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and tandem operation techniques. Here we will discuss about the differential cascading and the injecting of e.m. f into the rotor circuit. Understanding the Cascaded set Article Image The motor A stator is supplied with voltage at a certain frequency. The power avai lable at the stator can be divided and utilized as two parts. 1. The power is consumed to overcome I^2 * R and core losses. 2. The second part is given to the rotor for its rotation. The power supplied to the rotor is further consumed into two parts. They are as follows: 1. The rotor has to rotate. So, first part is utilized for the rotation of th e rotor. N is converted into the mechanical power. 2. The remaining (Nsa-N) is the power available at slip frequency and this is passed to the slave or auxiliary motor B. Shifting the focus to Slave motor B or the auxiliary motor B , the power (Nsa-N) supp lied to the stator of the motor B , is again utilized into two parts. 1. To overcome the stator I^2 * R losses and 2. Passed to the rotor for its rotation. (Mechanical power). N Nsa actual speed of the cascaded set. synchronous speed of motor A, being independent of N.
Now when the cascaded set is supplied with the voltage at a frequency to the sta tor of motor A , an e.m.f is induced in the rotor A at same frequency. This is supplied to motor B , thus both the motors start to develop a forward torqu e. As the shaft speed increases, the rotor frequency of motor A falls thus making th e synchronous speed of motor B to fall. The cascaded set settles down at a speed which is stable, when the shaft speed e quals the speed of rotation of the field of motor B. It can be seen that the mechanical outputs of the two cascaded motor set are in the ratio similar to the ratio N: (Nsa-N). It is also evident that the mechanical outputs are in the ratio of number of pol es of the motors. Differential Cascading Let us now discuss on the Differential Cascade Connection: In this method, the direction of phase rotation in opposite direction with respect to direction d of motor A. We already know how to reverse the direction of erchanging any two leads of the stator terminal The terminals are coming from the slip rings of of the stator field of motor B is of phase rotation of stator fiel rotation. It is done by just int of motor B . motor A.
As discussed already in my previous article, speed control of induction motors , th e synchronous speed of the cascaded set can be given by Nsc = 120f/ (Pa + Pb). In the same way, the synchronous speed of the differentially cascaded motor can be given by the expression Nsc = 120f/ (Pa Pb). Injecting E.M.F in Rotor Circuit The e.m.f injected in the rotor circuit must have the same frequency as the slip frequency, by which the speed control of slip ring induction motor is achieved. But there is no restriction for the direction of phase rotation. When the injec ted voltage is in phase opposition with the induced rotor e.m.f, then the rotor resistance increases. In turn when the injected voltage is in phase with the induced rotor e.m.f, the n the rotor resistance decreases. Thus by changing the direction of phase rotati on, the resistance of the rotor circuit is varied and thus speed of the slip rin g motor is controlled. Kramer System Article Image This system is basically used for the speed control of large motors of rating mo re than 4000Kw or above. The main motor M , has slip rings mounted on its shaft from which the e.m.f is sup plied to the slip rings of a rotary converter C. The rotary converter converts the low-slip frequency a.c. power into d.c. power , which is used to drive a d.c. shunt motor D , mechanically coupled to the main mo tor M. Article Image The main motor M , is directly coupled with the d.c. shunt motor D. The d.c. output o c the rotary converter C is used to drive D. Both C and D are excited from a separate d.c exciter or d.c bus bar. The field regu lator governs the back e.m.f Eb of D and hence the d.c. potential at the commutato r of C which controls the slip ring voltage and thus the speed of motor M. Advantages: 1. Any speed can be attained within the working range of the motor, instead o f two or three speeds in other kinds. 2. The power factor of the system is improved if the rotary converter is over -excited. Scherbius System Article Image Article Image In this system, the slip energy is not converted into d.c and then fed to a d.c. motor. But it is fed directly to a three phase or six phase a.c. commutator mot or called as Scherbius machine. The low frequency output of the machine M is fed to the poly phase winding of the machine C through a regulating transformer RT. The commutator motor C is a variable speed motor and is controlled by either th e tapping on RT or by adjusting the position of brushes on C.
Reference: "A Text Book Of Electrical Machines" by Nagoor Kani. A/C-D/C Machines by Theraja. Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/electrical/articles/44184.aspx#i xzz1GVeXD4Sa