Main Tools for Radio Network Optimization GSM

Statistic Handling Tool
OSS Recording Tool

NWS (C); SPOS&Turle, Statics (I)
PMR, RNO package (C)

Cell Data Design Tools
Field Measurement Field Measurement Analysis Cell Planning Tool

CNA (C); IPOS, BSSTool (I)
TEMS only!!! TEMS, MapInfo (C); MCOM (I) TEMS Cellplanner (C); MCOM (I)

Radio Network Growth Flow

Where does TEMS INVESTIGATION fit in
Design & Rollout Model Tuning Operation & Improvement Traditional Optimization Network Feature Optimization Verification of Network Changes

Network Integration Test
Initial Tuning GPRS Performance Verification Training

DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE
Network Integration Test When a site is integrated to BSC it is tested • Call set up test • Timeslot test, forced call test

* TEMS Pocket is the preferred tool for Network Integration Test

DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE
Initial Tuning • Produce Coverage Plot • Identify Coverage Holes • Identify Interference Area • Optimize Neighbor Relations • Find Hardware/Installation Problems • Verify Parameter Setting

DESIGN & ROLLOUT PHASE
GPRS Performance Verification • Application Performance Test • WWW, FTP, WAP etc. • Mobility Test • Cell Reselection, RA Update

OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT PHASE
Traditional Optimization • Investigate & Trouble-shooting Specific Areas • Neighbor Relation Optimization • Coverage Issues

OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT PHASE
Network Feature Optimization Parameter Settings: • MS, BTS Power Control • HCS • Idle Mode Behavior • Locating Algorithm • Frequency Hopping • Intra-cell Handover

OPERATION & IMPROVEMENT PHASE
Verification of Network Changes Did a certain change in the network give desired results? • New coverage area? • Less interference? • Better speech quality? • Is handover possible?

TEMS Measurement & Analyzing Process
? Preparations Collect Data Analyze Report

Clear objective Why should this measurement be done

Check equipment Get input files Prepare route External Antenna?

Save logfile Take notes Monitor

Find problem areas

Give answer to objective

Find solutions

Changes in Network

What should be changed?

Measurement Will Depend on Objective
?
Clear objective Why should this measurement be done

Preparations
Check equipment Get input files Prepare route External antenna?

Possible Objectives
• Coverage analysis • Trouble shooting • Scanning • Verify network changes

Performing Measurements with TEMS
Drive Test • Large areas • Specific areas Walk Test Scanning

Drive Test - Large area
INPUT INPUT
Acceptance New sites on air Frequency Re-plan BSC Re-homing

MEASUREMENT
Drive defined route/area Record Logfile Long / Short calls Assure no data loss

OUTPUT
Plots & Report - Signal Strength - Quality Trouble Report / Area for further investigation

Drive Test - Specific area
INPUT
Statistics Customer complain Large area drive test Trouble Report

Measurement
Manipulate

OUTPUT
Trouble Report - Identified problem - Solution

- Forced handover
- Lock on to Frequency - Layer 3 messages Analysis on-spot Rectify & Verify on-spot

Walk Test
INPUT
Statistics Customer complain Micro cell planning Indoor cell planning

Measurement
Add file marks (GPS) Scanning

OUTPUT
Trouble Report Planning Report - Antenna location - Frequency - HCS setting

* TEMS Light is the preferred tool for indoor cell planning

Scanning
INPUT
Finding a new frequency Area Network Scanning

Measurement
TEMS INV in scanning mode Set ARFCN to scan

OUTPUT
Received SS on different ARFCN plot New frequency

Analyzing Measurements

Post-Processing TEMS Logfiles
TEMS Logfiles
Geographical Presentation

Statistics Report

Analysis

Problem Cases
Low Signal Strength • Interference • Handover • Call Setup Failure • Dropped Call • Misc.

Signal Strength Case
INPUT
Large area DT
TEMS Logfiles

Post-Processing Analysis

Specific area DT

• Identify areas with low signal strength e.g. SS < -100dBm (outdoor)

• Look at RxLev distribution (for acceptance)
• Compare with design level or new requirements

Signal Strength Case – Possible Reasons
• Shadowed Antenna
• Antenna Direction • Antenna Height / down tilt

• Output Power
• Missing Neighbor Relation • Site Location

• Faulty Hardware e.g. antenna & TMA
• Cell is down

Signal Strength Case – Analysis
Shadowed Antenna
Visit site Check antenna installation Is there a better antenna position at same site?

Output Power
Check output power Parameters
BSPWRT - NON BCCH FREQ BSPWRB - BCCH FREQ

Faulty Hardware
Check alarm & BTS Error log Visit site

Height/down Tilt
Add reduce down tilt? Can antenna be placed lower or higher to give better coverage?

Missing Neighbor
Is the call dragged?
Is low SS due to missing neighbor relations

Site Location
Possible to move site? New antenna location at same site? Is it necessary to expand and build a new site?

Signal Strength Case – Possible Solutions
• Change parameter BSPWR , BSPWRT.
• Add neighbor relation. • Physical changes:

• Antenna direction
• Antenna height, tilt or position • New site as last option.

