B.

Petry Lecture Notes
N. Lukovac
Hydraulic Structures
Hydraulic Structures
Table of Contents:
1 GENERALITIES 1
1.1 ABOUT THESE LECTURE NOTES 1
1.2 INTRODUCTION 1
1.3 BRIEF LIST OF HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES (INCLUDING THOSE OUT OF THE SCOPE OF THESE LECTURE
NOTES) 2
2 COLLECTION AND EVALUATION OF BASIC DATA 5
2.1 TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS 5
2.2 GEOLOGY 6
2.3 HYDROGEOLOGY 6
2.4 SEISMOLOGY 7
2.5 METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY 7
2.6 HYDROLOGICAL ASPECTS AND RELATED HYDRAULIC ASPECTS 7
2.6.1 RIVER DISCHARGE SERIES (FLOW SERIES) 7
2.6.2 FLOODS 8
2.6.3 ROUTING OF HYDROGRAPHS. 10
3 SPILLWAYS 13
3.1 CONCEPT – HYDRAULIC STRUCTURE DESIGNED TO RELEASE WATER IN EXCESS FROM A RESERVOIR TO A
RIVER STRETCH DOWNSTREAM OF A DAM 13
3.2 COMPONENT WORKS AND CLASSIFICATION 13
3.3 SPILLWAY TYPES 14
3.4 DATA FOR SPILLWAY DESIGN 17
3.5 DETAILED HYDROLOGIC DATA 17
3.6 DETAILED HYDRAULIC DATA – SUPPORT OF HYDRAULIC DESIGN 18
3.7 SELECTION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURE 18
3.8 DESIGN METHODOLOGY 18
3.9 HYDRAULIC PROBLEMS (SEE HYDRAULIC DESIGN CRITERIA) 19
3.10 CONTROL GATES 22
4 OUTLET WORKS 25
4.1 CONCEPT – HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES USED TO CONVEY WATER FROM A RESERVOIR TO A POINT
DOWNSTREAM OF A DAM. 25
4.2 CLASSIFICATION: COMPONENTS 25
4.3 INLET AND OUTLET CHANNELS 26
4.4 INTAKES 27
4.5 CONTROL STRUCTURE 27
4.6 CONVEYANCE STRUCTURE 28
4.7 TERMINAL STRUCTURES 28
4.8 HYDRAULIC PROBLEMS AND THEIR PREVENTION 29
5 ENERGY DISSIPATERS 31
5.1 ENERGY DISSIPATION ON SPILLWAYS 31
5.2 SKI-JUMP AND FLIP BUCKET 31
5.3 STILLING BASINS 32
5.4 DOWNSTREAM EROSION 34
5.5 DISSIPATION AT BOTTOM OUTLETS 36
6 NAVIGATION LOCKS 39
6.1 CONCEPT 39
6.2 TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION 39
6.3 LOCK CYCLE 39
6.4 RELEVANT HYDRAULIC ASPECTS 40
7 PUMPING STATIONS AND PIPELINE CONVEYANCE 45
7.1 PUMPING STATIONS 45
7.1.1 USAGE AND CLASSIFICATION 45
7.1.2 PUMP PARAMETERS 46
7.1.3 DESIGN AND SELECTION OF PUMP, SUMP AND MAINS 48
7.1.4 PRESSURE TRANSIENTS 49
7.2 PIPELINES 51
7.2.1 HYDRAULICS 51
7.2.2 LOADS 53
7.2.3 PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS 54
8 SPECIAL STRUCTURES 57
8.1 FISH LADDERS AND PASSAGES 57
8.2 SPAWNING CHANNELS 58
8.3 SELECTIVE INTAKES 61
1 Generalities
1.1 About These Lecture Notes
These lecture notes are written as brief guide to make it easier to follow the course on Hydraulic
Structures. They should also serve as remainder for future reference concerning the lectures as well
as references listed for each subject covered. Appendixes provided in form of handouts, mainly
selected excerpts from useful references, should serve as extension of lecture notes and guidance for
further more detailed studies.
1.2 Introduction
In various textbooks on Hydraulic Structures one can find different contents. That is mainly due to
different perceptions about what the hydraulic structures are. The broadest definition is that: these
are “all structures in contact with water” −that would include structures such as bridges, hydraulic
tunnels, docks, coastal and offshore structures etc. However, in this course curriculum is limited
only to hydraulic structures of interest for River Engineering and River Basin Development, and
only those that are not given elsewhere. For instance: dams are given in “Engineering of Dams”, and
river diversion structures in “River Diversions and Headworks”. Most other structures that are not
related to River Engineering and River Basin Development are covered in other Masters
Programmes of IHE especially in Hydraulic Engineering. Therefore, in this course the emphasis is
given to structures that are, in one way or the other, related to Dams like: Outlets, Spillways,
Navigation Locks and the like. Part of these lecture notes will be repeated in “Engineering of Dams”
as a reminder, since some of the structures given here can not be neglected in that course as they are
inseparable parts of most of the dams.
Humankind built hydraulic structures, in different forms, since the earliest days of known history, in
order to solve problems that could not be solved otherwise. Hydraulic structures are as old as
Civilization. There could not be a developed civilization without water management, and if one
looks back, one can see that all major settled civilizations were using water supply systems and
irrigation. At first, small diversion dams were used (there are records about the dam built on the Nile
River before 4000 BC) with water conveyance lines and irrigation networks. The oldest known
aqueduct was built near Nineveh, the capital of Assyria in 703 BC. The first Roman aqueduct was
Aqua Appia opened in 312 BC and it was supplying the city of Rome with water. Well-preserved
remains and remnants of some of those structures can still be seen. Some hydraulic structures as old
as 400-500 years are still in use.
Need, for hydraulic structures in order to solve water management problems is ever present, and it
will not be exhausted in foreseeable future − if ever. These lecture notes will provide some
references that may help in proper planning, investigation, design and construction. It is not
intended here to provide a “recipe cook book” but rather basic considerations of major aspects,
giving the clue where and how to search for answers to questions that may arise in practice. Even
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then all the answers will not be found. To try to find some of them, at least in special non-standard
cases, further research may be required.
1.3 Brief List Of Hydraulic Structures (including those out of the scope of
these lecture notes)
• Dams (given in “Engineering of Dams”)
• Intakes (partly given here partly elsewhere in the programme of this branch)
• Outlets (given here)
• Spillways (given here)
• Energy Dissipaters: Stilling Basins, Plunge Pools, Flip Buckets, Ski Jumps, Aprons (given
here)
• Navigation structures −locks, ship-lifts and inclined planes (given here), inland ports
• Pumping stations (briefly given here)
• Canals, (navigation and water conveyance) (Spawning Canals −given here)
• Other conveyance structures like pipelines (briefly given here)
• Drop structures, culverts and siphons
• Steel structures like gates, valves, air-vessels, air vents, silt outlets etc. (partly given here)
• Diversion work structures − diversion dams and weirs, river intakes, settling basins, drop
structures etc. (given in “River Diversions and Headworks”)
• Fish ladders and passes (given in “River Diversions and Headworks”)
• Barriers − weirs and barrages, bottom withdrawal or Tyrolean intakes (given in “River
Diversions and Headworks”)
• Check dams
• Hydro power stations of various types (given in “Hydropower Development”)
• Earth retaining structures −like sheet-piles, retaining walls, gabions, etc. (partly given elsewhere
in the programme)
• Piers, jetties, groynes (groins) − for river training and/or shore protection. (partly given
elsewhere in the programme)
• Other river training structures like sills, cascades etc. . (partly given elsewhere in the
programme)
• Bridges, viaducts, aqueducts
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• Tunnels . (partly given elsewhere in the programme)
• Drainage sluices
• Irrigation structures
• Levees and canal dikes (embankments)
• Revetments
• Docks
• Caissons
• Fendering and mooring structures
• Dikes (sea-dikes, and flood control dikes in river training)
• Coastal structures −breakwaters, shore protection works
• Sea outfalls and intakes
• Offshore pipelines
• Offshore structures
• Man-made islands
Even this list is not exhaustive as one can think of even more structures that could be called
“hydraulic”. However, some of them, that are most important for program in River Engineering and
River Basin Development, are dealt with in this course. They are marked above, as well as other
structures that a taught elsewhere in the programme. Most of the others are covered in other two
programmes (branches) of Hydraulic Engineering at IHE.
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SOME IMPORTANT REFERENCES ON HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
1. Hydraulic Structures −P. Novak (and others)
2. Handbook of Applied Hydraulics −C.V. Davis
3. Design of Small Dams – United States Bureau of Reclamation
4. Advanced Dam Engineering – Jansen
5. Hydraulic Design Criteria – U.S. Corps of Engineers
6. Proceedings of International Conferences – ICOLD
7. Proceedings of International Conferences −IAHR
8. International Water Power and Dam Construction
9. Hydropower and Dams (International Journal on…)
10. Water Power Manual – U.S. Corps of Engineers
In addition to that there is:
• A large variety of technical periodicals in a variety of languages with papers on hydraulic structures
(Russian −Chertousov, Agroskin and Chugayev, then other books in English, German, Spanish,
Portuguese, Japanese, etc.)
• A large variety of other texts (books, periodicals) on subjects related to hydraulic structures.
NOTE: Lists of good references can also be found in the appendices of several publications cited
above.
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2 Collection and Evaluation of Basic Data
In order to carry out reliable engineering activities of hydraulic structures there are major aspects that
could be regarded as basic “INPUT” data that must be carefully studied. Topography and geomorphology,
geology and hydrogeology, meteorology and climate, hydrology and hydraulics are among those. “Raw”
data must be collected, analyzed or investigated, tested and processed in other ways to obtain suitable and
reliable data for further activities. Extent of data collection and processing usually depends upon current
stage of the project. These would be discussed more into detail in the lecture notes and course on Dam
Engineering, but here just a brief list is included as a reminder. Most of those data depend on the purpose
of the structure, whether it is part of more complex structure (Dam or the like) or “stand alone” structure,
and they also depend on stage of the project. In a word: quantity and quality of data depends on the aim of
the present project stage, but they can also be limited by physical availability.
2.1 Topographic Surveys
No engineering work can be done without topographic maps. Most of the countries in the world have
ready-made maps for all or most of the area up to certain scale (usually ≈ 1:25000 and, for areas of higher
interest, even better maps). Those, if existent, can be used for preliminary studies. However, more detailed
maps are required for each particular project, and those are to be done on purpose, covering the areas
determined by a project team. They are required to present the landscape as accurately as needed (and
possible), so that future structures could be projected in “real world” terrain configuration.
♦ Methods
• Aerial surveying (used both for preparation of maps and for different analysis of the area such as:
geological, geo-morphological, topographical, etc.)
• Ground surveying (scale maps, ground profiles – sections…)
Different scale maps are used in the course of different phases. They depend upon the phase (of planning,
design or construction), and sometimes upon the importance of the structure. In some cases there may be
limitations in time or in site accessibility (related to technological availability of sophisticated – laser
beam based – surveying instruments in “inaccessible” gorges). Generally, the following are the minimum
requirements for scale maps:
♦ Masterplan 1:100000, 1:50000, 1:25000, 1:20000, 1:10000 (for presentation purposes
even 1:250000 or more can be used)
♦ Pre-feasibility 1:10000, 1:5000, 1:2500, 1:2000, 1:1000
♦ Feasibility 1:2500, 1:2000, 1:1000, 1:500
♦ Final (detailed design) 1:500, 1:250, 1:200, 1:100, 1:50
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2.2 Geology
Apart from terrain shape, its geological and geomechanical characteristics should be known and described
in order to determine appropriate foundations and to study available natural construction materials. In
addition, relation of water and geological formations must be studied as well as possible seismo-tectonic
activities.
♦ General – regional geological conditions (both plan view – maps, and elevation – profiles to be
presented)
♦ Engineering Geology
• Foundation considerations
• Rock foundations
• Soil foundations
• Non-uniform foundations (combination of those above, gypsum, organic
materials…)
• Construction materials
• Availability
• Quantities
• Quality (types – gradation and mineral content, properties and characteristics –
shear strength, permeability, workability, compressibility, penetration resistance).
Suitability for:
• Exploration and Investigation methods (both for foundation and construction materials)
• Surface explorations
• Geophysical (surface) explorations
• Subsurface explorations
• Sampling methods
• Logging Explorations
• Field and Laboratory Tests
2.3 Hydrogeology
♦ Ground water levels (piezometric stages for different seasons)
♦ Ground water - surface water relationships (different seasons)
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♦ Permeability (porosity, fissures, cracks, joints, faults, caves) and groutability
♦ Ground water seepage paths and connections
♦ Mechanical and chemical actions of water on geological formation
♦ Springs, sink-holes, underground reservoirs
♦ Inter-relation of different hydrogeological formations (barriers, conductors, anticlines, synclines…)
2.4 Seismology
In areas with higher seismological risk, special design and construction techniques must be applied in
order to meet required safety. For preliminary studies regional data, if any, can be used. However, for
feasibility study and onwards much more detailed seismic studies must be carried out to provide reliable
data for design.
2.5 Meteorology and Climatology
♦ General type of climate in the area
♦ Temperatures
♦ Precipitation
• Rainfall
• Snow
♦ Humidity
♦ Solar radiation
♦ Wind distribution and magnitude
2.6 Hydrological Aspects and Related Hydraulic Aspects
2.6.1 River Discharge Series (Flow Series)
♦ Basic data – Streamflow records at various locations along the river (preferably at section of interest).
Area correlations
• Record of precipitations (snowmelt) at different locations of basin.
♦ Completing discharge series
• Rainfall-runoff models; transformation of precipitation in run-off + routing (SSAR, HEC)
7
• Snowmelt – runoff models; transformation of (Snow + ice) in run-off + routing (DAD, etc.)
• Basin transposition techniques; correlations between adjacent basins.
• Regression models; statistical correlation
• Stochastic models, stochastic hydrology
2.6.2 Floods
♦ Determination of spillway capacity and river diversion capacity
♦ Risks
Let: TR - period of return of flood considered (years)
N - lifetime of structure (years)
dam – N = 50, 100, or larger
diversion – N = 1, 2, 3, years
R - risk = probability of exceeding a flood having a return period TR
R = 1 - (1 - 1/ TR)
N
8
TR
N
10 20 50 100 1000 10000
1 10.0 5.0 2.0
2 19.0 9.7 4.0 Not usual
5 >> 22.7 9.6
10 >> >> 18.3 9.6 1.0 0.1
50 >> 4.9 0.5
100 Not usual >> 9.5 1.0
200 >> 18.1 2.0
(R in % )
♦ Determination of design floods
• Envelope curves for river basins – Myers, Creager, Crippen Qmax = CA
n
• Observation of floods – flood hydrographs
• Statistical distribution – Gummbel, Log. Pearson, other distributions
• Empirical methods based on runoff, precipitations, and basin characteristics.
• Unit hydrographs techniques
• Storm patterns, PMP/PMF techniques.
♦ Usual design procedure – application of several methods. More and more widespread use of PMP/PMF
approach; checked against statistical methods.
♦ PMP/PMF methodology
Divide drainage basin in meteorologically homogeneous sub-basins. →Study applicable maximum moisture
content of atmosphere →Evaluate worst antecedent condition (soil, moisture, base flow, etc..) →Define most
possible storm pattern →Route storm in each sub-basin with probable max. precipitation →Route through
main channel system →Analyze response sensitivity to different data and parameters →Compare with
statistical methods.
♦ Important factors to be taken into account
• Antecedent conditions – moisture of ground, previous precipitations, base flow
• Sources of runoff; rainfall, snowmelt
• Intensity, duration, geographic distribution of rainfall
• Storm patterns, hydro-meteorological condition
• Routing through channel system.
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2.6.3 Routing Of Hydrographs.
♦ Basic equations
Cross section Profile
• Energy equation
f 0
2
S = S -
y
x
-
x
v
2g
-
1
g
v
t




