ROLLER MILL

Used in cement industry
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Vertical Mills used for Pre-grinding of clinker (lumps to coarse powder) Finish grinding (lumps to powder) of
– – – –

Coal/Petcoke for kiln Raw materials for kiln Cement, OPC or mixed Slag, pure or mixed

VRM Functions

Vertical Roller Mill (VRM) - Details
feed gate (air lock) mill exhaust product discharge mill outlet duct separator cage rotor separator guide vanes tailings cone separator discharge flap mill casing water injection roller with tyre or segments rocker arm roller axle table liner hot gas inlet nozzle of louvre ring grinding table

dam ring

hydraulic cylinder clutch and motor speed reducer with table bearing

material scraper

Working principle

Vertical mills comprise 2-4 conical rollers which are hydraulically pressed onto a horizontal rotating grinding table. The roller axis is inclined at 15o to the table and, as axes of rollers and table do not intersect in the plane of the table. the relative motion involves both rolling and sliding which enhances comminution.

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Feed material is directed onto the centre of the table and is thrown outward by rotation under the rollers and into a rising air current at the periphery which is directed by means of a louvre ring. The air sweep passes through an integral rotary classifier; fines pass out with the air current while coarse material falls back onto the feed table. Material drying occurs in air suspension between table and classifier. Circulating load is typically 800%. Roller mills are prone to vibration due to an unstable grinding bed. A major cause of material instability is fine, dry mill feed which can usually, be mitigated by spraying water directly onto the bed.

VRM - Working principle
Vertical roller mill

Grinding force = Roller weight + (pressure) Force
Material bed Feed material

Roller rolls freely with table

Table moves with drive Max Particle size in feed: 5-8 % of roller diameter
Feed size: f (Roller Ø )

VRM - Material Flow inside
Separator: removes fine material rejects coarse material Internal gas flow Separator Rejects Internal Circulation Large Material falls through to scraper
Material

Gas & Product Material Feed Material

Material & Gas
Gas

VRM - Some Common Mill Configurations

G.Pfeiffer

Loesche

FLS Atox

Polysius

VRM - Built-in Separator
static separator Static type
P

conventional rotor type Conventional

cage rotor type Cage Rotor type with guide vanes
P

Rotor type

P

F

T

F

F T

T F F P T F

Separation control:

1. Vane adjustment
2. Speed control
TF FT

F= P= T=

Feed Product Tailings

Separators of

rd 3

Generation

(Vertical roller mill)
Reject cone

Cage rotor

Guide vane system

VRM - Accessories
Rotary valve
Reduces false air entering with feed material. Good for dry, small size material.

Weigh belt

Metal extraction
Metal objects damage the roller & table. The magnet removes them

Weighs the passing material ensuring a continuous grinding bed in the mill

VRM - External Circulation
fresh feed

bucket elevator

louvre ring

scraper

Used for reducing gas flow pressure lost over the mill

(less pneumatic internal circulation)
collecting conveyor

VRM - Example flow-sheet
Control points

1 gas flow
2 pressure difference 3 return gas flow pressure 4 outlet temperature 5 external recirculation

VRM MAINTENNACE

Maintenance

Wear
– –

- Rollers & Table

- Separator (sealing!) & Housing Lubrication & Hydraulics (filters and seals)

Vertical roller mill internals suffering from wear
Outlet duct Separator Separator cone

Inlet chute

Mill housing

Armour & nozzle rings Scrapers

Rollers and table liners

Wear resistance material alternatives
• Nihard 4
%C % Cr % Ni Weldable

< 3.5

< 10

< 6.5

yes

• High Chromium alloys
%C % Cr % Other Weldable Example
Chromodur, FMU18, VegalineV16s

< 3.6
< 2.6 < 3.5

< 17
< 20 < 28

Mo + Ni
Mn < 1.2

yes
No No

FMU 52 FMU 46

Wear resistance material alternatives
• Metallic inserts roller liner

Soft material base

Hard metallic insert

Wear resistance material alternatives
• Ceramic inserts roller and grinding track liners
Metallic base (High Cr)

