ENGINEERING

A Text Book on
Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092 India
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Graphics
A t ext book on Engi neer i ng Gr aphi cs, Cl ass XII.
PRICE : Rs.
FIRST EDITION 2010 CBSE, India
COPIES:
PUBLISHED BY : The Secr et ar y, Cent r al Boar d of Secondar y Educat i on,
Shi ksha Kendr a, 2, Communi t y Cent r e, Pr eet Vi har,
Del hi - 110092
DESIGN, LAYOUT : Mul t i Gr aphi cs, 5745/ 81, Reghar Pur a, Kar ol Bagh,
New Del hi - 110005, Phone : 25783846
PRINTED BY :
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"This book or part thereof may not be reproduced by
any person or agency in any manner."
Foreword
Design is an integral aspect of the world around us. Every day, we are inundated
with images of current generation products such as automobiles, air crafts, and so on.
Design is crucial to each of these products.
Engineering Graphics is the language of communication for all engineers,
architects, interior decorators, apparel designers and many others. This is needed right
from conceiving the design of any product, upto the mass production stage and beyond
for modification and restructuring of Engineering Graphics finds its use in all fields
work relating to various products and their design.
As a first attempt, CBSE has prepared the text book for Class XI in Engineering
Graphics which has been published in June, 2010. Through Class XI text book you have
already gained an insight into the fundamentals of the subject Engineering Graphics.
In this book for class XII, you will learn about the representation of objects, such as
simple geometrical solids, simple machine blocks, in three dimension form i.e. Isometric
Projections of solids.
You will also begin to look afresh at the nature and function of several ordinary
household engineering hardware such as nuts, bolts, screws, washers, rivets etc. that are
essential to make a household run.
In addition, you will learn to assemble the various simple machine blocks correctly
in order to form a functional machine of appropriate use for household purposes or for
industry.
I would like to place on record my deep appreciation for all the subject experts and
practicing teachers who have put in their sincere efforts in the development of this
textbook. Appreciation is also due to Shri Shashi Bhushan, Director (Academics) & Dr.
(Smt.) Srijata Das, Education Officer for planning and execution of the work and
bringing out this publication.
It is hoped that students and teachers will benefit by making the best use of these
text books. Suggestions from the users for further improvement of these textbooks will
be highly appreciated.
VINEET JOSHI
CHAIRMAN
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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
PREAMBLE
1
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a
SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens :
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
2
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the [unity and integrity of the Nation];
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY TO
OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
Chapter IV A
Fundamental Duties
ARTICLE 51A
Fundamental Duties - It shall be the duty of every citizen of India-
(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the
National Anthem;
(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
(e) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India
transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices
derogatory to the dignity of women;
(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wild life and to
have compassion for living creatures;
(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
(i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
(j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation
constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.
1. Subs, by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act. 1976, sec. 2, for "Sovereign Democratic Republic (w.e.f.
3.1.1977)
2. Subs, by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act. 1976, sec. 2, for "unity of the Nation (w.e.f. 3.1.1977)
CONTENTS
1 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
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MACHINE DRAWING
BEARINGS
ROD JOINTS
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS
SHAFT COUPLINGS
PULLEYS
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1 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
1.1 INTRODUCTION
The obj ect s we l ook, ar ound us, ar e i n 3- Di mensi onal f or m. When we t r y t o communi cat e t he
st r uct ur e of obj ect s t o ot her s t hen we t ake t he hel p of pi ct ur es / pi ct or i al dr awi ngs. These
pi ct or i al dr awi ngs ar e 'one pl ane' dr awi ngs because our mode of communi cat i on i s paper whi ch
has onl y t wo di mensi ons and t hese dr awi ngs show t he obj ect appr oxi mat el y as i t appear s t o t he
vi ewer.
In engi neer i ng, one pl ane dr awi ngs ar e ext ensi vel y used i n addi t i on t o t he or t hogr aphi c vi ews of
an obj ect t o gi ve t he best under st andi ng. So t he pr act i ce of dr awi ng t he obj ect s i n one pl ane,
pi ct or i al vi ew, f r om t he or t hogr aphi c vi ews i s essent i al . Ther e ar e t hr ee met hods t o dr aw t he
pi ct or i al dr awi ngs i . e.
1. Per spect i ve Pr oj ect i on 2. Obl i que Pr oj ect i on 3. Axonomet r i c Pr oj ect i on
Perspective projection i s most l y used by t he ar t i st s, pr of essi onal desi gner s and ar chi t ect s t o
show t he vi ews as i t appear s t o t he human eye. It appear s t o conver ge at a poi nt , cal l ed vani shi ng
poi nt . The Oblique projection i s most l y used by t he mat hemat i ci ans and f ur ni t ur e
manuf act ur er s. They i mpar t t hi r d di mensi on at an angl e t o t he t wo di mensi onal i mages, t o show
t he dept h. The Axonometric projection di f f er s f r om t he ot her one pl ane vi ews on t he basi s of
r ot at i on angl e al ong one or mor e of i t s axes r el at i ve t o t he pl ane of pr oj ect i on. It i s ext ensi vel y
used i n mechani cal engi neer i ng t o show t he bl ocks, machi ne par t s, assembl i es et c. It shows an
i mage of an obj ect f r om a skew di r ect i on.
On t he basi s of i ncl i nat i on angl e of t he t hr ee pr i nci pal axes t o t he pl ane of pr oj ect i on, t he
axonomet r i c pr oj ect i on i s cl assi f i ed among, i somet r i c pr oj ect i on, di amet r i c pr oj ect i on and
t r i met r i c pr oj ect i on. In i somet r i c pr oj ect i on, al l t he angl es bet ween pr i nci pal axes ar e equal
whi l e i n di amet r i c pr oj ect i on, onl y t wo angl es bet ween t hr ee pr i nci pal axes ar e equal and over
90°and i n t r i met r i c pr oj ect i on, al l t he t hr ee angl es ar e unequal and not l ess t han 90°. As t he
pr i nci pal axes ar e i ncl i ned t o t he pl ane of pr oj ect i on so t he measur ement al ong t hem ar e al so
f or eshor t ened. But t he most advant ageous poi nt of i somet r i c pr oj ect i on i s t hat i t needs a si ngl e
scal e t o measur e al ong each of t he t hr ee axes. So i n gener al , we use onl y i somet r i c pr oj ect i on i n
engi neer i ng pr act i ce.

CHAPTER
1
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
2 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

1.2 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
The i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of an obj ect i s a
one pl ane vi ew dr awn wi t h t he obj ect so
pl aced wi t h r espect t o t he pl ane of
pr oj ect i on t hat al l t he t hr ee pr i nci pal
axes appear t o be i ncl i ned t o each ot her
at an equal angl e of 120°.
The i somet r i c scal e i s used t o measur e
t he f or eshor t ened l engt h of di mensi ons
of any obj ect t o dr aw t he i somet r i c
pr oj ect i on. The st eps of const r uct i on of
i somet r i c scal e ar e gi ven bel ow ; r ef er
Fi g. 1. 2
( i ) Dr aw a hor i zont al l i ne PQ.
( i i ) Dr aw t he t r ue l engt hs on a
l i ne PM i ncl i ned at 45° t o
t he hor i zont al l i ne ( say up
t o 70 mm )
( i i i ) Dr aw anot her l i ne PA at
30° t o t he hor i zont al l i ne.
( i v) D r a w t h e v e r t i c a l
pr oj ect i on of al l t he poi nt s
of t r ue l engt h f r om PM t o
PA.
( v) Compl et e t he scal e wi t h t he det ai l s as shown i n t he f i gur e.
The l engt hs shown at t he l i ne PA ar e t he i somet r i c l engt hs t o be used t o dr aw t he i somet r i c
pr oj ect i on.
1.2.1 ISOMETRIC SCALE
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Fig 1.2
ISOMETRIC SCALE
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Fig 1.1 Types of Axonometric Projections
ISOMETRIC
120°
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3 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
1.2.2 POSITIONING OF SOLID
1.2.3 STEPS TO DRAW THE ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
The sol i ds ar e most l y dr awn by pl aci ng t hem as per t hei r speci f i c posi t i on wi t h r espect t o ver t i cal
pl ane ( V. P. ) and hor i zont al pl ane ( H. P. ) , as di scussed ear l i er i n or t hogr aphi c pr oj ect i ons. If not
speci f i ed t hen t hey ar e dr awn by pl acement i n such a posi t i on whi ch descr i bes t he shape of t he
obj ect i n best manner. Her e af t er dr awi ng t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on we can obser ve t he t wo pl anes
i . e. ver t i cal pl ane and pr of i l e pl ane on t wo si des of t he obj ect , so t o speci f y t he di r ect i on of
vi ewi ng we mar k an ar r ow t owar ds t he assumed Fr ont of obj ect as per condi t i ons.
Fig 1.3
1. Dr aw t he base of t he sol i d "wi t h i somet r i c scal e" as per speci f i ed condi t i on wi t h
r espect t o V. P. and H. P. as per t he r ul es of or t hogr aphi c pr oj ect i on. It i s cal l ed
Hel pi ng Fi gur e.
2. Dr aw t he cent r e of t he hel pi ng f i gur e and encl ose t he hel pi ng f i gur e i n a sui t abl e
r ect angl e. Tr ansf er t he co- or di nat es of cent r e t o t he si des of t he encl osi ng r ect angl e
wi t h cent r e l i nes.
3. Dr aw t he t hr ee pr i nci pal axes at 30°, 90° and 30° t o t he hor i zont al base l i ne.
4. Copy t he l engt h of si des of hel pi ng f i gur e's r ect angl e on t he r espect i ve pr i nci pal axi s
and t he hei ght or l engt h of t he obj ect on t he t hi r d pr i nci pal axi s. It wi l l gi ve a box i n
whi ch t he obj ect wi l l be per f ect l y/ snugl y f i t t ed.
5. Copy t he co- or di nat es of cent r e and t he ver t i ces of t he base on t hi s box.
6. Joi n t he vi si bl e edges by t hi ck l i nes and Axi s l i ne by t he cent r e l i ne.
7. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on wi t h di mensi oni ng and di r ect i on of vi ewi ng.
Now l et us dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of r egul ar sol i ds.
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
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4 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
1.3 DRAWING OF ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
The i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of di f f er ent sol i ds i s dr awn by keepi ng t he t hr ee pr i nci pal axi s at 120° t o
each ot her. The sol i ds ar e dr awn as per t he speci f i ed condi t i on wi t h r espect t o V. P. and H. P. In
ear l i er cl ass we have st udi ed t o dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t wo di mensi onal l ami nae of
r egul ar shapes. Her e we wi l l st udy t o dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of si ngl e r egul ar sol i ds and
combi nat i on of t wo sol i ds. As per t he char act er i st i cs of r egul ar sol i ds, we can cl assi f y t hem as
f ol l ows: -
( i ) Pr i sms
( i i ) Pyr ami ds
( i i i ) Cyl i nder and Cone
( i v) Fr ust um of Pyr ami ds
( v) Spher e and Hemi spher e
Pr i sms ar e t he sol i ds wi t h t wo bases and r ect angul ar f aces. They can be kept hor i zont al by
r est i ng on f ace or Ver t i cal by r est i ng on base. Let us consi der some exampl es t o
under st and i t bet t er.
A hexagonal pr i sm of base si de 30 mm and hei ght of 70 mm r est i ng on i t s base on
H. P. wi t h t wo of i t s base si de par al l el t o V. P.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 4
Steps ( i ) Dr aw t he hexagon wi t h i somet r i c l engt h of 30 mm.
( i i ) Compl et e t he hel pi ng f i gur e by encl osi ng hexagon i n snugl y f i t t ed r ect angl e and
cent r e l i nes of hexagon.
( i i i ) Dr aw t he i somet r i c box wi t h OA l engt h at t he si de of di r ect i on of vi ewi ng, OB
l engt h at t he opposi t e si de and OC equal t o 70mm, i s l engt h of hei ght of pr i sm on
ver t i cal l i ne.
( i v) Copy al l t he poi nt s of hexagon and cent r e on t he box.
( v) Joi n t he vi si bl e edges by t hi ck l i nes and axi s by cent r e l i nes.
( vi ) Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of hexagonal pr i sm wi t h di mensi oni ng and
di r ect i on of vi ewi ng.
1.3.1 PRISMS
Example 1:
Solution :
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
5 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Fig 1.4
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HELPING FIGURE
(ii)
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(iv) (v)
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ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
6 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Example 2 :
Solution :
Let us consider more examples of the prisms with the same steps of construction.
Example 3:
Solution :
A hexagonal pr i sm of base si de 30 mm and hei ght of 70 mm r est i ng on i t s f ace on
H. P. wi t h t wo of i t s bases ar e par al l el t o V. P. Then t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on wi l l be
dr awn as under.
Ref er Fi g 1. 4
Steps ( i ) and ( i i ) wi l l be same as above i n exampl e 1.
( i i i ) Dr aw t he box wi t h OA l engt h at t he si de of di r ect i on of vi ewi ng, OB l engt h on t he
ver t i cal l i ne and OC l engt h equal t o i somet r i c l engt h of hei ght of pr i sm on t he t hi r d
pr i nci pal axi s.
( i v) , ( v) & ( vi ) wi l l be same as above i n exampl e 1.
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a cube of si de 50 mm.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 5
In cube al l t he si des have equal l engt h. So t ake i somet r i c 50 mm on each pr i nci pal
axi s and compl et e t he cube wi t h t hi ck l i nes, di mensi oni ng, cent er l i ne and
di r ect i on of vi ewi ng.
Fig 1.5
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ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
7 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

Example 4 :
Solution : (a)
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of squar e pr i sm of 40 mm base edge and 60 mm axi s
r est i ng;
( a) On i t s base on H. P. keepi ng one of i t s base edge par al l el t o V. P.
( b) On i t s f ace on H. P. keepi ng i t s base per pendi cul ar t o V. P.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 6 ( a)
To dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a ver t i cal squar e pr i sm wi t h ver t i cal axi s and
one base si de par al l el t o V. P. t ake OA & OB equal t o 40 mm on each hor i zont al l i ne
and OC equal t o i s 60 mm, on ver t i cal l i ne. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on wi t h
t hi ck l i nes, di mensi oni ng, cent er l i nes and di r ect i on of vi ewi ng.
Fig 1.6
( b) Ref er f i g 1. 6( b)
To dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a squar e pr i sm wi t h hor i zont al axi s and base
per pendi cul ar t o V. P. t ake OB equal t o 40 mm on t he hor i zont al l i ne on t he si de of
di r ect i on of vi ewi ng, OA equal t o 60 mm on anot her hor i zont al l i ne and OC equal t o
40 mm on ver t i cal l i ne. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on wi t h t hi ck l i nes,
di mensi oni ng, cent er l i nes and di r ect i on of vi ewi ng.
(b) (a)
6
0
3
0
º
3
0
º
4
0
6
0
4
0
3
0
º
3
0
º
F
C
B A
O O
C
A
F
B
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
8 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

Example 5:
Solution :
Example 6:
Solution:
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of an equi l at er al t r i angul ar pr i sm of 50 mm base
si de and 75 mm axi s r est i ng on i t s base i n H. P. wi t h one of i t s base edge par al l el t o
V. P. i n f r ont .
Ref er Fi g 1. 7
Steps ( i ) Dr aw t he hel pi ng f i gur e of t r i angl e wi t h i so 50 mm l engt h wi t h one of i t s base edge
par al l el t o V. P. i n f r ont .
( i i ) Dr aw t he i somet r i c box wi t h OA and OB f r om hel pi ng f i gur e and OC equal t o
i somet r i c 75 mm.
( i i i ) Copy t he poi nt s of t r i angl e and co- or di nat es of cent er t o i somet r i c box.
( i v) Joi n t he vi si bl e edges by t hi ck l i nes and axi s by cent er l i nes.
( v) Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on wi t h di mensi oni ng and di r ect i on of vi ewi ng.
An equi l at er al t r i angul ar pr i sm of 50 mm base si de and 70 mm l ong r est i ng on one
of i t s f ace on H. P. wi t h axi s of i t per pendi cul ar t o V. P. Dr aw i t s i somet r i c pr oj ect i on.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 8
Fig 1.7
O A
50
HELPING FIGURE
B
7
5
5
0
F
3
0
º
3
0
º
O
A
B
C
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
9 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Steps ( i ) Dr aw t he hel pi ng f i gur e of t r i angl e wi t h i so 50 mm l engt h wi t h one of i t s base edge
i n H. P.
( i i ) Dr aw t he i somet r i c box wi t h OA on t he hor i zont al l i ne t owar ds t he di r ect i on of
vi ewi ng, OB on t he ver t i cal l i ne and OC equal t o i somet r i c 70 mm on anot her
hor i zont al l i ne.
( i i i ) Copy t he poi nt s of t r i angl e and co- or di nat es of cent r e t o i somet r i c box.
( i v) Joi n t he vi si bl e edges by t hi ck l i nes and axi s by cent r e l i ne.
( v) Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on wi t h di mensi oni ng and di r ect i on of vi ewi ng.
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a pent agonal pr i sm of 30 mm base si de and 65 mm
of axi s. The axi s of t he pr i sm i s per pendi cul ar t o H. P. and one of i t s base edge i s
per pendi cul ar t o t he V. P.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 9
( i ) Dr aw t he hel pi ng f i gur e of pent agon wi t h i so 30 mm of i t s base edge per pendi cul ar
t o V. P.
( i i ) Dr aw t he i somet r i c box wi t h OA & OB f r om hel pi ng f i gur e and OC equal t o i so 65
mm.
( i i i ) Copy t he poi nt s of pent agon and co- or di nat es of cent r e t o i somet r i c box.
Example 7:
Solution:
Steps

Fig 1.8
O
A
50
HELPING FIGURE
B
5
0
F
7
0
A
O
B
C
3
0
º
3
0
º
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
10 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
( i v) Joi n t he vi si bl e edges by t hi ck l i nes and axi s by cent er l i ne.
( v) Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on wi t h di mensi oni ng and di r ect i on of vi ewi ng.
A Pent agonal pr i sm of base si de of 25 mm and axi s l engt h of 55 mm i s r est i ng on i t s
f ace wi t h i t s axi s par al l el t o bot h H. P and V. P. Dr aw i t s i somet r i c pr oj ect i on.
Ref er f i g 1. 10
Example 8:
Solution:
Fig 1.9
O
A
3
0
HELPING FIGURE B
C
A
B
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
6
5
F
3
0

3
0
º
3
0
º
O
Fig 1.10
O
B
HELPING FIGURE
3
0
º
3
0
º
A
O
B
A
2
5
5
5
C
25
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
F
11 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Steps ( i ) Dr aw t he hel pi ng f i gur e of pent agon wi t h i so 25 mm l engt h as one of i t s base edge
i n H. P.
( i i ) Dr aw t he i somet r i c box wi t h OA on t he hor i zont al l i ne par al l el t o t he di r ect i on of
vi ewi ng, OB on t he ver t i cal l i ne and OC equal t o i so 55 mm on anot her hor i zont al
l i ne.
( i i i ) Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of pent agonal pr i sm i n t hi s i somet r i c box by t he
same st ep di scussed i n ear l i er exampl es.
Pyr ami ds ar e t he sol i ds wi t h a base and sl ant t r i angul ar f aces. These f aces meet at a poi nt
cal l ed apex of t he pyr ami d. In pyr ami ds i f t hey ar e kept on t hei r base t hen t hey ar e cal l ed
upr i ght / ver t i cal pyr ami ds but i f t hey ar e kept on t hei r ver t ex on H. P. t hen t hey ar e cal l ed
i nver t ed pyr ami ds.
Let us dr aw some exampl es.
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a pent agonal pyr ami d of base si de 30 mm and axi s of 60
mm r est i ng on i t s base on H. P. wi t h one of i t s base si de par al l el t o V. P. and near er t o t he
obser ver.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 11
Steps ( i ) Dr aw t he pent agon wi t h i so 30 mm and one of i t s base edge par al l el t o V. P. and
near er t o t he obser ver.
( i i ) Compl et e t he hel pi ng vi ew f i gur e by encl osi ng r ect angl e and cent er l i nes of
pent agon.
( i i i ) Copy t he di mensi ons of hel pi ng f i gur e i . e. OA and OB on t he hor i zont al l i ne as
shown and dr aw t he cent er l i nes of Pent agon i n i t .
( i v) Dr aw t he ver t i cal axi s i n upr i ght posi t i on f r om t he cent er of pent agon equal t o i so
60 mm.
( v) Joi n t he vi si bl e edges, st ar t i ng f r om t he ver t ex t o base cor ner s by t hi ck l i nes.
( vi ) Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of pent agonal pyr ami d wi t h di r ect i on of
vi ewi ng and di mensi oni ng.
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of an i nver t ed pent agonal pyr ami d of base si de 30
mm and axi s of 60 mm r est i ng on i t s base on H. P. wi t h one of i t s base si de par al l el t o
V. P. and near er t o t he obser ver.
1.3.2 PYRAMIDS
Example 9:
Solution :
Example 10:
12 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION

H
O
R
I
Z
O
N
T
A
L

L
I
N
E
H
O
R
I
Z
O
N
T
A
L

L
I
N
E
V
E
R
T
I
C
A
L

L
I
N
E
(iii)
3
0
º
3
0
º
O
B
3
0
º
3
0
º
7
5
3
5

F
O
A B
3
0
º
3
0
º
7
5
F
35 O
A
B
A
F
A
3
0
º 3
0
º
3
5

O
B
7
5
F
A
3
0
º 3
0
º
O
B
7
5
Fig. 1.11
(ii) (i)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
13 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Solution :
Example 11:
Solution :
Example12:
Solution:
Ref er Fi g. 1. 11
Steps ( i ) t o ( i i i ) wi l l be same as above.
( i v) Dr aw t he ver t i cal axi s i n downwar d di r ect i on f r om t he cent er of pent agon equal t o
i so 60 mm.
( v) & ( vi ) wi l l be same.
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a squar e pyr ami d of base edge 50 mm and axi al
hei ght of 80 mm kept i n i nver t ed posi t i on wi t h t wo of i t s base si de par al l el t o V. P.
Ref er Fi g 1. 12
A r i ght t r i angul ar pyr ami d of base edge 50 mm and axi al hei ght of 80 mm i s kept on
i t s base keepi ng one of i t s base si de par al l el t o V. P. and away f r om i t . Dr aw i t s
i somet r i c pr oj ect i on.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 13
Fig 1.12
8
0
5
0
F
3
0
°
3
0
°
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
14 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Fig 1.13
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of an i nver t ed t r i angul ar pyr ami d of base si de 50
mm and axi s of 80 mm keepi ng one of i t s base si de par al l el t o V. P. and near er t he
obser ver.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 14
Example:13:
Solution :
HELPING FIGURE
A
b
O
B
50
B
O
A
a b
3
0
°
3
0
°
F
5
0
8
0
Fig 1.14
8
0
F
5
0
a
C
A
b
O
B
a
HELPING FIGURE
50
A
O
B
C
a
b
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
3
0
°
3
0
°
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
15 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Example 14:
Solution:
Example 15 :
Solution:
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a hexagonal pyr ami d havi ng base edge of 40 mm
and axi s 70 mm r est i ng on i t s base keepi ng t wo of i t s base si de par al l el t o t he V. P.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 15
Fig 1.15
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of an i nver t ed hexagonal pyr ami d of base edge 30
mm and hei ght of 60 mm keepi ng t wo of i t s base si de par al l el t o t he V. P.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 16
40
HELPING FIGURE
7
0
4
0
F
3
0
° 3
0
°
HELPING FIGURE
6
0
3
0
F
Fig 1.16
3
0
°
3
0
°
30
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
16 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
1.3.3 FRUSTUM OF PYRAMID
Example 16 :
Solution :
Example 17 :
Solution:
We ar e wel l awar e about t he f r ust um of pyr ami ds t hat t hey ar e t he t r uncat ed l ower
por t i on of t he pyr ami d. So f r ust um of pyr ami d i s havi ng one shor t er base edge end and
anot her l onger base edge end. To dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he f r ust um of
pyr ami d, we have t o dr aw t he hel pi ng vi ews f or bot h t he ends.
Let us dr aw some exampl es.
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a f r ust um of squar e pyr ami d of shor t er base
edge 30 mm and l onger base edge 50 mm wi t h t he axi al hei ght of 60 mm, kept on
H. P. on i t s l onger end and t wo of i t s base edges ar e par al l el t o V. P.
Ref er Fi g 1. 17
Steps ( i ) Dr aw t he hel pi ng f i gur es of bot h t he base ends wi t h i so 30 mm and i so 50 mm.
( i i ) Compl et e t he hel pi ng f i gur es by encl osi ng r ect angl e and cent r e l i nes.
( i i i ) Dr aw t he i somet r i c box wi t h OA l engt h on t he si de of di r ect i on of vi ewi ng, OB
l engt h on t he anot her hor i zont al l i ne and OC equal t o i so 60 mm, hei ght of
f r ust um of pyr ami d on ver t i cal l i ne.
( i v) Dr aw t he cent er l i nes on t he upper end of t he i somet r i c box and mar k cent r e as M.
( v) Copy t he l engt hs of hel pi ng f i gur es of shor t er end 'oa' and 'ob' by pl aci ng 'm' on 'M'.
( vi ) Mar k al l t he poi nt s of shor t er end hel pi ng f i gur e on t he upper end of i somet r i c box
and al l t he poi nt s of l onger end hel pi ng f i gur e on t he l ower end of i somet r i c box.
( vi i ) Joi n t he vi si bl e edges by t hi ck l i nes and axi s by cent er l i ne.
( vi i i ) Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of f r ust um of squar e pyr ami d wi t h
di mensi oni ng and di r ect i on of vi ewi ng.
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a f r ust um of squar e pyr ami d of shor t er base
edge 30 mm and l onger base edge 50 mm wi t h t he axi al hei ght of 60 mm, kept on
H. P. on i t s shor t er end and t wo of i t s base edges ar e par al l el t o V. P.
Ref er Fi g 1. 17
Steps ( i ) t o ( i i i ) wi l l be same as above.
( i v) Dr aw t he cent er l i nes of t he l ower end of t he i somet r i c box as t he shor t er end of
t he gi ven f r ust um of pyr ami d i s at l ower end and mar k cent er as M.
( v) t o ( vi i i ) wi l l be same as above.
17 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Fig 1.17
H
O
R
I
Z
O
N
T
A
L

L
I
N
E
H
O
R
I
Z
O
N
T
A
L

L
I
N
E
V
E
R
T
I
C
A
L

L
I
N
E
3
0
º
3
0
º
a
30
b
o
50
A
B
O
3
0
5
0
6
0
F 3
0
º
F 3
0
º
A B
m (M)
O
3
0
º 3
0
º
3
0
6
0
5
0
F
3
0
º 3
0
º
F
M m
HELPING FIGURE
HELPING FIGURE
a
b
o
C
m (M)
a
b
o
A B
O
C
( i )
( i i )
( i i i )
( i v)
( v)
( vi )
( vi i )
3
0
º
3
0
º
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
18 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Example 18 :
Solution:
Example 19 :
Solution:
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he f r ust um of t r i angul ar pyr ami d havi ng t op
base edge 40 mm and bot t om base edge 50 mm wi t h a hei ght of 75 mm r est i ng on
i t s l onger base keepi ng one of i t s base si de par al l el t o t he V. P. and near er t o t he
obser ver.
Ref er Fi g 1. 18
Fig 1.18
A f r ust um of an i nver t ed hexagonal pyr ami d of shor t er base si de 20 mm and
l onger base si de 40 mm and axi al hei ght of 65 mm r est i ng on i t s shor t er end on
H. P. wi t h t wo of i t s base si des per pendi cul ar t o t he V. P. Dr aw i t s i somet r i c
pr oj ect i on.
Ref er Fi g 1. 19
HELPING FIGURE HELPING FIGURE
7
5
4
0
5
0
F
3
0
º 3
0
º
50 40
Fig 1.19
6
5
F
20
2
0
4
0
3
0
º
3
0
º
40
HELPING FIGURE
HELPING FIGURE
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
19 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Example 20 :
Solution :
1.3.4 CYLINDER AND CONE
Example 21:
Solution:
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of f r ust um of pent agonal pyr ami d havi ng l onger
base si de 40 mm and shor t er base si de 30 mm wi t h axi s of 70 mm r est i ng on i t s
l onger si de base keepi ng one of i t s base si de par al l el t o t he V. P. and near er t o t he
obser ver.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 20
Fig 1.20
Cyl i nder and cone ar e t he sol i ds i n whi ch base i s a ci r cl e. In our ear l i er cl ass we have
st udi ed t hat t he ci r cl e i s dr awn i n i somet r i c pr oj ect i on by di f f er ent met hods. We can use
t he "f our cent r e met hod" or "ci r cul ar ar c met hod" t o dr aw t he ci r cl e i n i somet r i c
pr oj ect i on. The cyl i nder s and cones ar e dr awn wi t h t he same st eps of pr i sm and pyr ami ds
except one addi t i onal st ep f or dr awi ng t he ci r cl e.
Let us dr aw some exampl es.
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a cyl i nder of di amet er 40 mm and axi al l engt h of
70 mm l yi ng on t he H. P. keepi ng i t s axi s par al l el t o H. P. and V. P. bot h.
Ref er Fi g 1. 21
HELPING FIGURE
30
40
7
0
3
0
4
0
F
3
0
º
3
0
º
HELPING FIGURE
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
20 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Steps ( i ) Dr aw t he i somet r i c box of a squar e pr i sm of 40 mm base si de and 70 mm axi s by
keepi ng t he axi s par al l el t o bot h H. P. and V. P.
( i i ) In t he t wo r hombuses dr aw t he el l i pse by f our cent er met hod.
( i i i ) Dr aw t wo common t angent s t o t he t wo el l i pses.
( i v) Dr aw t he vi si bl e l i nes and cur ves by t hi ck l i nes.
( v) Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of cyl i nder wi t h di mensi oni ng and di r ect i on of
vi ewi ng.
Fig 1.21
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a cyl i nder of hei ght of 75 mm and di amet er of 50
mm r est i ng on i t s base keepi ng t he axi s par al l el t o V. P.
Ref er Fi g 1. 22
Example 22 :
Solution:
7
0