¸
¸

_
,



• Continuity equation
A
v
x
+vB
y
x
+B
y
t
=q






♦ Methods
• Full hydraulic method – complete equations
• Diffusion method
f 0
S = S -
y
x


• Kinematic Wave
Sf = So
10
• Storage routing
I(t)
O(t)
I - inflow O - outflow S - storage
O = f1(S) or S = f2(O)
• Muskingum
O (t1) = O1I (t1) = I1
O (t2) = O2I (t2) = I2
2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1
O =O +C ( I - O )+C ( I - I )
1
2 1
2 1
C =
2( t - t )
2K( - X) +( t - t ) 1
2
2
1
C =
2( t - t ) KX
2K( - X) +( t - t )
2 1
2 1

K - travel time parameter
X - storage in reach parameter
• Averaging and lagging – empirical
11
S(t)
12
3 Spillways
One of the major aspects of dam safety during the operation of the dam is safe release (evacuation) of
excess water (mainly floods) from the reservoir behind the dam itself. The structures that are specially
designed and built to meet this goal are called spillways. Here they are referred to as complete set of
structures needed to convey the excess water from head water to tail water in safest possible way, having
in mind economical and other aspects such as optimized fitting in general lay-out of the dam with its other
auxiliary structures.
3.1 Concept – Hydraulic structure designed to release water in excess from a
reservoir to a river stretch downstream of a dam
3.2 Component Works and Classification
♦ Classification according to use
• Service spillways – frequent use, no damages
• Auxiliary spillways – infrequent use, some damages
• Emergency spillways – reserve protection, damages
Spillway capacity:
2 3
1
2 3 / 2 H b g C Q ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · (neglecting approaching velocity; H is spillway head, b is
net width −or can be considered as length −of the spillway crest, Cn is spillway coefficient), or:
2 3
3
2 3
2
2 H b C H b g C Q ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
♦ According to shape:
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• Sharp-crested NOTCH weir (C1=0.62; C2=0.413; C3=1.83)
• Broad Crested (C1=1/√3 −for abstract case (for optimal practical shape it is about 94% of this, and it
can be taken down to 83% of that in worst case); C2=0.385; C3=1.707)
• Practical profile OGEE spillway (C1=0.745 for design head; C2=0.497; C3=2.201). Here the head
measured from the crest is less compared to one from the corresponding notch! Shape (Creager), for
instance, can be expressed as:
85 . 0 85 . 1
5 . 0

