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The Free High School Science Texts:
Textbooks for High School Students
Studying the Sciences
Physics

Copyright c 2007 “Free High School Science Texts” Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front- Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”

Webpage: http://www.fhsst.org/
The Free High School Science Texts:
Textbooks for High School Students
Studying the Sciences
Physics

Copyright c 2007 “Free High School Science Texts” Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front- Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”

Webpage: http://www.fhsst.org/

Published by: Jan on Jan 07, 2009

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04/20/2015

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The energy diagram for the insulator shows the insulator with a very wide energy gap. The
wider this gap, the greater the amount of energy required to move the electron from the

valence band to the conduction band. Therefore, an insulator requires a large amount of energy
to obtain a small amount of current. The insulator “insulates” because of the wide forbidden

band or energy gap.

Breakdown

A solid with ﬁlled bands is an insulator. If we raise the temperature the electrons gain thermal

energy. If there is enough energy added then electrons can be thermally excited from the

valence band to the conduction band. The fraction of electrons excited in this way depends on:

• the temperature and

• the band gap, the energy diﬀerence between the two bands.

Exciting these electrons into the conduction band leaves behind positively charged holes in the
valence band, which can also conduct electricity.

453

20.3

CHAPTER 20. ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF MATTER - GRADE 11

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