4
0
F
3
0
°
3
0
°
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
21 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Fig 1.22
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of cone of di amet er 40 mm and axi s of 60 mm
r est i ng on i t s base per pendi cul ar t o H. P.
Ref er Fi g 1. 23
Example 23 :
Solution :
7
5


5
0
3
0
°
3
0
°
F
Fig 1.23
6
0


4
0
F
3
0
°
3
0
°
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
22 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Example24 :
Solution:
Example 25 :
Solution:
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of an i nver t ed cone of di amet er 50 mm and axi s of
80 mm keepi ng i t s axi s per pendi cul ar t o H. P.
Ref er Fi g 1. 24
Fig 1.24
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a f r ust um of a cone of di amet er 30 mm at
smal l er end, di amet er 50 mm at bi gger end and t he axi al hei ght i s 70 mm. It i s
r est i ng on i t s bi gger end on H. P. keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal .
Ref er Fi g 1. 25
Fig 1.25
8
0


5
0
F
3
0
°
3
0
°
8
0


5
0


3
0
3
0
°
3
0
°
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
F
23 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
1.3.5 SPHERES AND HEMISPHERES
Example 26 :
Solution :
Spher es ar e t he sol i ds wi t hout any edge or ver t ex. When t hey ar e vi sual i zed f r om any
di r ect i on t hey l ook l i ke a ci r cl e. Due t o t hi s uni que char act er i st i c of spher e, t hey have
onl y one poi nt of cont act wi t h t he pl ane of r est . Thi s poi nt of cont act wi l l not be vi si bl e i n
i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of spher e.
Let us dr aw some exampl es.
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a spher e of di amet er 50 mm.
Ref er Fi g. 1. 26
Steps ( i ) Dr aw i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of squar e i n hor i zont al pl ane wi t h si de of i so 50 mm
l engt h.
( i i ) Dr aw t he cent er l i nes of t hi s squar e.
( i i i ) Take a poi nt O i n ver t i cal l y upwar d di r ect i on equal t o i so 25 mm i . e. Isomet r i c
l engt h of r adi us of spher es f r om t he cent er of t he squar e dr awn i n st ep 2.
( i v) Taki ng t hi s poi nt O as a cent er and t r ue 25 mm as t he r adi us, dr aw a ci r cl e.
( v) Thi s dr awn ci r cl e i s t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he gi ven spher e.
Note: Isomet r i c vi ew of a spher e i s al ways a ci r cl e of t r ue- r adi us whose cent r e i s
obt ai ned wi t h i somet r i c r adi us hei ght .
Fig 1.26
o
3
0
o
3
0
r

=

I
S
O

2
5

R=TRUE 25
O
o
3
0
o
3
0
F
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
24 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Example 27 :
Solution:
Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a hemi spher e of 60 mm di amet er r est i ng on i t s
cur ved sur f ace on H. P.
Ref er Fi g 1. 27
Steps ( i ) Dr aw t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a ci r cl e of 60 mm di amet er i e. el l i pse by f our
cent er met hod i n H. P. ( as l ear nt i n cl ass XI) .
( i i ) Dr aw an ar c wi t h O as cent er and hal f of t he maj or axi s of el l i pse as r adi us t owar ds
l ower hal f of t he el l i pse.
( i i i ) Compl et e t he hemi spher e wi t h di mensi oni ng, cent er l i nes and di r ect i on of
vi ewi ng. Usi ng convent i onal l i nes.
1. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a t r i angul ar pr i sm havi ng base edge of 65 mm and axi al
hei ght of 85 mm, r est i ng on one of i t s r ect angul ar f aces on H. P. keepi ng i t s base
per pendi cul ar t o V. P.
2. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a pent agonal pr i sm of base si de of 35 mm and axi al l engt h
of 60 mm kept on one of i t s f ace on H. P. wi t h one r ect angul ar f ace par al l el t o H. P. on t op
and axi s i s per pendi cul ar t o V. P.
3. A squar e pyr ami d i s r est i ng on i t s base, havi ng base edge 60 mm and axi al hei ght of 70 mm
wi t h i t s base edge par al l el t o V. P. Dr aw i t s i somet r i c pr oj ect i on.
4. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a hexagonal pyr ami d havi ng base edge 35 mm and axi s of
65 mm r est i ng on i t s base on H. P. Keep t wo of i t s base si de per pendi cul ar t o V. P.
EXERCISE


6
0
F
Fig 1.27
O
o
3
0
o
3
0
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
25 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
5. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a f r ust um of hexagonal pyr ami d of shor t er base si de of 25
mm and l onger base si de of 45 mm and hei ght of 75 mm r est i ng on i t s l ar ger base on H. P.
wi t h t wo of i t s base si des par al l el t o V. P.
6. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of a hemi spher e of 50 mm di amet er kept wi t h ci r cul ar f ace
on H. P.
We have al r eady st udi ed and l ear nt t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of si ngl e geomet r i cal sol i ds i n
ver t i cal posi t i on and hor i zont al posi t i on by usi ng box met hod f r om t he hel pi ng vi ew of t he sol i d.
Now we wi l l l ear n t he t wo geomet r i cal sol i ds pl aced t oget her i . e. one r est i ng ( ei t her ver t i cal or
hor i zont al ) on t op of t he ot her sol i d i n i somet r i c posi t i on ( ei t her ver t i cal or hor i zont al ) . Thi s i s
known as 'combi nat i on of sol i ds'. As per t he cour se cont ent i n our syl l abus we ar e goi ng t o r est r i ct
our combi nat i on usi ng t wo sol i ds onl y.
The st udy of t he combi nat i on of sol i ds wi l l hel p us i n under st andi ng t he machi ne bl ocks t o be done
i n i somet r i c posi t i on and assembl y dr awi ngs of t he f unct i onal machi ne component s at a l at er
st age i n Engi neer i ng Gr aphi cs.
Dr aw an Isomet r i c Pr oj ect i on of a squar e pr i sm havi ng si de of t he squar e = 30 mm
and hei ght = 54 mm st andi ng ( upr i ght ) and cent r al l y on a f l at squar e sl ab of
t hi ckness = 26 mm and i t s base si de = 52 mm.
Fig 1.28
1.4 COMBINATION OF TWO SOLIDS
Example : 1.21
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
2
6
S
Q
5
2
o
3
0
o
3
0
F
S
Q

3
0
5
4
O
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
26 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Steps:
Example: 1.22
1. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he squar e sl ab.
2. Indi cat e t he cent er of t he t op f ace wi t h cent r e l i nes.
3. Ar ound t he cent r e 'O' dr aw t he r hombus of t he squar e pr i sm and l i f t i t upt o i t s
r equi r ed hei ght .
4. Joi n al l t he vi si bl e edges ( no hi dden l i nes) of t he t wo sol i ds by usi ng t hi ck l i nes.
5. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he t wo sol i ds wi t h di mensi oni ng, di r ect i on
of vi ewi ng and t hei r common axi s usi ng convent i on l i nes.
Dr aw an Isomet r i c Pr oj ect i on of 32 mm cube r est i ng cent r al l y on t he t op f ace of
an equi l at er al t r i angul ar pr i sm havi ng 50 mm base si de and hei ght = 30 mm. One
r ect angul ar f ace of t he pr i sm i s away f r om t he obser ver and kept par al l el t o t he
V. P.
Fig 1.29
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
50
HELPING FIGURE
3
2
3
2
O
3
0
3
0
°
5
0
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
3
0
°
F
27 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Steps:
Example: 1.23
1. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he box t hat encl oses an equi l at er al t r i angul ar
pr i sm havi ng one of i t s r ect angul ar f ace at t he back.
2. Indi cat e t he cent r e of t he t op f ace wi t h convent i on l i nes.
3. Ar ound t he cent r e 'O' dr aw t he r hombus of t he squar e of cube and l i f t i t upt o i t s
hei ght equal t o t he si de of cube.
4. Joi n al l t he vi si bl e edges ( no hi dden l i nes) of t he t wo sol i ds by usi ng t hi ck l i nes.
5. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he t wo sol i ds wi t h di mensi oni ng, di r ect i on
of vi ewi ng and t hei r common axi s usi ng convent i onal l i nes.
Dr aw an Isomet r i c Pr oj ect i on of a squar e pyr ami d r est i ng ver t i cal l y and cent r al l y
on t he t op pent agon f ace of a pent agonal pr i sm, havi ng one r ect angul ar f ace
par al l el t o V. P. whi l e cl oser t o t he obser ver. Si de of t he squar e base = 30 mm,
hei ght of pyr ami d = 50 mm, si de of t he pent agon = 34 mm and hei ght of t he pr i sm
= 52 mm.
Fig 1.30
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
HELPING FIGURE
34
O
3
0
3
4
o
3
0
o
3
0
5
2
5
0
O
F
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
28 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Steps:
Example:1.24
1. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he box t hat encl oses pent agonal pr i sm havi ng
one of i t s r ect angul ar f ace, i n f r ont , par al l el t o V. P.
2. Indi cat e t he cent r e of t he t op f ace wi t h convent i onal l i nes.
3. Ar ound t he cent r e 'O' dr aw t he r hombus of t he squar e base of t he pyr ami d. Dr aw
t he axi s of t he pyr ami d f r om t he cent r e t o apex.
4. Joi n al l t he vi si bl e edges ( no hi dden l i nes) of t he t wo sol i ds by usi ng t hi ck l i nes.
5. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he t wo sol i ds wi t h di mensi oni ng, di r ect i on
of vi ewi ng and t hei r common axi s usi ng convent i onal l i nes.
Dr aw an Isomet r i c Pr oj ect i on of an equi l at er al t r i angul ar pyr ami d r est i ng
ver t i cal l y and cent r al l y wi t h one base edge, at t he back, par al l el t o V. P. on t he
t op f ace of a hexagonal pr i sm havi ng t wo of i t s r ect angul ar f aces par al l el t o V. P.
Si de of t he t r i angl e = 34 mm, hei ght of pyr ami d = 50 mm, si de of t he hexogen = 30
mm and hei ght of t he pr i sm = 60 mm.
Fig 1.31
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
34
O
30
HELPING FIGURE
6
0
3
0
o
3
0
o
3
0
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
F
5
0
O
29 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Steps:
Example: 1.25
1. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he box t hat encl oses hexagonal pr i sm havi ng
t wo f aces par al l el t o V. P.
2. Indi cat e t he cent r e of t he t op hexagon f ace wi t h convent i onal l i nes.
3. Ar ound t he cent r e 'O' dr aw t he equi l at er al t r i angl e base of t he pyr ami d. Rai se t he
axi s of t he pyr ami d f r om t he cent er t o apex.
4. Joi n al l t he vi si bl e edges ( no hi dden l i nes) of t he t wo sol i ds by usi ng t hi ck l i nes.
5. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he t wo sol i ds wi t h di mensi oni ng, di r ect i on
of vi ewi ng and t hei r common axi s usi ng convent i onal l i nes.
Dr aw an Isomet r i c Pr oj ect i on of a ver t i cal r egul ar pent agonal pyr ami d r est i ng
cent r al l y, havi ng one base edge away f r om t he obser ver par al l el t o V. P. , on t op of
a ver t i cal cyl i nder. Si de of t he pent agon = 32 mm, hei ght of pyr ami d = 50 mm,
di amet er of cyl i nder = 76 mm and hei ght of cyl i nder = 40 mm.
Fig 1.32
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
HELPING FIGURE
32
5
0
O
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
4
0
F
O
Ø
7
6 o
3
0
o
3
0
30 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Steps:
Example: 1.26
1. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he box t hat encl oses a cyl i nder. Use f our cent r e
met hod t o f or m t he t op el l i pt i cal f ace of t he cyl i nder.
2. Indi cat e t he cent r e of t he t op f ace wi t h convent i onal l i nes.
3. Ar ound t he cent r e 'O' dr aw a pent agonal base of t he pyr ami d. Dr aw t he axi s of t he
pyr ami d f r om t he cent r e t o apex.
4. Joi n al l t he vi si bl e edges ( no hi dden l i nes) of t he t wo sol i ds by usi ng t hi ck l i nes.
5. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he t wo sol i ds wi t h di mensi oni ng, di r ect i on
of vi ewi ng and t hei r common axi s usi ng convent i onal l i nes.
Dr aw an Isomet r i c Pr oj ect i on of a r i ght ci r cul ar cone r est i ng ver t i cal l y and
cent r al l y on t he t op of pent agonal sl ab havi ng one of i t s r ect angul ar f ace
per pendi cul ar t o t he obser ver. Si de of pent agon = 46 mm, t hi ckness of sl ab = 30
mm, di amet er of cone = 40 mm and hei ght of cone = 60 mm.
Fig 1.33
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
4
6
O
3
0
o
3
0
o
3
0
F
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
Ø

4
0
O
6
0
HELPING FIGURE
4
6
31 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Steps:
Exmple : 1.27
1. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he box t hat encl oses a pent agonal pr i sm havi ng
one r ect angul ar f ace per pendi cul ar t o V. P.
2. Indi cat e t he cent r e of t he t op pent agonal f ace wi t h convent i onal l i nes.
3. Ar ound t he cent r e 'O' dr aw a r hombus f or t he ci r cul ar base of cone. Usi ng f our
cent r e met hod dr aw an el l i pse i nsi de. Dr aw t he axi s of t he cone f r om t he cent r e
of base t o apex.
4. Joi n al l t he vi si bl e edges ( no hi dden l i nes) of t he t wo sol i ds by usi ng t hi ck l i nes.
5. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he t wo sol i ds wi t h di mensi oni ng, di r ect i on
of vi ewi ng and t hei r common axi s usi ng convent i onal l i nes.
Dr aw an Isomet r i c Pr oj ect i on of hemi spher e r est i ng cent r al l y on i t s cur ved
sur f ace, on t he t op hor i zont al r ect angul ar f ace of an equi l at er al t r i angul ar pr i sm,
keepi ng t wo t r i angul ar f aces par al l el t o t he V. P. Si de of equi l at er al t r i angl e = 50
mm, l engt h of t he pr i sm = 70 mm and di amet er of t he hemi spher e = 60 mm.
Fig 1.34
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
50
O
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
HELPING FIGURE
7
0
o
3
0
o
3
0
01
I
S
O

3
0
5
0
O
Ø
6
0
F
32 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Steps:
Example: 1.28
1. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he hor i zont al box t hat encl oses an equi l at er al
t r i angul ar pr i sm wi t h a r ect angul ar f ace on t op.
2. Indi cat e t he cent r e of t he t op r ect angul ar f ace wi t h convent i onal l i nes.
3. Fr om t he cent r e 'O' dr aw t he axi s equal t o i somet r i c r adi us of t he hemi shpher e t o
01. Ar ound t he cent r e 'O' 1 dr aw r hombus. Use f our cent er met hod t o f or m t he t op
el l i pl i cal f ace. Dr aw an ar c t o compl et e t he cur ved sur f ace.
4. Joi n al l t he vi si bl e edges ( no hi dden l i nes) of t he t wo sol i ds by usi ng t hi ck l i nes.
5. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he t wo sol i ds wi t h di mensi oni ng, di r ect i on
of vi ewi ng and t hei r axes as appl i cabl e, usi ng convent i onal l i nes.
Dr aw an Isomet r i c Pr oj ect i on of a spher e r est i ng cent r al l y on a r ect angul ar f ace
of a hor i zont al hexagonal pr i sm havi ng i t s hexagonal ends per pendi cul ar t o V. P. .
Si de of hexagon = 30 mm, l engt h of t he pr i sm = 80 mm and di amet er of spher e = 60
mm.
Fig 1.35
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
30
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
HELPING FIGURE
I
S
O

3
0
8
0
F
TRUE 30
O1
O
3
0
3
0
°
3
0
°
33 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Steps:
Example: 1.29
1. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he hor i zont al box t hat encl oses a hexagonal
pr i sm havi ng r ect angul ar f ace on t op.
2. Indi cat e t he cent r e of t he t op r ect angul ar f ace wi t h convent i onal l i nes.
3. For m t he cent r e 'O' dr aw t he axi s equal t o i somet r i c r adi us of spher e t o poi nt 'O1'.
Fr om t he cent r e 'O1' dr aw a f ul l ci r cl e equal t o t r ue r adi us of spher e.
4. Joi n al l t he vi si bl e edges ( no hi dden l i nes) of t he t wo sol i ds by usi ng t hi ck l i nes.
5. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he t wo sol i ds wi t h di mensi oni ng, di r ect i on
of vi ewi ng and t hei r axes, as appl i cabl e, usi ng convent i onal l i nes.
Dr aw an Isomet r i c Pr oj ect i on of a r i ght ci r cul ar cone r est i ng ver t i cal l y and
cent r al l y on t he t op hor i zont al r ect angl e of a pent agonal pr i sm havi ng i t s axi s
par al l el t o H. P. and V. P. bot h. Si de of pent agon = 34 mm, l engt h of t he pr i sm = 80
mm, di amet er of t he cone = 44 mm and hei ght of cone = 60 mm.
Fig 1.36
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
34
HELPING FIGURE
O
O
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
6
0
3
4

8
0

F
3
0
°
3
0
°
Ø
4
4
34 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Steps:
Example: 1.30
1. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of hor i zont al box t hat encl oses a pent agonal pr i sm
havi ng one r ect angul ar f ace on t op.
2. Indi cat e t he cent r e of t he t op r ect angul ar f ace wi t h convent i onal l i nes.
3. Ar ound t he cent r e 'O' dr aw a r hombus of t he ci r cul ar base of cone. Usi ng f our
cent r e met hod dr aw an el l i pse i nsi de. Dr aw t he axi s of cone f r om t he cent r e of
apex.
4. Joi n al l t he vi si bl e edges ( no hi dden l i nes) of t he t wo sol i ds by usi ng t hi ck l i nes.
5. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he t wo sol i ds wi t h di mensi oni ng, di r ect i on
of vi ewi ng and t hei r axes as appl i cabl e, usi ng convent i onal l i nes.
Dr aw an Isomet r i c Pr oj ect i on of a ver t i cal r egul ar hexagonal pyr ami d r est i ng
ver t i cal l y and cent r al l y havi ng t wo of i t s base edges per pendi cul ar t o V. P. . On t he
t op r ect angul ar f ace of a hor i zont al squar e pr i sm wi t h i t s squar e ends
per pendi cul ar t o V. P. . Si de of t he squar e = 50 mm, l engt h of t he pr i sm =100 mm,
si de of t he hexagon = 30 mm and hei ght of t he pyr ami d = 60 mm
Fig 1.37
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
HELPING FIGURE
3
0
O
O
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
F
6
0
S
Q


5
0

1
0
0

3
0
3
0
°
3
0
°
35 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Steps:
1. Dr aw an i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of squar e pr i sm i n hor i zont al posi t i on.
2. Indi cat e t he cent r e of t he t op r ect angul ar f ace wi t h convent i onal l i nes.
3. Ar ound t he cent r e 'O' dr aw hexagonal base of t he pyr ami d. Dr aw t he axi s of t he
pyr ami d f r om t he cent r e t o t he apex.
4. Joi n al l t he vi si bl e edges ( no hi dden l i nes) of t he t wo sol i ds by usi ng t hi ck l i nes.
5. Compl et e t he i somet r i c pr oj ect i on of t he t wo sol i ds wi t h di mensi oni ng, di r ect i on
of vi ewi ng and t hei r axes, as appl i cabl e, usi ng convent i onal l i nes.
1. BELOW: HEMISPHERE 2. BELOW: HEXAGONAL SLAB
ABOVE: CYLINDER ABOVE: PENTAGONAL PRISM
COMMON AXIS: VERTICAL COMMON AXIS: VERTICAL
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
6
2
Ø

4
2
2
5
4
5
2
5
5
0
MORE TO DO
Ø

8
0
36 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
3. BELOW: CIRCULAR SLAB 4. BELOW: CIRCULAR SLAB
ABOVE: HEXAGONAL PRISM ABOVE: PENAGONAL PRISM
COMMON AXIS : VERTICAL AXIS: VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL
5. BELOW: CIRCULAR SLAB 6. BELOW: CUBE
ABOVE: EQUILATERAL TRIANGULAR PRISM ABOVE: CONE
AXIS: VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL COMMON AXIS: VERTICAL
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
4
0
2
5
7
0
2
0
2
5
Ø

8
0
2
0
Ø

8
0
3
0
Ø

9
0
5
0
4
0
7
0
7
0
Ø 50

7
0
7
0
37 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
7. BELOW: CIRCULAR SLAB 8. BELOW: EQUILATERAL HORIZONTAL
TRIANGULAR PRISM
ABOVE: HEXAGONAL PRISM ABOVE: SQUARE PYRAMID
AXIS: VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL AXIS: HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL
9. BELOW: EQUILATERAL TRIANGULAR SLAB 10. BELOW: HEXAGONAL SLAB.
ABOVE: CYLINDER ABOVE: HEMISPHERE
COMMON AXIS : VERTICAL COMMON AXIS : VERTICAL
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
6
6
2
5
Ø

9
2
8
2
6
0
5
6
5
4
7
0
Ø

5
4
6
6
Ø

8
8
4
2
4
0
R
4
4
38 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
11. BELOW: CIRCULAR SLAB 12. BELOW: HORIZONTAL HEXAGONAL PRISM
ABOVE: PENTAGONAL AND PYRAMID ABOVE: CYLINDER
COMMON AXIS : VERTICAL AXIS: HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL
13. BELOW: EQUILATERAL TRIANGULAR SLAB 14. BELOW: HEMISPHERE
ABOVE: HEXAGONAL PYRAMID ABOVE: SPHERE
COMMON AXIS : VERTICAL COMMON AXIS : VERTICAL
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
6
2
Ø

8
4
4
4
5
0
1
0
2
3
0
Ø

4
2
8
6
3
2
6
6
R

2
5
4
0
Ø

8
0
3
2
39 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
15. BELOW: CIRCULAR SLAB 16. BELOW: HORIZONTAL HEXAGONAL PRISM
ABOVE: HEXAGONAL PYRAMID ABOVE: RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE
COMMON AXIS : VERTICAL AXIS: HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL
ISOMETRIC PROJECTION
3
0
6
6
3
2
7
8
Ø

6
0
7
2
3
0
Ø

7
8
40 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
A. DRAWING OF MACHINE PARTS
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 SCREW THREAD
In our day t o day l i f e, we come acr oss many obj ect s wher e bol t s and nut s ar e used t o j oi n t wo
pi eces t oget her. For exampl e we use wooden f ur ni t ur es l i ke desks, st ool s, t abl es et c. i n school ,
showi ng bol t s, nut s and scr ews. Such machi ne par t s whi ch ar e used t o connect t wo pi eces
t oget her ar e cal l ed as f ast ener s. Ther e ar e t wo t ypes of f ast ener s, vi z, t empor ar y f ast ener s and
per manent f ast ener s. Thr eaded f ast ener s l i ke bol t and nut ar e t empor ar y f ast ener s. The pr ocess
of j oi ni ng di f f er ent machi ne par t s of machi ne or engi neer i ng pr oduct s i s cal l ed as f ast eni ng.
Per manent f ast eni ng such as wel di ng, r i vet i ng et c. j oi n t wo par t s t oget her per manent l y and t hey
cannot be separ at ed wi t hout br eaki ng t he f ast eni ng, but i n t he case of t empor ar y f ast eni ng, t he
par t s ar e j oi ned t oget her t empor ar i l y and can be separ at ed easi l y wi t hout br eaki ng t he
f ast eni ng.
Fig 2.1 a
Recal l t hat we have st udi ed hel i x i n cl ass XI. A cont i nuous hel i cal gr oove cut al ong t he out er
ci r cumf er ence of a cyl i ndr i cal sur f ace i s cal l ed a scr ew t hr ead. A scr ew t hr ead i s an oper at i ng
el ement of t empor ar y f ast eni ng. Scr ew t hr ead occur s on pr act i cal l y al l engi neer i ng pr oduct s.
FIG. 2. 1 shows a scr ew t hr ead/ hel i cal gr oove on a cyl i ndr i cal r od.