· H x y
For Hmax=1.65Hdesign cavitation occurs and actual head should never exceed this value. For this case C1=0.81.
♦ According to flow conditions:
• Overfall spillway from a reservoir (Ogee, Morning Glory…)
• Control weir (flow measurements, water level maintenance, other regulating functions)
• Side channel spillway (spilling from a water body into a side channel − spatially varied flow in
channel)
• Side weir (Spilling from channel laterally into another channel or basin −spatially varied flow in
main channel and on the spillway crest)
Most of them can have free flow or submerged flow, affected from downstream by tailwater conditions.
♦ Control structure – component of spillway providing partial or complete control of discharges – gated or
ungated control structures
♦ Conveyance structure – conduction of flow
♦ Terminal structures – structure at end of spillway providing adequate back flow of discharges to
downstream river channel
3.3 Spillway Types
Control
(regulation)
Control (inlet) Conveyance Terminal
A B C D
1 SLUICE GATE OVERFALL (ogee, notch, and
sill…)
FREE FALL STILLING BASIN
2 RADIAL GATE COLLECTING CHANNEL CASCADE SKI JUMP
3 FLAP GATE SHAFT SPILLWAY SPILLWAY CHUTE WATER CUSHION
4 FUSE PLUG SIPHON FREE SURFACE
5 UNREGULATED CULVERT PRESSURE TUNNEL
14
15
Table (and sketch) above represents only major representatives of each group and it allows to make 375
combinations out of which 190 are possible and “only” ca. 65 MEANINGFUL. Considering, say, different
types of stilling basins as separate groups, then D1 could be split into more groups allowing for more
combinations.
Some examples follow:
♦ Control structures
• Straight, curved – B1
• Side channel, double side channel – B2
• Morning glory (shaft spillway) – B3
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• Drop
• Labyrinth crest, orifice – B1, B5
• Siphon, Stepped spillway – B4
♦ Conveyance structure
• Chute – C3
• Conduit
• Tunnel – C4, C5
• Free fall – C1
♦ Terminal structures (Energy dissipaters):
• Hydraulic jump stilling basin – D1
• Roller bucket, stilling basin – D1
• Flip bucket, deflector bucket – D2
• Plunge pool – D3
• Combination flip bucket + jump – D2
• Direct discharge
3.4 Data for Spillway Design
♦ Topography – influence on type, layout, downstream inundation
♦ Geological conditions – foundations, rock mass downstream
♦ Hydrological data – floods, discharge series
♦ Hydraulic data – flow conditions upstream, downstream
♦ Project requirements, special requirements
♦ Reservoir flood detention capacity
♦ Downstream developments
♦ Other data – structural, water quality, environment
3.5 Detailed Hydrologic Data
♦ Stream flow records – discharges, volumes, peaks.
♦ Flood studies
♦ Floodplain inundation maps
♦ Tail-water curves. Backwater effects. Morphological studies
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3.6 Detailed Hydraulic Data – Support of Hydraulic Design
♦ Reservoir inflow, storage, sedimentation, trash load, ice problems, operation, water quality
♦ Downstream requirements, releases, flow profiles
♦ Upstream backwater
3.7 Selection Criteria and Procedure
♦ Safety:
• High operation reliability
• Structural safety
• Control of releases – dam safety
• Adequate evaluation of downstream hazard
• Adequate design flood
♦ Function:
• Adequate release capacity
• Compatibility with type of dam
• Satisfy project requirements
• Compatibility with site topography and geology
• Economic considerations
• Frequency and magnitude of releases
Selection procedure
a. Determine outflow and surcharge (elevation of storage level) to accommodate design flood
b. Select alternatives
c. Combine components
d. Compare alternatives – technical, costs
e. Select best alternative
3.8 Design Methodology
a. Allocate reservoir volume for sediment deposits, live storage, surcharge and freeboard
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b. Define spillway crest elevation (trial and error)
c. Select design flood
d. Flood routing through reservoir, for different spillway alternative dimensions and types
e. Layouts – costs – cost comparison
3.9 Hydraulic Problems (see hydraulic design criteria)
♦ Discharge capacity
♦ Geometry of crest
♦ Geometry of gates
♦ Energy dissipation
♦ Hydraulic pressures
♦ Cavitation (see sketch on next page)
Cavitation index:
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σ
γ γ α
=
p / - p / +h +
hv
gr
v / 2g
a v
2
2
cos
Where:
pa = atmospheric pressure
pv = vapor pressure
γ = specific weight of water
g = acceleration of gravity
r = radius of curvature
Cavitation criterion: σ > σcr
σcr = critical value for incipient cavitation
For fairly smooth surfaces σcr = 0.25
♦ aeration
If σ ≤ σcr cavitation may occur. A good control of cavitation is aeration of flow
Buckingham theorem:
F (qa /q, Fr, Eu, Re, We, tgα, tgφ, t/h) = 0
/geometry \
qa- specific air discharge (m
3
/s/m)
q = vh - specific water discharge
20
Fr = v/√gh - Froude number – Inertia/Gravity
Eu = v/√∆p/ρ - Ëuler number – Inertia/Pressure difference
We = v/√ τ /ρL - Weber number – Inertia/Surface tension force
τ = surface tension
Re = vh/µ/ρ - Reynolds number – Inertia/Viscous forces
See numerical values pp. 630 - 632 Advanced Dam Engineering
21
3.10 Control Gates
Plane:
• Slide - low pressure
• Roller - medium pressure - high pressure
• Caterpillar - very high pressure (outlets)
Radial:
• Tainter
• Sector
Flap gates
♦ Operation mechanisms
• Cable
• Chains
• Pressurized hydraulic hoist (oil driven piston)
Rough estimation of weight for different type of gates can be done using correlation-derived formulae
compiled by Davis. Values can be used in very preliminary phases of projects and can be considered as
slightly conservative, but nonetheless useful in first assessment of the cost estimate.
Radial (tainter) gates:
( )
35 . 1
) (
9 . 1
) (
25 ) (
m m
H L kg W ⋅ ⋅ ·
Gives the weight of moving part of the gate, while weight of embedded parts like anchorage, sills and steel
plates can be taken as 35% of this (actually varying from 10% to 50% for small and large gates respectively).
Weight of fixed-type hoist can be roughly estimated as W (kg)=300⋅ Capacity (tons), where capacity may
vary from 75% to 150% of the gate leaf weight. For traveling type hoists W (kg)=167⋅ Capacity (t)
1.33.
Vertical-lift (sliding) gates:
( )
75 . 1
) (
5 . 1
) (
9 . 25 ) (
m m
H L kg W ⋅ ⋅ ·
Gives the weight of moving part of the gate, while weight of embedded parts like anchorage, sills and steel
plates can be taken as 35% of this (actually varying from 10% to 50% for small and large gates respectively).
Weight of two-drum hoist can be roughly estimated as W (kg)=225⋅ Capacity (tons), where capacity may
vary from 120% (for fixed-wheel gates) to 150% (for sliding gates) of the gate leaf weight. Capacity exceeds
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the weight of the gate leaf by 10-20 % for lifting beam and the rest is difference due to friction. For single
drum hoists W (kg)=68⋅ Capacity (t).
Rolling gates and Hoists:
( )
67 . 1
) (
5 . 1
) (
9 . 55 ) (
m m
H L kg W ⋅ ⋅ ·
Gives the weight of moving part of the gate, while weight of embedded parts like anchorage, sills and steel
plates can be taken as 20% of cylinder weight. In average loading condition (depending on submergence of
the gate) the weight of the fixed-hoist unit with lifting chains can be taken as 30% of the cylinder weight.
Drum gates:
( )
33 . 1
) ( ) (
332 ) (
m m
H L kg W ⋅ ⋅ ·
Gives the weight of the gate including moving and embedded parts, operating mechanisms and piping.
Travelling Gantry Crane
(Given in Anglo-American system of units)
Enclosed TVA type: W = 59.5⋅ f (W)
0.74
(in tons)
Open utility type W = 28.9⋅ f (W)
0.456
(in tons)
Where:
,
_

