 students of which only 46 where involved in the study. The study followed the 46 students through the first two years of their high school experience. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence that the students perceived discrimination had on their classroom engagement and academic identification; and writher of not student’s perception would change over time. The study also examined the correlation between the student’s racial identity/racial centrality; racial support and the impact these variables had on their perception of discrimination in their school. The students during the first year (9th grade) were given surveys to complete. The surveys were rated on a 6, and 7 point Likert-type scale. Each student were asked to rate their classroom engagement, racial centrality and perceptions of discrimination. The students were also given surveys during their second (10th grade) year. Again, the students were asked to rate their classroom engagement and perception of discrimination. However, they were also asked to rate their perceived racial support and their academic identification. Upon the completion of the surveys the results determined that the level of perceived discrimination ranged from name calling, to feeling inferior did not significantly change from 9th grade to 10th grade. Students who reported experiences of discrimination in their first year of high school also reported being less engaged in the classroom during their second year of high school (Thompson, R.A., Gregory, A, 2010). Students who reported high academic identification also reported being engaged in the classroom; those who reported low academic identification also reported being less engaged in the classroom. The study also determined that racial support did not really affect the student’s perceived discrimination. I think that this was a very promising study. However, I feel as if the sample size was not big enough to produce accurate results. This was a sample of 46 African American students in one high school. Therefore, I did not agree that the results of the study reflected the seriousness of racial discrimination in schools and how much the variables involved can impact academic success. I also felt as if the time length was not long to determine if the student’s perceived discrimination would change over time. According to our text (pg.173), long time effects of low academic identification can lead to students adapting performance-avoidance goals. Students to avoid looking stupid or dumb will “psychologically disengage” from academic participation and be less engage in classroom learning. Our text, also states that “stereotype threats” can have short-term effects on test performance by inducing test anxiety and could potentially undermine performance. In conclusion, racial discrimination can potentially have a huge impact student’s academic identification, engagement in the classroom and participation in their own learning. Students who feel discriminated against might be less incline to place importance on their learning, which in turn could cause students to drop out of school.
Seaton, K.E, Yip, T. (2008, October 24). “School and Neighborhood Context, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-being Among African American Adolescents.” Journal of Youth and Adolescents 38:153-163. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/k6671g5251g74j67/
A study consisting of two hundred and fifty two urban African American adolescents took place in a large northeastern city. The study was composed of 116 males (46 percent) and 136 females (54 percent) from ages 13 to 18. The study targeted 51 public schools, which only eight were chosen. The students were interviewed between 30 to 60 minutes, debriefed and then allowed to ask questions. The purpose of the study was to determine rather or not the diversity of the student’s neighborhood and school would influence the student’s perceptions of racial discrimination, and psychological well-being. The students then reported that 56 percent of their parent/guardians were either married/cohabitating, 9 percent were separated, 8 percent divorced; 22 percent never married and 4 percent were widowed. The students were also asked to report their parent/guardians education levels: less than 8 percent had high school diploma, 45 percent had at least a high school diploma, 25 percent attend at least one year of college or had an associate degree; 11 percent had a bachelor’s degree and only 8 percent had a graduate’s degree. The students neighborhood racial diversity was determine using the data from the United States Census in 2000. Each student was then asked to provide their current residential address and the information was used to determine the racial composition of the neighborhood. The student’s school diversity was obtained based on the percentage of African American, Hispanic, White and Asian students. The results from the study determined that the students who lived in high diverse neighborhoods and attended high diverse schools reported increased perceptions of racial discrimination. The study also made the connection between poor or low self-esteem in high diversity settings. Students also reported lower life satisfaction in low diversity settings. However, the study concluded that the students perceived more institutionalized discrimination then individual discrimination. I think that this study was very successful in some many different areas. For starters, the sample size was large enough that a reasonable result could be determined. Also, the students from the study were not all from the same school or neighborhood. This method was perhaps best strategy to help obtain accurate results based on real information. I was not surprised by the results given the fact that grew up in a diverse neighborhood and could relate to the findings. I agree with the assessment given by the results of the study. According to our text (pg.171), “we notice information that conforms or agrees with our stereotype-our scheme-and miss or dismiss information that does not fit”. In high diverse settings such as neighborhoods or schools, people from different ethnic backgrounds tend to assume or judge others based on preconceived ideas/views. This means that the chance of African Americans being discriminated against is highly likely. Less than 10 percent of scientists, engineers, and mathematicians in the United States are either African American or Hispanic American (WoolFolk, A., 2010). To what degree does this teach young impressible African Americans?
Pershey, G.M., (2011). “A Comparison of African American Students’ Self-Perceptions of school Competence with their performance on State-Mandated Achievement Tests and Normed Tests of Oral and Written Language and Reading.” Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for children and Youth, 55:1, 53-62. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10459880903472835
In an urban suburb setting 10 miles from the center of a large city, a study involving two hundred and sixty three students was conducted. Out of those numbers, 144 students were in the fourthgrade (64 boys, 76 girls) and 123 students were in the sixth grade (56 boys, 67 girls) ranging from ages 10 to 12. The purpose of this study was to measure how participants’ self-perceptions of school competence might affect their performance on mandated testing in addition to the effect of their language skills (Pershey, G.M, 2011). Starting in February to June 2011, students were tested individually and also placed into small groups of 10. Students were allowed to leave class and assigned to unused rooms/areas designed as testing stations. Students completed a total of 3-4 hours of testing each day. Students attended between 2 to 4 sessions over 4 days a week. Upon completion of each test, students were then rotated to different testing stations. Students were tested on oral/written language and reading and the PASS. To avoid order effects the tests were administered in random order. The study determined that the general ability of the fourth-graders were slightly below average.
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