MACHINE DRAWING
CHAPTER
2
HELICAL SCREW THREAD
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 41
Fig 2.1 b :
Scr ew t hr eads ar e wi del y used f or t empor ar y f ast eni ng as wel l as f or t r ansmi ssi on of power f r om
one machi ne par t s t o anot her
The var i ous t er ms i n connect i on wi t h scr ew t hr eads ar e gi ven bel ow. Ref er Fi g. 2. 2
2.3 TERMS USED IN THREADS / SCREW THREADS
Fig.2.2
Outside dia.
Depth
Lead
Flank
Angle
Root or core dia.
Slope
Crest
Root
Pitch
(A) EXTERNAL
RIGHT HAND THREAD
(B) INTERNAL
LEFT HAND THREAD
(C) EXTERNAL
LEFT HAND THREAD
MACHINE DRAWING
Nominal Dia.
Axis
SCREW THREAD
42 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING

(i) EXTERNAL THREAD
It i s a cont i nuous hel i cal gr oove or r i dge cut al ong t he ext er nal sur f ace of t he
cyl i nder, e. g. t hr eads on bol t s st uds, scr ews et c. FIG 2. 2( a) shows an ext er nal
t hr ead.
(ii) INTERNAL THREAD
It i s a t hr ead on t he i nt er nal sur f ace of a hol l ow cyl i nder. FIG 2. 2( b) shows t he
i nt er nal t hr eads, e. g. t hr eads of a nut .
(iii) SCREW PAIR
The bol t and nut t oget her cal l ed as scr ew pai r. One or mor e such pai r s ar e used t o
j oi n t wo par t s.
(iv) PARALLEL AND TAPER THREAD
A t hr ead f or med on t he sur f ace of a cyl i nder i s cal l ed as par al l el or st r ai ght t hr ead.
Ref er Fi g 2. 3( a)
Fig 2.3
A t hr ead f or med on t he sur f ace of a cone cal l ed as t aper t hr ead. Ref er FIG 2. 3( b)
(B) TAPER THREAD
(A) PARALLEL THREAD
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 43

(v) RIGHT HAND AND LEFT HAND THREADS
Consi der any nut and bol t . Hol d t he bol t f i r ml y i n l ef t hand and r ot at e t he nut
cl ockwi se by t he r i ght hand, t he nut wi l l scr ew on t he bol t of t he t hr eads ar e r i ght
handed. It i s abbr evi at ed as RH t hr ead. A l ef t hand scr ews t hr ead when assembl ed
wi t h a st at i onar y mat i ng bol t , scr ews of f t he bol t f or cl ockwi se r ot at i on. It i s
abbr evi at ed as LH t hr ead.
Obser ve t hat most l y t he bol t s and nut s t hat we use i n dai l y l i f e have RH t hr ead.
Al so we can obser ve t hat al l t he j ewel l er y mat i ng pi eces have LH t hr ead.
(vi) PITCH, P
It i s "t he di st ance bet ween t he cor r espondi ng poi nt s on t he adj acent t hr eads,
measur ed par al l el t o t he axi s". Ref er FIG2. 2 ( a)
(vii) LEAD,L
It i s "t he di st ance moved by a nut or bol t i n t he axi al di r ect i on i n one compl et e
r ot at i on".
(viii) SINGLE START AND MULTI START THREADS
When onl y one hel i x, f or mi ng t he t hr ead r uns on a cyl i nder, i t i s cal l ed as si ngl e
st ar t t hr ead. If mor e t hen one hel i ces r un on a cyl i nder, i t i s cal l ed as mul t i st ar t
t hr eads.
i . e. L=P i n t he case of si ngl e st ar t
L=2P i n t he case of doubl e st ar t
L=3P f or t r i pl e st ar t and so on.
(ix) CREST
It i s t he edge of t he t hr ead sur f ace f ar t hest f r om t he axi s, i n case of ext er nal
t hr ead and near est t o t he axi s, i n case of i nt er nal t hr ead
(x) ROOT
It i s t he edge of t he t hr ead sur f ace near est t o t he axi s i n case of ext er nal t hr ead
and f ar t hest f r om t he axi s, i n case of i nt er nal t hr ead.
(xi) FLANK
The sur f ace connect i ng cr est and r oot i s cal l ed as f l ank.
(xii) THREAD ANGLE
It i s "t he angl e bet ween t he f l anks measur ed i n an axi al pl ane".
MACHINE DRAWING
44 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
(xiii) MAJOR DIAMETER OR OUTSIDE DIAMETER
It i s t he di amet er of an i magi nar y coaxi al cyl i nder j ust t ouchi ng t he cr est of
ext er nal t hr eads or r oot s of i nt er nal t hr eads. It i s t he l ar gest di amet er of a scr ew
t hr ead.
(xiv) MINOR DIAMETER OR ROOT DIAMETER OR CORE DIAMETER
It i s t he di amet er of an i magi nar y co- axi al cyl i nder j ust t ouchi ng t he r oot s of
ext er nal t hr eads or cr est of i nt er nal t hr eads.
(xv) NOMINAL DIAMETER
It i s t he di amet er of t he cyl i nder f r om whi ch ext er nal t hr eads ar e cut out . The
scr ew/ bol t i s speci f i ed by t hi s di amet er.
(xvi) FORM / PROFILE OF SCREW THREAD
Fig 2.4
The sect i on of a t hr ead cut by a pl ane cont ai ni ng t he axi s i s known as t he f or m of
t he scr ew t hr ead. It i s al so cal l ed t he pr of i l e of t he t hr ead. Ref er FIG 2. 4
SECTION
P
P
PROFILE OF SCREW THREAD
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 45
MACHINE DRAWING

2.4 STANDARD PROFILE / FORM OF SCREW THREADS
Ther e ar e t wo basi c scr ew t hr ead pr of i l es. vi z.
( a) Tr i angul ar or 'V' t hr ead
( b) Squar e t hr ead.
When t he t hr ead has a t r i angul ar or V- cr oss sect i on, i t i s cal l ed as V- t hr eads. Al l t ypes of V-
t hr eads have i ncl i ned f l anks maki ng an angl e bet ween t hem. In t he pr act i cal use of t he
t hr eads, a cl ear ance must be pr ovi ded bet ween t he ext er nal and i nt er nal t hr eads. V
t hr eads ar e used "t o t i ght en t wo par t s t oget her " as i n bol t s and nut s, st uds and nut s,
scr ews et c.
For i nt er changeabi l i t y bet ween t he scr ews and nut s of t he same nomi nal di amet er and
f or m, var i ous count r i es have st andar di zed V- t hr ead pr of i l es. A f ew such st andar d t hr ead
f or ms ar e gi ven i n our syl l abus namel y
( i ) B. S. W. t hr ead
( i i ) Met r i c t hr ead
When t he t hr ead has squar e cr oss sect i on i t i s cal l ed as squar e t hr ead. Fl anks of squar e
t hr eads ar e ver t i cal and par al l el t o each ot her. "squar e t hr eads ar e used f or power
t r ansmi ssi on" on f eed mechani sm of machi ne t ool s, scr ew j acks et c, when l ess f r i ct i on
means savi ng of power as t hey of f er l ess f r i ct i onal r esi st ance. In our syl l abus we ar e goi ng
t o st udy about t he st andar d pr of i l e/ f or m of a f ew squar e t hr eads vi z.
( i ) Squar e t hr ead
( i i ) Knuckl e t hr ead
Br i t i sh st andar d whi t wor t h ( B. S. W. ) t hr ead i s t he most wi del y used f or m i n Br i t i sh
pr act i ce. Let us now l ear n t o dr aw t he st andar d pr of i l e of B. S. W. t hr ead.
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, st andar d pr of i l e of B. S. W. t hr ead, t aki ng pi t ch = 40 mm. Gi ve
st andar d di mensi ons.
(a) TRIANGULAR OR 'V' THREAD
(b) SQUARE THREAD
2.4.1 PROFILE OF B.S.W. THREAD
Example 1:
46 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING

Solution
Steps Involved
Fig 2.5
( i ) Dr aw ver t i cal cent r e l i nes separ at ed by t he di st ance of P/ 2, ( P/ 2=20 mm) .
( i i ) Dr aw t wo hor i zont al l i nes separ at ed by a di st ance of maj or di amet er D=0. 96P.
( i i i ) One si xt h of 'D' i s cut of f par al l el t o t he axi s of t he scr ew at t op and bot t om, t o dr aw
t he hor i zont al s f or mi nor di amet er, d= 0. 64P.
( i v) Dr aw t he basi c or f undament al t r i angl es wi t hi n t he D l i nes, such t hat t he angl e
bet ween t he f l anks i s 55°.
( v) Dr aw ar cs at cr est and r oot s, t o make i t r ound by any sui t abl e met hod. The met hod
i s shown cl ear l y i n FIG 2. 5, or r adi us of t he ar c can be t aken as r = 0. 137P.
( vi ) Compl et e t he pr of i l e and hat chi ng i s done as shown i n FIG 2. 5, t o r epr esent t he
ext er nal t hr ead.
( vi i ) St andar d di mensi ons ar e t o be done as shown i n t he above f i gur e.
BRITISH STANDARD WHITWORTH THREAD (B.S.W. THREAD)
P
0.5 P
d

=

0
.
6
4

P
D

=

0
.
9
6

P
D 6
D 6
P
40
D
38.4
d
25.6
D/6
6.5
55°
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 47
MACHINE DRAWING
2.4.2 METRIC THREAD
Example 2:
The Bur eau of Indi an st andar ds ( BIS) has r ecommended t he adopt i on of ISO ( INTERNATIONAL
ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDISATION) pr of i l e wi t h t he met r i c scr ew t hr ead syst em. In met r i c
t hr ead, t he ext er nal and i nt er nal t hr ead var y i n shape. It can al so be cal l ed as uni f i ed t hr ead. In
gener al , t hi s ISO- met r i c t hr ead wi l l be speci f i ed usi ng t he basi c desi gnat i on. The basi c
desi gnat i on consi st of t he l et t er M f ol l owed by t he nomi nal si ze ( maj or di amet er i n mm) and
f ol l owed by t he pi t ch i n mm.
For example
M20 x 1. 5 means t he maj or di amet er of t he met r i c t hr ead i s 20mm and t he pi t ch i s 1. 5mm. Let us
now dr aw t he st andar d pr of i l es of met r i c scr ew t hr ead
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he st andar d pr of i l e of met r i c scr ew t hr ead ( ext er nal ) t aki ng
enl ar ged pi t ch as 50mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Fig 2.6
d

=

0
.
6
1

P
D

=

0
.
8
6
6

P
METRIC SCREW THREAD PROFILE
D 6
D 8
EXTERNAL THREAD
60º
P
50
0.86P
43
0.61P
30.5
D/8
6.3
D/6
8.3
P 0.5 P
48 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Solution:
Example 3 :
Solution :
( i ) Dr aw ver t i cal cent r e l i nes P/ 2 apar t i . e. 50/ 2=25mm apar t .
( i i ) Dr aw hor i zont al s t o i ndi cat e D, D=0. 866, apar t .
( i i i ) Cut of f one ei ght h of D at t he t op and one si xt h of D at t he bot t om or dr aw
hor i zont al s t o i ndi cat e d=0. 61P wi t h t he 'D'.
( i v) Dr aw t he sl ant i ng l i nes r epr esent i ng t he si des of t he t hr ead. Her e t he angl e
bet ween t he f l anks i s 60°.
( v) Make t he cr est f l at and r oot s r ound. Root s ar e made r ound by any sui t abl e met hod.
( vi ) Hat chi ng i s done as shown i n f i g. 2. 6. Thi s l ower hat ched pr of i l e shows t he basi c
f or m of t he bol t .
( vi i ) Di mensi oni ng i s done as shown i s FIG 2. 6
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he st andar d pr of i l e of met r i c scr ew t hr ead ( i nt er nal ) t aki ng
enl ar ged pi t ch as 50mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 7
Fig 2.7
d

=

0
.
5
4

P
D

=

0
.
8
6
6

P
D 8
INTERNAL THREAD
P 0.5 P
60º
D 4
P
50
D=0.86P
43
d=0.54P
27
D/8
6.3
D/4
12.5
METRIC SCREW THREAD PROFILE
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 49
MACHINE DRAWING

St eps i nvol ved ar e si mi l ar t o t he pr evi ous exampl e. Her e t he upper hat ched pr of i l e shows t he
basi c f or m of nut .
Mechani sms of machi ne t ool s, val ves, spi ndl es, vi ce scr ews et c. ar e gener al l y pr ovi ded wi t h
squar e t hr eads. A "squar e t hr ead ( SQ) i s speci f i ed by nomi nal di amet er and pi t ch". For exampl e a
squar e t hr ead of nomi nal di amet er = 40 mm and pi t ch = 4mm i s desi gnat ed as SQ 40x4
Let us now l ear n t o dr aw t he st andar d pr of i l e of a squar e t hr ead, t aki ng enl ar ged pi t ch as 60mm.
Ref er Fi g 2. 8
( i ) Dr aw t wo hor i zont al s, P/ 2 apar t i . e. 60/ 2= 30mm apar t .
( i i ) Dr aw a number of per pendi cul ar s, 30mm apar t so as t o have a r ow of squar es.
( i i i ) Hat chi ng and di mensi oni ng i s done as shown i n f i g 2. 8
Fig 2.8
Knuckl e t hr ead i s a modi f i ed f or m of squar e t hr ead. Knuckl e t hr ead i s a speci al pur pose t hr ead. It
i s used i n r ai l way car r i age coupl i ng scr ews and on t he neck of gl ass bot t l es.
Let us now dr aw t he st andar d pr of i l e of Knuckl e t hr ead.
2.4.3 SQUARE THREAD
Solution :
Steps Involved
2.4.4 KNUCKLE THREAD
P 0.5P
0
.
5
P
90º
P
60
0.5P
30
ANGLE
90°
PROFILE OF SQUARE SCREW THREAD
50 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING

Example 5 :
Solution :
Steps Involved
Exercises
Dr aw t o scal e, 1: 1, t he st andar d pr of i l e of a Knuckl e t hr ead, t aki ng enl ar ged pi t ch
as 40mm
Ref er Fi g. 2. 10
Fig 2.10
( i ) Dr aw a t hi n cent r e l i ne.
( i i ) On ei t her si de of t he cent r e l i ne dr aw a r ow of t angent i al semi ci r cl es as shown
cl ear l y i n f i g 2. 10 Car e shoul d be t aken i n f r ee f l owi ng of semi ci r cl es i nt o one
anot her.
( i i i ) Hat chi ng and di mensi oni ng i s done as shown i n f i g 2. 10
1. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he st andar d pr of i l e of BSW t hr ead, t aki ng enl ar ged pi t ch as
30mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
2. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he st andar d pr of i l e of met r i c t hr ead ( ext er nal ) t aki ng enl ar ged
pi t ch as 60mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
3. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he st andar d pr of i l e of met r i c t hr ead ( i nt er nal ) t aki ng enl ar ged
pi t ch as 60mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
4. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he st andar d pr of i l e of squar e t hr ead, t aki ng enl ar ged pi t ch as
60mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
5. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he st andar d pr of i l e of knuckl e t hr ead, t aki ng enl ar ged pi t ch as
40mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
P 0.5P
0
.
5
P
P
40
0.5P
20
0.25P
10
R=0.25P
PROFILE OF A KNUCKLE SCREW THREAD
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 51
MACHINE DRAWING
2.5 BOLTS
In day t o day l i f e, we can obser ve many machi ne par t s j oi ned by bol t and nut . Now, l et us st udy
about t he bol t s.
A bol t consi st s of a cyl i ndr i cal body wi t h one end t hr eaded and t he ot her end conver t ed i nt o a
head. It i s passed t hr ough cl ear ance hol es ( di amet er sl i ght l y mor e t han nomi nal di amet er of bol t )
i n t wo or mor e al i gned par t s. A nut i s scr ewed on t he t hr eaded end of t he bol t t o t i ght en t he par t s
t oget her. Di f f er ent t ypes of bol t s ar e used f or di f f er ent pur poses. The shape of t he head al so
depends upon t he pur pose f or whi ch t he bol t i s used. The l engt h of a bol t i s i t s t ot al l engt h,
"excluding the height or thickness of bolt head". Bol t has ext er nal t hr ead. An ext er nal t hr ead i s
r epr esent ed by "discontinuous, minor diameter circle".
Fig 2.11a
We ar e goi ng t o st udy about t he f ol l owi ng t ypes of bol t s
( i ) Hexagonal headed bol t
( i i ) Squar e headed bol t
( i i i ) Tee headed bol t
( i v) Hook bol t
It i s t he most commonl y used f or m of t he bol t . The head of a
hexagonal head bol t i s a hexagonal pr i sm wi t h a coni cal
chamf er r ounded of f at an angl e of 30° on t he out er end f ace.
Al l di mensi ons of a hexagonal head bol t and hexagonal nut ar e
same except t he hei ght or t hi ckness of t he hexagonal head. The
appr oxi mat e hei ght / t hi ckness of t he bol t head i s 0. 8d ( d i s t he
di amet er of t he bol t ) . A l i t t l e por t i on ( about 3 mm) of t he
t hr eaded end shoul d r emai n out si de t he nut .
Let us now l ear n t o dr aw t he vi ews of a hexagonal headed bol t .
2.5.1 HEXAGONAL HEADED BOLT
THREADED LENGTH
T LENGTH OF THE BOLT
THICKNESS OF
THE BOLT HEAD
SQUARE BOLT
52 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING

EXAMPLE 6:
Solution:
Steps Involved
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont vi ew and si de vi ew of a hexagonal headed bol t of
di amet er 30mm, keepi ng t he axi s par al l el t o H. P and V. P. The l engt h of t he bol t i s
120mm.
Ref er Fi g. 2. 12a
Fig 2.12a
( i ) "St ar t wi t h t he vi ew wher e ci r cl es ar e seen". Her e t he si de vi ew shows t he ci r cl es
r epr esent i ng t he shank. So, st ar t wi t h t he si de vi ew.
( i i ) Dr aw a ci r cl e of gi ven di amet er, d= 30mm
( i i i ) Dr aw anot her ci r cl e of di amet er 0. 8d ( 24mm) , whi ch i s shown as
br oken/ di scont i nuous ci r cl e. ( Br oken par t i s shown i n III quadr ant ) 'Thi s i nner
br oken ci r cl e i ndi cat es t hat t he t hr ead on t he bol t i s an ext er nal t hr ead'.
( i v) Dr aw anot her ci r cl e of di amet er 1. 5d+3 mm
( 48 mm) i ndi cat e t he chamf er i ng ci r cl e.
( v) Ci r cumscr i be hexagon ar ound t he chamf er i ng
ci r cl e as i n Fi g. 2. 12b usi ng 30°- 60° degr ee
set squar e and mi ni dr af t er.
( vi ) Af t er compl et i ng t he si de vi ew, t he f r ont vi ew
wi l l be dr awn by t aki ng pr oj ect i ons. Pr oj ect
t he shank di amet er ( d= 30 mm) f r om t he si de
vi ew. Dr aw a r ect angl e of si ze 30x120 mm f or
t he shank ( 120 mm i s t he l engt h of t he shank)
1.5d+3
LEFT HAND SIDE VIEW
0.8d SHANK LENGTH
2d+6
0.8d
R
=
d
Ø

3
0
6
0
°
6
0
°
6
0
°
30°
d
30
0.8d
24
1.5d+3
48
2d+6
66
FRONT VIEW
Fig 2.12 b
30º
30º
HEXAGONAL BOLT
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 53
MACHINE DRAWING
( vi i ) The end of t he bol t i s r ounded and i s done wi t h t he r adi us equal t o t he di amet er of
t he bol t . ( R = d = 30mm)
( vi i i ) Indi cat e t he t hr eaded por t i on ( by pr oj ect i ng t he 0. 8d = 24mm ci r cl e wi t h "t hi n
cont i nuous l i nes") at t he end of t he shank f or t he l engt h of 2d+6 mm =66mm
( i x) Dr aw t he head of t he bol t i n t he f r ont vi ew, by pr oj ect i ng t he hexagon f r om t he
si de vi ew. Si ze A/ C ( acr oss cor ner s) wi l l be pr oj ect ed t o get t he wi dt h of t he head.
Hei ght of t he head i s t aken as 0. 8d= 24mm.
( x) The t hr ee f aces of t he hexagonal head wi t h chamf er i ng ar cs i s dr awn by any of t he
appr opr i at e met hod.
( xi ) The cent er s of chamf er i ng ar cs f or t he t hr ee f aces may be l ocat ed as shown i n t he
Fi g 2. 12a
Keep i n your mi nd t hat , on el evat i on showi ng "t hr ee f aces" of t he hexagonal head,
show t he upper cor ner s of t he head chamf er ed. On el evat i ons showi ng "t wo f aces"
of t he hexagonal head, show t he upper cor ner s squar e.
It i s al so t he common f or m of t he bol t and i s
gener al l y used wher e t he head of t he bol t i s t o be
accommodat ed i n a r ecess. The r ecess i t sel f i s i n t he
f or m of squar e i n whi ch t he head r est s havi ng a l i t t l e
cl ear ance. "The squar e r ecess pr event s t he head
f r om r ot at i ng" when t he nut i s scr ewed on or of f .
When t he squar e head of t he bol t pr oj ect s out si de
t he par t s t o be j oi ned, i t i s pr ovi ded wi t h a squar e
nut . The di mensi ons of t he squar e head ar e as t hose
of t he squar e nut "except t he hei ght or t hi ckness"
Let us now l ear n how t o dr aw t he vi ews of a squar e
headed bol t .
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1 t he Fr ont vi ew and Pl an of a squar e head bol t when i t axi s i s
per pendi cul ar t o H. P. Take t he di amet er of t he bol t as 24mm, and l engt h as 110
mm.
Ref er Fi g 2. 14
2.5.2 SQUARE HEADED BOLT
Example 7 :
Solution :
Fig 2.13
54 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Steps Involved
( i ) Si nce t he ci r cl es ar e seen i n t he t op
vi ew, st ar t wi t h t he t op vi ew. Dr aw a
ci r cl e of di amet er, d= 24 mm.
( i i ) Wi t hi n t he'd' ci r cl e, dr aw an anot her
d i sc on t i n u ou s/ b r ok e n c i r c l e of
di amet er = 0. 8d say 19. 2 mm t o t he
bol t .
( i i i ) Dr aw t he chamf er i ng ci r cl e of
di amet er =1. 5d+3 mm, say 39 mm.
( i v) Ci r cumscr i be squar e ar ound t he
chamf er i ng ci r cl e.
( v) Pr oj ect t he Fr ont vi ew f r om t he t op
vi ew. Const r uct a r ect angl e of si ze
Ød x l engt h of t he bol t , 24x110mm.
The end of t he bol t i s r ounded and i s
done wi t h t he r adi us equal t o t he
di amet er of t he bol t . ( R = d = 24 mm)
Indi cat e t he t hr eaded por t i on at t he
end of t he shank f or t he l engt h of 2d+6
mm = 54 mm.
( vi ) Bol t head i s dr awn by pr oj ect i ng t he
f r ont vi ew. Const r uct a r ect angl e of
( 1. 5d+3) x0. 8d say 39x19. 2 mm.
( vi i ) Chamf er i ng ar c i s dr awn wi t h r adi us of
R = 2d = 48 mm.
( vi i i ) Al l t he st andar d di mensi ons ar e gi ven
as shown i n t he Fi g. 2. 14
1
.
5
d
+
3
0
.
8
d
S
H
A
N
K

L
E
N
G
T
H
R
=
d
0
.
8
d
R
=
2
d
2
d
+
6
Fig. 2.14
d
24
0.8d
19.2
1.5d+3
39
2d+6
54
2d
48
Ø d
FRONT VIEW
SQUARE BOLT
TOP VIEW
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 55
MACHINE DRAWING
2.5.3 T-BOLT
Example 8 :
Solution:
Fig 2.15
The head of t hi s bol t i s j ust l i ke t he Engl i sh al phabet 'T' Fi g 2. 15( i ) . It i s "used i n machi ne
t ool t abl es". Cor r espondi ng T- sl ot s ar e cut i nt o t he t abl e [ see Fi g 2. 15 ( i i ) ] t o
accommodat e t he T- head of t he bol t . A squar e neck i s usual l y pr ovi ded wi t h t he head.
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont vi ew and si de vi ew of a T- Headed bol t of di amet er
20mm. Keep t he axi s par al l el t o V. P and H. P.
Ref er Fi g. 2. 16
Fig. 2.16
(I) T-BOLT (II) T-SLOT
R
=
d
2d+6 0. 7d 0. 7d
Ø
d
0
.
8

d
SI DE VI EW FRONT VI EW
d
20
0.7d
14
0.85d
17
1.8d
36
1
.
8

d
T-HEADED BOLT
56 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Steps Involved
2.5.4 HOOK BOLT/J-BOLT
Example 9 :
Solution :
( i ) St ar t wi t h t he si de vi ew wher e ci r cl es ar e seen. Dr aw out er and i nner ci r cl e of
di amet er, d= 25 mm and 0. 8d= 20 mm r espect i vel y, wi t h i nner ci r cl e di scont i nuous
or br oken.
( i i ) Then t he f r ont vi ew i s dr awn wi t h t he shank and bol t head as shown cl ear l y i n t he
Fi g. 2. 16
Obser ve t hat t he squar e cr oss sect i on i s shown by dr awi ng t hi n cr oss l i nes
( i i i ) Then compl et e t he si de vi ew by pr oj ect i ng t he T- head.
( i v) Di mensi oni ng i s done as shown i n t he Fi g. 2. 16
Fig 2.17
Fi g 2. 17( b) shows t he pi ct or i al vi ew of a hook bol t . It i s segment of a ci r cul ar pl at e f or m of
t he bol t of whi ch t he head pr oj ect s onl y i n t he si de of t he shank. The shank of t he bol t
passes t hr ough a hol e i n one par t onl y. The ot her par t t o be j oi ned comes under t he head of
t he bol t . A hook bol t i s usual l y pr ovi ded wi t h a squar e neck t o pr event i t s r ot at i on whi l e
t i ght eni ng.
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont vi ew and pl an of hook bol t wi t h di amet er 20 mm,
keepi ng t he axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 18
d
0
.
8
d
d
R = 0. 9d
(b) PICTORIAL VIEW OF A J BOLT (a) J -BOLT I N POSITION
HOOK BOLT / J-BOLT
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 57
MACHINE DRAWING
Steps Involved
Exercises
( i ) St ar t wi t h t he vi ew havi ng
ci r cl es. Her e st ar t wi t h t he
t op vi ew. Dr aw cent r e l i nes
and dr aw out er and i nner
ci r cl e of di amet er d= 20mm
and 0. 8d= 16mm r espect i vel y.
To i ndi cat e t he ext er nal
t hr ead of t he bol t , 0. 8d ci r cl e
i s dr awn br oken.
( i i ) Compl et e t he shank por t i on of
t he f r ont vi ew as shown
cl ear l y i n t he Fi g. 2. 18
( i i i ) Head por t i on of t he f r ont vi ew
i s compl et e and t he squar e
cr oss sect i on i s shown as t hi n
cr oss l i nes.
( i v) Compl et e t he hook por t i on of
t he t op vi ew by pr oj ect i ng t he
f r ont vi ew.
( v) Di mensi oni ng i s done as
shown i n t he Fi g 2. 18
NOTE: Assume mi ssi ng di mensi ons pr opor t i onat el y
1. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont vi ew, Top vi ew and si de vi ew of a hexagonal head bol t of
di amet er 24mm, keepi ng t he axi s par al l el t o H. P and V. P. The t wo opposi t e si des of t he
hexagonal head i s par al l el t o V. P. The l engt h of t he bol t i s 120 mm.
2 Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont el evat i on and Si de vi ew of a hexagonal headed bol t of
di amet er 20mm, keepi ng t he axi s par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
3 Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont el evat i on and Pl an of a hexagonal head bol t of M3O si ze,
keepi ng t he axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
4 Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont vi ew and Si de vi ew of a hexagonal headed bol t of di amet er
24mm, keepi ng t he axi s par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Two opposi t e si des of t he hexagonal head i s
per pendi cul ar t o V. P. Take t he f ol l owi ng di mensi ons.
Lengt h of t he bol t = 120mm
Thr eaded l engt h of t he bol t = 80mm
TOP VIEW
FRONT VIEW
0
.
7
d
2
d
+
6
Radius = 0.9d
Ød
R

=

d
d 20
0.7d 14
0.8d 16
0.9d 18
HOOK BOLT / J-BOLT
Fig 2.18
58 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
5 Dr aw t o scal e f ul l si ze, t he Fr ont vi ew, Top vi ew and Si de vi ew of a squar e head bol t of
di amet er 24mm, keepi ng i t s axi s hor i zont al .
6 Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he El evat i on and Pl an of a squar e head bol t of di amet er 30mm, when
i t s axi s i s per pendi cul ar t o H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
7 Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont vi ew and Si de vi ew of a T- head bol t of di amet er 20mm. keep
t he axi s of t he bol t par al l el t o V. P and H. P.
8 Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont el evat i on and Pl an of a t ee head bol t of di amet er 24mm,
keepi ng t he axi s per pendi cul ar t o H. P.
9 Dr aw t o scal e f ul l si ze, t he El evat i on and Pl an of a hook bol t wi t h di amet er = 20mm,
keepi ng t he axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
10 Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont vi ew, Si de vi ew of a hook bol t wi t h di amet er 25mm, when i t s
axi s par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
A nut i s a machi ne el ement havi ng a t hr eaded hol e t hat engages wi t h t he t hr eaded end of t he bol t .
Ther e ar e di f f er ent t ypes of nut s i n use. In our syl l abus, we ar e goi ng t o st udy about hexagonal nut
and squar e nut .
Ref er Fi g 2. 19
The most commonl y used t ype of nut i s t he
hexagonal nut . It i s a hexagonal pr i sm
pr ovi ded wi t h a t hr eaded hol e. Upper
cor ner s of a nut ar e "chamf er ed" or
"r ounded- of f ". Chamf er i ng i s done t o
r emove shar p cor ner s t o ensur e t he saf et y
of t he user. The angl e of chamf er i s usual l y
"30° wi t h t he base of t he nut ". The
chamf er i ng gi ves ar cs on t he ver t i cal f aces
of t he nut and ci r cl e on t he t op sur f ace of
t he nut . The chamf er i ng ci r cl e on t he t op
sur f ace t ouches t he mi d poi nt s of al l t he
si de of t he nut whi ch can be seen i n t he
t op vi ew.
Let us now l ear n t o dr aw t he vi ews of a hexagonal nut .
2.6 NUTS
2.6.1 HEXAGONAL NUT
Fig 2.19
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 59
MACHINE DRAWING
Example 10 :
Solution
Steps Involved
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont vi ew, t op vi ew and si de vi ew of a hexagonal nut of si ze
M30, keepi ng t he axi s per pendi cul ar t o H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 20
Fig 2.20
( i ) St ar t wi t h t he t op vi ew, wher e ci r cl es ar e
seen. Dr aw a ci r cl e of di amet er d = 30mm.
Descr i be t hi s ci r cl e as di scont i nuous ci r cl e t o
i ndi cat e t he i nt er nal t hr ead of a nut .
( i i ) Dr aw an anot her ci r cl e of di amet er 0. 8d =
24mm
( i i i ) Dr aw t he t hi r d ci r cl e whi ch i s of chamf er i ng
ci r cl e of di amet er 1. 5d+3 = 48mm.
( i v) Ci r cumscr i be a hexagon ar ound t he
chamf er i ng ci r cl e usi ng t he 30°- 60° degr ee
set squar e and mi ni dr af t er as shown i n f i g
2. 21.
Fig 2.21
TOP VIEW
FRONT VIEW
Ød
60°
60°
30°
d
1
.
5
d
+
3
0.8d
R