¸
¸ +
+ ⋅

·
S
B A S C
W f
2
1
1000
) ( ;
C = maximum hoist pull, tons;
S = span runway rails, ft;
A and B = respective lengths of upstream and downstream legs of crane (ft), measured from runway rail to
hoist platform or trolley rails.
For more details on this matter consult “Handbook of Applied Hydraulics” by Davis, fourth edition 1993,
McGraw-Hill, New York.
23
24
4 Outlet Works
As the spillways convey excess water from the reservoir in order to maintain safety of the dam, outlet
works convey required water to fulfill demand(s) downstream such as water supply, irrigation,
hydropower, etc… In other words, outlet works are “responsible for safe delivery of the project’s product”
which is water that should meet demand(s) in terms of both quantity and quality. In many cases outlets are
used for water evacuation, like during flushing operations or reservoir emptying, or can contribute to
increase evacuation capacity during floods.
4.1 Concept – hydraulic structures used to convey water from a reservoir to a
point downstream of a dam.
(Outlet works – embankment dams, sluices – concrete dams)
4.2 Classification: Components
♦ According to function
• Irrigation
• Municipal (potable), industrial water
• Flood control
• Power generation
• River flows
• Additional spillway capacity
• Diversion during construction
• Emergency drawdown – emptying time of
the reservoir for given constant inflow:
y
ydy
c
A
g a
H
T
a
a
H
H
y
H
H
y
a

·

·
·
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
A = reservoir area A(H)
a = Control section outlet area
Ha = steady reservoir level for given inflow
c = discharge coefficient (can be assumed constant)
25
Here

+
·
ξ
D
L
f
c
1
Where f is friction head loss coefficient (can be obtained from Moody diagram or assuming highly developed
turbulent flow for hydraulically rough pipes − quadratic region − and equating Darcy-Weisbach and
Manning’s formulae for given n
3 2
6 . 124 D n f · ). For details on this consult lecture-notes “Basic
Hydraulics or chapter 7 of these lecture-notes.
Σξ is sum of local head loss coefficients (such as trash rack, intake, bends, contractions, expansions,
branching, etc. – including exit loss coefficient which is equal 1.0 if outflow is to still or slow-flowing water
or air).
• Combination of functions
♦ Type of flow
• Pressure flow
• Free surface (gravity) flow
• Combination
♦ Components – all or some of the following:
Inlet Channel
1
Intake or
Intake
Structure
2
Conduit
Waterway
Tunnel
3
Gate Chamber
or
Downstream Gate
Structure
4
Chute
5
Energy
Dissipator
6
Outlet Channel
7
• Conveyance - (1), (3), (5), (7)
• Control - (2), (4)
• Energy dissipation - (6)
4.3 Inlet and Outlet Channels
Consideration of following important points
26
♦ Clogging (sliding or deposition of rock masses or Plugging sediment)
• Adequate location
• Stabilization of slopes
• Adequate operation
♦ Sediment transport (erosion, abrasion)
• Channel lining
• Channel stabilization
• Traps
4.4 Intakes
Important points
♦ Location with respect to water levels
♦ Control or not (gates)
♦ Special functions (for instance, selective withdrawal – multiple level intakes for water supply)
♦ Provision of trash-racks (in most cases)
♦ Shape of hydraulic passages
4.5 Control Structure
Important points:
♦ Location of structure (intake, mid-structure, downstream)
♦ Type of gates, valves
• Plane gates:
⋅ Slide
⋅ Roller
⋅ Variations
• Radial gates:
⋅ Tainter
⋅ Top-seal radial
27
• Valves:
⋅ Needle valves, tube valves (Can operate submerged, expensive, unstable for small openings −
cavitation)
⋅ Hollow jet, C=0.7 (not suitable for submerged outflow)
⋅ Butterfly
⋅ Howell-Bunger (Cone) up to 250 m of head, A=0.8Apipe, C=0.85-0.9; better dissipation with
ring (fixed large hollow cylinder) placed downstream of the cone −ring jet valve →C=0.75-
0.80
⋅ Gate valves
⋅ Spherical valves
♦ Operational safety – redundancy operation gate, revision gate, operation, maintenance
♦ Planning all operations with gates – assembly, erection, disassembly, removal
♦ Structure:
⋅ Intake structure
⋅ Gate shaft or tower
⋅ Gate chamber
4.6 Conveyance Structure
Important points:
♦ Cavitation (due to high velocities), aeration
♦ Shape of transitions, slots
♦ Lining
4.7 Terminal Structures
Important points:
♦ Energy dissipation
• Stilling basin (special case impact structure)
• Dispersion of jet
• Plunge pool, flip bucket
28
• No energy dissipation
♦ Shapes of hydraulic passages
4.8 Hydraulic Problems and Their Prevention
♦ Cavitation:
• Improvement of shape of water passages
• Increase of pressure in affected areas
• Aeration
♦ Abrasion:
• Special lining (concrete, steel)
• Particular problem in stilling basins
♦ Scouring:
• Lining
• Rockfill protection
♦ Structural vibration:
• Influence on supports of elements
• Elastic properties
• Masses (Ex. Trash-racks)
♦ Vortices:
• Design modifications of intakes
• Anti-vortex devices
♦ Other problems
• Back current
• Hydrodynamic loads
• Uplift
29
30
5 Energy Dissipaters
Energy dissipation process can be
considered in 5 separate stages:
1. On the spillway (outlet) surface
2. In the free falling jet (if any)
3. At impact into the downstream
pool
4. In the stilling basin (bucket,
pool)
5. At the outflow into the river.
5.1 Energy Dissipation on Spillways
The energy loss on the spillway surface:
e = ξαv’
2
/2g where v’ is velocity at the end of the spillway, α is
the Coriolis coefficient, and ξ is the head loss coefficient related to
the velocity coefficient ϕ (ratio of actual to theoretical velocity) as:
ξ
ϕ
+ ·1
1
2
Relative head loss:
2
1 ϕ − ·
E
e
After Novak and Čabelka (1981) for S/H<30 and smooth spillways:
ϕ1 ≈ 1 −0.0155S/H
The value of ξ can be increased (ϕ decreased) by using rough
spillway surface (e.g., stepped spillway, or baffles). Aeration should
be provided to prevent cavitation damages.
5.2 Ski-jump and Flip Bucket
Ski-jump can be used at the end of chute or tunnel spillway. Most of energy dissipation is achieved along
1−3 (spillway surface, jet, impact) and if jet is conveyed far enough in geologically suitable condition,
“stilling basin” (usually plunge pool for ski-jump spillways) can be avoided by letting the jet to do pool
“excavation” (by erosion) as needed. Ski-jump is used in 1951 for the first time, and its use is growing
ever since.
• Head loss in the jet up to 12%.
• Can be enhanced by more jets colliding
31
• Impact (phase 3) provides main benefit in energy dissipation
• Intensively aerated jet before impact increases efficiency
• Optimal dissipation in the jet itself is obtained for S’/S ≈ 0.6
• Best results are for “disintegrated” jet, which occurs at distance L ≈ 6q
1/3
from the crest.
• Theoretical throw distance of the jet:

,
_

¸
¸
+
+
+ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · β
ϕ
β β ϕ sin
5 . 0 '
sin ) cos( 2
0
2
2
0
2
H
y S
H L
Where
H0 = S + H −S’−y/2 energy to the middle of the off-taking jet.
β is take-off angle
And y = depth at the off-take of the ski-jump
ϕ can be assumed approximately as 1.0
Flip bucket is special version of the ski-jump usually placed at river bottom. Main parameters are R
(radius) and β (take-off) angle.
• At low flows bucket acts as stilling basin −downstream protection against erosion is necessary
• Proper operation for high flows with a jet
• For v < 20 m/s air resistance can be neglected
• For v = 40 m/s throw distance reduction up to 30%
• Theoretical throw distance L = (v
2
/g) sin 2β
• Major concern is to throw the jet as far as possible from the structure.
• Protection against retrogressive erosion
• 3-D forms of flip bucket to skew jet into desired direction.
• Tailor made −hydraulic scale models
5.3 Stilling basins
• Hydraulic jump stilling basins
• Type I −IV Stilling basins with chute blocks and baffles (USBR)
• Plain or slotted roller buckets (USBR)
• Spatial hydraulic jump basins (change in width, change in depth, flow from lateral channels)
32
Hydraulic jump stilling basin:
Depth of water entering stilling basin y1 can be obtained from:
2
1
2
2
1
2 y g
q
y E
ϕ
α ⋅
+ · and then second conjugate depth for rectangular basin:

,
_

¸
¸
+ + − ·
3
1
2
1
2
8 1 1
2 gy
q y
y
Depth of the stilling basin respecting need for certain “submergence” as safety measure:
D = σ⋅ y2 −y0 →
y0 is normal depth in the river downstream of the stilling basin usually obtained for computation from tail
water flow-rating curve.
σ is submergence coefficient and should be grater than 1.10, i.e., downstream conjugate depth should be
more than 10% submerged. This is stilling the jump surface and preventing cavitation on the apron slab.
As with computation of required depth, available energy for computation of y1 changes (increases)
computation should be iterated until all values fit.
Length of the stilling basin can be adopted as: L = K (y2 − y1), where 4.5 < K < 5.5 for 10 > Fr1 ≥ 3
respectively.
Above formulae are valid for rectangular basin with horizontal bed. At the end of basin simple end sill can
be provided with slope of 1:3, where the basin length includes this sloped sill. Basin has to be safe for
whole range of discharges (not only the high design flow).
• Better efficiency for higher Froude Number.
• Efficiency for low Froude number can be as low as 50%
• Fluctuation of pressure in the basin (cavitation, forces on apron slab)
Structural concerns:
• Uplift −drainage, anchorage, weight
• Abrasion
• Vibration
• Cavitation
33
Design flow for stilling basin computation need not necessarily be equal to that of the spillway (and/or
outlet). Lower flows can be considered for economical reason, allowing some damage of the basin itself
and just downstream in very exceptional cases. However, spillway structure (or dam) should be designed
for higher flows.
Above there are two examples of USBR stilling basins. Although those types allow shallower and
somewhat shorter basins −therefore saving in terms of excavation and sometimes concrete as well, they
have some serious disadvantages compared with simple hydraulic jump stilling basins. Construction of
baffle teeth-blocks requires “filigree” work in terms of reinforcement and formworks. In operation,
however, these types of stilling basins have proven to be vulnerable to devastating cavitation effects partly
induced by teeth themselves. Extensive repair works might be required usually involving use of expensive
epoxy-materials.
5.4 Downstream Erosion
• After stilling basin
No stilling basin can dissipate 100% of the incoming energy. Erosion downstream of stilling basins or
flip-buckets and ski-jumps is to be expected.
• Control of the position and magnitude of erosion
• Rip-rap
• Concrete aprons
Expected erosion (scour depth) can be roughly estimated using Novak’s expression:
1
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
0
3
1
90
0 05 25 . 0
*
6 55 . 0 y
d
y
q H y
s
Where
34
H* is difference between upstream and downstream levels
Y0 is tailwater depth
q is specific discharge per meter width
d90 is 90% grain size of sediment in the river bed
Required length of downstream riprap (or apron) bed protection for low head structures after US War
Department:
3
3 4
435 . 1

,
_

¸
¸
·
d
o
y
v H
L
, Ho = H+S (available energy −see figure at the beginning of the chapter), yd =
tail water depth, and v is tail water velocity. (This formula gives rather high values)
• After ski jump
Scour of (in the) plunge pools can be expressed in general by equation of Locher & Hsu:
0
8
y
d
H Cq
y
z
w y x
s
− ·
β
C = coefficient 0.65<C<4.7
x, y, w, z = exponents
0.5 < x < 067; 0.1 < y < 0.5; 0 < z < 0.3; 0 < w < 0.1
Wild variation of coefficients could be simplified like in case of Martins formula:
0
1 . 0
*
6 . 0
5 . 1 y H q y
s
− · for ski-jump
Neglecting the impact angle and elevation of the take-off, as well as composition of the riverbed can be
criticized. However, for most cases, according to experiments, major influence on scour hole is by unit
discharge, and then by total available head (which also represents jet’s velocity). In Russian practice
(Zamarin’s formula) more emphasis is given to position of the out-coming jet, angle of impact, jet’s
velocity and allowable velocity (the one that will not cause any scour − which might be difficult to
determine in practice). Still major influence is by q in this formula as well.
35
• After flip bucket
For flip buckets simplification by Tarjamovich’s expression could be considered:
1
tan 6 β
cr s
y y ·
β1 = upstream angle of the scour hole as a function of flip bucket exit angle β
For 10
0
< β <40
0
⇒ 14
0
<β1 <24
0
One has to be aware that all these formulae can just give an idea about possible location and order of
magnitude of the scour hole, so that necessary precaution measures can be foreseen. They might be useful
in comparison of different alternatives showing differences taking into account equal assumptions.
5.5 Dissipation at Bottom Outlets
Size and position of the outlet (above or below tail water level), importance of the structure and
downstream conditions can influence type of energy dissipation for bottom outlets.
• Aeration and dispersion of the jet above tail water, by means of gates or valves (e.g., hollow jet).
• Reduction of specific discharge as it enters the stilling basin (gradual expansion, and/or deflectors).
• Sudden expansion energy dissipaters −possible cavitation effects that should be drifted away from the
boundaries of the structure.
• By direct impact of the jet against the wall or in the vertical stilling wells (for small-capacity outlets).
36
This figure shows comparison of the model and actual situation
Example of Spillway, Outlet Works and Stilling Basins (at Friant dam, USA):
37
Example of Spillway, Outlet Works and Stilling Basins (at Friant dam, USA)
38
6 Navigation Locks
6.1 Concept
Navigation locks are hydraulic structures that are provided
to allow navigable connection between two water bodies
having different water levels. In this way concentrated
heads on canalized rivers and canals are usually overcome.
They normally appear in association with dams or similar
structures in natural streams or man-made channels.
6.2 Types and Classification
According to the type of structure, height of lift and capacity, locks may be classified as follows:
• Inclined planes
• Ship elevators
• Chamber locks −for small to large barges of convoys
 Small lift - up to approximately 20 m
 Medium to large lift - from 20 to 35 m
In recent navigation practice, associated with current transportation requirements, most of the navigation
locks are of chamber type. Navigation locks of this type make it possible for ships to move from one part
(level) to the other by the operation of movable elements (gates, valves). These structures usually include
heads (at the ends) equipped with gates, and chamber(s) that can contain ships to be locked through. There
are filling (emptying) systems as well equipped by valves. Water level in the chamber is increased or
decreased to match upstream or downstream levels. Usual dimensions of chamber are in following range:
Length - from 20 to 200 m
Width - up to 35 m
Lift - from a few meters to 35
6.3 Lock Cycle
In a chamber lock, a typical operation to transpose a vessel(s) from low level to high level consists of the
following steps:
• With the chamber empty, opening of downstream gate
39
• Entry of vessel in the chamber, mooring (securing) and closure of downstream gate
• Filling of the lock chamber
• Opening of upstream gate and exit of the vessel
This is followed by descending operation (from upper level to lower level).
A complete cycle usually requires from 20 min to 2 hrs, depending on the chamber dimensions and lift
height.
The lock operation uses water! In each cycle the equivalent of the chamber useful volume is conveyed
towards downstream.
Figure 1
The lower gates are closed; the drain valve is closed; the filling valve is open allowing the lock chamber to fill to the upper level;
and the upper gates have been opened allowing the towboat to enter the lock chambers.
Figure 2
Now the towboat is in the lock chamber; the upper gates and the filling valve are closed; and the drain valve is open allowing
water to drain out into the lower level. The towboat is lowered as the water level lowers.
Figure 3
When the water level reaches the lower level, the lower gates are opened allowing the towboat to leave the lock chamber and
proceed on down the river to the next lock and dam where it will go through the same procedure.
6.4 Relevant Hydraulic Aspects
From a general point of view, the main objective of an appropriate planning, design, construction and
operation of a navigation lock is to achieve an economic, safe and operationally reliable solution.
Filling time:
40
Adh dt gh ca Qdt − · · 2
For instantaneous complete opening:
g ac
H A
h
dh
g ac
A
dt T
H
T
2
2
2
0
0
· − · ·
∫ ∫

A is lock area in plan; a is filling system area (valve); c is outlet coefficient (function of time, but could be
taken as constant; h is head (difference in water levels); H is total lock’s head.
For gradual linear opening in time T1 (a=atT1/t)
∫ ∫
− ·
1 1
0
2
hT
H t
T
h a
dh
g c
A
dt

