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1 Flange Descriptions 2 Flange Specification 3 Flange Materials 4 Flange Size 5 Flange Facing Types 6 Flange Facing Code, ASME 7 Flange Facing Finish 8 Flange Specification and Identification 9 Flange ANSI B16.5 and B16.47 Class Rating 10 Flange Pressure Classes 11 Flange Maximum Pressure and Temperature Ratings, ANSI B16.5 (in) 12 Flange Dimensional Tolerances, ASME B16.5 (in) 13 Flange Welding Bevel Standard, ANSI B16.5 and B16.47 (in)
Blind Flange - These flanges do not have a bore. It is used to blind off a flange or even a valve. When used at the end of a pipe or fitting, it provides an easy to open access for further extension of the pipe. The blind flange and its bolts are stressed more than any other flange. Lap Joint Flange - This flange is used with a lap joint stub end fitting. It is similar to a slip-on flange, but with two differences. The radius and the flat face, both allow the flange to secure against the stub end fitting. This is useful where alignment of bolt holes is difficult, such as with spools to be attached to flanged nozzles of vessels. A lap joint is used in low pressure applications and not suitable where high external of heavy loads are present. Slip-on Flange - Slip-on flanges are designed to slip over the outside of pipe, long-tangent elbows, reducers, and swages. The flange has poor resistance to shock and vibration. It is easier
to align than welding neck flange. This flange is ideal for low pressure applications since the strength when under internal pressure is about one third that of a weld neck flange. Socket Flange - This is similar to a slip-on flange, except they have a bored and counter bore. The counter bore allows the pipe to fit into the socket/counter bore. The bore of the flange is the same diameter as the inside of the pipe. These flanges were first designed for small diameter, high pressure pipe. Threaded Flange - It is similar to a slip-on Flange, but has internal threads. It is normally used for low pressure and not used where temperature or stress is very high. Weld Neck Flange - This flange comes in two types, regular and long. The hub of the weld neck is designed to reduce the stress at the base of the flange. Regular weld neck flanges are used with buttweld fittings and long weld neck flanges are usually used with equipment and vessel nozzles. A long weld neck flange is rarely used with pipe. Both types of flanges are bored to match the inside diameter of the pipe or fitting to which it will be welded to. They are suitable where high pressure, extreme temperatures, shear impact and vibratory stresses apply. Ring Joint Facing Flange - Also known as RTJ Flanges. These are used for a leak-proof connection in high pressure applications. The flange has a hexagonal groove sealing surface and is fitted with a ring that is compressed in a groove.
ASME B16.5 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings: NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 Metric/Inch Standard ASME B16.47 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 Through NPS 60 Metric/Inch Standard (Covers MSS SP-44 and API 605 flanges) MSS SP-44 - Steel Pipeline Flanges (Covered by ASME B16.47 Series A) API 605 - Cancelled (Covered by ASME B16.47 Series API Spec 6A - Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment
ASME B16.5 and ASME B16.47 cover pipe flanges up to NPS 60 (B16.5 from 1/2" to 24" and B16.47 from 26" to 60"). ANSI B16.47 covers two series of flanges, Series A is equal to MSS SP44-44, and Series B is equal to API 605 (API 605 has been canclled).
Standards usually specify the material from which the flange is produced.
There are available flange sizes and grades for all standard pipe wall thicknesses and pressure ratings.
Flange Facing Types
One end of the flex joint is a flat face to match the pump face and the other end is raised face to match the flange.