=

d
LEFT HAND SIDE VIEW
NOTE : The si ze of chamf er
ci r cl e can be t aken 1. 5d
or 1. 5d+3 i n squar e / hex.
head bol t and nut .
d 30
0.8d 24
1.5d+3 48
30º 30º
HEXAGONAL NUT
HEXAGONAL NUT
60 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
( v) Pr oj ect t he t op vi ew t o get f r ont vi ew. Fr ont vi ew has t hr ee f aces i f nut i s pl aced
acr oss cor ner ( A/ C) and f r ont vi ew has t wo f aces i f t he nut i s pl aced acr oss f l at s
( A/ F) . Thi s i s t he common posi t i on f or t he nut .
( vi ) Chamf er i ng ar cs i n t he f r ont vi ew may be done by any sui t abl e met hod. One of t he
met hods i s cl ear l y shown i n f i gur e 2. 20.
The al t er nat e met hod i s gi ven bel ow f or your r ef er ence.
• On t he f r ont vi ew, descr i be ar c ABC [ f i g. 2. 22] of r adi us 1. 2d = 3mm. It cut s
t he ver t i cal s i n A and C. Her e d = 25mm.
• Bi sect t he chor d bet ween D and A and bet ween C and E.
• On t he bi sect or s we shal l expect t o f i nd t he cent er of t he ar cs whi ch f l ow
t hr ough DKA and CE.
• Joi n DK and bi sect at r i ght angl es, t hus l ocat i ng t he cent er of ar c DKA.
Not e t hat ar c CE wi l l al so have t he same r adi us.
( vi i ) Si de vi ew i s pr oj ect ed f r om f r ont vi ew and t op vi ew. Si de vi ew and f r ont vi ew have
same hei ght but di f f er ent wi dt h.
( vi i i ) Gi ve t he st andar d di mensi ons as shown i n f i g 2. 20.
Fig 2.22
SIZE ACROSS CORNERS
K
D A
B
C E
30°
d
R

=

1
.
2
d
d 25
1.2d 30
1.5d+3 40.5
Ø
d
HEXAGONAL NUT
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 61
MACHINE DRAWING
2.6.2 SQUARE NUTS
Example 11:
Solution:
Steps Involved
Fig 2.23
A squar e nut i s al so one of t he mai n f or ms of nut s. It i s a squar e pr i sm pr ovi ded wi t h a
t hr eaded hol e. The upper cor ner s of a squar e nut ar e chamf er ed i n t he same way as of
hexagonal nut . Now, l et us l ear n t o dr aw t he vi ew of a squar e nut .
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont el evat i on and Pl an of a squar e nut of di amet er 25mm,
keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal and t wo of t he opposi t e edges of t he squar e f ace par al l el
t o V. P.
Ref er Fi g 2. 24
( i ) St ar t wi t h t he t op vi ew. Wi t h same poi nt as cent er, dr aw t hr ee ci r cl es of di amet er d
= 25 mm, 0. 8d = 20 mm, 1. 5d =37. 5 mm r espect i vel y.
Indi cat e t he i nt er nal t hr ead of t he nut by dr awi ng Ød ci r cl e di scont i nuous.
( i i ) Ci r cumscr i be squar e ar ound t he chamf er i ng ci r cl e of di amet er 1. 5d ( 37. 5 mm)
( i i i ) Pr oj ect t he t op vi ew t o get t he f r ont vi ew. Fr ont vi ew i s a r ect angl e of si ze
( 1. 5dxd) 37. 5x25 mm.
( v) Chamf er i ng ar c i n t he f r ont vi ew i s dr awn wi t h t he r adi us R = 2d = 50 mm.
NOTE: t hat i f one f ace t he squar e nut i s seen i n t he f r ont vi ew, make t he cor ner s squar ed.
( at 90° degr ee)
( v) Di mensi oni ng i s done as shown i n Fi g. 2. 24
SQUARE NUTS
62 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Fig 2.24
Dr aw t o scal e f ul l si ze t he Fr ont Vi ew and Top Vi ew of a squar e nut of di amet er
25mm, keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal wi t h t he di agonal on t he squar e f ace par al l el t o V. P.
Example 12 :
Fig 2.25
d
R

=

2
d
FRONT VIEW
1
.
5

d
TOP VIEW
0
.
8
d
Ø
d
d 25
0.8d 20
1.5d 37.5
d
37.5
0.8d
20
1.5d
25
FRONT VIEW
1
.
5

d
TOP VIEW
0.8d
Ød
60°
60°
3
0
°
d
SQUARE NUT ACROSS FLAT
SQUARE NUT ACROSS CORNER
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 63
MACHINE DRAWING
Solution :
Steps Involved :
Exercises :
Ref er Fi g. 2. 25
( i ) St ar t wi t h t he t op vi ew. Descr i be t hr ee ci r cl es of di amet er d = 25mm, 0. 8d =
20mm, 1. 5d = 37. 5mm r espect i vel y. ( Ød ci r cl e i s br oken t o r epr esent t he i nt er nal
t hr ead of t he nut . )
( i i ) Ci r cumscr i be squar e ar ound t he chamf er i ng ci r cl e as shown i n Fi g 2. 25
( i i i ) Pr oj ect t he Top Vi ew t o dr aw t he Fr ont Vi ew
( i v) Compl et e t he Fr ont Vi ew as shown i n Fi g. 2. 25.
NOTE: t hat when t wo f aces of squar e nut ar e seen i n f r ont vi ew, t he cor ner s ar e
chamf er ed.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
The hexagonal nut t akes pr ef er ence over t he ot her nut s. A spanner i s used t o t ur n
t he nut on or of f t he bol t . The j aws of t he spanner come acr oss t he opposi t e f l at s of
t he nut . The angl e t hr ough whi ch t he spanner wi l l have t o be t ur ned t o get anot her
hol d i s onl y 60 i n case of a hexagonal nut but 90° f or a squar e nut . Though t he angl e
i s 45 i n case of t he oct agonal nut , i t i s r ar el y used due t o i t s compl i cat ed pr ocess of
const r uct i on. So, i t i s mor e conveni ent t o scr ew on a hexagonal nut t han a squar e
nut i n a l i mi t ed space f or t ur ni ng t he spanner.
NOTE : Assume missing dimensions proportionately
1. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont el evat i on and pl an of a hexagonal nut keepi ng axi s
ver t i cal , when t wo of t he opposi t e si des of t he hexagon ar e par al l el t o V. P. Gi ve
st andar d di mensi ons.
2. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Pl an and Fr ont Vi ew of a hexagonal nut , t aki ng nomi nal
di amet er of t he bol t = 30mm, keepi ng t he axi s per pendi cul ar t o H. P and t wo
opposi t e si des of t he hexagon per pendi cul ar t o V. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
3. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont Vi ew and Pl an of squar e nut , t aki ng nomi nal di amet er
= 30mm, keepi ng t he axi s per pendi cul ar t o H. P and t wo opposi t e si des of t he
squar e par al l el t o V. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
4. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont Vi ew and Top Vi ew of a squar e nut , t aki ng nomi nal
di amet er =30mm, keepi ng t he axi s per pendi cul ar t o H. P and t wo opposi t e si des of
t he squar e per pendi cul ar t o V. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
64 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
5. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont vi ew and pl an of a squar e nut , t aki ng d = 30mm,
keepi ng t he axi s per pendi cul ar t o H. P and t he di agonal of t he squar e f ace par al l el
t o V. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
You must have seen t he ci r cul ar pl at e cal l ed washer f i t t ed i n your mi ni dr af t er. Even, i n j ewel l er y
i t em l i ke ear t ops/ st uds, washer may be used t o t i ght en t he scr ew. Ther e ar e t wo mai n ki nds of
washer used i n machi ner y, namel y
( i ) Pl ai n washer.
( i i ) Spr i ng washer.
We ar e goi ng t o st udy onl y about t he pl ai n washer i n our syl l abus.
A pl ai n washer see f i g. 2. 26 i s a ci r cul ar pl at e
havi ng a hol e i n i t s cent r e. It i s pl aced bel ow t he
nut t o pr ovi de "a f l at smoot h bear i ng sur f ace".
The use of a washer i s r ecommended wher e t he
sur f ace of t he machi ne par t i s r ough f or a nut t o
seat . Washer al so pr event s t he nut f r om cut t i ng
i nt o t he met al t hus al l owi ng t he nut t o be
scr ewed mor e t i ght l y.
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont vi ew and t op vi ew of a washer, t aki ng t he nomi nal
di amet er of t he bol t on whi ch t he washer i s used = 25mm. Keep t he ci r cul ar f ace of
t he washer par al l el t o V. P
Ref er Fi g 2. 27
2.7 WASHER
2.7.1 PLAIN WASHER
Example 13:
Solution:
Fig 2.26
Fig 2.27
D
+
1
D
8
2D+3mm
D
3
2D+3
53
D/8
25
PLAIN WASHER
WASHER
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 65
MACHINE DRAWING
Steps Involved
Example 14:
Solution:
( i ) St ar t wi t h t he Fr ont Vi ew, whi ch compr i ses t wo ci r cl es wi t h di amet er D+1 = 26mm,
2D+3 = 53mm.
( i i ) Pr oj ect t he f r ont vi ew t o get t he Top Vi ew whi ch i s a r ect angl e of si ze, [ ( 2D+3) x
D/ 8] , 53x3 mm. Compl et e t he Top Vi ew as shown i n t he Fi g 2. 27
In common machi ner i es used at home, we mi ght have obser ved t he assembl y of bol t , nut and
washer t o connect t wo par t s t oget her. See Fi g 2. 28
Fig 2.28
In t he ear l i er t opi cs, we l ear nt how t o dr aw t he vi ews of bol t , nut and washer separ at el y. Her e,
we expect t o under st and t he vi ews of t he assembl y of bol t , nut and washer.
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont Vi ew, Top Vi ew and si de vi ew of a hexagonal headed
bol t of di amet er 25mm wi t h hexagonal nut and washer, keepi ng t he axi s par al l el t o
V. P and H. P
Ref er Fi g 2. 29
2.8 COMBINATION OF BOLT, NUT AND WASHER FOR ASSEMBLING TWO
PARTS TOGETHER
Bolt
Nut
Washer
NUT, BOLT AND WASHER
66 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Fig 2.29
( i ) Si nce t he axi s i s par al l el t o bot h V. P and H. P, t he si de vi ew r eveal s mor e
i nf or mat i on about t he shape of t he obj ect . So st ar t wi t h si de vi ew, wher e ci r cl es
ar e seen.
( i i ) Dr aw t wo ci r cl es of di amet er d = 25mm and 0. 8d = 20mm, i n dot t ed l i nes t o
i ndi cat e t he i nvi si bl e f eat ur e f r om l ef t si de.
( i i i ) Dr aw t he chamf er i ng ci r cl e of di amet er, 1. 5d + 3mm =40. 5mm
( i v) Ci r cumscr i be hexagon ar ound t he chamf er i ng ci r cl e, usi ng set - squar e and
mi ni dr af t er.
( v) Then dr aw a ci r cl e of di amet er 2d + 3mm = 53mm f or washer.
( vi ) Pr oj ect t he si de vi ew t o f r ont vi ew and t op- vi ew.
( vi i ) Bot h t he vi ews ar e compl et ed as shown i n t he Fi g 2. 29
Steps Involed:
TOP VIEW
W
FRONT VIEW
W
WASHER
BOLT
UPTO 2d+6
NUT
0.8d
R
=
d
SIDE VIEW
Ø
2
d
Ø
d
Ø
2
d
+
3
d
COMBINATION OF HEXAGONAL HEADED BOLT WITH HEXAGONAL NUT & WASHER
3
0
°
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 67
MACHINE DRAWING
Example 15:
Solution:
Example 16:
Solution:
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont Vi ew and Si de Vi ew of an assembl y of hexagonal bol t of
di amet er 24mm bol t l engt h = 90mm and a hexagonal nut , keepi ng t he axi s par al l el
t o H. P and V. P
Ref er Fi g 2. 30
The st eps i nvol ved ar e si mi l ar t o t he pr evi ous exampl e.
Fig 2.30
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he Fr ont Vi ew and Si de Vi ew of an assembl y of a squar e bol t of
di amet er 25 mm and a squar e nut , keepi ng t he axi s par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Take
l engt h of t he bol t as 100 mm.
Ref er Fi g 2. 31
The f i gur e i s sel f expl anat or y.
1
.2
d
RIGHT SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW
2d+6
0.8d
L
d
28.8 39 54
0.8d
19.2
1.2d 1.5d+3 2d+6
24
SIDE VIEW
FRONT VIEW
1.5 d
0.8 d
R
=
2
d
Ø

d
d
L
Fig 2.31
d
37.5 50 56
0.8d
20
1.5d 2d 2d+6
25
Ø1.5d+3 Ød
Ø0.8d
0
.
8

d
COMBINATION OF HEXAGONAL HEADED BOLT WITH HEXAGONAL NUT
SQUARE BOLT AND SQUARE NUT IN POSITION
Ø
d
90
L
90
L
68 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Exercises:
NOTE: Assume mi ssi ng di mensi ons pr opor t i onat el y
1. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont vi ew, t op vi ew and si de vi ew of an assembl y of
hexagonal headed bol t of 30mm di amet er wi t h hexagonal nut and washer, keepi ng
t he axi s par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
2. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont vi ew and si de vi ew of an assembl y of a hexagonal bol t
of di amet er 30mm and a hexagonal nut , keepi ng t he axi s par al l el t o V. P and H. P.
3. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont vi ew and si de vi ew of a squar e headed bol t of si ze M24,
f i t t ed wi t h a squar e nut , keepi ng t hei r common axi s par al l el t o V. P and H. P.
4. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont vi ew and si de vi ew of t he assembl y of squar e headed
bol t wi t h a hexagonal nut and a washer, wi t h t he di amet er of bol t as 30mm,
keepi ng t hei r axi s par al l el t o V. P and H. P and t wo of t he opposi t e si des of t he
squar e head of t he bol t and of t he hexagonal nut , par al l el t o V. P.
We ar e f ami l i ar wi t h r i vet ed j oi nt s wi t h our ki t chen war es l i kes pr essur e cooker and f r yi ng pan. In
pr essur e cooker, t he handl e i s j oi ned t o t he body by means of r i vet s. We can even not i ce t he r i vet s
f i t t ed, i n shoes bel t s et c.
Ri vet s ar e one of t he per manent f ast ener s and i s used wi del y i n st eel st r uct ur es. Ri vet s ar e used i n
br i dges, boi l er s and ot her engi neer i ng wor ks. A r i vet i s a si mpl e r ound r od havi ng head at i t s one
end ( see f i g 2. 32)
Fig 2.32
and t he ot her end i s made i n t he f or m of head when i t i s assembl ed t o f ast en t he par t s.
Ri vet heads ar e of many shapes. The most common and easi est f or m of r i vet i s "snap head r i vet "
( see Fi g 2. 32 ( i ) ) . It i s al so known as "cup head" or "spher i cal - head" r i vet .
2.9 RIVETS AND RIVETED JOINTS.
(i) (ii)
RIVETS
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 69
MACHINE DRAWING
Ri vet ed j oi nt s ar e of t wo t ypes namel y
( i ) Lap j oi nt
( i i ) But t j oi nt
Lap j oi nt s may be si ngl e, doubl e and mul t i pl e r i vet ed. In cl ass XII, we ar e goi ng t o st udy t he vi ews
of "si ngl e" r i vet ed l ap j oi nt .
In si ngl e r i vet ed l ap j oi nt , t he pl at es t o be j oi ned t oget her over l ap each ot her and "a si ngl e
r ow of r i vet s" passes t hr ough bot h t he pl at es.
Fig, 2.33
Let us now l ear n how t o dr aw t he vi ews of si ngl e r i vet ed l ap j oi nt .
Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he t op vi ew and sect i onal f r ont vi ew of si ngl e r i vet ed l ap j oi nt ,
when t he t hi ckness of t he pl at es t o be j oi ned = 16mm.
Ref er Fi g. 2. 34
2.9.1 ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS OF SINGLE RIVETED LAP JOINT
Example 17:
Solution:
Fig, 2.34
m=1.5d
0
10
FRONT VIEW IN SECTION AT AA
TOP VIEW
A A
d t 25
d=6 t √ 24
m=1.5d
P=3d
36
72
PITCH
R=0.8d
0
.
7
d
t
t
m=1.5d
P
=
3
d
SINGLE RIVETED LAP JOINT.
SINGLE RIVETED LAP JOINT
70 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Steps Involved:
Exercises
Bef or e st ar t i ng t he vi ew, t he st andar d di mensi ons ar e t o be cal cul at ed as f ol l ows.
Let 't ' be t he t hi ckness of t he pl at es t o be be j oi ned. Her e t =16mm
The empi r i cal f or mul a f or cal cul at i ng t he di amet er 'd' of t he r i vet t o be used i s gi ven as
d = 6√t mm
So, d = √16
= 6x4 mm
d = 24 mm i s t he di amet er of t he r i vet t o be used i n t hi s case.
The mar gi n 'm' i s "t he di st ance f r om t he cent r e of t he r i vet t o t he near est edge of t he
pl at e", and i s t aken as m = 1. 5d
= 1. 5x24
= 36 mm
The pi t ch 'p' i s t he di st ance bet ween t he cent r es of t he adj acent r i vet s, and i s t aken as
P = 3d
= 3x24
= 72mm
The angl e 10 degr ee i s made by t he f ul l er i ng t ool ( a speci al punch or chi sel ) t o make t he
j oi nt l eak pr oof . ( The pr ocess of f ul l er i ng i s beyond t he scope of t hi s book. )
Then t he t op vi ew and t he sect i onal f r ont vi ew ar e t o be done as shown cl ear l y i n f i g 2. 34.
The edges of t he pl at es i n t he t op vi ew ar e shown i n wavy l i nes t o r epr esent t hat "a par t of
pl at es" ar e shown.
NOTE: Assume t he mi ssi ng di mensi ons pr opor t i onat el y
1. Dr aw t o scal e f ul l si ze, t he f ul l sect i onal f r ont vi ew of a si ngl e r i vet ed l ap j oi nt ,
t aki ng t hi ckness of t he pl at es as 09mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
2. Dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, t he f r ont vi ew i n sect i on and pl an of a si ngl e r i vet ed l ap j oi nt ,
t aki ng t he t hi ckness of t he pl at es as 25mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 71
MACHINE DRAWING
2.10 INTRODUCTION
2.11 CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION OF THREADS
FREE HAND SKETCHES OF MACHINE PARTS
2.11.1CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION OF EXTERNAL V-THREADS
In f r eehand sket ches of machi ne par t s, t he st udent s must do t he dr awi ng wi t hout t he use
of scal e, i nst r ument et c. , Appr opr i at e measur ement i s t aken and cor r espondi ngl y a t abl e
f or each f i gur e must be made showi ng cal cul at ed val ues. The f i gur e must show t he
di mensi ons i n t er ms of di amet er 'd'.
In act ual pr oj ect i on, t he edges of t hr eads woul d be r epr esent ed by hel i cal cur ves. It t akes a l ot of
t i me t o dr aw hel i cal cur ves. So, f or conveni ence sake t hr eads ar e gener al l y shown by
convent i onal met hods r ecommended by B. I. S
The Bur eau of Indi an st andar ds has r ecommended a ver y si mpl e met hod of r epr esent i ng V-
t hr eads. Fi g 2. 35 shows t he si mpl i f i ed r epr esent at i on of ext er nal V- t hr eads. Accor di ng t o
t hi s convent i on, t wo cont i nuous t hi ck l i nes and t wo cont i nuous t hi n l i nes ar e dr awn t o
r epr esent cr est and r oot s of t he t hr ead r espect i vel y. The l i mi t of usef ul l engt h of t he
t hr ead i s i ndi cat ed by a t hi ck l i ne per pendi cul ar t o t he axi s.
Fig 2.35
The ot her way of r epr esent i ng ext er nal V- t hr ead i s as f ol l ows.
( i ) Dr aw a r ect angl e ( see f i g 2. 36) r epr esent i ng a cyl i nder wi t h di amet er equal t o t he
nomi nal di amet er of t he bol t .
( i i ) Dr aw a l i ne AB per pendi cul ar t o t he bol t .
( i i i ) Make a poi nt B' such t hat BB' = 0. 5xpi t ch. BB i s cal l ed as sl ope = 0. 5P f or a si ngl e
st ar t t hr ead. B' i s l ocat ed on t he l ower l i ne f or a r i ght hand t hr ead ( RH t hr ead)
Fig 2.36
RIGHT HAND V-THREAD
A
B B'
SLOPE = 0.5 P
P
CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION OF EXTERNAL V-THREADS
72 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
( i v) Fi g 2. 36 i s t he r epr esent at i on of RH t hr ead. In t he case of RH t hr ead, f or a
cl ockwi se r ot at i on, t he t hr ead i s scr ewed on.
( v) Dr aw t wo t hi n l i nes par al l el t o t he axi s r epr esent i ng t he r oot s of t he t hr ead.
( vi ) On t he t hi ck l i ne, mar k t he di vi si ons equal t o pi t ch. On t he t hi n l i ne, mar k t he
di vi si ons = ( p/ 2) such t hat t hey f or m t he shape of 'V'
( vi i ) Joi n r oot t o r oot poi nt s wi t h t hi ck l i nes and cr est t o cr est poi nt s wi t h t hi n l i nes
( vi i i ) The si de vi ew has t wo ci r cl es r epr esent i ng t he cr est and r oot of t he t hr ead. Cr est
ci r cl e i s t hi ck and cont i nuous, wher eas r oot ci r cl e i s dr awn t hi n and i ncompl et e t o
r epr esent t he ext er nal t hr ead.
Si mi l ar l y t he LH- ext er nal V- t hr ead can be r epr esent ed as f ol l ows. Not e t hat t he
sl ope poi nt i s l ocat ed on t he t op l i ne and i ncl i nat i on of t he l i ne i s opposi t e of
RH t hr ead. see f i g 2. 37
Fig 2.37
Fi g 2. 38 shows t he r epr esent at i on of i nt er nal V- t hr eads. It shows t he sect i onal vi ew of a
t hr eaded hol e i n t he f r ont vi ew. Thi ck l i ne i ndi cat es t he cr est and t hi n l i ne i ndi cat es t he
r oot . Sect i on ( hat chi ng) l i nes ar e ext ended up t o t hi ck l i nes. The si de vi ew shows a t hi ck
ci r cl e r epr esent i ng t he cr est and r oot s by t hi n i ncompl et e ci r cl e
Fig 2.38
2.11.2CONVENTIONAL REPRESETATION OF INTERNAL V-THREADS
FRONT VIEW SIDE VIEW
A
B B'
Slope = 0.5P
LEFT HAND V-THREAD
CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION OF INTERNAL V-THREADS
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 73
MACHINE DRAWING
2.11.3CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION OF EXTERNAL SQUARE THREADS
2.11.4CONVENTIONAL REPRESENTATION OF INTERNAL SQUARE THREADS
Fi g 2. 39( i ) shows t he convent i onal r epr esent at i on of ext er nal RH squar e t hr eads. The
f i gur e i s sel f expl anat or y. Fi g 2. 39( i i ) shows t he LH squar e t hr eads.
Fi g 2. 40( i ) shows t he r epr esent at i on of RH i nt er nal squar e t hr eads and f i g 2. 40( i i ) shown
LH i nt er nal squar e t hr ead.
P
RIGHT HAND SQUARE THREAD
P
Slope = 0.5 P
Fig 2.39(i)
Fig 2.39(ii)
Fig 2.40 (i)
LEFT HAND THREAD
(INTERNAL)
Fig 2.40 (ii)
RIGHT HAND THREAD
(INTERNAL)
LEFT HAND SQUARE THREAD
74 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Exercises
Note: Take p = 5mm and ot her di mensi ons sui t abl y
1. Sket ch f r eehand t he convent i onal r epr esent at i on of i nt er nal and ext er nal 'V'
t hr eads.
2. Sket ch f r eehand t he si ngl e st ar t convent i onal LH ext er nal squar e t hr eads.
3. Sket ch f r eehand t he si ngl e st ar t convent i onal RH ext er nal squar e t hr eads.
4. Sket ch f r eehand t he convent i onal r epr esent at i on of i nt er nal and ext er nal squar e
t hr eads.
A st ud i s a cyl i ndr i cal pi ece of met al havi ng
t hr eads at bot h ends and i s pl ai n cyl i nder or
squar e cr oss sect i on/ squar e neck or pl ai n
cyl i nder or wi t h col l ar i n t he cent r al por t i on.
For connect i ng t wo par t s, one end ( met al end) of
t he st ud i s scr ewed i nt o a t hr eaded hol e i n one par t and t he ot her end ( nut end) i s passed t hr ough
a cl ear ance hol e i n t he ot her par t , so t hat t he pl ai n por t i on of t he st ud r emai ns wi t hi n t hi s hol e. A
nut i s scr ewed on t he open end of t he st ud. The por t i on of t he st ud wher e nut i s scr ewed on i s
cal l ed nut end and t he ot her end of t he st ud i s cal l ed met al end or st ud end.
St ud i s a headl ess bol t and i s used wher e suf f i ci ent space f or bol t head i s not avai l abl e. The
f ol l owi ng f i g 2. 42 shows t he vi ew of a pl ai n st ud, st ud wi t h squar e neck and st ud wi t h col l ar.
2.12 STUDS
Ød
Ød
(i) PLAIN STUD
Ød
(ii) STUD WITH
SQUARE NECK
2
d
+
6
1.5 d
0
.
4

d
d
(iii) STUD WITH
COLLAR
Fig 2.41
NUT END
METAL END
STUD
d
Fig 2.42
d

t
o

1
.
5
d
2
d
+
6
d

t
o

1
.
5
d
2
d
+
6
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 75
MACHINE DRAWING
Example 18:
Solution:
Steps Involved:
Example 19:
Solution
Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and
Top vi ew of a Pl ai n st ud of di amet er =
20mm, keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal .
Fef er Fi g 2. 43
( i ) Cal cul at e t he val ues of st andar d
di mensi ons.
( i i ) Dr aw f r ee hand t wo ci r cl es of
di amet er s d =20mm and 0. 85d = 17
mm as t op vi ew.
( i i i ) Dr aw a r ect angl e f or t he f r ont vi ew
wi t h appr oxi mat e measur ement s.
( i v) The met al end i s chamf er ed and t he
nut end i s ei t her chamf er ed or
r ounded.
( v) Di mensi on t he vi ews i n t er m of 'd'.
Sket ch f r ee hand t he Fr ont vi ew and Si de vi ew of a col l ar st ud wi t h di amet er 20
mm, when i t s axi s i s par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
N
U
T