( )
1
1
0
1
2
2
T
T
h H
g ca
AT
tdt − − ·

( )
g ca
h H A
T
T
2
4
1
1

·
And total filling time:
g ca
H A T
g ca
h A
T T
T
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
+ · + ·
In this case Qmax. occurs at ht=
4
/9H if hT1<
4
/9H, or else it is at hT1.
Equalizing water levels between two locks of areas A1 and A2:
( ) g ca A A
H A A
T
2
2
2 1
2 1
+
·
And for A1=A2
g ca
H A
T
2
·
If the opening is gradual but not linear, step method has to be used:
( )
i i
h h
g ca
A
t − · ∆
−1
2
2
for adopted ∆t →hi can be computed and from there discharge as well
i i i
gh ca Q 2 ·
41
Other types of overcoming head difference for navigation purposes:
• Thrift locks (saving water, but expensive and slower, heads up to 30 m)
• High head elevators (up to 100 m, horizontal water filled troughs)
• Lifts (up to 100 m in length, low water usage, high travelling speed – relatively high
capacity)
• Inclined planes (as above but trough is mounted on special leveling undercarriage which
travels along or normal to trough’s axis)
Usually boat is settled at the bottom of the trough by releasing some water prior to lifting operation. Ac-
celeration and deceleration during operation must be kept within acceptable limits. Lifts (vertical or in-
clined) are more prone to damages and are more sensitive in operation than standard locks. They are usu-
ally more expensive to build and maintain. Their capacity per lifting operation is much lower. Neverthe-
less, if high head is to be overcome, alternative between single lift and multi-step locks should be com-
pared, and the former might have advantages (especially if the space is limited).
• Example of part of the Navigation notice NO. 1-1997 (February 1997), from Ohio River
Division, North Central Division, Lower Mississippi Valley Division, regarding safety of navigation:
“SAFETY
1. Commercial and recreational craft shall use the locks at all
times except for navigable pass dams, and authorized fixed weir
passages.
2. Vessels shall not pass under gates in the dam when they are
out of the water and the river is flowing freely through the gate
opening.
3. Lockage of leaking or listing vessels may be refused.
Leaking or listing vessels shall be moored in a location outside
of the channel so as not to interfere with passing navigation.
4. All craft and tows approaching a lock, within a distance of
200 feet of the upper or lower lock gate, shall proceed at a
speed not greater than two miles per hour (rate of a slow walk).
5. All tows entering the lock shall be properly aligned with
the guide or lock wall. Tows may be required to stop prior to
entering certain locks at which unusual conditions exist.
6. When an amber flashing light is displayed and approval is
given by lock personnel, a descending or ascending vessel may
approach and moor with a backing line to the guide wall;
however, the head of the tow shall be no closer than 100 feet
from the near end of the lock gate recess.
7. Burning fenders shall be dropped overboard immediately
rather than being placed on the deck of a barge or towboat.
Fenders shall not be secured to cleats or timberhead and left
unattended.
8. When tows are underway in the lock approaches or lock
chamber and there is a potential for damage to the structure a
minimum of two deckhands with fenders shall be stationed at the
head end of every tow 100 feet or greater in width. One deckhand
42
with a fender shall be required at the head end of tows less than
100 feet in width. Additional personnel shall be required at the
aft end if the lock operator determines that it is necessary to
protect the lock and guide walls from damage.
9. It is the responsibility of the vessel operator to provide
adequate mooring lines. The lock operator may require mooring
lines to be replaced with satisfactory lines before lockage is
made if the lines appear to be of such quality, size, or
condition that would make safe lockage questionable.
10. Mates and deckhands, when preparing to moor within the lock
chambers, shall not throw heavy mooring lines onto the walls, but
shall wait for a heaving line.
11. All towboat crews, while locking or moving a tow into or out
of a lock chamber, must station themselves to preclude the
possibility of being injured by the parting of a cable or line
under strain. Single lines only will be used to check a moving
tow. During inclement weather conditions (snow and ice) the
working area of the tow where lines are used shall be free of
snow and ice to prevent injury to towing industry personnel.
Working lines shall be kept dry and in working condition (not
frozen) to allow lines to be worked properly and to prevent
injury to personnel.
12. Towboat crew members shall not jump between moving tows and
lock or guide walls while preparing for lockage, locking, or
departing lock. Use of lockwall ladder ways is permitted
only after tows are securely moored and the chamber is at upper
pool.
13. Tabulated below are the minimum number of vessel personnel
required for handling lines during lockages. The captain/pilot
can not act as a deckhand.
TYPE OF VESSEL MINIMUM MINIMUM MINIMUM
OR TOW NUMBER OF NUMBER OF NUMBER OF
PERSONNEL LINES USED EMERGENCY
USE LINES
Towboats with up to 1 1 1
one barge length and
all other vessels less
than 65 feet
All other vessels requiring 2 2 1
single lockage
Tows requiring double 3 2 1
lockage (one deckhand
to remain with first cut)
Set-over tows 3 2 1
Knock-out tows 2 2 1
14. All vessels, when in the locks, shall be moored and/or moved
as directed by the lock operator.
15. Commercial towing companies shall ensure that vessel
operators and boat crew members have received orientation and
43
training in all aspects of deck work and lockage procedures to
ensure the safety of personnel, floating plant, and structures.
16. All cylinders or containers holding gases or liquids under
pressure or any other chemical or substance shall be securely
fastened to the hull of the vessel to prevent their rolling
overboard into the lock chamber.
17. All containers holding paint, gasoline, or other volatile
materials shall be securely fastened with tight fitting covers.”
Other Instructions and data (such as operational aspects, etc.) are usually given in this kind of notices.
44
7 Pumping Stations and Pipeline Conveyance
7.1 Pumping Stations
7.1.1 Usage and Classification
• Most large pumping stations pump water from open surface sources (rivers, lakes, canals, and basins,
i.e., sumps).
• Groundwater abstraction by smaller units (submerged pumps)
• Usage:
• Dewatering (drainage) behind a dike, or cofferdam
• Lowering a water table (or groundwater table)
• Pumping sewage or storm water (or sewer) flow to treatment plants
• In water supply networks to supply to higher elevations, or (booster pumps) to boost pressure
heads
• In Pump-Storage Hydropower schemes reversible pump-turbine units are used. In the past
separate units, for pumping and generation, were more common.
• Abstraction from boreholes (or wells)
Different uses and purposes usually require different pumps. Common types of pumps are:
Type Discharge Head Application
C
e
n
t
r
i
f
u
g
a
l
Rotodynamic pump
Radial-flow type
Low High
>30m To pump water or sewage; Pumping clean
water with higher efficiency; Sewage
pumps are usually with slow speed.
Axial flow type High Low
<15m
Mixed-flow type Medium Medium
23−30m
Reciprocating pump Low Medium Viscous fluid pumping; Borehole
pumping; leakage.
Air-lift pump Low Low Inefficient but used for GW recovery from
skewed wells, sands and silt.
Table continues…
45
… Continued
Type Discharge Head Application
Jet pump Low Medium Combined with centrifugal pump,
borehole abstraction −inefficient
Screw pump High Low Archimedes’ screw principle; Low speed;
Mud or liquids with silt.
Helical rotor pump Low Low Helical rotor and stator elements; for
sewage or liquids with suspended matter.
7.1.2 Pump Parameters
Most common pump type is centrifugal −rotodynamic. Most important parameter that characterizes this
sort of pumps is specific speed of rotation:
4 5
H
Q
N N
s
·
Where Q is discharge (l/s), H is manometric head (m) and N is the rotational speed (rpm).
Manometric head is gross head that includes difference in elevation of water levels in the sump and upper
basin plus head losses in suction part of the conveyance (from sump to the pump) and in distribution part
of the conveyance (from the pump on). Pump has to develop even higher head to overcome the impeller
(in)efficiency ηp. H = Hm / ηp
Required power to operate the pump would be:
η
m
QH
P 81 . 9 ·
[in kW]
46
For clean water and Hm (m), Q(m
3
/s), and η=ηp⋅ηm⋅ηt<1.0 (overall efficiency including pump, motor and
transformer if needed).
Mostly pumps operate under varying conditions of discharge and head. Then:
Q2 = Q1(N2/N1), and H2 = H1(N2/N1)
2
Pumps can be operated in “parallel” or in “series”. Later must be operated simultaneously. Pump with
impellers in series is called multistage or booster pump.
Pressure at the pump impeller inlet (ps) is usually below atmospheric pressure (pa). From Bernoulli’s
equation between the sump and this section:
ps/ρg = pa/ρg −(hs + ∆Hs + vs
2
/2g)
Here Hs is position of the pump (above sump water level), ∆Hs is head loss in suction pipe, and vs is flow
velocity there.
If ps < pv (vapor pressure) cavitation occurs. This can be dealt with by increasing intake and pipe
dimension (decreasing losses and velocity) and by limiting suction head (pump position):

,
_

¸
¸
+ ∆ −


g
v
H
g
p p
h
s
s
v a
s
2
) (
2
ρ
Net positive suction head (NPSH):