Interference Case
INPUT Large area DT Specific area DT
TEMS Logfiles

Post-Processing

Analysis

Identify areas with Rxqual > 5 Identify source using Map and STS New drive test around problem area?

Interference Case – Logfile analysis
From logfile & map: What channel group suffer from interference? HOP or Non HOP? • Check Current channel information in TEMS INV, hopping channel and hopping frequency.

Where does the interference come from? Cell name?
• Study map and logfile, look for co-channel or adjacent channel interference. Does the interference lead to lower SQI? • Look at SQI measurement during high RxQual. Use STS & RNO to assist analysis.

Types of Interference
• Co - Channel interference • Adjacent Interference
BCCH 600 BCCH 595

CASE 1 CASE 2

High site

BCCH 590 BCCH 590

BCCH 590 BCCH 590

Interference Case – Possible Reasons
• Poor frequency plan • No dominant cell --> low C/I ---> increased Rxqual • Frequency Hopping is off • External interference e.g. jammer
Example of high Rxqual due to low Signal Strength

Interference Case – Possible solutions
• Enable Frequency Hopping or add frequencies to Hopping group. • Enable BTS Power Control, MS power control and make it less aggressive. • Change frequency of interferer or interfered cell: – Possible to find new frequency by using TEMS Scanning. • Down tilt or change antenna of interferer. • Redo frequency plan. • Add new site.

Handover Case
INPUT Large area DT Specific area DT
Look for:

Post-Processing

Analysis

Repeated handover (Ping Pong) Repeated Intra-cell handover Handover failure,

Unrealistic handover

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) - Examples

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) - Possible Reason 1

Merry-go-round Handover, Offset > Hysterisis

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) - Possible Reason 2
• Offset only in one direction e.g A-B for Inter BSC relation
BSC 1 BSC 2

CELL A

CELL B

A -> B OFFSET = -5dB

No B -> A OFFSET

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) – Other Possible Reasons
No dominant Server

• No dominant server • Locating penalty settings e.g. PSSBQ, PTIMBQ • Too small hysterisis setting

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) – Possible Solutions
Antenna direction Antenna Tilts Plan for new site Change Locating Parameter e.g. KHYST or LHYST

Repeated Handover (Ping Pong) – Possible Solution
Change Parameter, KHYST or LHYST

Hysterisis

CELL A

CELL B

Handover From A to B

Handover Case – Handover Reversion

Check layer 3 message
Handover command BSC correct? Check reason for handover SS, RXQUAL Target cell?

Handover Reversion – Common Reason
Duplicates of BSIC BCCH combinations in neighboring list

Handover command?
610_12 606_33 610_31 610_31

Serving cell Neighbor cell 1
608_32 608_32

Neighbor cell 2

Road

Handover Reversion – Other Reasons
Uplink interference in target cell Downlink interference at MS Solutions Interference Investigation • MRR • Statistics • Scanning

Handover Case – Repeated Intra-cell Handover Possible Reasons
Wrong intra-cell handover settings External Uplink Interference Possible Solutions Consider to change parameters: • SSOFFSETUL, SSOFFSETDL • QOFFSETUL, QOFFSETDL A wrong setting of parameters will cause “unnecessary” IHO Turn off Intra-cell Handover?

Handover Case – Unrealistic Handover

Unrealistic Handover – Reason & Solution Possible Reasons
Wrong locating settings, in Serving or Target cell Note: Could be on purpose e.g. Dual Band network with HCS

Solution • Fix locating settings e.g. MSRXSUFF, BSRXSUFF

Call Setup Failure

Call Setup Failure – Input Activities, Initial Tuning
Activities
Initial Tuning (Acceptance Test) Measurement Type •Large Area Drive Test •Short Call Sequences

Troubleshooting (Customer complaint etc.)

Post-Processing Output •Statistics Report •Geographical Report showing failure positions

Call Setup Failure – Input Activities, Troubleshooting
Input Activities
Measurement Type
Initial Tuning (Acceptance Test)
•Small Area Drive Test •Lock on problem cell’s BCCH •Force handover to the cell

Troubleshooting (Customer complaint etc.)

Post-Processing Output
•Geographical Report (if necessary)

Call Setup Failure Analysis - Initial Tuning Scenario
• Check the TEMS statistics report (Blocked Call) if there is Call Setup Failure. • If yes, identify the problem cells and which logfile from geographical report. • Replay the logfile and jump to the Blocked Call event. • Check if there is any successful call setup to the problem cell.

Call Setup Failure Analysis - Initial Tuning Scenario cont.
• Review the layer 3 messages to check at which sequence the failure occur (random access, SDCCH, TCH assignment etc.). • Check STS report on the problem cell. Is there any traffic (SDCCH & TCH) in the cell, SDCCH & TCH seizures, congestion etc. • Check fault report & CDD configuration.