Ceramic insert

Operation and Optimization of Vertical Roller Mills

Raw material characteristics
 Feed

Size Fineness Content

 Product

 Moisture

 Grindability  Abrasiveness

Feed Size
 Ball 

Mill Maximum 5% + 25 mm Roller Mills Up to 150 mm

 Vertical

Product Fineness
5% - 25% + 90 µm 1.0% - 2.0% + 212 µm

Moisture Content in Raw Materials
Normal moisture content: 3% - 10% H2O

Possible to dry >20% H2O in vertical mills
Up to 6 to 7%-H2O – Drying with kiln gases Above 7% H2O – Supplementary heat from auxiliary furnace or cooler

OPERATIONAL ASPECTS
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Material granulometry Roller pressure Dam ring Louvre ring External circulation

PARAMETERS TO BE MONITORED DURING OPEARATION
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Production rate, tonnes/hour Grinding press. (bar) or (kN/m2) Mill Motor (Kw) Grinding bed thickness (mm) Vibration level (mm/s) Pressure drop across the mill Mill outlet temperature Fan flow Rejects (If external recirculation present) Water flow

Additional paramters to be monitered
      

Operating hours Involuntary downtime hours kWh/tonne (mill motor + fan + seperator) Product fineness on 90/212 microns for raw mill ,coal mill and blaines for cement mill Feed moisture, % Product moisture, % Feed size

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How the nozzle ring velocity corresponds to reject rate and pressure drop Running with a high velocity in the nozzle ring gives a high pressure loss, but also a low reject rate. However the lower pressure drop with e.g. 45 m/s is to prefer and will both give considerable power savings on the fan and less wear in the mill body

Operational problems

Vertical roller mill for finish grinding
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PROVEN TECHNOLOGY VERY SUITABLE FOR GRINDING BLENDED CEMENT OR SLAG

COMPACT GRINDING INSTALLATION
ENERGY SAVING - UP TO 30%-40% kWh/Mt SUITABLE FOR GRINDING MOIST FEED EASY MAINTENANCE AND OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF WEARING ROLLERS

VRM versus BALL MILL for CEMENT GRINDING
Blaine Surface, cm2/g: 4000
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Cement (OPC)

Slag

R M

al lM ill

R M

B

Mill

Fan, etc.

B

al lM ill

V

V

Grinding systems comparison
Power Consumption when grinding to 3800 cm2/gm for 150 tph capacity

GRINDING SYSTEM Mill (kWh/t) Separator and Fans (kWh/t) Roller Press/Pregrinder (kWh/t) Auxiliary (kWh/t) Total (kWh/t) Maximum Output (t/h)

CLOSED CIRCUIT BALL MILL

ROLLER PRESS PREGRINDER

ROLLER MILL PREGRINDER

ROLLER PRESS SEMI FINISH

FINISH GRINDING IN ROLLER PRESS

OK VRM

38.2 4.5 / 0.6 43.4 200 (300)

29.7 3.9 4.5 1.0 39.0 275 - 300

28.0 3.9 10.0 1.0 42.8 275 - 300

20.8 6.1 9.7 1.5 38.0 300 - 350

/ 14.2 20.5 1.6 36.3 < 150

21.8 7.2 / 0.2 29.2 450 tph

Operational Guidelines for Process Optimization

Nozzle Ring Velocity versus Material Rejects and Pressure Drop
 

N/R Velocity (m/s) 75-85 60-65 40-45

Reject Rate (% Fresh Feed) Trace 5-10 20-30

Relative Pressure Drop (%) 100 84 60

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LOWER PRESSURE DROP LESS WEAR OF MILL BODY LINERS
FAN POWER SAVINGS OF 15-30%

Air flow

A correct airflow in the mill is important, because the air is transporting the material and also an important factor for efficient separation. Airflow is kept constant through mill and cyclone/ filter by operating the mill fan with constant power consumption on the motor. This is normally done by the help of an automatic loop between the mill fan damper position and the power consumption of the mill main motor. Alternatively by the help of an automatic loop between the speed of the mill fan motor and the power consumption of the mill main motor.