E
N
D

S
I
D
E

2
d
+
6
A
N
Y
M
E
T
A
L

E
N
D

S
I
D
E
d

t
o

1
.
5

d
0.85 d
Ø d
FRONT VIEW
d 20
0.85d 17
1.5d 30
2d+6 46
TOP VIEW
PLAIN STUD
Fig 2.43
COLLAR STUD
Fig 2.44
d
20
1. 5d
30
2d+6
46
0. 4d
08
FRONT VIEW
2d+6
0.4d
SIDE VIEW
Ø

d
Ø

1
.
5

d
R
=
d
76 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Exercises:
NOTE: Assume mi ssi ng di mensi ons pr opor t i onat el y
1. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Top vi ew of a Pl ai n st ud of di amet er = 25mm,
keepi ng i t s axi s per pendi cul ar t o H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
2. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont el evat i on and Si de vi ew of a Pl ai n st ud of di amet er d =
25mm, wi t h i t s axi s par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
3. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Top vi ew of a st ud wi t h a squar e neck, keepi ng
t he axi s per pendi cul ar t o H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
4. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont el evat i on and Si de vi ew of a st ud wi t h a squar e neck,
keepi ng t he axi s par al l el t o V. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
5. Sket ch f r eehand, t he Fr ont vi ew and Pl an of a st ud wi t h col l ar, keepi ng t he axi s
ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
A scr ew i s a bol t whi ch i s t hr eaded t hr oughout i t s l engt h. Gener al l y i t i s
scr ewed i nt o a t hr eaded hol e/ t apped hol e. Scr ews or machi ne scr ews ar e
avai l abl e wi t h di f f er ent shapes of heads. The commonl y used t ypes of machi ne
scr ews ar e shown i n f i g 2. 46
2.13 MACHINE SCREWS
TOP VIEW
FRONT VIEW FRONT VIEW
TOP VIEW
ROUND CUP HEAD COUNTERSUNK HEAD GRUB SCREW CHEESE HEAD
0.85d
FRONT VIEW
0
.
8
d
0
.
4
d
0.2d
R-0.9d
0.85d
0.2d
Ø 1.5d
0
.
8
d
0
.
2
5
d
0.25d
0.2d
Ø 1.8d
0
.
1
2
d
0.85d
0.6d
FRONT VIEW
0.25d 0.13d
R=d
4
5
°
4
5
°
Fig 2.45
L
L L
0.85d
SCREW
Ød = 10
MACHINE SCREWS
Fig 2.46
Ø d
Ø d Ø d Ø d
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 77
MACHINE DRAWING
Example 20:
Solution:
Sket ch f r eehand t he f r ont vi ew and t op vi ew of a cheese head scr ew of si ze M2O,
keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 47
SOCKET HEAD SCREW
Fig 2.46
0
.
8
d
LEFT SIDE VIEW
L
0
.
8
5
d
Ø

d
d
FRONT VIEW
0.5d
0.12d
Ø

1
.
5

d
Fig 2.47
FRONT VIEW
1.5d
0.2d
0
.
8
d
0
.
2
5
d
0.85d
Ø d
TOP VIEW
d 20
0. 2d
0. 85d
04
17
0. 25d
0. 8d
05
16
1. 5d 30
78 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Example 21:
Solution:
Example 22:
Sket ch f r eehand t he f r ont vi ew and t op vi ew of a 90°f l at count er sunk machi ne
scr ew of si ze M2O, keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 48
Fig 2.48
Sket ch f r eehand t he f r ont vi ew and t op vi ew of a socket head machi ne scr ew of
si ze M10, keepi ng i t s axi s per pendi cul ar t o H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
d 20
0. 2d 4
0. 25d 5
d/ 8 2. 5
0. 85d 17
1. 8d 36
d 10
0. 8d 8
0. 85d 8. 5
1. 5d 15
0. 12d 1. 2
0. 5d 5
SOCKET HEAD
MACHINE SCREW
Fig 2.49
TOP VIEW
0.85d
1.8d
4
5
°
0
.
2
5
d
0.2d
Ø d
FRONT VIEW
90° FLAT CSK SCREW
0.85d
Ø d
0.8d
TOP VIEW
0.85d
FRONT VIEW
0
.
1
2
d
0
.
5
d
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 79
MACHINE DRAWING
Exercises
NOTE: Assume mi ssi ng di mensi ons pr opor t i onat el y
1. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Si de vi ew of a r ound head scr ew of si ze M10,
keepi ng i t s axi s hor i zont al . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
2. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Top vi ew of cheese head machi ne scr ew of si ze
M10, keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
3. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Top vi ew of a 90 degr ee f l at count er sunk
machi ne scr ew of si ze M10, keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
4. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Si de vi ew of a hexagonal socket head machi ne
scr ew of si ze M2O, keepi ng i t s axi s par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Gi ve st andar d
di mensi ons.
5. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Top vi ew of a gr ub scr ew of si ze M10, keepi ng
i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
6. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Top vi ew of a gr ub scr ew of si ze M2O, keepi ng
i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
We al r eady know t hat , a r i vet i s a smal l cyl i ndr i cal pi ece of met al havi ng a head, body and a t ai l .
Whi l e adj oi ni ng t wo par t s, t he t ai l i s made i nt o t he f or m of head. The commonl y used t ypes of
r i vet heads ar e shown i n f i g 2. 50
2.14 RIVET HEADS
TYPES OF RIVETS
Fig 2.50
80 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Fi g 2. 51 shows vi ews of some of t he t ypes of r i vet s gi ven i n our syl l abus.
Fig 2.51
Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Top vi ew of a snap head r i vet of di amet er
20mm, keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 52
Example 23:
Solution:
0
.
7
d
0
.
7
d
R=0.8d
Ød
FRONT VIEW
TOP VIEW TOP VIEW
SNAP HEAD PAN HEAD 60° CSK HEAD
FLAT HEAD
FRONT VIEW
Ød
Ød
Ø1.6d
0
.
5
d
FRONT VIEW
Ød
Ø1.5d
0
.
2
5
d
Ø2d
60°
FRONT VIEW
Ød
TOP VIEW
TOP VIEW
Ød
Ø1.6d
TOP VIEW
0
.
7
d
FRONT VIEW
R=0.8d
d 20
0. 7d 14
0. 8d
1. 6d 32
16
SNAP HEAD RIVET
Fig 2.52
RIVET HEADS
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 81
MACHINE DRAWING
Example 24:
Solution:
EXERCISES
Sket ch f r eehand t he f r ont vi ew and t op vi ew of a pan head r i vet of di amet er
20mm, keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 53
Fig 2.53
Note: Assume mi ssi ng di mensi ons pr opor t i onat el y
1. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Top vi ew of a snap head r i vet of di amet er
25mm, keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
2. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont el evat i on and Pl an of a pan head r i vet of di amet er
25mm, keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
3. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Top vi ew of a 60° count er sunk f l at head r i vet
of di amet er 20mm, keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
4. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew and Top vi ew of a f l at head r i vet of di amet er
20mm, keepi ng i t s axi s ver t i cal . Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Key i s pi ece of met al whi ch i s used t o f ast en t wo par t s t oget her,
speci al l y t o j oi n t wo ci r cul ar par t s t oget her. For exampl e,
pul l eys, f l ywheel s et c. ar e j oi ned t o t he shaf t by means of a key.
See f i g 2. 54. Key i s al so used t o pr event t he r el at i ve movement
bet ween t he shaf t and t he par t s mount ed on i t . Whenever
r equi r ed, i t can be r emoved easi l y. So key i s one of t he
t empor ar y f ast ener s. The gr oove cut on t he shaf t t o
accommodat e a key i s cal l ed key seat and t he cor r espondi ng
gr oove i n t he mat t i ng pi ece i s cal l ed key way.
2.15 KEYS
Fig 2.54
PAN HEAD RIVET
KEY IN POSITION
0
.
7
d
TOP VIEW
FRONT VIEW
Ød
Ød
Ø1.6d
d 20
0. 7d 14
1. 6d 32
K
E
Y
S
E
A
T


K
E
Y
K
E
Y
W
A
Y
S
H
A
F
T
H
U
B
82 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
2.15.1 TYPES OF SUNK KEYS
2.15.1.1 RECTANGULAR TAPER KEY
A sunk key i s desi gnat ed by i t s wi dt h x t hi ckness x
l engt h. ( w x T x L) see f i g 2. 55
Sunk keys means, hal f of t he t hi ckness ( 0. 5T)
( measur ed at t he si de not on cent r e l i ne) k wi t hi n t he
key seat and t he ot her hal f t hi ckness ( 0. 5T) i s wi t hi n
t he keyway ( see f i g 2. 57) . Ther e ar e di f f er ent t ypes
of sunk keys vi z.
( i ) r ect angul ar t aper key
( i i ) woodr uf f key
( i i i ) doubl e head f eat her key
Let us now l ear n how t o dr aw t he vi ews of t hese sunk keys.
Rect angul ar sunk t aper key i s of r ect angul ar cr oss sect i on, wi t h t he t hi ckness not uni f or m
t hr oughout t he l engt h of t he key. See f i g 2. 56
Fig 2.56
Dr awi ng pr opor t i ons f or a r ect angul ar t aper key ar e as f ol l ows.
Let 'D' be t he di amet er of t he shaf t , t hen wi dt h of t he key, W=D/ 4
Thi ckness of t he key, T=D/ 6
Lengt h=1. 5D t o 2D, Taper = 1 i n 100
The t aper key pr event r el at i ve r ot at i onal as wel l as axi al movement bet ween t he t wo
mat i ng pi ece. Gener al l y, t he upper sur f ace of t he key i s t aper ed and hence t he keyway i s
al so cor r espondi ngl y t aper ed. The t aper ed end i s hammer ed t o r emove t he key f r om t he
j oi nt .
W
L
T
Fig 2.55
TAPER 1 IN 100
FRONT VIEW
T
W
(i) RECTANGULAR TAPER KEY
L
TOP VIEW
VIEWS OF A RECTANGULAR TAPER KEY
SIDE VIEW
W
L
T
RECTANGULAR
SUNK KEY
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 83
MACHINE DRAWING
Example 24:
Solution
2.15.1.2 WOODRUFF KEY
Sket ch f r ee hand a r ect angul ar t aper key, i n posi t i on, on a shaf t of di amet er
40mm, keepi ng t he axi s of t he shaf t par al l el t o V. P and H. P, showi ng upper hal f
sect i onal f r ont el evat i on. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 57
Fig 2.57
Woodr uf f key i s a speci al sunk key. It l ooks l i ke a segment of a ci r cul ar di sc. The key seat i s
semi ci r cul ar i n shape but t he keyway i s r ect angul ar. The keyway i s smal l er i n si ze t han t he
key seat . The advant age of woodr uf f key i s t hat i t can be easi l y adj ust ed i n t he r ecess. It i s
l ar gel y used i n machi ne t ool s and aut omobi l e wor k.
40
D
10 6. 7 60
1. 5D
2D
80
W=
D
4
T=
D
6
1.5D
TAPER 1 IN 100
2
D
PARALLEL
TO AXIS
Ø
D
L
FRONT VIEW
0
.
5
T
W
LEFT SIDE VIEW
WOODRUFF KEY
Fig 2.58
0
.
5
T
RECTANGULAR TAPER KEY IN POSITION
WOODRUFF KEY WITH KEY SLOT IN SHAFT
84 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Example 26:
Solution:
Example 27:
Solution:
Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew, Top vi ew and Si de vi ew of a woodr uf f key, sui t abl e
f or a shaf t of di amet er 40mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 59
Fig 2.59
Sket ch f r eehand a woodr uf f - key i n posi t i on, on a shaf t of di amet er 60mm, keepi ng
t he axi s of t he shaf t par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 60
0
.
2
5
t t
t
R=2t
TOP VIEW
FRONT VIEW
R=2t
WOODRUFF KEY
SIDE VIEW
40
D
6. 7 13. 4 10
0. 25t
t =
D
6
R = 2t
Ød
R=2t
SECTIONAL SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW
WOODRUFF KEY WITH SHAFT
0
.
2
5
t
0
.
5
t
t
d 60
10 t
0. 25t
0. 5t
2t 20
5
2. 5
Fig 2.60
WOODRUFF KEY
0
.
2
5
t
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 85
MACHINE DRAWING
2.15.1.3 DOUBLE HEADED FEATHER KEY WITH GIB HEAD
Example 28:
Solution:
Feat her key i s a ki nd of sunk par al l el key.
In par al l el key, t he t hi ckness r emai ns
same t hr oughout t he l engt h of t he key. Fi g
2. 61 shows a f eat her key wi t h gi b head. A
doubl e head f eat her key wi t h gi b head on
bot h ends gr i ps t he hub bet ween i t s
heads.
Sket ch f r eehand t he f r ont vi ew, si de vi ew and pl an of a doubl e- head gi b key f or a
shaf t of di amet er 60mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 62
Fig 2.61
FEATHER KEY
W
L
1
.
5
t
1
.
7
5
t
t
45°
W
TOP VIEW
RIGHT SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW
45°
L
1
.
7
5
t
d 60
15
10
W
t
1. 5t
1. 75t 17. 5
15
Fig 2.62
t
1.5t
DOUBLE HEADED GIB HEADED FEATHER KEY
DOUBLE HEADED
GIB HEADED FEATHER KEY
86 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
MACHINE DRAWING
Example 29:
Solution:
Exercises:
Sket ch f r eehand a doubl e head gi b key, i n posi t i on on a shaf t of di amet er 60mm,
keepi ng t he axi s of t he shaf t par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
Ref er Fi g 2. 63
Fig 2.63

Note: Assume mi ssi ng di mensi ons pr opor t i onat el y
1. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew, Si de vi ew and Pl an of a r ect angul ar t aper key f or a
shaf t of di amet er 40mm. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
2. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew, Si de vi ew and Pl an of a woodr uf f key f or a shaf t of
60mm. di amet er. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
3. Sket ch f r eehand t he Fr ont vi ew, Top vi ew and Si de vi ew of a doubl e head gi b key
f or a shaf t of 40 mm. di amet er. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
4. Sket ch f r eehand a r ect angul ar t aper key i n posi t i on, on a shaf t of 60 mm di amet er,
keepi ng t he axi s of t he shaf t par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
5. Sket ch f r eehand a woodr uf f key i n posi t i on, on a shaf t of di amet er, 48 mm, keepi ng
t he axi s of t he shaf t par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
6. Sket ch f r eehand a doubl e head gi b key i n posi t i on, f or a shaf t of 40 mm di amet er,
keepi ng t he axi s of t he shaf t par al l el t o V. P and H. P. Gi ve st andar d di mensi ons.
SHAFT
FRONT VIEW LEFT SIDE VIEW
1.5t
KEY
HUB
4
5
°
1
.
7
5
t
W
0
.
7
5
t
d
w
t
0. 5t 05
1. 5t
1. 75t 17. 5
15
10
15
Ød
60
DOUBLE HEADED GIB HEADED FEATHER KEY IN POSITION
87 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
All of you have seen a bicycle and most of you may know how to ride it. With the help of paddles
you may have driven it. It needs very little effort to run a bicycle. Do you know why a bicycle runs
so smoothly and easily? The reason is that friction is greatly reduced by using bearings in the
moving parts and you must have oiled/ greased these bearings from time to time.
In the industry also the bearings are used to help in smooth running of the shafts. As we all know
that the friction is a necessary evil. The friction generates heat and opposes the free movement
of the moving parts. We can not eliminate the friction together but we can reduce it to a large
extent by using some suitable lubricant.
The meaning of bearing as given in the Dictionary is a part of a machine which support another
part that turns round a wheel' or it can be defined as the support and guide for a rotating
,oscillating or sliding shaft, pivot or wheel' .
Bearings are used as a mechanical component to a certain part and this is done by utilizing the
small frictional force of the bearings, which makes them rotate easily, all the while with the force
and load acting against them.
There are two types of bearings according to the type of motion:
1. Plain bearings and 2. Anti-Friction bearings or Rolling Bearings
We will learn that plain bearings are such that they primarily support sliding, radial and
thrust loads and linear motions also.
1. Plain Journal Bearings: These support radial loads at right angles to the shaft axis.
2. Spherical Bearings: These are used where the loads are not aligned and are radial.
3. Thrust Bearings: These bearings support axial and radial loads.
4. Linear Bearings: These bearings only help in linear motion.
5. Pivot Bearings or Foot Step Bearings: These bearings are used where the thrust is only
axial.
CLASSIFICATION OF BEARINGS
Plain bearings may further be classified as:

CHAPTER
3
BEARINGS
88 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

ANTI-FRICTION OR ROLLER BEARINGS
These bearings can be:
1. Needle Bearings.
2. Ball Bearings and
3. Roller Bearings.
The bearings mentioned above can be rearranged according to the loading conditions as:
1. Journal Bearings: In this bearing the bearing pressure is perpendicular to the axis of the
shaft.
2. Thrust Bearing or Collar Bearing: In this bearing the pressure is parallel to the axis of the
shaft.
3. Pivot Bearing: In this bearing the bearing pressure is parallel to the axis of the shaft and
the end of the shaft, rests on the bearing surface.
4. Linear Bearings
5. Spherical Bearings.
In this chapter, we shall learn more about the Journal Bearings, which forms the sleeve around the
shaft and supports a bearing at right angles to the axis of the bearing. The portion of the shaft in
the sleeve is called the journal. The journal bearings are used to support only the perpendicular
or radial load. i.e., the load acting perpendicular to the shaft axis.
JOURNAL BEARING
Fig: 3.1
The examples of Journal Bearings are:
1. Open Bearing.
2. Bushed Bearing.
BEARINGS
SHAFT
JOURNAL
BEARING
89 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

3. Plummer Block or Pedestal Bearing.
4. Pivot Bearing or Foot Step Bearing.
In our syllabus the Assembly and Dis-assembly of the following Bearings are prescribed, so let us
learn more about these in detail:
It is a journal bearing in which a bush made of some soft material such as: brass, bronze or gun
metal is used. This bearing is useful for higher loads at medium speed. These brasses can be
changed with the new brasses when worn out. These brasses (bushes) are tightly fitted into a
bored hole in the body of the bearing. The inside of the bush is bored as a fit for the shaft. These
brasses (bushes) are prevented from rotating or sliding by the use of a grub-screw or a dowel-pin
inserted half inside the bush and half in the body of the bearing. The other method is the use of a
snug. In this bearing the base plate or sole is recessed up to 3 mm leaving a standing material all
around, known as padding which helps in the stability of the sole on the resting surface and also
reduces the machining area. A counter bore sunk hole is drilled at the top of the body to hold the
lubricant which facilitates to reduce the friction between the shaft and bush. Oval drilled holes
are provided in the sole plate to facilitate any misalignment or lateral adjustments of bolts while
fitting the bearing in position on base / floor. This bearing is generally placed only at or near the
ends of the shaft, because in this the shaft can be inserted end wise only. (See fig: 3.2)
BUSHED BEARING
BEARINGS
Fig: 3.2
o
90
5
3
OIL HOLE
9
0
5
0
1
0
2
0
10
R5
6
0
8
0
OIL HOLE FOR LUBRICATION
CAST IRON
BODY
1
0
R 5
HOLE FOR
FOUNDATION BOLT
(2 OFF) 20X12
R
2
5 4
0 BUSH
4
0
R
3 6
0
A
BUSHED BEARING
1
5
3
0
R 5
90 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

Now let us solve some questions:
The isometric view of a Bushed Bearing is shown below (fig: 3.3) Draw the
following views to scale 1:1:-
a. Sectional front view, showing right half in section.
b. Side view as viewed from left.
c. Top view.
Print title and scale used. Give 8 important dimensions.
Question:
BEARINGS
Fig: 3.3
4
0
Ø

4
0
6
R

4
0
5
0
2
0
2
0
1
0
1
0
(
2

O
F
F
)
2
0
X
1
6

H
O
L
E
S
BUSHED BEARING
8
0
6
0
2
2
1
8
4
A
o
OIL HOLE Ø4, C'SUNK 3, 45
3
91 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

Question: The isometric view of a Bushed Bearing is shown below (Fig. 3.5). Draw the
following views to scale 1:1:-
a. Sectional front view, showing right half in section.
b. Top view,
Print title and scale used. Give 8 important dimensions.
BEARINGS
Fig: 3.4
10 10
80
LH SIDE VIEW
2
2
5
0
10
OIL HOLE Ø4,
o
CSK 3, 45
Ø 52
Ø 40
20
10
184
3
R 40
FRONT VIEW RIGHT HALF IN SEC.
A
6
0
A
1
0
1
6
20
TOP VIEW
BUSHED BEARING
SCALE 1:1
Answer of Fig. 3.3
92 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Fig: 3.5
Answer of fig. 3.5
BEARINGS
Fig: 3.6
2
0
0
5
5
2
0
9
0
OIL HOLE Ø8
o
CSK-3, 90
6
5
1
5
A
1
5
BOLT HOLE (2 OFF)
20X12
7
0
BUSH
R 30
4
5
3
5
Ø

4
0
1
0
o
90
8
OIL HOLE
R5
2
0
15
R 10
R 40
o
90
5
5
15
200
1
5
Ø 60
Ø 40
TOP VIEW
100
0
6
Ø 8
BOLT HOLES
(2 OFF) 20x12
65
35
7
0
A
A
BUSHED BEARING
FRONT VIEW RIGHT HALF IN SECTION
R 5
1
0
1
0
BODY
PICTORIAL VIEW OF A BUSH BEARING
(RIGHT HALF IN SECTION)
SCALE 1:1
R 10
R40
5
3
93 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

Question: The figure given below shows the assembled front view and the side view of a
Bushed Bearing. Disassemble (fig:3.7) the body and the bush and draw the
following views to a scale 1:1, keeping the same position of both the body and the
bush, with respect to H.P. and V.P.
a. Front view of the body, showing right half in section and its top view.
b. Front view of the bush, showing left half in section and its top view. Print titles of
both and scale used. Draw the projection symbol. Give 8 important dimensions.
Note : Take: R4 Radius For All Fillets And Rounds
Fig: 3.7
Fig: 3.8
BEARINGS
10
4
120
180
2
5
1
5
Ø40
Ø30
BUSH
BODY
Ø60
BUSHED BEARING
FRONT VIEW
Ø5
10
60
SIDE VIEW
Ø 20
Ø10
70
25
Ø40
Ø10
Ø5
Ø60
Ø40
2
5
Ø30
1
6
FRONT VIEW SECTIONED AT BB
Ø5
7
0
B
120
180
4 10
FRONT VIEW (SECTION AT AA)
OIL HOLE
BOLT HOLES
SCALE 1:1
A
25
6
0
7
0
2
0
A TOP VIEW
B
TOP VIEW
BUSHED BEARING
94 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
OPEN BEARING
This bearing consists of a 'U' shaped cast iron body with the similar shaped collared brass, bronze
or gun metal bush. The sole is recessed for better stability on the surface. This bearing is used for
linear and zigzag shafts. The holes for the bolts in the sole plate are elongated towards the width.
This bearing is useful for shafts rotating at slow speeds. Now, let us understand the different parts
shown in the (fig : 3.9)
Fig 3.9
The figure given below (fig:3.10) shows the details of an 'Open bearing'. Assemble
these parts correctly and then draw its following views to scale1 :1 :
a. Front view, right half in section.
b. Top view.
c. Side view as viewed from left.
Write heading and scale used. Draw projection symbol. Give '6' important dimensions.
Question:
BEARINGS
OPEN BEARING
2
4
R 5
R 8
BODY
8
0
5
4
3
0
R6
BUSH
HOLES FOR BOLT
(2 OFF) 24x15
5
0
1
5
6
8
1
5
6
6
2
0
0
1
4
4
4
8

4
2
2
8
1
5
A
8
9
95 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Answer of fig. (3.10)
BEARINGS
Fig: 3.10
Fig: 3.11
78
42
R
2
1
24
1
6
R6
2 HOLES
FOR BOLTS
24X16
R6
R5
FRONT VIEW
SIDE VIEW
6
BUSH (GM) 1 - OFF
DETAILS OF OPEN BEARING
FRONT VIEW
Ø60 60
192
136
4
1
5
7
0
1
5
8 8
SIDE VIEW
48
R
1
5
R
2
1
BODY (C.I.) 1 - OFF
8
TOP VIEW
A
6
42
2
0
60
25
A
6
0
FRONT VIEW RIGHT HALF IN SECTION
136
192
CRS
1
5
1
5
78 R6
R6
R
1
5
R5
OPEN BEARING
8
6
SCALE 1:1
5
5
96 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

Question: The figure given below (fig 3.12) shows the assembly of an 'Open Bearing'.
Disassemble the parts and draw the following views to scale 1:1 :
(a) BODY
(i) Front view, left half in section.
(ii) Top view, without section.
(b) BUSH
(i) Front view, left half in section.
(ii) Side view, viewing from left.
Print titles of both and the scale used. Draw the projection symbol. Give '6' important
dimensions.
BEARINGS
fig 3.12
R
-
2
5
R
-
1
5
R5
150
78
200
7
5
1
5
FRONT VIEW RIGHT HALF IN SECTION
TOP VIEW
OPEN BUSH BEARING
6
6
0
R5
6
2 HOLES (25X20)
R
-
2
0
A
A
97 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

PLUMMER BLOCK OR PEDESTAL BEARING
The Plummer Block is also known as Pedestal Bearing. This bearing is widely used in textile,
marine and some other industries. This bearing is useful for long shafts requiring Intermediate
supports; these bearings are preferred in place of ordinary bush bearings. It was named after its
inventor 'PLUMMER'. This bearing can be placed any where along the shaft length. It is used for
shafts rotating at high speed and needing frequent replacement of brasses (also known as steps)
due to the wear and tear of the brasses, which are made up of brass, phosphor- bronze or gun
metal having raised collars at two ends for the prevention of the brasses from sliding along the
axis, with the shaft. The shaft is made of mild steel. These brasses are made into two halves just
to facilitate the easy assembly and disassembly of brasses and shaft. A snug at the bottom, fitting
inside a corresponding hole in the body, prevents their rotation. The body is made up of cast iron
with rectangular sole plate having elongated holes for the adjustment. In two long holes square
mild steel bolts with hexagonal nuts and check nuts are used to tighten the cap and brasses. The
cap is made up of cast iron. The cap while resting on the upper brass fits inside the body with its
body cap at its sides "but does not sit on it". These brasses are made into two halves and are
prevented from rotating by the use of a snug in the middle of the brasses. A counter sunk hole is
provided in the top cap and brass to hold lubricant which is necessary for reducing the friction
between the shaft and the brasses, which are collared to avoid axial movement. Please examine
the given figure for understanding these details.
BEARINGS
fig 3.13
LEFT SIDE VIEW
60
6 6 R 25
SECTIONAL
FRONT VIEW
BODY
R5
R5
R5
R20
78
2
0
4
0
1
5
25
150
200
CRS
FRONT VIEW LEFT HALF IN SECTION
SECTION AT AA
6
0
2
0
A
A
TOP VIEW
BUSH
OPEN BEARING
R15
SCALE 1:1
Answer of fig 3.12
25
98 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
DETAILS OF PLUMMER BLOCK OR PEDESTAL BEARING.
Fig 3.14
Fig 3.15
BEARINGS
OIL HOLE
LOCK NUT
NUT
CAP
BODY OR
CASTING
BRASSES OR
STEPS
SOLE OR
BASE PLATE
PLUMMER BLOCK
WASHER
SNUG
MILD STEEL
SQ. BOLT
BOLT HOLE
S
Q

2
7
1
2
SQ HEADED
BOLT
R 40
Ø 3 OIL HOLE
UPPER BRASS (G.M.)
R 25
6
6
1
0
1
0
LOCK NUT
HEXAGONAL NUT

WASHER(C.I.)
BASE BLOCK
Ø
5
0
SHAFT (M.S)
1
3
2
Ø16
LOWER BRASS (G.M.)
1
0
6
6
1
0
Ø

5
0
Ø

6
4
Ø

8
0
2
0
1
2
5
S
Q

3
0
1
0
0

C
R
S
1
0
0
R

3
2
1
2
5
2
2
6
5
6
6
7
2
2 HOLES Ø 18
EXPLODED VIEW OF
A PLUMMER BLOCK
R 75
R32
3
3
1
5
0
CAP
Ø 6X18
OIL HOLE
1
0
0

C
R
S
6
6
2
0
2
2
3
7
2
R 50
Ø 18 (2 BOLT HOLES)
3
0
2 HOLES 16X24
NOTE : SNUG 6X12
99 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

NOTE : As per our syllabus, we are going to only draw the front view of the Plummer Block.
The figure given below (fig : 3.16) shows the details of a Plummer Block. Assemble
the parts correctly and then draw to scale 1:1, the front view, right half in section.
Print title and scale used. Give '8' important dimensions.
Fig 3.16
Question:
BEARINGS
Ø20
Ø8
1
8
3
R25
1
0
R40
CAP
R30
60
100
Ø8
6
0
Ø6
Ø40
Ø50
Ø60
5
BRASSES (2-OFF)
PLUMMER BLOCK
M18
SQUARE HEADED BOLT
AND HEXAGONAL NUT (2-OFF)
9
0
1
3
SQ 28
60
BASE OR BODY
R
2
5
1
8
R 5
2
0
5
0
1
5
250
Ø
1
5
S
Q

3
0
Ø6x4
R30
20
100
Ø20
1
8
OIL HOLE
5
5
R 5
7
0
SNUG 6x4
100 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Answer of fig. 3.16
FRONT VIEW (RIGHT HALF IN SECTION)
PLUMMER BLOCK (ASSEMBLY)
FIG: 3.17
BEARINGS
R

3
0
R

2
0
3
Ø
2
0
R

4
0
Ø
8
M
1
8
Ø
1
5
,

2

H
O
L
E
S
2
0
2
0
1
0
0
2
5
0
Ø
6

x

4
3
0
1 0 3 1 8 5 0 2 0
R
5
101 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

Question: The figure given below (fig:3.18) shows a Pictorial view of a Plummer Block. Draw
the sectional front view showing left half in section. Print title, scale used and give
'8' important dimensions.
PLUMMER BLOCK
FIG: 3.18
Answer of (Fig: 3.18)
BEARINGS
105 CRS
OIL HOLE Ø6, 20
DEEP, THEN Ø3
R 58
2
0
6
8
8
6
3
2
Ø
5
0
R

3
8
Ø
6
3
Ø16
Ø19
3
3
1
3
0
2 HOLES 22x16
2
2
SQ28
1
2
SQ30
105
1
4
105
260
SNUG Ø6
10 LONG
LEFT HALF SEC. FRONT VIEW
PLUMMER BLOCK
Fig. 3.19
1
4
4
CAP
6
3
R72
1
0
5