Flat Face (FF) - Typically these flanges are used on pump facings or on fiberglass flanges where the torque of compressing the gasket will damage the flange body. They are found in 150# and 300# ratings. Their principal use is to make connections with 125# and 250# cast iron flanges, respectively. Raised Face (RF) - The raised face is the most common used flange face. It is called raised face because the gasket is raised 1/16" and 1/4" above the bolt circle face: 1/16" for 300 lb. and less, 1/4" for 400 lb. and more. The flange facings are machine finished to ANSI/ASME B16.5 requirements. Ring Type Joint (RTJ) (Class 300 and larger) - This flange is normally used for high pressure gas pipe work. Ring type gaskets must be used on this type of flange. Tongue and Groove (T&G) Small Tongue and Groove Large Tongue and Groove Small Male and Female
Large Male and Female
Flange Facing Code, ASME
ASME B16.5 requires that for flanges and flanged fittings the surface is to have a specific roughness. A concentric or spiral serrated finish with 30 to 55 groves per inch and a surface roughness between 125 and 500 microinches. This allows different surface grades to be used with various types of gaskets to ensure a tight flange surface. These are some of the common finishes used on raised faces and flat faces.
Flange Facing Finish
The flange face finish is determined by the standard used and measured as an Arithmetical Average Roughness Height (AARH). An example would be ANSI B16.5 which specifies face finishes within a range 125AARH - 500AARH (3.2 Ra to 12.5 Ra). Cold Water - It has a mirror like finish. This is made with a wide tool at a high speed which gives a finished surface much like a ground surface. When a surface has this type of finish it is normally used metal to metal, not with a gasket. It is seldom used in the oil, chemical or related industries. Concentric Serrated - A 90 degree inclined angle tool is used to make the grove. It makes a grove 1/64" deep and 1/32" apart in a concentric circle. Smooth - This can be made with several different types of tool shapes. No tool markings will appear to the naked eye on the surface. The roughness of the finish is from 125-250 microinch. Spiral Serrated - This is similar to a stock finish but the difference between them is the way the grove is made. A 90 degree inclined angle tool is used to make the grove. It makes a grove 1/64" deep and the feed is 1/32". Stock - The surface is created by a continuous spiral groove. The roughness of the finish is from 125 to 500 microinches and is cut with a tool with an approximately 0.06 inches or larger radius.
Flange Specification and Identification
All flanges should be stamped for identification on the outside diameter of the base for east identification with:
Manufacturer's name. Nominal pipe size (NPS). Pressure rating (150 lb., 300 lb., etc.) Face designation - the machined gasket surface. Bore - the nominal pipe size (NPS). Material designation Ring gasket number - used for ring joint flange. Heat number of code - the batch number used when forged and tested Normally, a flange should be hard stamped but in some cases the stamping may not be legible or completely visible for observation. In that case it may have to be visually observed and physically measured. Check the number of bolts and bolt size, measure the flange and pipe size. Then compare these measurements with flange data.
Flange ANSI B16.5 and B16.47 Class Rating
ANSI ANSI Flange Type B16.5 1/2"-24" B16.47 Series A (MSS SP-44) 26"-60" Blind Lap Joint Slip-On Socket 150-2500 150-2500 150-2500 150-2500 300-900 ASME B16.47 Series B (API 605) 26"-60" 300-900 -
Threaded Weld Neck Flat/Raised Facing Ring Joint Facing Other Facings
150-2500 150-2500 As Above 150-2500 150-2500
150-900 As Above 300-900 -
75-900 As Above 300-900 -
Flange Pressure Classes
Flanges are normally manufactured in seven basic ratings: 150 Lb, 300 Lb, 400 Lb, 600 Lb, 900 Lb, 1500 Lb and 2500 Lb. The ratings can be expressed in different ways but mean the same thing - 150 Lb, 150 Lbs, 150# or Class 150. Each class of flange can handle more pressure than the previous class because of its construction. The higher the class is, the thicker the metal is. Thus a higher pressure can be handled. There a numerous factors that can affect the pressure capability of a flange, such as the type of metal that is used. But basically when pressure goes down, the temperature goes up and vise versa.