Call Setup Failure Analysis - Troubleshooting Scenario
• Before performing drive test, check STS report & fault report. • If can not identify the problem, perform drive test. • During measurement, lock the BCCH of the problem cell. • Review the layer 3 messages to check at which sequence the failure occur (random access,

Call Setup Failure Analysis - Possible reasons with ranking
• • • • • • • • Low Signal Strength Interference High Congestion on SDCCH High Congestion on TCH Transmission Fault Faulty TRU/Hardware Central Processor Overload Software File Congestion

Call Setup Failure Analysis - Possible solutions
• Low signal strength  Signal strength analysis. • Interference  Interference analysis. • High Congestion on SDCCH:
Define more SDCCHs. Activate adaptive configuration of logical channel feature and immediate assignment to TCH.

• High Congestion on TCH:
Add capacity/Tune coverage array. Activate assignment to worse cell.

Failed Call Setup (Blocked Call) Example
Multiple Channel Requests. Successful Random Access after the third try.  Congestion in SDCCH.

Dropped Call Case - Input
• Statistics Report • Note from drive test.

Dropped Call Case - Analysis
• From plot, identify which & where in logfile the dropped call occurs. • In the log file, Jump the drop call event. • Check if there is a disrupt in the recording. If yes  could be a false drop due to TEMS mobile disconnection during recording!!!

Dropped Call Case - Analysis (cont)
• Check the Radio environment just before drop:
– If High Rxqual for a longer period of time and RLINKT expire  Interference problem. – If Low SS DL, SSDL < MSSENS ( -104dBm)  low signal strength problem. – If TA > 63  too far from the cell.

• If DL radio is good, check the TX power. If there is MS power down regulation when the MS is close to the cell. If full power  suspect uplink interference or antenna, TMA problem.

Miscellaneous Case 1
From TEMS Logfile

• Good Signal strength DL, Good Rxqual DL
• No call set up possible unless very close to site = high SS • Dropped call when SS < approx. -75dBm Analysis • Since DL SS & Rxqual is good Suspect UL problems e.g. external uplink interference Conclusion TMA power turned off

Miscellaneous Case 2
From TEMS Logfile

• TCH has lower Signal strength than BCCH (Own BCCH included in BA-list)
• BTS power control = OFF

Conclusion
Antenna cable for TCH is swapped between sectors (CDU-A)

Configuration/cell
TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

SEKTOR C
TCH

SEKTOR A

CHG1 CHG0

SDCCH\8

BCCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

SEKTOR B

Miscellaneous Case 3
From TEMS Logfile

• Fail to perform Call Setup
Analysis • Check if any success call setup to the same cell  No

• Check if handover is possible  Yes
• Suspected wrong cell definition in MSC but Cell is properly defined in MCS and LA

Conclusion

• Corrupted block in MSC

GPRS Verification & Optimization with TEMS Investigation

GPRS Measurement Activities
• GPRS Performance Prediction • GPRS Field Measurement

• GPRS RNAP Service uses TEMS Inv to predict following performance:
– Throughput – Cell Reselection & Routing Area Update

GPRS Performance Prediction - Overview

GPRS Throughput Prediction
• Perform Throughput prediction for each coding scheme

Cell Reselection Prediction
• Dedicated mode drive test

• BCCH Scanning • Simulate the cell update with different CRH values
CRH = 4 dB CRH = 8 dB

Cell Reselection Prediction

CRH 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

# HO 365 246 211 178 156 147 138 130

GPRS Field Measurement - Procedure

?

Preparations

Set up files Cell definitions TEMS, IP Sniffers …

GIMS

Excel

Mapinfo Charts / Tables

Dig maps

Graphical presentation of route Report

GPRS Field Measurement - Type of Measurements
• Application Performance Test
– – – – Ping WWW FTP WAP

• Mobility Performance Investigation
– Cell Reselection – RA Update

GPRS Field Measurement - Application Performance Test
• Attached performance
– Attached Time = Attach Complete msg – Attach Request msg – Attach Success Rate

• PDP context activation performance
– PDP context activation = Activate PDP Context Accept msg – Activate PDP context request

• Throughput on RLC level • Delay

GPRS Application Test Tools
• General
– Windump, Commview, Ethereal, Protocol Analyser for Gb

• PING
– MS DOS ping command

• WWW
– IE, Netscape

• FTP
– DOS FTP, WS_FTP, TEMS built in sequence

GPRS Field Measurement - Mobility Performance Investigation
• Number of Cell Reselection & RA Update • TCP Outage Time • Cell Reselection Failure

Mobility test CRH = 4, CRO = 4

. Cell Reselection Sample Report
Routing Area BSC1 BSC1 BSC1 Time 16:30:42 16:33:18 16:35:04 Cell D0241A D0241B D0242A Target Cell D0241C D0242A D0248C Reselection time 2s 2s 21 s Result OK OK OK Comments NA NA This cell reselection was made to a cell located quite far away (not the closest), thus the RxLev was quite bad! No throughput before or after the cell reselection. This is due to that the cell DF0242B were halted by some reason! The through put was never resumed and the FTP connection was aborted by the ftp-server!

BSC1

16:37:44

D0244B

D0248C

--

NA

BSC1

16:38:11

D0248C

D0244B

--

Failed

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