C
R
S
Ø6x20 deep
OIL HOLE
BLOCK
2
1
6
1
0
Ø
3
Ø
5
0
R
5
8
3
1
9
6
3
1
4
1
0
5
S
Q
3
0
2
2
8
8
1
2
1
3
0
2
0
M16
SQ 28
NUTS AND BOLTS
(2 OFF)
6
1
0
5
1
3
0
2
2
S
N
U
G
Ø
6
.1
0
L
O
N
G
6
3
R38
BRASSES
A
Ø
6
3
SCALE 1:1
3
6
1
3
0
3
102 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
FOOTSTEP BEARING OR PIVOT BEARING
This bearing is used for supporting the lower end of the vertical shaft. This bearing is made up of a
cast iron body with a rectangular or square recessed sole to reduce machining area. Generally,
the sole is provided with four oval or elongated holes for the adjustment of the bearing. A Gun
Metal hollow bush having a collar at its top end is placed and is prevented from rotation by the use
of a grub screw or a snug just below the neck of the collar. This collar serves two purposes, one it
prevents the hollow round bush to go further down in the body of the bearing and secondly it
provides a round vessel at the neck of the round bush to hold lubricant. The bearing body and the
hollow bush are recessed so as to form fitting strips. A concave or convex hardened steel disc is
placed below this round hollow bush to support the shaft. This disc is also prevented from rotation
by the use of a snug or a pin which is half inserted in the body of the bearing and half in the disc but
away from the centre. The only draw back of this bearing is that there is no proper lubrication,
thus unequal wear and tear is there on the bottom round disc. Examine the details as shown
below.
FIG: 3.20
BEARINGS
LUBRICANT OIL
POUREDHERE
SHAFT
BUSH WITH BRASS
COLLAR
BODY OR (C.I.) BLOCK
CONVEX OR CONCAVE DISC
EMBOSSED HOLE
SOLE
SNUG
PIN OR SNUG
DETAILS OF A FOOTSTEP BEARING
SCALE 1:1
103 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
EXPLODED VIEW OF A FOOT STEP OR PIVOT BEARING.
FIG. 3.21
BEARINGS
COLLARED BUSH OF
BRASS OR GUN METAL
CAST IRON BODY
4 HOLES FOR
FOUNDATION BOLTS
RECESSED SOLE
SNUG OR PIN
MILD STEEL SHAFT
MILD STEEL CONVEX OR
CONCAVE DISC OR PAD
104 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
BEARINGS
20
Ø30
Ø94
14
Ø68
6
2
3
0
Ø
1
5
Ø64
15
Ø
5
70 70
100 100
15
6
2
4
NOTE: As per our syllabus guide lines, we are supposed to draw the front view of the assembly of
Foot Step Bearing'.
The figure given below (fig: 3.22) shows the parts of a Foot Step Bearing. Assemble
these parts correctly and then draw the Front View, left half in section to a scale
full size. Print title and scale used. Give '8'important dimensions.
Question:
5
15
FOOT STEP BEARING
Ø84
Ø 44
5 Ø56
BUSH
1
0

1
5
Ø 44
PAD
1
5
4
5
8
Ø5
15
1
2
5
Ø60
Ø64
Ø78
8
5
BASE
4
0
Ø5
1
5
1
5
1
0
PIN
1
2
8
Ø64
R5
Ø 44
SHAFT
7
8
4
1
5
8
FIG. 3.22
105 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
BEARINGS
5
1
5
1
5
4
0
1
5
1
5
1
0
Ø44
15
70
200
70
FRONT VIEW (LEFT HALF IN SEC.)
FOOTSTEP BEARING
Answer of (Fig: 3.22) FRONT VIEW
Fig 3.23
SCALE 1:1
106 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
BEARINGS
Question: The figure given below (fig:3.24) shows the parts of a Foot Step Bearing. Assemble
the parts correctly and then draw the Front View, showing right half in section,
using the scale 1:1;
Print title and scale used. Give '8' important dimensions.
DETAILS OF A FOOT STEP BEARING
Ø85
BUSH
Ø92
1
0
2
0
1
5 1
0
Ø87
SNUG
4
5
Ø60
Ø5
1
2
Ø92
Ø106
Ø60
SHAFT
Ø60
1
5
5
Ø5
20
Ø5
PAD
Ø3
PIN
1
6
1
Ø85
3
5
125
15
Ø97
Ø92
35
Ø120
1
5
9
0
9
0
125
Ø
5
NOTE : TAKE R-4 RADIUS
FOR ALL FILLETS AND
ROUNDS
24
20
180
Ø5
2
0
1
5
1
5
4
30
3
9
5
BASE
4
5
1
5
1
0
3
Fig 3.24
TOP VIEW
FRONT VIEW
4 HOLES Ø15x20
15
107
BEARINGS
Fig 3.25
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
Ø

8
5
Ø

9
2
Ø

9
7
Ø

8
7
2
0
1
2
1
8
0
2
5
0
4
3
1 2
1
5
4 5
1 0
1 5
Ø

1
2
0
Ø

1
0
6
Ø

6
0
F
O
O
T

S
T
E
P

B
E
A
R
I
N
G
F
R
O
N
T

V
I
E
W

R
I
G
H
T

H
A
L
F

I
N

S
E
C
T
I
O
N
A
N
S
W
E
R

O
F

(
F
I
G

:

3
.
2
4
)
S
C
A
L
E

1
:
1
2 0
3
9 5
1 0
2 0
All of you have seen a tractor and its trolley/ trailer. The trolley can be easily joined or removed
from the tractor as per the need. Have you ever noticed that how this trolley is joined or detached
from the tractor? This work is made so simple by a joint between the tractor and the trolley using
a pin or a cotter. A fork end is there at the back of the tractor and an eye end is there in front of the
trolley and a round rod is inserted in between these two to make the joint. In industry also
different cotter joints are used some of these we shall learn in the following paragraphs. First of
all we shall learn about the cotter.
Fig 4.1
A cotter is a flat rectangular cross section wedge-shaped piece or bar of mild steel block which is
uniform in thickness but tapering in width on one side in general. It is used to connect rigidly two
rods, whose axes are collinear and which transmit motion in the axial direction (tensile or
compressive forces) without rotation. The cotter is inserted perpendicular to the axes of the
shafts which are subjected to tensile forces. Cotter provides rigid joint support.
COTTER:

CHAPTER
4
ROD JOINTS
108 ENGINEERING GRAPHICS
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 109
ROD JOINTS

DIMENSIONS OF A COTTER:

Let 'D' be the diameter of connecting rods.
Average dimension of the cotter (d) = 1.3D
Thickness of cotter (t) =0.3D
Length of cotter (l) = 3.5D to 4D.
Fig 4.2
These types of joints are simple in design and need very less application of tools. These are used
to connect the end of a rod of a shaft. The end of the bar has a hole in it and it is called a lug. The
shaft carries a hole. This shaft is locked in place by a smaller pin that passes through the side of
the lug and partly or completely through the shaft itself. This locking pin is named as a cotter,
which sometimes is also applied to the whole joint. The cotter joint is a temporary fastening,
which allows the assembly and disassembly of a unit without damaging the fastened elements of
connecting components. In this type of joint the parts are held together by frictional force.
The obvious example is of a bicycle where both pedal bars separately locked by a cotter pin, on
their common driving shaft having the sprocket to the wheel.
Steel is the most common material used for this application.
Typical applications of the cotter joint are fastening of piston rods and cross heads
in steam engines, yokes in rods, tool fixtures and for services of similar kinds etc.
Examples:
SHAFT
D
SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW
TOP VIEW
COTTER
8
t
TAPER 1:30 ON THIS SIDE
3
3
t
d
L
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 110
ROD JOINTS
USE OF COTTER JOINT
USE OF TAPER IN COTTER JOINT:

The joint is useful in the following conditions:
(i) To connect a rod directly with a machine, so as to transmit a force to the machine
through the rod or vice- versa.
(ii) When it is desired to increase the length of the rod.
(iii) To connect two rods rigidly in the direction of their length.
The taper in the cotter is provided to take the advantage of wedging action (friction locking). The
taper also keeps the joint alive even after some wear in the joint has taken place as the gap
generated due to the wear automatically filled up by the self travel of the cotter. This travel is
assisted due to the taper given in the cotter. Taper helps in insertion into the position and
withdrawal and lateral adjustment of connected parts. The taper should not be too large causing
self removal of the cotter under the external load, but if the large taper is essential, in a case
when frequent disassembly is required, locking devices such as set screw/lock pin etc. become
necessary to secure the cotter in position against the slackening or removal of the cotter from its
position. Generally, the taper of 1: 30 is given and is decided on the basis of the angle of friction
between cotter and rods material. The taper angle should not be greater than the angle of
friction. The thickness of the cotter is generally kept equal to one fourth and one fifth of its width
in the centre. The width of the slot is made 3 to 5 mm bigger than the cotter. When the cotter fits
into the slot, the central portion of the cotter comes in contact with spigot and pushes it into the
socket. These forces on the contacting surfaces prestress the joint and provide the required force
for friction locking of the bearing surfaces. Finally, the edges of the cotter and the edges of the
slot are rounded.
In our syllabus the assembly and disassembly of cotter joints for circular and square rod are there.
We shall learn that there are three cotter joints for connecting the circular rods:
a. Sleeve and Cotter joint
b. Socket and Spigot joint and
c. Knuckle joint (only sectional front view is in our syllabus).
Also in our syllabus there is only one cotter joint for joining square or rectangular rods and
it is called:
d. Gib and cotter joint.
Now, let us learn more about the Sleeve and Cotter Joint
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 111
ROD JOINTS

SLEEVE AND COTTER JOINT:
Sleeve and cotter joint is used to connect two round rods or sometimes to connect two
pipes/tubes. The rods are forged and increased in diameter to some length just to compensate for
the loss of material, for making rectangular hole, accommodate the rectangular tapered cotter in
each rod. The ends of both the rods are chamfered to avoid burring and easy insertion in the
hollow steel sleeve (socket/cylinder/muff). Both the rods are of the same dimensions. A hollow
sleeve is passed over both the rods and has two rectangular holes for the insertion of cotter at
right angle to the axes of the rods. The cotters are automatically adjusted due to the extra margin
given for the clearance in the rod and the sleeve. The relative position of slots is such that the
driving in of the cotters tends to force the rods towards each other in socket or hollow sleeve.
When sleeve and rods are subjected to axial tensile force then the cotter is subjected to shearing
force, these joints are useful for light transmission of axial loads.
Fig 4.3
SLEEVE
COTTER
ROD B
ROD A
SLEEVE AND COTTER JOINT
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 112
ROD JOINTS
Dimensions of a Sleeve and Cotter Joint in terms of diameter of the rods (d)
Fig 4.4
Figure given below (fig : 4.5) shows the parts of a Sleeve and Cotter Joint.
Assemble the parts correctly and then draw the following views to a scale 1 : 1
(a) Front view, upper half in section.
(b) Side view, viewing from the left.
Print title and scale used. Draw the projection symbol. Give '8' important dimensions.
Question:
3.3d
CLEARANCE X,Y AND Z=3mm
TAPER 1:30
3.3d 3mm
Ø2.4d
Ø1.2d Ø
3
.
5
d
.
3
d
1.3d
d d
X
Y
1
.
2
d
2
.
4
d
TAPER ON
THIS SIDE
Z
Ød
H
110 110
Ø

2
5
42
SHAFT-A SHAFT-B
42
4
Ø25
8 Ø35
Ø70
1
1
0
Ø35
32
8
37
5
8 35
100 100
35
SLEEVE WITH COTTER SLOTS
SLEEVE AND COTTER JOINTS
NOTE : FIG. NOT TO SCALE.
USE DIMENSIONS GIVEN
FOR DRAWING SOLUTIONS.
COTTER (2-OFF)
SLEEVE AND COTTER JOINT
H
FRONT VIEW
LEFT SIDE VIEW
Fig 4.5
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 113
ROD JOINTS
Solution of fig :
Question:
4.5
Fig: 4.6
The figure given below (fig: 4.7) shows the assembly of a Sleeve and Cotter Joint
Disassemble the following parts and draw the following views to a full size scale.
(a) F.E. of the sleeve and S.E. viewing from left.
(b) F.E. of Rod A and Rod B and S.E. viewing from left.
(c) F.E. of cotter in vertical position and the plan.
Print titles and scale used. Draw the projection of symbol. Give 8 important dimensions.
110
35 37
100 100
110
Ø
2
5
Ø
3
5
1
1
0
Ø70
A
A
8
5
42
8
LEFT SIDE VIEW
32
SLEEVE AND COTTER JOINT
FRONT VIEW UPPER HALF IN SECTION (SECTION AT AA)
Fig 4.7
SCALE 1:1
NOTE : ALL FILLETS
AND ROUNDS : R4
SLEEVE AND COTTER JOINT ASSEMBLY
FRONT VIEW FULL IN SECTION
3
32
R
5
0
32
3 Ø

2
4
Ø
2
4
Ø30
Ø66
8
10
30 28
90
4
90
28 30
10
R
3
5
0
3
LEFT SIDE VIEW
A
A
TAPER 1:30
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 114
ROD JOINTS
Answer of fig 4.7
Fig 4.8
Figure given below (fig: 4.9) shows the exploded drawing of a Sleeve and Cotter
Joint. Assemble the parts correctly and then draw the following views to scale 1:1
(a) Front view full in section.
(b) Side view, viewing from the left.
Print title and scale used. Draw the projection symbol. Give '8' important dimensions.

Question:
ROD-A
FRONT VIEW
100
ROD-B
Ø
3
0
L.SIDE VIEW
Ø24
A
Ø30
32
8
1
0
0
B
Ø
6
6
Ø
3
0
8
37
A
Ø
2
4
Ø
6
6
Ø
3
0
30
90
28
COTTER
F
R
O
N
T

V
I
E
W
TOP VIEW
C
8
SLEEVE AND COTTER JOINT
Fig 4.9
4
0
1
0
0
3
8
2
1
0
0
4
0
Ø30
8
3
2
5
0
2
8
5
0
C
Ø24
Ø24
Ø30
3
0
3
B
Ø
6
6
8
3
3
0
Ø
3
0
9
0
F
'B' IS A SLEEVE WITH SLOTS FOR COTTER
EACH SLOT INCLUDES CLEARANCE=3mm.
C-COTTER
T
W
O

S
H
A
F
T
S

W
I
T
H

S
L
O
T
S

F
O
R

C
O
T
T
E
R
S
COTTER
100
37
90
30
3
9
0
SLEEVE WITH COTTER HOLES
3
5
3
2
A
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 115
ROD JOINTS
Answer of fig. 4.9
Fig 4.10
Socket and Spigot Cotter Joint is
connecting two rods in such a way
that it can transfer axial
compression or tensile load. In
this case one end of the first rod is
enlarged in diameter to some
length, just to compensate the
loss of material due to rectangular
hole made in it to accommodate a
cotter. A collar is provided at the
end of the enlarged end of the
spigot. The one end of the second
rod is formed into a socket or box
having an appropriate inner
diameter to fit the spigot along
with a collar, for a very simple
construction socket can be considered as a hollow pipe having one side solid and the other hollow,
while the spigot is a solid rod, the solid spigot is nearly of the size of the internal radii of the
socket, where it can fit. Once they are fit, consider that a rectangular cavity of tapering
construction through both the parts, i.e., spigot and socket. This cavity or slot is kept slightly out
SOCKET AND SPIGOT JOINT
FRONT VIEW
3
32
R
5
0
3
32
3 3 Ø

2
4
Ø
2
4
Ø30
Ø66
8
40 28
90
4
90
28 40
10
R
A
FRONT VIEW FULL IN SECTION LEFT SIDE VIEW
ROD-A
SOCKET
COTTER
COLLAR-A
COLLAR-B
SPIGOT
ROD-B
SOCKET AND SPIGOT JOINT
Fig 4.11
5
0
10
SCALE 1:1
SLEEVE AND COTTER JOINT FULL IN SECTION
A
TAPER 1:30
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 116
ROD JOINTS
of alignment so that driving in of the cotter tends to pull the slots in a line, thus making the joint
perfectly tight and rigid. A clearance of 2 to 3 mm is made in these joints for the proper
functioning of the cotter.
Fig 4.12
Ø
1
.
5
d
Ø
2
.
5
d
Ø

d
1.3d
3 mm gap
1
2
3
Ø
1
.
2
d
Ø
1
.
7
5
d
Ø

d
Z Y
0.4d
X
G
0.3d
SECTION AT GG
3.3d-6mm
3
.
5
d

T
O

4
d
PARALLEL
FRONT VIEW LEFT SIDE VIEW
CLEARANCE X,Y AND Z=3mm
TAPER 1:30
TOP VIEW
SOCKET AND SPIGOT JOINT
G
d
R
R
TAPER
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 117
ROD JOINTS
Question: The details of a socket and spigot joint are shown in fig 4.13. Assemble these parts
correctly and then draw its following views to scale full size.
(a) Front view upper half in section.
(b) Side view, as viewed from right.
Print heading and scale used. Draw projection symbol. Give six important dimensions
70
SPIGOT (1-OFF)
18 34
18
8
8
4
31
TAPER 1:30
COTTER (1-OFF)
DETAILS OF A SOCKET AND SPIGOT COTTER JOINT
12
3
Ø
2
4
Ø
3
6
Ø
2
9
Fig 4.13
Ø
2
9
31
73
3
21
Ø
2
4
Ø
4
2
12
24
SOCKET (1-OFF)
FRONT VIEW FRONT VIEW
FRONT VIEW
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 118
ROD JOINTS
Answer of fig. 4.13
Fig 4.14
7
A
85
73
12
24
21
Ø

3
6
Ø

2
4
Ø

2
9
3 31
3 3 18
Ø

2
4
Ø

4
2
TAPER 1:30
Ø 60
RIGHT SIDE VIEW
SOCKET AND SPIGOT JOINT
FRONT VIEW UPPER HALF IN SECTION
SCALE 1:1
A
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 119
ROD JOINTS
Exercise: The three views of a Sleeve and Cotter Joint are given. Disassemble the parts as
given below and draw the following views :
(a) SPIGOT
(i) Front view. (ii) Side view from right
(b) SOCKET
(i) Front view (ii) Right side view.
Print headings and scale used. Draw projection symbol. Give 8 important dimensions
SLEEVE AND COTTER JOINT
Fig 4.15
Ø

2
5
3
5
12 25
18
3
1
0
3
0
34
3
3
12
18
3
TAPER 1:30
Ø

4
0
10
1
0
Ø

6
0
Ø

2
5
FRONT VIEW
RIGHT SIDE VIEW
90
TOP VIEW
A
A
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 120
ROD JOINTS
Exercise: The pictorial views of a Socket and Spigot Joint are given .Disassemble the parts as
given below and draw the following views. Refer Fig. 4.16
(a) SPIGOT
(i) Front view lower half in section (ii) Side view from left
(b) SOCKET
(i) Front view upper half in section (ii) Left side view.
(c) COTTER
(i) Front View (ii) Top View
Print headings of the above and scale used. Draw projection symbol. Give 8 important
dimensions.
SPIGOT AND SOCKET JOINT
FIG : 4.16
TAKE ALL FILLETS AND
ROUNDS, R3
12
2
5
9
4
8
8
1
8
SOCKET END
ROD-2
Ø

2
4
R
2
4
R
1
5
3
6
3
R
2
8
R
2
2
1
4
0
R
1
2
Ø
2
4
ROD-1
COLLAR
VERTICAL SIDE
SPIGOT END
3
0
CLEARANCE
TAPER ON THIS SIDE ONLY
COTTER
A
1
9
5
8
2
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 121
ROD JOINTS
KNUCKLE JOINT OR PIN JOINT
A knuckle joint is generally used to connect rods not positioned in a straight line and subjected to
axial tensile load. This joint is not rigid. Sometimes, if it is required to be used to support
compressive loading, a guide may be provided to constrain the motion of two fastened
components (rods). In this joint the end of one rod is forged to form an eye while the other is made
in the form of a fork having double eyes and this is called as eye end and fork end respectively. Eye
end is inserted in fork end and a cylindrical pin is inserted through common holes in them. The
cylindrical pin is kept in position by a round collar through which a transverse taper pin is
inserted. The rods are quite free to rotate about the cylindrical pin. The end of the rods is made
rectangular to some distance for firm grip and then these are made into a hexagonal or octagonal
in shape (for an easy adjustment with the help of a spanner or a wrench), before it is forged into
eye and fork shapes. This type of joint is widely used in practice to connect rods, which, for
various reasons, cannot be fitted with a rigid joint. It is commonly used when a reciprocating
motion is to be converted into a rotary motion or vice-versa. This joint is used for connecting D-
slide valve, and eccentric rod of a steam engine, air brake of locomotives and many kinds of levers
and rod connections, tie bars of trusses, links of suspension chains and many other links. The
knuckle joint is also used for fastening more than two rods intersecting at a single points.
PIN
1 IN 30 TAPER
Ø
4
0
1
4
FORK END
COLLAR
Ø
2
5
105
R15
1235
30
2
0
3
0
2
0
Ø
5
0
9
0
Ø
4
0
1
4
KUNCKLE PIN
EYE END
80
36
Ø
5
0
3
0
3
0
CIRCULAR
PIN
KNUCKLE - JOINT
ASSEMBLY
EYE END
TAPER PIN
COLLAR
FORK END
Fig: 4.17
KNUCKLE JOINT OR PIN JOINT PARTS
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 122
ROD JOINTS
Dimensions of a Knuckle Joint or Pin Joint in terms of the diameter(d) of the rods to be
connected.
Fig: 4.18
Fig: 4.19
OCTAGONAL
R=1.2d+0.75d
R=0.75d
0
.
7
5
d
Ød d
1
4
.
4
d
0
.
7
d
Ø
1
.
2
d
0
.
7
d
Ø
d
1.5d
0
.
4
d
4d
Ø1.5d
1.2d
R=1.2d
5d
R=0.6d
1.5d
KNUCKLE JOINT
Ø
1
.
2
d
Ø
d
Ø1.2d
EYE END
SECTIONAL ASSEMBLY OF A KNUCKLE JOINT
PIN
EYE END
COLLAR
TAPER PIN
FORK END
R = 0.75d
0
.
7
5
d
R=d+0.75d
Ø1.5d
TAPER PIN DIA =0.25d
Ø2d
ROUND ROD-A
ROUND ROD-B
FORK END
COLLAR
TAPER PIN
PIN
SCALE 1:1
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 123
ROD JOINTS
Question: fig 4.19(a) shows the parts of a KUNCKLE JOINT. Assemble the parts correctly and
then draw the front view, showing upper half in section using the scale 1:1
Print title and scale used. Give 6 important dimensions.
1 2
Ø

4
0
Ø 2 4
F
R
O
N
T

V
I
E
W
F
O
R
K

E
N
D
3
5
R

3
3

S Q 3 0
R

1
5
Ø
6
0
3
5
1 8 3 0 1 8
T
A
P
E
R

P
I
N

4
4

L
O
N
G
Ø
6

x

Ø
4
C
O
L
L
A
R
1 4
Ø
4
0
Ø
2
4
Ø
2
4
8 2
P
I
N
3
5
3 0
9
0
3
0
F
R
O
N
T

V
I
E
W
1
2
0
T
O
P

V
I
E
W
E
Y
E

E
N
D
K
N
U
C
K
L
E

J
O
I
N
T
F
i
g
:

4
.
1
9
(
a
)

Ø
2
4
S Q 3 0
Ø 2 4
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 124
ROD JOINTS
Answer of fig 4.19 (a)
Ø 2 4
3
5
R

3
3
R

1
5
Ø
2
4
1 4
1 8
9
0
S Q 3 0
1 8
1 2
Ø
4
0
5
K
N
U
C
K
L
E

J
O
I
N
T
1
2
0
3
5
S Q 3 0
F
i
g
:

4
.
2
0
S
C
A
L
E

1
:
1
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 125
ROD JOINTS
Question: The figure 4.21 shows the parts of a Knuckle joint. Assemble these parts correctly
and then draw the Front view, bottom half in section, to a scale full size.
Print title and scale used. Give six important dimensions.
K
N
U
C
K
L
E
-
J
O
I
N
T
Ø
4
0
T
A
P
E
R

P
I
N
C
O
L
L
A
R

(
Ø
3
0
)
2 6 1 5
1 0
Ø 3 1 5
K
N
U
C
K
L
E

P
I
N
Ø
2
0 R
1
4
R

2
5
R
1
4
F
O
R
K

E
N
D

R
O
D
Ø
3
0
1 0
Ø
2
0
7 6
1 0
Ø 4
Ø
4
0
7
0
Ø
2
0
E
Y
E

E
N
D

R
O
D
O
C
T
A
G
O
N
A
L

E
N
D
3
6
Ø 2 0
S Q 2 5 R
1
4
Ø 2 0
3
5
3
6
S Q 2 5
S Q 2 5
3
6
6
0
Ø 2 0 Ø 2 0
F
i
g
:

4
.
2
1
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 126
ROD JOINTS
Answer of fig 4.21
S Q 2 5
Ø 2 0
3
5
R
3
0
R
2
5

R
1
3
1 0
Ø 3
Ø

4
0
Ø

3
5
7 6
3
5
Ø
3
0
1 0
7
0
3
5
Ø 2 0
S Q 2 5
Ø

2
0
H
E
L
P
I
N
G

V
I
E
W
F
R
O
N
T

V
I
E
W

(
L
O
W
E
R

H
A
L
F

I
N

S
E
C
T
I
O
N
)
S
C
A
L
E

1
:
1
K
N
U
C
K
L
E

J
O
I
N
T
F
i
g
:

4
.
2
2
Ø 4
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 127
ROD JOINTS
Exercises: The three views of a Knuckle Joint are given in (fig.4.23). Disassemble and draw
the parts as given below.
(a) FORK END
(i) Front view upper half in section
(b) EYE END
(i) Front view lower half in section
(c) CIRCULAR PIN
(i) FRONT VIEW
Print headings of the above views and scale used. Draw projection symbol. Give six
important dimensions
Fig 4.23
1
8
1
2

8
2
8
1
8
1
2
Ø 38
Ø 32
1
5
R15
R 30
2
8
R12
44
Ø
2
5
Ø 38
Ø 25
R
1
2
100
Ø 6
130
SCALE 1:1
Ø
2
5
44
FRONT VIEW FULL IN SECTION
TOP VIEW
Ø 3
ASSEMBLY OF KNUCKLE JOINT
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 128
ROD JOINTS
GIB AND COTTER JOINT
This joint is used to join two rods of square or rectangular in cross section. The end of one rod is
forged in the from of a fork or strap. The height of the other rod is increased for compensating the
loss of material in making the slot for cotter. The Gib is made up of mild steel and has the same
thickness as that of the cotter. the Gib has projections at the top and bottom ends which act like
hooks. While connecting two rods the Gib is inserted first and pushed towards the end of the fork
and then the cotter is hammered over. The tapering sides of the Gib and the cotter mate with
each other, while their outer sides are parallel to each and perpendicular to the common axis of
the rods. Hence, when a Gib is used with a cotter, the opposite faces of the slots in the rods are
parallel to each other. The Gib acts like a counter part of the socket/strap. The Gib increases the
tearing area of the cotter and prevents slackening of the joint besides holding the jaws of the
strap or fork from opening wide when the cotter is inserted. The use of Gib and Cotter enables the
parallel holes to be used. When Gib is used the taper is provided in the Gib. This joint is useful to
fasten connecting rod of a steam engine or marine engine.
Fig. 4.25
COTTER
FORK
SECTIONAL VIEW OF GIB AND COTTER JOINT
ROD END
TAPER ON
THIS SIDE
COTTER
RECTANGULAR
SLOT
GIB
Fig. 4.24
FORK END
GIB
FORK END
EYE END
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 129
ROD JOINTS
Dimensions of a Gib and Cotter Joint in terms of the side (s) of the rods to be connected.
Fig. 4.26
The figure 4.27 shows the exploded pictorial View of a Gib and Cotter Joint.
Assemble these parts correctly and then draw the following views to scale 1:1.
(a) Front View, full in section
(b) Right side view
(c) Top view.
Print title and scale used. Give six important dimensions.
Question:
FRONT VIEW FULL IN SECTION
GIB AND COTTER JOINT FOR SQUARE RODS
0
.
3
6
B
S
Q