Feed

A correct feed rate in the mill is important. if the feed rate is to high and the mill be filled up with material and trip on vibration, because the mill fan don’t have the capacity to transport material out of the mill. If the feed rate is to low will the mill emptied out and trip on vibration, due to low grinding bed. The feed rate depends on the applied grinding pressure and the grind ability of the material. The mill differential pressure or the mill motor power consumption is an indication of how much material inside the mill. Normally the feed rate is controlled by the mill motor power consumption through an automatic loop.

Vibrations
 

A constant and acceptable level of vibrations is important. If vibrations are to high then the mill be stopped by the safety interlocking of the mill in order not to damage the machine. The vibrations are minimized by injecting water. The injected amount according to experience.

Operational problems
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Changes in feed material properties Equipment problems Deficiencies of control elements Control signal errors External effects

Problems -action
Type of problem Mill vibrations, Too high                 Action Reduce feed supply if differential pressure is high. Increase feed supply if differential pressure is low. Check water injection. Reduce grinding pressure. Lift rollers at excessive vibrations. Check grinding pressure. Check differential pressure. Product fineness very fine. Coarser raw materials. Grindability of raw material changed. Raw materials too wet. Table and roller segments are worn. Increase speed of separator rotor. Check sieving of samples. Decrease speed of separator rotor. Increase feed supply.

Mill output, Too low

Mill product, Too coarse Mill product, Too fine

Type of problem Mill outlet temperature, Too high

Mill outlet temperature, Too low

Grinding pressure, decreases

Sealing air pressure, Minimum

                   

Action Hot air amount too high. Hot gas temperature higher than normal. Adjust (close) hot gas damper. Decrease oil for heat generator. Open cold air damper. Increase water injection. Raw material moisture increased. Increase hot air amount. Adjust (open) hot gas damper. Adjust (open) mill fan damper. Increase oil for heat generator. Close cold air damper, if open. Decrease water injection Check hydraulic system. Piping is leaking. Oil pump fault. Oil level in tank for hydraulics minimum. Oil temperature in hydraulics minimum. Malfunction of valves. Filter blocked. Check electrical equipment.

Type of Problem Starting the mill without grinding layer     Heat generator is failing         

Action Fill mill with material before start. Use automatic program for mill filling. The filling must be done manually by starting transport devices in correct sequence. Fill in 300 – 500 kg of material. No oil/gas available. Oil/gas filter contaminated. Ignition gas bottle empty. Adjustment of ignition and main burner has changed. Pre-heating of oil not working. Mill operation must be stopped. Check position of kiln (hot) gas damper. Feed supply from other feeders must be increased. Stop the mill, if feed transport fails.

Supply of hot gases from kiln interrupted Feeder units disturbed

Type of Problem Fee bins almost empty Oil pressure or oil flow through mill gear minimum

Oil pressure or oil flow through the separator gear minimum

Mill fan bearing temperature maximum

                   

Action Feed bins must be filled up. Stop the mill. Mill will be stopped automatically. Check leakage in piping. Oil pump fault. Oil level minimum. Electrical fault. Oil temperature too high. Check cooling water supply. Separator and mill will stop automatically. Check leakage in piping. Oil pump fault. Oil level minimum. Electrical fault. Oil temperature too high. Check cooling water supply. Automatic stop of fan and mill. Check supply of cooling water. Check greasing of fan bearings. Electrical fault.

Vertical roller mill caluclations

Caluclation of capacity of the mill

Generally speaking, the production capacity refers to grinding capacity and drying capacity of grinding mill. The material grindability will affect the grinding capacity, the roller pressure and the type of grinding mill.

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G=K1 * D2.5 Where G is capacity of the mill K1 is coefficient, which is relevant to the typer of roller mill, the selected and used pressure, the performance of grinded material. Different specification of roller mill, so the K1 is different.

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K1 of Loesche Mills series roller mill is 9.6 and for Atox mills it is 7 and for MPS mills it is 6.6. D is table diameter Example: for atox 50 mill The capacity of mill is G= 7 * D2.5 = 7* 5^2.5 = 391 TPH~ 400TPH

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