Flange Maximum Pressure and Temperature Ratings, ANSI B16.5 (in)
This table is in accordance with ANSI B16.5 maximum allowable non-shock pressure (psig) and temperature ratings for steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings. Based on American Society of Mechanical Engineers - ASME B16.5 ANSI Class 150 300 400 600 900 1500 2500
Maximum Allowable Non-Shock Pressure PSIG
-20 to 100
Flange Dimensional Tolerances, ASME B16.5 (in)
Weld Neck Flange
When O.D. is 24" or less: ¬±1/16" (1.6mm) When O.D. is over 24": ¬±1/8" (3.2mm) 10" and smaller: ¬±1/32" (0.8mm)
12" thru 18": +1/8" (3.2mm) 20" and larger: -1/16" (1.6mm) 1/16" raised face: ¬±1/32" (0.8mm)
Diameter of contact face
1/4" Raised Face, Tongue & Groove (male & female): ¬±1/64" (0.4mm) When hub base is 24" or smaller: ¬±1/16"
Diameter of hub at base
(1.6mm) When hub base is over 24": ¬±1/8" (3.2mm) 5" and smaller: +3/32" (2.4mm), -1/32" (0.8mm) 6" and larger: +5/32" (4.0mm), -1/32 (0.8mm)
Diameter of hub at point of welding
Bolt circle: ¬±1/16" (1.6mm) Bolt hole spacing: ¬±1/32" (0.8mm)
Eccentricity of bolt circle with respect to facing
2 1/2" and smaller ¬±1/32" (0.8mm) max. 3" and larger ¬±1/16" (1.6mm) max. 18" and smaller: ¬±1/8" (3.2mm), -0" 20" and larger: ¬±3/16" (4.8mm), -0"
Length of hub
10" and smaller: ¬±1/16" (1.6mm) 12" and larger: ¬±1/8" (3.2mm)
Blind Flange, Lap Joint Flange, Slip-on Flange,Socket Flange, Threaded Flange
When O.D. is 24" or less: ¬±1/16" (1.6mm) When O.D. is over 24": ¬±1/8" (3.2mm) Threaded: within limits of boring gauge
Lap Joint, Slip-on, Socket 10" and smaller: ¬±1/32" (0.8mm), 0" 12" and larger: -1/16" (1.6mm), 0" 1/16" raised face: ¬±1/32" (0.8mm) 1/4" Raised Face, Tongue & Groove (male & female): ¬±1/64" (0.4mm) Threaded (S): within limits of boring gauge
Diameter of contact face
E, F, S
Diameter of bore
Lap Joint (F), Slip-on (E), Socket (E) 10" and smaller: ¬±1/32" (0.8mm), 0" 12" and larger: -1/16" (1.6mm), 0"
Bolt circle: ¬±1/16" (1.6mm) Bolt hole spacing: ¬±1/32" (0.8mm) P Drilling Eccentricity of bolt circle with respect to facing 2 1/2" and smaller ¬±1/32" (0.8mm) max. 3" and larger ¬±1/16" (1.6mm) max. C Thickness 18" and smaller: ¬±1/8" (3.2mm), -0" 20" and larger: ¬±3/16" (4.8mm), -0" L, M Length of hub 18" and smaller: ¬±1/8" (3.2mm), ¬±1/32" (0.8mm) 20" and larger: ¬±3/16" (4.8mm), ¬±1/16" (1.6mm)
Flange Welding Bevel Standard, ANSI B16.5 and B16.47 (in)
J = Diameter of hub at base H = Outside Diameter of flange and mating pipe D = Inside Diameter of flange t = Wall thickness of flange hub at bevel
For bevel wall thickness (t) from 0.19 in. (3/16") to 0.88 in. (7/8") inclusive.
For bevel wall thickness (t) greater than 0.88 in (7/8").
Data shown on this page was either gathered and verified using data available in the public domain or has been calculated by the staff at Piping-Designer.com. It is up to the end user to verify data prior to use for any project. This page may not be reproduced without the explicit written permission of PipingDesigner.com. © 2006-2012 Piping Designer, LLC
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