S
B/4
Z
L M
EYE END
GIB
A B
COTTER
C D
X
2
S
S
Q

S
A=C=D=0.75S
B=1.3S
L=0.55B
M=0.45B
H
L
=
3
.
5
S
S
Q

S
0.3S
Y = 3mm
CLEARANCE X,Y AND Z = 3mm
TAPER 1:20
Fig : 4.27
FORK END
H
LEFT SIDE VIEW
TOP VIEW
A
B
3
0
3
5
1
0
1
1
2
SQ30
R5
2
0
1
0
1
0
3
5
2
7
3
0
F
R5
SQ30
5
0
C
5
3
20 12
5
3
5
0
10
7
6
10
TAPER ON THIS SIDE
10
DETAILS OF GIB AND COTTER JOINT
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 130
ROD JOINTS
Answer: of fig (4.27)
Fig. 4.28
The figure 4.29 shows the detail drawings of different parts of a Gib and Cotter
Joint for joining two square rods. Assemble all the parts correctly and draw the
following views to scale 1:1
(a) Front view, upper half in section.
(b) Side view, viewing from the left hand side.
(c) Print title, scale used and draw the projection symbol. Give '6' important
dimensions.
Question:
1
0
3
0
TOP VIEW
RIGHT SIDE VIEW
FRONT VIEW FULL IN SECTION
20 30
112
5
3
Taper
10
5
3
3
12
20
1
0
7
6
1
0
B
C 30 X
10
S
Q

3
0
A.
3 X
ASSEMBLY OF A GIB AND COTTER JOINT
SCALE 1:1
A
A
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 131
ROD JOINTS
DETAILS OF A GIB AND COTTER JOINT
FIG: 4.29
S
Q

4
0
S
Q

4
0
38 55
FRONT VIEW
EYE END
1
0
TOP VIEW SQ. ROD
42 55 35
162
R10
S
Q
4
0
FORK END
FRONT VIEW
1
3
4
0
1
3
S
Q
4
0
FORK TOP VIEW
TOP VIEW OF
COTTER
1
0
TOP VIEW
OF GIB
12
9
6
6
6
26
COTTER
GIB
1
5
0
32
FRONT VIEW
26
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 132
ROD JOINTS
Answer of fig 4.29
F
I
G
:

4
.
3
0
3
2
1
2
1 5
2
6
2
6
R
1
0
S Q 4 0
6 6
T
A
P
E
R

1
:
3
0
H
A
L
F

S
E
C
T
I
O
N
A
L

F
R
O
N
T

V
I
E
W
4
0
A
1
0
L
E
F
T

S
I
D
E

V
I
E
W
3
3
S Q 4 0
S
C
A
L
E

1
:
1
A
A
S
S
E
M
B
L
Y

O
F

A

G
I
B

A
N
D

C
O
T
T
E
R

ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 133
ROD JOINTS
Exercise: The two views of a Gib and Cotter Joint are given. Disassemble the parts as give
below: Fig : 4.31
(a) FORK END
(i) Front view upper half in section and top view without section.
(b) EYE END
(i) Front lower half in section and top view.
(c) GIB
(i) Front view and top view
(d) COTTER
(i) Front and top view.
Print headings of the above views and scale used. Draw projection symbol. Give six
important dimensions.
28
14 3
3 22 22 41
1
2
S
Q

4
0
1
2
1
0
0
152
S
Q

4
0

GIB AND COTTER JOINT
Fig 4.31
1
2
FRONT VIEW UPPER HALF IN SECTION
TOP VIEW
TAPER 1:30
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 134
ROD JOINTS
Exercises
Q.1. What is cotter?
Q.2. What are dimensions of a cotter in terms of the diameter of the shafts to be joined?
Q.3. Why clearance is necessary in a cotter joint?
Q.4. What do you understand by the self locking of the cotter?
Q.5. Why a Gib is used along with a cotter in a Gib and cotter joint?
Q.6. Where knuckle joint is used?
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 135
Machi nes use var i ous par t s whi ch ar e j oi ned i n sever al ways f or t he machi ne t o f unct i on as whol e.
We have l ear nt about some devi ces l i ke f ast ener s ( t empor ar y & per manent ) and some si mpl e
j oi nt s t o j oi n t wo r ods i n t he pr evi ous chapt er s. Let us now l ear n some mor e mi scel l aneous j oi nt s
whi ch ar e commonl y used, vi z.
( a) TIE- ROD JOINT/ TURNBUCKLE
( b) FLANGED PIPE JOINT
In our day t o day l i f e, we may come acr oss r ods/ machi ne par t s whi ch ar e subj ect ed t o push and
pul l and t hi s j oi nt s need t o be t i ght ened or l oosened as i n t he case of wi r es of el ect r i c pol es,
cabl es, a sai l boat 's st andi ng, r i ggi ng wi r es or even i n boxi ng r i ngs.
5.1 TIE-ROD JOINT

CHAPTER
5
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS
(a) In cables/ guy wires (c) In boxing rings
USE OF TURNBUCKLE
Fig.5.1
(b) In electric poles.
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 136
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS
In such cases, an adj ust abl e j oi nt known as 't ur nbuckl e' i s used. It ser ves as a j oi ni ng devi ce
bet ween t he r opes and t he post s or r ods.
COMMERCIAL TYPE TURNBUCKLE.
Fig 5.2
The 't ur nbuckl e' consi st s of an el ongat ed met al t ube ( body) whi ch i s cyl i ndr i cal i n shape
and has t aper ed ends. It s cent r al por t i on has a sl ot t o ai d t i ght eni ng and l ooseni ng of r ods
by t omy bar. Each t aper ed end of t he body has t hr eaded hol es wi t h opposi t e i nt er nal
scr ew t hr eads, i . e. Ri ght hand ( RH) t hr eads at one end and l ef t - hand ( LH) t hr eads at t he
ot her, as shown i n Fi g 5. 3 ( a)
5.1.1 FEATURES:
DETAILS OF A TURNBUCKLE
Fig 5.3
Central Slot
LH Internal
Screw Threads
RH Internal
Screw Threads
Tapered End
(a) Body
LH
RH
(c) Right - hand Threaded Rod (b) Left - hand Threaded Rod
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 137
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS

( We have di scussed about t he convent i onal r epr esent at i on of scr ew t hr eads ( RH & LH) i n t he
pr evi ous chapt er, r ef er sect i on 3) .
Even t he t wo r ods / r i ng bol t s have t hr eads of opposi t e hand, whi ch ar e scr ewed i n and out of t he
body si mul t aneousl y t o adj ust t he pul l / push ( t ensi on) or l engt h, wi t hout t wi st i ng t he wi r es or
at t ached cabl es.
ASSEMBLY OF A TURNBUCKLE (PICTORIAL VIEW)
Fig 5.4
Now, l et us under st and t hei r or t hogr aphi c vi ews, wi t h t he hel p of an exampl e and move on
t o assembl y of di f f er ent par t s of t he ` Tur nbuckl e' and t hen dr awi ng of t he r equi r ed
sect i onal vi ews.
The f i g 5. 5 shows det ai l s of t he par t s of a Tur nbuckl e. Assembl e t hese par t s
cor r ect l y and t hen dr aw i t s f ol l owi ng vi ews t o scal e 1: 1, i nser t i ng 50mm
t hr eaded por t i on of each r od i nsi de t he body of Tur nbuckl e.
( a) Fr ont vi ew, upper hal f i n sect i on.
( b) Top vi ew.
( c) Si de vi ew as vi ewed f r om l ef t .
Wr i t e headi ng and scal e used. Dr aw pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve i mpor t ant
di mensi ons.
5.1.2 Orthographic views
Example 1
ROD END (RH)
ROD END (LH)
SOCKET / BODY
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 138
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS
Fig 5.5
The above f i g 5. 5 shows or t hogr aphi c vi ews of di f f er ent par t s of a ` Tur nbuckl e".
Let us assembl e t hem cor r ect l y t o obt ai n/ dr aw t he r equi r ed vi ews.
The i nt er nal di amet er of t hr eaded hol es of t he body and di amet er of t he r ods ar e
same, so t he LH ( Lef t - hand) Thr eaded r od wi l l be f i t t ed f r om t he l ef t - si de of t he
body and si mi l ar l y t he RH Thr eaded r od f r om t he r i ght si de.
( 1) Onl y 50mm of t he t hr eaded por t i on of t he r ods wi l l be i nsi de t he t ur nbuckl e, t he
r emai ni ng 30mm por t i on wi l l be shown out si de t he body as can be seen i n t he
Fi g. 5. 6 bel ow.
Solutions:
Point to remember :
150
Ø

2
5
20 10
Ø

2
5
10 20
2
2
1
4
1
4
32
SEC. SIDE VIEW
Ø50
M 12
SEC. FRONT VIEW
M 12X2 LH
80
FRONT VIEW
M 12X2 RH
80
FRONT VIEW
UPPER HALF SECTIONAL FRONT VIEW
Ø

2
5
20 10
150
10 20
1
4
30
2
2
50 30 50
M 12
Ø 50
32
LEFT SIDE VIEW
M 12x2 LH M 12x2 RH
A
A
TOP VIEW
TURNBUCKLE
SCALE 1:1
ASSEMBLY OF A TURNBUCKLE (ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS)
Fig 5.6
DETAILS OF A TURNBUCKLE
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 139
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS

( 2) It can al so be not i ced t hat t he wi dt h of t he edges of t he sl ot s can be obt ai ned
f r om t he si de vi ew.
( 3) In t he sect i onal f r ont vi ew, t he r ods need not be l ocal l y sect i oned as no i nt r i cat e
i nner det ai l s ar e pr esent , as i n t he pr evi ous chapt er.
Let us consi der anot her exampl e, and dr aw t he or t hogr aphi c vi ews of t he assembl ed
par t s.
The f i g 5. 7 shows t he det ai l s of t he par t s of a Tur nbuckl e. Assembl e t hese par t s
cor r ect l y, and t hen dr aw i t s f ol l owi ng vi ews t o scal e 1: 1, i nser t i ng 60mm
t hr eaded por t i on of each r od i nsi de t he body of t he Tur nbuckl e.
( a) Fr ont vi ew, l ower hal f i n sect i on.
( b) Si de- vi ew as vi ewed f r om t he r i ght .
Pr i nt t i t l e and scal e used. Dr aw pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve si x i mpor t ant
di mensi ons.
Example 2:
DETAILS OF A TURNBUCKLE
Fig 5.7
80
80
Ø
3
0
Ø
3
0
2x45°
ROD-A LH THREADS ROD-B RH THREADS
Ø
3
0

L
H

T
H
Ø
4
0

Ø
6
0

25 15 15 25
180
TURNBUCKLE
Ø
3
0

R
H

T
H
3
5
2x45°
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 140
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS
Solution:
Exercise 5.1
In t he f i g 5. 7 gi ven, or t hogr aphi c vi ews of t he par t s of a Tur nbuckl e" ar e shown.
Let us assembl e t hem cor r ect l y and obt ai n t he or t hogr aphi c vi ews as shown
bel ow i n f i g 5. 8
ASSEMBLED ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS OF A TURNBUCKLE.
Fig 5.8
1. Fi gur e 5. 9 and 5. 10 shows t he di sassembl ed vi ews of t he par t s of a Tur nbuckl e.
Assembl e t he par t s cor r ect l y, and t hen dr aw t he f ol l owi ng vi ews t o scal e 1: 1,
keepi ng t he same posi t i on wi t h r espect t o HP and VP:
( a) Hal f sect i onal el evat i on, upper hal f i n sect i on.
( b) Pl an.
60
80
25 15 25 15
180
60
80
Ø 30 LH THREADS Ø 30 RH THREADS
Ø60
FRONT VIEW (LOWER HALF IN SECTION)
2
5
30 15 30 15 120

4
5
TOP VIEW
Ø
6
0
Ø

4
0
X
X
3
5
RH SIDE VIEW
Ø

3
0

Ø

4
0

SCALE 1:1
LEFT SIDE
VIEW
FRONT VIEW UPPER HALF IN SECTION
Ø20
A
A
( a) TURNBUCKLE
Fig 5.9
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 141
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS

ORTHOGRAPIC VIEWS OF DETAILS OF A TURNBUCKLE
Fig.5.10
Pr i nt t he t i t l e and scal e used. Gi ve si x i mpor t ant di mensi ons.
Those l ong hol l ow cyl i nder s or 'pi pes' ar e a r egul ar f eat ur e, be i t t he pi pes t hat br i ng wat er f r om
t r eat ment pl ant s t o your home or t he dr ai nage pi pes or even t he r oadsi de l ong gas pi pe- l i ne.
5.2 PIPE-JOINTS
125
Ø 20 LH
(b) ROD-A
125
Ø 20 RH
(c) ROD-B
LH SIDE VIEW
( a) A GAS PIPELINE
FRONT VIEW
FRONT VIEW
RH SIDE VIEW
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 142
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS
Fig 5.11
Si nce ages, we know pi pes have been ext ensi vel y used as car r i er s of f l ui ds l i ke wat er, oi l , st eam
gas, wast e, f or wat er suppl y syst ems, oi l r ef i ner i es, chemi cal pl ant s, sewage pi pi ng syst em et c.
And t hese pi pes may be made of di f f er ent mat er i al s l i ke cast - i r on, st eel , wr ought i r on, pl ast i c or
concr et e as per t he r equi r ement ; but t hey "can't be made of a desi r ed l engt h" f or a par t i cul ar use,
due t o const r ai nt s of manuf act ur i ng, t r anspor t at i on, st or i ng and handl i ng di f f i cul t i es. So pi pes of
st andar d l engt h ar e t aken and j oi ned t oget her, dependi ng upon t he mat er i al and pur pose f or
whi ch i t i s used.
The most common among t hem i s t he 'Cast Ir on Fl ange Joi nt ' whi ch we wi l l di scuss i n det ai l .
As t he name suggest s, t hi s t ype of j oi nt i s used f or cast - i r on ( C. I. ) pi pes, whi ch ar e usual l y
of l ar ge di amet er not l ess t hen 50 mm and used most l y f or l ow- pr essur e appl i cat i ons, such
as under gr ound sewer pi pes, wat er and gas l i nes and dr ai nage i n bui l di ngs. We can al so see
t hi s t ype of j oi nt i n t he wat er out l et pi pes i nst al l ed i n sever al school s as a f i r e saf et y
measur e.
( a) Gas Pr oduct i on Pl ant ( b) Wat er Pi pe
Fig. 5.12
5.2.1 CAST-IRON FLANGE PIPE JOINT
( b) Di schar ge f r om a f act or y ( c) Dr i nki ng f r om a wat er pi pe
USES OF PIPES

SOME APPLICATIONS OF FLANGE JOINT
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 143
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS

5.2.1.1 FEATURES:
In t hi s t ype of j oi nt , bot h t he hol l ow cyl i ndr i cal pi pes have a pr oj ect ed ci r cul ar r i ng/
f l ar ed r i m on t hei r ends, whi ch i s known as 'f l ange', as shown i n f i g 5. 13. It ser ves t o hol d
t he pi pe i n pl ace, gi ve i t st r engt h and al so at t ach t o anot her f l ange. The f l anges ar e made
t hi cker t han t he pi pe- wal l s f or st r engt h. Gr eat er st r engt h may be r equi r ed when pr essur e
i s hi gh; so t he t hi ckness of t he pi pe- wal l s i s i ncr eased f or shor t l engt hs i n st eps, as
i ndi cat ed i n t he f i g 5. 13. We al so know pi pes car r y l i qui ds and gases and t hey need t o be
t i ght and l eak- pr oof . In or der t o do so, a mechani sm si mi l ar t o t he one, we use i n pr essur e
cooker s i s ut i l i zed i . e. , her e al so we have a si mi l ar t hi n ci r cul ar packi ng r i ng/ gasket of sof t
mat er i al , such as Indi an r ubber, canvas et c. coat ed wi t h r ed l ead. Thi s i s pl aced i n
bet ween t he f aces of t he t wo f l anges. For per f ect al i gnment , t hese f aces ar e machi ned at
r i ght angl e t o t he axes of t he pi pes. Then t hese f l anges wi t h t he gasket i n bet ween ar e
connect ed t oget her by means of nut s and bol t s whi ch ar e f i t t ed t hr ough t he hol es i n t he
f l anges. ( The bol t s and nut s may be squar e- headed or hexagonal - headed i n shape. )
RUBBER GASKET
PACKING MATERIAL
(b) GASKET
THICK FLANGE WALLS
INCREASED THICKNESS OF
WALLS IN STEPS
RIGHT
FLANGE (C.I.)
(c) RIGHT FLANGED PIPE
4 HOLES
(TO ACCOMODATE
4 BOLTS & NUTS)
LEFT
FLANGE
(C.I.)
(a) LEFT FLANGED PIPE
(e) NUT
HEX, NUT (4 OFF)
SQ. HEADED BOLT (4-OFF)
(d) BOLT
DETAILS OF A FLANGE PIPE JOINT (HALF SECTIONAL PICTORIAL VIEW)
Fig. 5.13
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 144
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS

Thus, i t can be seen t hat f l ange j oi nt s hel p i n easy and f ast di sassembl y t o wi t hst and
hi gher pr essur es.
ASSEMBLY OF CAST - IRON FLANGED JOINT
(HALF IN SECTION - PICTORIAL VIEW)
Fig. 5.14
Let us now under st and t he or t hogr aphi c vi ews of di f f er ent par t s of t he Fl anged Pi pe Joi nt
and l ear n t o assembl e t hem cor r ect l y. And t hen dr aw t he sect i onal vi ew & ot her
or t hogr aphi c vi ews of t he assembl y.
Fi gur e 5. 15 shows t he det ai l s of t he par t s of a Fl anged Pi pe Joi nt . Assembl e t hese
par t s cor r ect l y and t hen dr aw t o scal e 1: 1, i t s f ol l owi ng vi ews:
( a) Fr ont vi ew, upper hal f i n sect i on.
( b) Si de vi ew, as vi ewed f r om l ef t .
Wr i t e headi ng and scal e used. Dr aw pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve si x i mpor t ant
di mensi ons
5.2.1.2 ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS
Example 1:
4 HEX. NUTS
FASTENED WITH
4 SQ. BOLTS
LEFT FLANGE (C.I.)
RIGHT FLANGE (C.I.)
GASKET (RUBBER)
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 145
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS
DETAILS OF A FLANGED PIPE JOINT
Fig 5.15
In t he f i gur e 5. 15, t he f r ont vi ew of al l t he par t s of t he Fl anged Pi pe Joi nt ar e
shown. Let us assembl e t hese par t s as l ear nt i n t he pr evi ous sect i on.
1. As di scussed ear l i er, t he gasket i s pl aced bet ween t he t wo f l anges. ( It can be
seen, t he i nner di amet er s of al l t he t hr ee par t s i . e. t he t wo f l anges and t he
gasket ar e same ( Ø62) and al l wi l l be i n a l i ne. )
Solution:
(4) SQ HEADED BOLT
M.S.– 4 OFF
Ø

6
2
Ø

9
0
12 20
R3
(2) FLANGE C.I.- 1 0FF
Ø

6
2

Ø

7
4

Ø

8
0

R
2
0
20
42 8
M
1
0
Ø

1
3
2
Ø

1
0
6
3
(3) GASKET
INDIAN RUBBER - 1 OFF
20 12
R3
(1) FLANGE C.I.- 1 0FF
Ø

6
2

Ø

7
4

Ø

8
0

Ø

1
3
2
Ø

1
0
6
10
(5) HEX. NUT
M.S. - 4 OFF
4 HOLES Ø 12 ON 106
P.C.D. AT EQUAL ANGLES
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 146
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS
ASSEMBLY OF A FLANGED PIPE JOINT
Fig 5.16
2. Then, t he f our squar e ( SQ) headed bol t s ar e f i t t ed i n t he hol es as shown i n t he
f l anges cent r al l y; t he di st ance bet ween t he axes of hol es bei ng Ø106 ( PCD) . ( It
can be seen, t he hol es ar e of Ø12 and t he bol t s & nut s have di amet er 10mm, so a
gap ( cl ear ance) of 1mm i s pr esent ar ound and i s shown i n t he t op and bot t om of
t he shank of t he bol t , pl aced i n t he hol es, i n t he f r ont vi ew. ) Ref er Fi g 5. 16.
3. Si nce, sect i onal f r ont vi ew ( upper hal f i n sect i on) i s asked, so bot h t he f l anged
pi pes ar e sect i oned i n opposi t e di r ect i ons, as t hey ar e di f f er ent machi ne par t s.
The gasket , bei ng a t hi n sect i on, may be shown ent i r el y bl ack as per SP- 46 :
( 2003) BIS speci f i cat i ons ( 10. 2. 3) . Not i ce t he cr oss- sect i on of t he pi pe ( t o
r epr esent a hol l ow cyl i ndr i cal sect i on. )
4. In t he si de vi ew, whi ch i s a compl et e vi ew, al l t he bol t s and nut s ( bol t head i n
hi dden l i nes) ar e shown on t he r i ng of di amet er 106, i . e. PCD ( pi t ch ci r cl e
di amet er ) .
M 10 10 12 3 12
42 20
8
R3
R
20
Ø 132
Ø 74
A
4 HOLES Ø 12
ON PCD = 106
Ø 90
Ø 80
Ø 62
A
LH SIDE VIEW TOP HALF SEC. FRONT VIEW
SCALE 1:1
(THREADED
LENGTH = 20)
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 147
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS
Let us consi der anot her exampl e, t o under st and t he assembl ed vi ews cor r ect l y.
Fi g 5. 17 shows t he det ai l s of a Fl anged Pi pe Joi nt . Assembl e t hese par t s
cor r ect l y, and t hen dr aw t he f ol l owi ng vi ews t o a scal e f ul l si ze:
( a) Fr ont vi ew, showi ng bot t om hal f i n sect i on
( b) Si de vi ew as seen, f r om t he r i ght .
Pr i nt t i t l e and scal e used. Dr aw t he pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve i mpor t ant
di mensi ons.
DETAILS OF A FLANGED PIPE JOINT
Fig. 5.17
Example 2
Ø

1
4
0
Ø

1
1
0
R 3
Ø

5
8
Ø

6
8
Ø

7
8
25
R 5
15
NUTS (4 OFF)
25
Ø

1
4
0
Ø

1
1
0
R 5 R 3
4 HOLES Ø 10
Ø

5
8
Ø

6
8
Ø

7
8
4 HOLES Ø 10
15
3
FLANGED PIPE JOINT
R12
M 8
6
22
52
BOLTS (4 OFF)
Ø

5
8
Ø

8
0
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 148
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS
Solution:
Exercise 5.2
In t he above gi ven f i g 5. 17, t he or t hogr aphi c ( f r ont ) vi ews of di f f er ent par t s ar e
gi ven. Let us assembl e t hem pr oper l y and t hen dr aw t he r equi r ed vi ews, as
shown i n t he f i g 5. 18
ASSEMBLY OF A FLANGED PIPE JOINT
Fig 5.18
Fi gur e 5. 19 shows t he det ai l s of par t s of t he Fl anged Pi pe Joi nt . Assembl e t hese
par t s cor r ect l y and t hen dr aw t he f ol l owi ng vi ews t o f ul l - si ze scal e:
( a) Upper hal f sect i onal f r ont vi ew
( b) Lef t - hand si de vi ew.
Pr i nt t i t l e and t he scal e used. Dr aw t he pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve si x i mpor t ant
di mensi ons.
Ø 110
Ø 140
Ø 68
X
X
DETAILS OF A FLANGED PIPE JOINT
Fig 5.19
Ø

7
8
R3 R5
6 8
25 25 15 15 3
R12
6 22
52
M
8
RH SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW (BOTTOM HALF IN SECTION)
AT X-X
FLANGES (2-OFF)
Ø

1
2
6
Ø

1
2
0
Ø

1
0
0
Ø 20, 4 HOLES
35 20
Ø

1
7
0

P
C
D
Ø

2
1
0
Ø

1
0
0
Ø

1
4
4
3
GASKET (1-OFF)
HEX. HEADED BOLT (4-OFF)
12
60
30
M 16X2
NOTE : FILLETS AND ROUNDS R-3
HEX. NUT (4-OFF)
15
Ø 58
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 149
TIE-ROD AND PIPE JOINTS
WHAT HAVE WE LEARNT
1. Tur nbuckl e/ Ti e- r od Joi nt i s an adj ust abl e t empor ar y j oi nt , whi ch connect s t he ends of
t wo r ods axi al l y when t hey ar e subj ect ed t o push/ pul l ( t ensi l e) f or ces.
2. It consi st s of :
( a) Body: A hol l ow cyl i nder wi t h t aper ed ends havi ng t hr eaded hol es & a cent r al
sl ot .
( b) Left-hand (LH) threaded rod: The r od end as l ef t - hand t hr eads.
( c) RH-threaded rod: Thi s r od end has opposi t e hand t hr eads ( i . e. r i ght - hand scr ew
t hr eads)
3. The t hr eaded r od ends ar e scr ewed i n or out of t he body t o t i ght en or l oosen t he j oi nt or
adj ust t he l engt h.
4. Tur nbuckl e i s used i n t he guy r opes, wi r es of el ect r i c pol es, r i ggi ng wi r es of shi p, wr est l i ng
r i ngs et c.
5. 'Pi pes' ar e used t o t r ansf er l i qui ds or gas f r om one pl ace t o anot her, and ar e made of
var i ous mat er i al s l i ke cast i r on, st eel , copper, concr et e, pl ast i c et c.
6. Pi pes ar e connect ed t o each ot her i n di f f er ent ways; known as 'Pi pe Joi nt s' t o i ncr ease t he
l engt h or t o connect t wo di f f er ent f i t t i ngs.
7. Sever al t ype of pi pe j oi nt s ar e avai l abl e, whi ch depend upon t he mat er i al and t ype of
ser vi ce.
8. 'Fl ange Pi pe Joi nt ' i s used t o connect l ar ge di amet er pi pes, especi al l y cast - i r on pi pes.
9. It consi st s of :
( a) Flanged pipes: The pi pes have i nt egr al f l ar ed r i m at t he ends ( f l ange) and may
have t hi cker wal l s i n st eps f or st r engt h.
( b) Gasket: A ci r cul ar t hi n r i ng of sof t mat er i al , pl aced bet ween t he f l anges t o keep
t he j oi nt l eak- pr oof .
( c) Nuts & bolts: Used t o f ast en t he t wo f l anges. May be hexagonal or squar e
headed.
10. The t wo cast i r on pi pes wi t h i nt egr al f l anges ar e connect ed t oget her by means of bol t s and
nut s, and t he gasket / packi ng mat er i al i n bet ween t he f l anges, t o keep i t t i ght & l eak-
pr oof .
11 Fl ange Pi pe Joi nt can be seen i n under gr ound wat er syst em, gas l i nes, dr ai nage syst ems
et c.
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 150
Shaf t s as we have l ear nt i n t he pr evi ous chapt er s, mechani cal / machi ne par t s t hat ar e commonl y
used t o t r ansmi t power f r om one end of t he machi ne/ uni t t o anot her. But what , i f t hese ends ar e
di st ance apar t . Mor eover t he shaf t s ar e made of l i mi t ed l engt hs f or ease of t r anspor t ar t s, so i n
such a case, we woul d connect t he shaf t s t o f or m a l ong t r ansmi ssi on shaf t , as we have done i n
case of j oi nt s i n t he ear l er chapt er.
Si mi l ar l y Even i n case of power t r ansmi ssi on bet ween di f f er ent machi ne t o uni t , as seen, bet ween
a mot or and a gener at or or pump, t he shaf t s need t o be j oi ned t oget her a t o t r ansmi t r ot ar y
mot i on bet ween shaf t s of same uni t , as wel l as of di f f er ent machi nes / uni t . And t o do so, we have
devi ces known as "coupl i ngs" whi ch ar e used t o "j oi n t wo shaf t s".
( a) In an aut omobi l e ( b) under a l ocomot i ve
( Connect i ng shaf t s of Di f f er ent machi nes) ( Connect i ng shaf t s of t he same uni t )
Fig. 6.1
Sever al t ypes of coupl i ngs ar e avai l abl e dependi ng upon t he t ype of t r ansmi ssi on and r el at i ve
posi t i on of t he shaf t . In t hi s book, we wi l l be di scussi ng onl y t he wi del y used t ype i . e. Fl ange
Coupl i ng.


SHAFT COUPLINGS
CHAPTER
6
SHAFT COUPLINGS
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

6.1 FLANGE COUPLINGS
Thi s i s a st andar d f or m of coupl i ng and i s ext ensi vel y used. It can be seen i n l ar ge power machi nes
and i s used f or heavy l oads.
It i s cl assi f i ed i nt o t wo t ypes dependi ng upon i t s shape:
a. Unpr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng
b. Pr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng.
( a) Unpr ot ect ed ( b) Pr ot ect ed
Fig 6.2
Let us st udy t hese t ype of Fl ange Coupl i ngs i n det ai l .
As t he name suggest s, t hi s t ype of coupl i ng al so has f l anges ( pr oj ect ed r i m ) and r esembl es t he
Fl ange Pi pe Joi nt l ear nt i n t he pr evi ous chapt er. Let us know mor e about i t s par t s and see, why i t
i s cal l ed as 'unpr ot ect ed'.
Fig 6.3
6.1.1 UNPROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING
DIFFERENT TYPES OF FLANGE COUPLINGS
THE UNPROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING CONNECTS
THE SHAFTS FROM A PUMP TO THAT OF A ENGINE
151
SHAFT COUPLINGS
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 152
SHAFT COUPLINGS
6.1.1.1 Features:
The Unpr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng has t wo si mi l ar cast i r on f l anges, ( l ef t & r i ght ) wi t h t he
shape si mi l ar t o t he f l anges i n t he 'f l anged pi pe j oi nt '. But t hese f l anges have keyways i n
t he hubs, so t hat t he ends of t he shaf t s t o be connect ed can be keyed t o t he f l anges wi t h
separ at e r ect angul ar sunk t ype keys. Even t he shaf t s al so have keyways, whi ch ar e
assembl ed at r i ght angl es, so t hat t he key of one shaf t does not sl i de i nt o t he ot her. These
keys ar e usual l y dr i ven f r om i nsi de f aces of t he f l anges f or easy f i t t i ng.
Fig 6.4
Her e al so, t he f aces of t he f l anges ar e kept at r i ght angl es t o t he axi s f or pr oper al i gnment .
Now, t o get t he per f ect al i gnment of shaf t s, one of t he f l anges may have a pr oj ect ed
ci r cul ar ext ensi on on t he out si de and t hus t he ot her f l ange wi l l , have a cor r espondi ng sl ot
/ r ecess. Thi s gi ves t he f l anges a per f ect f i t and t hi s ki nd of ar r angement bei ng si mi l ar t o
t he spi got and socket j oi nt , i s t er med as 'spi got and socket cent r i ng'. Ther e may al so be
some cl ear ance ( gap) bet ween t hi s ki nd of f i t , t o adj ust t he shaf t .
The f aces of t he t wo f l anges ar e t hen hel d t oget her wi t h t he hel p of bol t s and nut s ( 4 or
mor e ) . These may be squar e headed or hexagonal headed. The bol t s shoul d be an exact
f i t , so t hat t he power can be t r ansmi t t ed pr oper l y f r om one shaf t and f l ange t o anot her.
4 HOLES
4 holes to accomodate
4 Bolts & Nuts
KEY WAY (Shaft)
SHAFT (M.S.)
KEY (M.S.) (2-OFF)
(Rectangular Sunk-Taper)
LEFT - FLANGE (C.I)
HEX. BOLT & NUT
4-OFF
KEY WAY
(Flange)
RIGHT
FLANGE (C.I.)
KEY WAY (Shaft)
KEY WAY
(Hub of
Flange)
SHAFT (M.S.)
DETAILS OF AN UNPROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING
(HALF SEC. PICTORIAL VIEW)
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 153
SHAFT COUPLINGS

It can al so be not i ced, as shown i n Fi g. 6. 5 t hat t he bol t and nut s l i e out si de, ( exposed) and
dur i ng r ot at i on of shaf t s, as wel l as f l anges, t hey ar e not vi si bl e t o t he wor ker s, and t hus
mi ght hur t t hem or t hei r cl ot hes, may get ent angl ed. Hence t hi s f l ange coupl i ng get t he
name as Unpr ot ect ed Fl anges Coupl i ng.
Fig 6.5
To avoi d such mi shaps, t he shape of t he f l ange i s sl i ght l y modi f i ed, whi ch wi l l be di scussed
f ur t her i n t he next t ype of f l ange coupl i ng.
Wi t h t he hel p of an exampl e, l et us l ear n t o assembl e t he di f f er ent par t s of t he
'Unpr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng' and dr aw t he r equi r ed or t hogr aphi c vi ews, i ncl udi ng t he
sect i onal vi ew.
Fi g 6. 6 shows t he det ai l s of an 'Unpr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng'. Assembl e t he det ai l s
and dr aw t he f ol l owi ng vi ews of t he assembl y usi ng scal e f ul l si ze.
a. Fr ont vi ew, t op hal f i n sect i on.
b. Lef t si de vi ew.
Pr i nt t i t l e and scal e used. Dr aw t he pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve i mpor t ant di mensi ons
In f i g 6. 6, t he or t hogr aphi c vi ews of di f f er ent par t s ar e shown. Let us assembl e
t hem as l ear nt and t hen dr aw t he or t hogr aphi c vi ews.
6.1.1.2 Orthographic Views
Example 1:
Solution:
SHAFT 1
LEFT FLANGE
(C.I.)
RIGHT FLANGE
(C.I.)
SHAFT 2
TAPER KEY
(at right angles to
the other key)
(Assembled)
HEX. BOLT AND NUT
(4 OFF)
TAPER KEY
(inside the keyway)
ASSEMBLY OF AN UNPROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING
(HALF IN SECTIONAL PICTORIAL VIEW)
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 154
SHAFT COUPLINGS
( i ) It can be seen f l ange i s gi ven as ( 2- OFF) , i . e. t wo f l anges of same di mensi ons.
Si mi l ar l y, t he shaf t s, keys and even bol t s and nut s have same di mensi ons.
Fig 6.6
( i i ) Al so not e, t he t wo f l anges ar e ar r anged i n a socket and spi got ar r angement wi t h a
r ecess / ext ensi on of 2 mm.
( i i i ) Even t he keys ar e r ot at ed at r i ght angl es t o each ot her. One i s pl aced on t op of t he
shaf t and t he ot her near t he axi s, cent r al l y. Al so not i ce, t he wi dt h of t he keys
dr awn i n t he f r ont vi ew var y as shown i n f i g 6. 7.
( i ) The keys may not be mor e t han 3 mm beyond t he bosses of t he f l anges and t he
keyways need not ext end mor e t han 15 mm beyond t he ends of t he keys.
SIDE VIEW
6
2
Ø
2
5
FRONT VIEW
SHAFT (2-OFF)
KEY (6x4) (2-OFF)
TAPER 1:100
A
Ø100
Ø6, 4 HOLES ON 75 PCD
LH SIDE VIEW
FLANGE (2 OFF)
HALF SEC. FRONT VIEW
2
Ø25
Ø
5
0

28
12
M
6
6 4
Ø
4
0
34
A
HEX. HEADED BOLT AND NUT (4 OFF)
DETAILS OF AN UNPROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 155
SHAFT COUPLINGS
ASSEMBLED VIEW OF AN UNPROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING.
Fig 6.7
Let us consi der anot her exampl e and dr aw t he assembl ed vi ews pr oper l y.
Fi g 6. 8 shows t he par t s of an Unpr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng ( havi ng socket and
spi got ar r angement ) . Assembl e t hese par t s cor r ect l y and t hen dr aw t he f ol l owi ng
vi ews t o a scal e f ul l si ze:
a. Fr ont vi ew, upper hal f i n sect i on
b. Si de vi ew, as seen f r om r i ght .
Pr i nt t i t l e and scal e used. Dr aw t he pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ves i mpor t ant
di mensi ons.
Example 2 :
A
4
A
Ø6 4 NUTS
ON 75 PCD
LH SIDE VIEW
6
FLANGE 'A'
SEC. FRONT VIEW
40 40
12 12
6 4
TAPER 1:100
SHAFT 'A' SHAFT 'B'
6
Ø
1
0
0
Ø
7
5
Ø
5
0
Ø
2
5
FLANGE 'B'
SCALE 1:1
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 156
SHAFT COUPLINGS
DETAILS OF AN UNPROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING.
Fig 6.8
Si mi l ar t o t he pr evi ous exampl e, we wi l l assembl e t he var i ous par t s cor r ect l y and
t hen obt ai n t he r equi r ed or t hogr aphi c vi ews, i ncl udi ng t he sect i onal vi ew as
shown i n t he bel ow f i g 6. 9.
Solution:
40
25
Ø
8
Ø
5
0
Ø
1
1
0
Ø
3
0
5
Ø
3
0
Ø
8
0
45
7
.
5
15 15
40 40
5
3
Ø
4
0
8
HEX. NUTS (4-OFF)
KEYWAY 7.5X5
SHAFT-B
NOTE :
R-3 is to be used for
All Fillets and Rounds
FLANGE - A HEX. BOLTS (4-OFF)
SHAFT - A
KEYS (2-OFF)
FLANGE - B
A
A
Ø110
5
Ø 80
SIDE VIEW
40 40
15 15
45
7
.
5
Ø

3
0
40
FRONT VIEW (upper half in section)
Scale 1:1
ASSEMBLED VIEWS OF AN UNPROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING
Fig 6.9.
Ø
8
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 157
SHAFT COUPLINGS
Exercise 6.1
6.1.2 Protected Flange Coupling
Fi g 6. 10 shows det ai l s of an unpr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng. Thi s f i gur e shows one vi ew, each
of t he par t no. 1, 2 and 3 and t wo vi ews of par t no. 4. Dr aw t o a scal e 1: 1, t he f ol l owi ng
or t hogr aphi c vi ews.
a. El evat i on, upper hal f i n sect i on
b. Ri ght hand si de vi ew, wi t hout sect i on.
Show t he di mensi ons pr oper l y. Pr i nt t i t l e and scal e used and dr aw t he pr oj ect i on symbol .
DETAILS OF AN UNPROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING
Fig 6.10
We know, t he per vi ous t ype of f l ange coupl i ng ( Unpr ot ect ed) has a shor t comi ng whi ch i s
over come i n t hi s t ype of Fl ange Coupl i ng. To do so, we need t o shi el d/ cover t he pr ot r udi ng
nut s or bol t heads. And t hi s can be done by sl i ght l y al t er i ng t he shape of t he f l anges. So t he
f l anges have a f l ar ed and f l at t ened r i m i . e. a pr oj ect ed out er r i ng ( shr oud) as shown i n t he
f i gur e. Thi s over hangs over t he bol t heads and nut s and t hus mi ni mi zes acci dent s and
ensur es saf et y, Hence i t i s named as a 'Pr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng'.
95
35 35
120 120
Ø

1
7
0
Ø

9
0
Ø

2
4
0
Ø

3
1
0
Ø

9
0
Ø

2
0
W
T
L
W=25
T=15
L=130
(2 OFF)
HEX. HEADED BOLT AND NUT
M20X2.5 (4 OFF)
SHAFT (2 OFF)
FLANGE (2 OFF)
KEY
3
5
Ø

1
8
0
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 158
SHAFT COUPLINGS
PROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING IN A DIESEL ENGINE
Fig 6.11
Thi s t ype of coupl i ng may be somet i mes used as bel t pul l ey.
The 'pr ot ect ed' t ype Fl ange Coupl i ng cont ai ns t he same par t s and i s assembl ed i n t he same
way as an 'Unpr ot ect ed t ype Fl ange Coupl i ng'. The onl y di f f er ence l i es i n t he shape of t he
f l ange wi t h i t s pr oj ect ed r i ng ( shr oud) as shown i n f i g. 6. 12.
6.1.2.1 Features
EXPLODED VIEW OF DETAILS OF A PROTECTED
FLANGE COUPLING (HALF IN SECTION)
Fig 6.12
SHAFT-1 (M.S.)
4 HOLES
KEY WAY (Shaft)
KEY (M.S.) 2-OFF
HEX. BOLT & NUT (M.S.) 4-OFF
Shaft-2 (M.S.)
KEY WAY
KEY WAY
BOSS
SOCKET
SHROUD
SPIGOT
RIGHT
FLANGE (C.I.)
LEFT - FLANGE
C.I
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 159
SHAFT COUPLINGS
ASSEMBLED PICTORIAL VIEW OF A PROTECTED PLANGE
COUPLING (HALF IN SECTION)
Fig.6.13
Let us l ear n t o assembl e di f f er ent par t s of a 'Pr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng' and dr aw t he
r espect i ve or t hogr aphi c vi ews, wi t h t he hel p of an exampl e:
f i g 6. 14 shows det ai l s of t he par t s of a 'pr ot ect ed t yped f l ange coupl i ng'. Assembl e
t he par t s cor r ect l y and t hen dr aw t he f ol l owi ng vi ews t o scal e f ul l si ze:
a. Hal f sect i onal f r ont vi ew ( upper hal f i n sect i on) .
b. Si de vi ew, as seen f r om l ef t .
c. Pr i nt t i t l e and scal e used. Dr aw t he pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve di mensi ons.
6.1.2.2 Orthographic Views
Example 3:
LEFT
FLANGE
RIGHT
FLANGE
SHROUD SOCKET
BOLT
AND NUT
SPIGOT
SHAFT-2
TAPER KEY
SHAFT-1
DETAILS OF A PROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING
Fig 6.14
Ø

1
8
9
Ø

7
5
Ø

4
8

Ø

9
3
Ø

1
3
8
79
38
21
7

5


1
5
4
Ø

4
8

Ø

9
3
Ø

1
8
9
79
38
21

5


KEYWAY
12X8
Ø

1
3
8
3
FLANGE - A FLANGE - B
KEY- (2-OFF) 12X8
HEX. BOLT AND NUT (4-OFF)
42
20
M
1
5
Ø

7
5

ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 160
SHAFT COUPLINGS
Solution: Det ai l s of t he Pr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng ar e shown i n Fi g 6. 14. Let us assembl e
t hem pr oper l y and dr aw t he r equi r ed or t hogr aphi c vi ews.
1. Her e al so, i t can be seen t hat t he f l anges have 'spi got and socket ar r angement '.
2. The par t s ar e assembl ed i n t he si mi l ar manner as we had done f or t he quest i ons
based on 'Unpr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng'.
3. The onl y var i at i on whi ch can be seen her e i s t hat bol t and nut ar e not vi si bl e i n t he
l ower hal f whi ch i s wi t hout sect i on i n t he f r ont vi ew.
4. The si de vi ew al so has an ext r a ci r cul ar r i ng f or t he 'shr ouded f l anges.
ASSEMBLY OF A PROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING
Fig 6.15
38 38
21 21
1
5
5
4
7
5
D
I
A
.
4
8

D
I
A
.
1
3
8

P
C
D
9
3

D
I
A
.
1
8
9

D
I
A
.
158
FRONT VIEW (UPPER HALF IN SECTION)
8
12
LH SIDE VIEW
Scale 1:1
1
2
3
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 161
SHAFT COUPLINGS
Let us t ake anot her exampl e, and dr aw t he r equi r ed assembl ed vi ews.
Fi gur e 6. 16 shows det ai l s of t he par t s of a Pr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng. Assembl e
t hese par t s cor r ect l y and dr aw t he f ol l owi ng vi ews t o scal e f ul l - si ze:
a. El evat i on. Top - hal f i n sect i on
b. End vi ew, as seen f r om r i ght .
Pr i nt t i t l e, scal e used. Dr aw t he pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve mai n di mensi on.
Example 4:
FLANGE - B
22
FLANGE - A
22
3
6
6
80
40 40
80
Ø

2
1
2
Ø

1
1
2
Ø

9
2
Ø

1
6
0
Ø

5
6
100
KEY WAY (16X6)
Ø56
SHAFT (2-OFF) KEY (2-OFF)
90
1
2
1
6


TAPER 1:100
16 44
62
M16
HEX HEADED BOLT AND NUT
(4-OFF)
DETAILS OF A PROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING
Fig 6.16
Ø

9
2
KEY WAY (16X6)
4 HOLES (Ø16)
14
8
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 162
SHAFT COUPLINGS
Solution: Let us assembl e t he di f f er ent par t s and dr aw r equi r ed vi ews i n t he si mi l ar manner
as done i n t he pr evi ous exampl e.
A sl i ght var i at i on i s seen i n t he spi got and socket ar r angement . It can be seen t hat a
gap Cl ear ance of 3 mm i s pr esent bet ween t hem as shown i n f i g 6. 17)
ASSEMBLY OF A PROTECTED FLANGE COUPLING
Fig 6.17
16
12
A
80 80
40 40
22 22
M
1
6
8
Ø

5
6

P
C
D

1
6
0

Ø

Ø

9
2
Ø

1
1
2
3
SEC. FRONT VIEW RH SIDE VIEW
A
Scale 1:1
Ø

2
1
2
6
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 163
SHAFT COUPLINGS
Exercise 6.2
1. FIG 6. 18 shows t he det ai l s of t he par t s of a 'Pr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng'. Assembl e
t hem cor r ect l y and dr aw t he f ol l owi ng vi ews t o scal e 1: 1.
a. Hal f - sect i onal Fr ont vi ew, l ower hal f i n sect i on
b. Lef t hand si de vi ew
Pr i nt t he t i t l e and scal e used. Dr aw t he pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve i mpor t ant di mensi ons
6
0
2
0
8
0
8
0
4
0
2
2
2
2
5
Ø 1 6
5
1
0
Ø 5 6
Ø 1 1 2
Ø 9 2
Ø 2 1 4
Ø 1 5 8
F
L
A
N
G
E
-
A

(
1
-

O
F
F
)
F
L
A
N
G
E

B

(
1
-
O
F
F
)
S
H
A
F
T
-
A

(
1
-
O
F
F
)
B
O
L
T
S

(
4
-
O
F
F
)
N
U
T
S

(
4
-

O
F
F
)
S
H
A
F
T
-
B

(
1
-
O
F
F
)
K
E
Y

1
5
X
1
0


(
2
-
O
F
F
)
4
0
Ø 5 6
M 1 6
D
E
T
A
I
L
S

O
F

A

P
R
O
T
E
C
T
E
D

F
L
A
N
G
E

C
O
U
P
L
I
N
G
F
i
g

6
.
1
8
7
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 164
SHAFT COUPLINGS
WHAT WE HAVE LEARNT
1. Coupl i ng ar e devi ces used t o j oi n t wo shaf t s end t o end. Thi s may be done t o i ncr ease t he
l engt h of t he shaf t or t o connect shaf t s of di f f er ent machi nes.
2. Fl ange Coupl i ng i s a t ype of shaf t coupl i ng whi ch i s wi del y used.
3. 'Fl ange Coupl i ng' uses t wo 'Fl anges' ( one f or each shaf t ) , f i xed wi t h keys ( sunk t aper ) and
j oi ned wi t h bol t s and nut s ( squar e or hexagonal ) .
4. Ther e ar e t wo t ype of Fl ange Coupl i ng
a. Pr ot ect ed
b. Unpr ot ect ed.
5. 'Pr ot ect ed Fl ange Coupl i ng' i s Pr ovi ded wi t h an ext ended pr ot r udi ng r i ng i n t he f l ange t o
cover t he heads of bol t s & nut s, t o avoi d any i nj ur y f r om t hem whi l e r ot at i ng.
6. A st ep of 2- 3 mm on one f l ange and gr oove i n t he ot her ( Spi got and socket ar r angement ) i s
al so pr ovi ded f or good al i gnment .
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 165
7.1 INTRODUCTION
In ever y machi ne or t oy, we use power t o oper at e and per f or m i t s f unct i on. Thi s power i s obt ai ned
most l y by t he mot or, r un on el ect r i ci t y or bat t er y. To t r ansf er t he power f r om t he mot or t o t he
oper at i onal par t of t he machi ne, we use a combi nat i on of pul l eys and bel t ( f l exi bl e connect or ) .
Pul l eys ar e used i n ver y smal l si zes t o be f i t t ed i n wr i st wat ches and t ape r ecor der s, as wel l as
qui t e bi g i n si ze as i n shi ps.
The pul l ey used, wi t h t he mot or shaf t i s cal l ed dr i ver and wi t h machi ne shaf t i s cal l ed dr i ven. The
si ze of dr i ver and dr i ven pul l eys def i ne t he r at i o of speed t r ansf er r ed as r educed or i ncr eased. If
bot h t he dr i ver and dr i ven pul l ey ar e of same di amet er t hen t he speed of t he shaf t / spi ndl e wi l l
be same, i f dr i ver i s of smal l di amet er wi t h r espect t o dr i ven t hen t he speed wi l l be r educed at
oper at i ng shaf t and vi ce ver sa.
CHAPTER
7
PULLEYS
TYPES OF PULLEYS
Fig 7.1
PARTS OF A PULLEY
Fig 7.2
HUB
KEY WAY
WEB
RIM
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 166
PULLEYS
Out er cyl i ndr i cal sur f ace of t he pul l ey used t o hol d
t he bel t i s cal l ed RIM, whi l e t he i nner cyl i ndr i cal
par t t o be mount ed on t he shaf t i s cal l ed HUB. The
RIM and t he HUB ar e j oi ned t oget her wi t h sol i d
web or spokes or spl i nes dependi ng upon t he si ze
of t he pul l ey. In t he pul l eys of di amet er up t o 200
mm a sol i d web i s pr ovi ded. The pul l ey i s at t ached
t o t he shaf t ei t her by t he key or by a set scr ew of
t he sui t abl e si ze and t ype.
The dr i ver pul l ey and dr i ven pul l ey ar e connect ed
wi t h di f f er ent t ype of endl ess bel t s i . e. Fl at Bel t ,
Rope Bel t , V- Bel t et c. The mat er i al of t he bel t
must be st r ong i n t ensi on yet f l exi bl e and
r el at i vel y l i ght i n wei ght i . e. canvas, l eat her,
r ubber and so on.
Pul l ey - dr i ve i s ver y easy t o i nst al l and r equi r e
mi ni mum mai nt enance. The power i s t r ansmi t t ed
f r om one shaf t t o anot her by means of f r i ct i on
bet ween t he bel t and t he r i m. The l osses i n power
t r ansmi ssi on ar e negl i gi bl e i n V- bel t pul l ey r at her
t han f l at - bel t pul l ey. However power t r ansmi ssi on
capaci t y r eaches i t s l i mi t when t he bel t st ar t s t o
sl i p.
Now we under st and t hat pul l eys al l ow us t o
1. Li f t l oads up, down and si deways.
2. Rot at e t hi ngs at di f f er ent speeds.
Pulleys are classified as follows :
FLAT BELT DRIVE
V-BELT DRIVE
ROPE DRIVE
Fig 7.3
Pul l eys
Type of Bel t
No. of
Gr oove
Fl at - Bel t
Pul l ey
Rope
Pul l ey
Si ngl e Gr oove
Pul l ey
Doubl e Gr oove
Pul l ey
Mul t i pl e Gr oove
Pul l ey
V- Bel t
Pul l ey
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 167
PULLEYS
So pul l ey i s a si mpl e machi ne used i n our day t o day l i f e t o compl et e t he wor k wi t h l ess ef f or t s. In
t hi s cl ass we wi l l st udy Fl at Bel t and V- Bel t pul l eys, upt o 200 mm di amet er i n det ai l .
The r i m of t he f l at bel t pul l ey i s not f l at i t i s sl i ght l y
convex and t hi s i s known as t he cr owni ng. Act ual l y t he
r ot at i ng bel t ar ound t he pul l ey has a t endency t o r i se t o
t he hi ghest poi nt of t he r i m. In case of a f l at r i m, t her e
ar e chances of t he sl i ppi ng of f of bel t al ong t he si de of
t he pul l ey. But t he cr owni ng ( convex cur vat ur e) t ends t o
keep t he bel t i n t he mi ddl e of t he r i m.
The pul l ey i s r i gi dl y hel d t o t he shaf t by key. The keyway
i s cut wi t h hal f t hi ckness i n hub and hal f i n shaf t . The
hub i s havi ng t hi ckness t o bear t he r ot at i onal t or que of
pul l ey. The out si de of t he hub and t he i nsi de of t he r i m
ar e sl i ght l y t aper ed t o f aci l i t at e t he r emoval of t he
pat t er n f r om t he moul d at t he t i me of cast i ng.
7.2 FLAT BELT (SOLID C.I.) PULLEY
SOLID WEB
CAST IRON PULLEY
Fig 7.3
DETAIL OF RIM
R
4
4

2
CROWN
2-CROWNING
RIM
2-DRAW
5
2 BOSS
Ø192
64
6
8
Ø56
Ø14 DRILL
KEYWAY 8X3
8
Ø 30
F
SOLID WEB (C.I .) PULLEY
2
4
3
4
Fig 7.4
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 168
PULLEYS
Example 1 :
Dr aw t he f ol l owi ng Or t hogr aphi c Vi ews of t he pr oper l y assembl ed Sol i d C. I. pul l ey, shaf t and
Rect angul ar Taper Key. As shown i n Fi g 7. 5
( a) Fr ont Vi ew, upper hal f i n sect i on.
( b) Si de Vi ew.
Wr i t e t i t l e and scal e used. Dr aw pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve '6' i mpor t ant di mensi ons.
Fig 7.5
DETAILS OF A SOLID CAST IRON PULLEY
CROWN-3
Ø
1
4
4
Ø
1
2
6
Ø
1
1
8
Ø
5
0
Ø
5
8
74
4
t
5
TAPER 1:100
RECT. TAPER KEY
w
3
Ø 20
SHAFT
5
2
WALL : 6 THICK ONE HOLE Ø 10
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 169
PULLEYS
Solution :
Exercise 1 :
Fig 7.6
The pi ct or i al vi ew of a Sol i d Web Cast Ir on Pul l ey has been shown i n Fi g 7. 4. Dr aw i t s f ol l owi ng
Vi ews :
1. Fr ont Vi ew wi t h upper hal f i n sect i on.
2. Si de Vi ew l ooki ng f r om l ef t si de.
Wr i t e t i t l e and scal e used. Dr aw pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve '6' i mpor t ant di mensi ons.
SOLID C.I. PULLEY
SCALE 1:1
ALL DIMS. ARE IN MM
Ø10
Ø58
Ø50
6
4
A
Ø
2
0
9 9
50
2
TAPER
1:100
CROWN 3
Ø
1
1
8
Ø
1
2
6
Ø
1
4
4
A
HALF SEC. FRONT VIEW SIDE VIEW (L)
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 170
PULLEYS
7.3 V- BELT PULLEY:
In t he V- bel t pul l ey, t her e i s a wedge shaped gr oove ( V- gr oove
) pr ovi ded on t he r i m of pul l ey t o car r y t he bel t of V- shaped
cr oss sect i on. These ar e ext ensi vel y used i n our dai l y l i f e as
wel l as i n i ndust r i es due t o t he hi gh ef f i ci ency i n power
t r ansmi ssi on.
The endl ess bel t of V- shape ar e speci al l y made of r ubber and
f i br e t o wi t hst and hi gh t ensi l e f or ce. In gener al , a gr oove of
40° i s sel ect ed. But i t must be adj ust ed i n r el at i on t o t he pul l ey
di amet er. The pi ct or i al vi ew of a V- bel t pul l ey wi t h si ngl e
gr oove i s shown i n Fi g 7. 8. Det ai l of t he V- gr oove al ong wi t h t he
sect i on ar e al so shown i n t he f i gur e f or bet t er under st andi ng of
i t .
Fig 7.7
V- BELT PULLEY
SINGLE GROOVE V-BELT PULLEY
Fig 7.8
o
3
0
R6
Ø

2
0
0
Ø

1
6
8
Ø

1
2
8
Ø

9
6
Ø
6
0
R12
6
8
2
8
8
8
F
KEY WAY 15X5
o
3
0
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 171
PULLEYS
Example 3 :
Solution :
Dr aw t he Fr ont Vi ew wi t h upper hal f i n sect i on and Si de Vi ew l ooki ng f r om l ef t si de f or t he
Assembl y of pul l ey shown i n Fi g. 7. 8 wi t h shaf t and key of pr oper si ze.
Wr i t e t i t l e and scal e used. Dr aw pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve '6' i mpor t ant di mensi ons.
28
Ø

1
2
8
Ø

2
0
0

Ø

1
6
8
Ø

9
6
Ø

6
0
FRONT VIEW
UPPER HALF IN SECTION
SIDE VIEW
FROM LEFT END
SCALE 1:2
Fig 7.9
30°
A
A
V - BELT PULLEY
ENGINEERING GRAPHICS 172
PULLEYS
EXERCISE 4 : Fi g 7. 10 shows t he or t hogr aphi c vi ews of a si ngl e gr oove V- bel t pul l ey. Dr aw i t s
f ol l owi ng vi ews wi t h shaf t and key of pr oper si ze :
( i ) Fr ont Vi ew, upper hal f i n sect i on
( i i ) Si de Vi ew l ooki ng f r om l ef t si de.
Wr i t e t i t l e and scal e used. Dr aw pr oj ect i on symbol . Gi ve '6' i mpor t ant di mensi ons.
Ø 25, 4 HOLES ON Ø 125 PITCH CIRCLE
KEYWAY 8x3
Ø

5
0


Ø

2
5
0
1
8
2
5
4
20
30
Ø

3
0


A
A
30°
Fig 7.10
SINGLE GROOVE V - BELT PULLEY
60
SIDE VIEW SECTIONAL FRONT VIEW

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