,
_

¸
¸
+ ∆ + −

·
g
v
H h
g
p p
NPSH
s
s s
v a
2
) (
2
ρ
Thoma’s cavitation number σ is: σ = NPSH / Hm
NPSH values are supplied by pump manufacturers. Nss (suction specific speed) is:
Nss = NQ
1/2
/(NPSH)
3/4
; σ = (Ns/Nss)
4/3
; 4700<Nss<6700 for most centrifugal pumps.
Critical cavitation number (from model tests):
σc = 0.103 (Ns / 1000)
4/3
Most pumps, placed above water level, need priming (air must be expelled prior to pumping).
47
7.1.3 Design and Selection of Pump, Sump and Mains
To optimize the pipeline diameter for given pump, or to select a pump for given pipeline diameter a graph
like this should be used. Pump characteristic and efficiency is obtained from manufacturer. System
characteristics are obtained for different pipelines by adding head losses to static head. Optimization in
economic terms is possible taking into account desired maximum flow rate and most frequent one. Note
that reasonable operating range of selected pump is relatively limited.
In case of considerable variations of levels or demands, or if the pipeline is expected to change roughness
or cross section (clogging) with time, additional care should be taken in order to select proper equipment.
In this course most important pumping installations are those for water supply. Common intakes for this
kind of installations can be:
• Horizontal −belmouth entry type from the water body (river, sump)
• Vertical, horizontal or turned-down intakes in dry or wet wells. These can be separate for each pump
(single-pump) or combined for multiple pumps.
• Good sump design must avoid formation of vortexes.
• Approach velocity should be kept below 0.3 m/s, avoiding sudden or abrupt expansions
and large stagnant zones.
• Pump intake should be directed towards approaching flow.
• Dividing walls should separate multiple intakes in the same sump.
• Vortex suppression devices could be applied (floating rafts, curtain walls, grating cages,
etc)
48
Pump - Pipeline Characteristic
Q
H
pump characteristic
system
characteristics
efficiency
Belmouth intake provides good inflow conditions and minimizes the entrance losses. Minimum
submergence of the intake should be:
gd
v
b a
d
h
+ ·
Where a = 0.5−1.5; and b = 2.0−2.5 (after Knaus)
Minimum sump volume depends on pumping flow rate, number of units and frequency of start-ups of the
pups. The later must be limited since in each start-up operation electric motor generates considerable heat.
Most pumping stations (especially sewage and storm-water) need to be provided with bar screens (trash
racks) to prevent larger objects from entering the sump. For this purpose usually steel bars spaced at ca.
30mm, and blocking about 40% of the area, are used. They are often inclined 60−90
o
to horizontal. Head
loss of at least 0.15 m should be accounted for. To diminish turbulence they should not be placed too close
to the pump. Anti-swirling devices may be required.
7.1.4 Pressure Transients
Pumping station and the pipeline must be protected against pressure transient phenomena
(surges−waterhammer) due to sudden opening or closure of the valves or most commonly caused by power
failure (sudden stoppage). This is going to be analyzed into detail in the course Advanced Hydraulics II
later on in the Programme.
Change of head for quick closure/opening can be expressed by:
g
av
H
0
 · ∆
Where a is celerity of the pressure wave:
e
D
k
eE
D
K
a
+
·

,
_

¸
¸
+
·
50
10
1
1
4
ρ
For water ρ=1000 kg/m
3
, bulk modulus K≈ 20⋅ 10
8
N/m
2
, k=10
11
/E
For steel E≈ 20⋅ 10
10
N/m
2
, k=0.5; D is pipeline diameter, e is pipe wall thickness.
For other materials: k=1 (cast iron), k=5 (concrete, lead), k=10 (wood)
Opening or closure is considered to be quick if it’s shorter than time needed for pressure wave to travel to
the upper reservoir and back (0≤ T≤τ , τ=2L/a).
If the opening or closure takes longer than pressure change is diminished:
gT
Lv
H
0
2 · ∆ . If along the
pipeline cross section changes, each change generates transmission and reflection pressure waves that
49
superimpose with original ones and affect the results. For branching or looping networks these must be
taken into account, and computation becomes rather more complicated. In pumping stations it is often
difficult to control times of opening and (especially) closure. Thus different measures can be applied to
control the drop/rise of head:
• Flywheels −if coupled with the pump they provide additional inertia so that pump rotates a while after
power cut occurs. Suitable for small installations.
• Bypasses and pressure relief valves −Bypass with non-return valve “sucks” part of the original flow
mitigating the negative effects of sudden stoppage. Pressure release valves and air inlet valves could
be provided in the pipeline as addition or alternatively.
• Surge tanks and air vessels −have to be placed as close to the pump(s) as possible. Therefore, often it
is not practicable to use open surge tanks (for they would require enormous heights). Rather, close air
vessels with air compressors are more commonly used. They “convert” (or limit in space) more severe
waterhammer effects to milder (and longer) surge (mass oscillation) effects.
Air vessels serve both for sudden opening and closure. A check valve should be provided between the
pump and air vessel. Predetermined extreme levels in the air vessel trigger the compressed air delivery.
Neglecting head losses, simplified solution for sudden complete closure (in terms of head change) is:

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅ t · t
LV
gAH
gAV
LH
Q H H
0
0
0
0
0 0
sin
0
0
0 0 min
gAV
LH
Q H H − ·
From here Vmax can be computed:
Vmax
1.2
⋅ Hmin=V0
1.2
⋅ H0
Period of oscillation is:
0
0
2
LV
gAH
T
π
·
Including losses in the pipeline and (entrance into/exit from) the air vessel, computation gets somewhat
more complicated and is usually solved by finite difference equation or by using design graphs for given
(or assumed) head losses. For pipelines with changing diameters equivalent length (one diameter −length
that would have same head losses as original pipe) can be used in simplified computations.
50
7.2 Pipelines
Pipelines are used for water or sewer conveyance usually under pressure, but also with free flow. They can
be made of various materials such as: Steel, cast iron, concrete, wood (obsolete), vitrified clay (obsolete),
asbestos cement (recently considered environmentally dangerous), plastic materials (PVC) and other
materials for special purposes (brass, copper, lead, glass, rubber, etc.).
7.2.1 Hydraulics
Basic hydraulic problems for steady flow through pipelines can be solved by 2 formulae:
• Continuity (mass conservation): Ai⋅ vi = Constant
• Bernoulli (energy conservation):
2 1
2
2 2
2
2
1 1
1
2 2

Σ∆ + + + · + + H
g
v
g
p
Z
g
v
g
p
Z
ρ ρ

Σ∆H is the sum of head losses between sections of interest. They include linear friction losses along the
pipe and local or “minor” losses (in bends, elbows, joints, valves, contractions, expansions, etc.).
Numerous formulae are available to compute linear friction losses. Probably the most universally used is
Darcy-Weisbach formula:
g
v
D
L
f H
f
2
2
· ∆ (in USA practice Hazen-Williams’ expression is more
commonly used)
Here f is Darcy’s friction coefficient. Different researchers have determined its value in the past. There are
various experimentally obtained expressions used to determine f.
There are different flow regimes possible in the pipes, dependent on Reynolds number:
Re = v⋅ D/ν or ReR = v⋅ R/ν →R =
D
/4 is Hydraulic radius of the pipe. ν is kinematic coefficient of
fluid’s viscosity (for water: t = 20
o
ν = 1.01
x
10
-6
m
2
/s, and t = 10
o
ν = 1.3
x
10
-6
m
2
/s)
• For Re<2320 there is laminar flow regime in the pipe, and then Darcy’s coefficient is:
R
f
Re
16
Re
64
· ·

• In turbulent flow there are three regimes:
• Hydraulically smooth pipes (Re<27(D/ε)
8/7
, approximately – ε is absolute average pipe
wall roughness)
Among many used formulae (like Nikuradze, Prandtl-Karman, etc.) Colebrook’s formula is given
here as probably the most practical:
7
Re
log 8 . 1
1
·
f
51
• Transition turbulent flow (27[D/ε]
8/7
< Re < 21.6 CD/ε, where C is Chezy coefficient =
√[8g/f])
Then another formula of Colebrook can be used:

,
_

¸
¸
+ ⋅ − ·
D
f f
7 . 3
Re
51 . 2
log 2
1 ε
• For even higher values of Re f = f(ε) and does not depend on Re itself anymore (quadratic
region of flow resistance). Then for instance Nikuradze’s formula can be used:
( ) [ ]
2
715 . 3 log
25 . 0
ε D
f ·
For all regions with limited accuracy (t 5%) for ε/D<0.01 and f<0.05, Moody’s formula can be used:
( )
3
6 4 3
Re 10 10 2 1 10 5 . 5 + ⋅ + ⋅ ·

D f ε
Material and the state of pipe ε (10
-3
m)
Concrete – rough 1-3
Concrete – smooth 0.3-0.8
Steel (welded) – new 0.04-0.1
Steel (welded) – used, stained, incrusted 0.15-1.5
Cast iron 0.25-1.5 (4)
More detailed list can be obtained from different handbooks. As most practical problems in hydraulic
(civil) engineering occur in the region of quadratic resistance (full turbulence), even manning formula
could be applied with reasonable accuracy. Then better known values for n can be used and/or converted
to f. As given before for this case:
3 2
6 . 124 D n f ·
• Minor or local losses are calculated based on experience and experiments. Some coefficients to
calculate local losses are given here:
• Entrance: sharp – ξ=0.5, rounded – ξ=0.2, bell-mouth – ξ=0.05, pipe sticking into
reservoir – ξ=1
• Sudden expansion:
2
2
2
1
1

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
− ·
D
D
ξ in regard to in-flowing velocity. If expansion is
gradual then this coefficient would be diminished (by multiplier k<1) depending on the angle of
expansion (for 5
o
– k=0.13, 15
o
– k=0.27, 25
o
– k=0.62…)
52
• Sudden contraction:
1
2
1
2
1
D
D
− ≅ ξ , (based on out-flowing velocity) for gradual
contraction coefficient would depend on angle and ratio of diameters.
• Elbow:

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ ⇒ ⇐ ·
5 . 3
2
85 . 1 13 . 0
90
1 . 0
R
D
or
R
D
R
L
o
α
ξ where L is arc length, R is
bend radius, D is pipe diameter, and α is deflection angle of the curve.
• Valves and gates: if open 0.05<ξ<0.2 (0.10-0.12) depending on the type and condition.
For different closures values could be found in handbooks, but accurate ones only from
manufacturers.
• Exit (into still water body): ξ=1.0
For gravity flow conditions in pipeline conveyance systems, Manning’s interpretation of Chezy equation
gives good results. Maximum flow capacity is where hydraulic radius is max. i.e., for profile ca 94% full.
However, if there is any miscalculation or difference in roughness (or if pipeline is not fitting into project
line or if there was abrasion or deposition…) then flow capacity calculated for max. conveyance would be
overestimated. It is more reasonable to limit maximum filling of the pipe (up)to ca 81%. At this point
conveyance of the gravity flow equals that of full cross section (100% – without pressure)
7.2.2 Loads
• Internal pressures
• Vertical loads due to backfill (for buried pipes)
• Horizontal backfill pressures (for buried pipes)
• Surcharge and concentrations (for buried pipes)
• Bedding and load distribution (for buried pipes)
• Support and anchor loads (for pipes supported above ground)
• Temperature loads (for open-air pipelines due to tendency of shrinkage and extension)
For pipes under pressure (buried or not), especially if subjected
to waterhammer, inner pressures (loads) might be most
important. The total shell tension due to internal pressure is
approximately: F = ½pD.
Tensile stress τ = ½pD/e for unit length of pipe. Here e is pipe
shell (wall) thickness (or equivalent thickness of tension taking
part). Thickness could be calculated from here if instead of tensile stress, allowable tensile stress (for
53
given material) is used. Usual procedure would be to compute this thickness first, taking into account
pressure transients. This procedure requires iterations since the pipe thickness affects pressure wave
celerity a which is relevant for determination of pressure rise ∆H. If thickness (obtained in this way) is still
less than certain structural minimum, than this later value should be adopted. Structural minimum would
depend on material used and pipe diameter (for steel pipes this should be 8 mm or more for larger pipes,
including up to 2 mm provision for corrosion and abrasion losses of the mass during operation). Such
dimensions should be checked if can withstand other loads, and adjusted if necessary.
Usually temperature induced loads should be alleviated using deformable coupling elements (expansion
joints) that can accommodate resulting deformations. Due to temperature changes pipe would tend to
expand (contract) between two fixed points (anchor blocks) depending on temperature difference between
particular moment and ambient temperature during pipe placement. Temperature linear expansion
coefficient is α (m/m
o
C). For steel it is about 12
x
10
-6
. Without anchors, extension of the pipe’s length
would be: ∆L = L⋅α⋅ t∆t. If expansion is disabled by anchor blocks reacting stress would develop:
σ = E⋅∆L/L, E is modulus of elasticity of material (for steel 20
x
10
10
Pa). These stresses and resulting
forces can be unacceptable, and to diminish them special pipeline construction arrangements can be
introduced – either expansion joints or harp-shaped pipeline deformable parts.
For free surface or low-pressure pipes loads caused by burying, backfill and surcharge are more important.
The plate thickness required to resist buckling under uniform external pressure is approximately:
3
6
6 . 1 p
E
D e ≅
Own weight of the pipe and water in it must be taken into account for calculation of the forces acting on
supports and anchor blocks. Friction, inertial, deflection (centrifugal) and other effects must be accounted
for. Other loading conditions are going to be discussed more in the course Hydropower development.
7.2.3 Placement considerations
Pipes can be buried or open. Both arrangements have advantages and disadvantages. Decision is to be
made based on project needs, local conditions and the like.
• Buried pipes:
• Advantages – Keep water temperature pretty constant and protect from freezing; Ambient
temperatures do not impose extra loads (savings on expansion joints); Once placed they do not
consume extra space; Frequent anti-corrosion painting not needed…
• Disadvantages – difficult accessibility for maintenance; Backfill pressures; Expensive
trench excavation, bedding material, careful back filling; Difficult placement – limited space for
work; Painful detection of leakage and other problems.
• Open pipes:
54
• Advantages – simple accessibility for maintenance; No backfill pressures; No expensive
trench excavation, bedding material, careful back-filling; Simplified placement – plenty of space
for work; Easy detection of leakage and other problems
• Disadvantages –water temperature affected by ambient and no protection from freezing;
Ambient temperatures impose severe extra loads (expensive expansion joints); They occupy a lot
of valuable space; Frequent anti-corrosion painting needed; Anchor blocks and numerous
supports.
Economic considerations
• Importance of optimized layout. Several alternatives should be compared. Saving in length and
diameter/wall thickness (as well as pumping facilities)
• Selection of economic conduit size (Pumping stations, HPP, etc.). In case when plenty of head is
available (no pumping needed, or no HPP foreseen/feasible) then consideration of minimum diameter
– max. allowable velocity.
• Comparison or combination with other types of conveyances if applicable.
In terms of materials for the pipes in hydraulic construction (larger scale) most common are steel and
concrete. Asbestos-cement introduced after the other two, seemed to be promising due to its favorable
properties (durability, ease of placement, etc.), but lately it is suspected to be responsible for potentially
causing cancer, and is no longer considered environment-friendly material.
Steel pipes are mostly welded nowadays, though other types of joints are still used. They are relatively
expensive and require protection (and maintenance) against corrosion. Otherwise, they are comparatively
easy to handle, they can stand extreme pressure and tension stresses, easy to make fittings, joints,
branches, expansions, contractions, bends, and whatever else needed.
Concrete pipes are relatively inexpensive in terms of material. However, they are very difficult to handle
(for large diameters they become very heavy – if prefabricated for howling reasons they have to come in
short rings – too many difficult joins – leakage possibilities – in addition chance to divert from desired
route in “zigzag” fashion is high, therefore affecting roughness and length of the pipe and thus its
conveyance capability. They require precise and well-done bedding, and gentle placement of the backfill
due to their brittle nature. Still, in certain range of diameters (say 0.5-2.5 m), and for low to medium inner
pressures, they can prove to be good competitors, and often far cheaper than steel alternatives.
Pipelines in general follow the ground morphology.
If free gravity flow is required then they basically (up to reasonable extent) “follow” contour lines. In this
case length of the pipelines connecting points A and B would tend to be much longer than strait distance
between these points. To reduce the length various structures are built such as:
• Aqueducts
• Inverted siphons
55
• Drop structures (if the accumulated head is unacceptable)
If pressure flow is more suitable, then length of the pipeline can be significantly reduced, but then the pipe
is usually going to be placed uphill −downhill, as terrain requires. Since the pipes should be emptied for
various reasons (inspection, operation, etc.) additional structures should be provided for filling and
emptying:
• Air vents (at summit points of vertical bends, to let the air in when emptying and let it out while
refilling the pipe with water again prior to next operation)
• Silt outlets (at lowest points along the line in vertical bends to let the water and silt out when pipeline
is being emptied)
All these structures must be well maintained, and taken into account in design and cost estimate.
56
8 Special Structures
Many hydraulic works can have adverse environmental impacts. They can be mitigated in different ways.
Some of them are possible to mitigate by use of special environmental hydraulic structures. A few of those
structures are briefly discussed in this chapter to give the emphasis on the importance and sometimes
necessity of such structures (in particular the structures that mitigate impacts on fish and water quality).
Technologies of preserving natural fish reproduction in inland water bodies under intense hydraulic
construction (fish species conservation):
• fish passageways, including single-lane fish locks with continuous attraction of fish, as well as a
mechanical fish hoist with a fish chute;
• devices for diverting fish from water intakes, including fish-protection concentrating structures with
horizontal separation of fishes, and those with vertical separation of fishes, curtains;
• the development of new types of artificial spawning grounds and channels, including use of
prefabricated spawning panels with an artificial substrate.
8.1 Fish Ladders and Passages
The design criteria to select the type of fish pass, layout and other facilities depends on the size of river,
magnitude of reservoir, the type of fish, and whether they are migrating upstream or downstream which is
best established by monitoring existing structures and modeling. There are two major groups:
• For upstream migrating fish: fish ladders, fish locks (lifts), tramways, facilities for trapping and
trucking the fish
• Downstream migrating fish (e.g., smolts −young salmon): arrangements to collect fish in the forebay
at fine mash screens (fixed or movable) and directing them to safe by-pass systems.
Fish passes should be designed so that fish can find the entrance to the system and be able to swim safely
through.
Structures:
• Fish ladder −upstream fish passage for heads up to 20 m. (Fish entrance, ladder proper, and fish exit)
Auxiliary water supply can be provided to attract fish. It consists of drops of ca 30 cm between pools
with slope of 1:8 to 1:15. One rest pool (of double size) is provided after every 5-6 standard pools 1−2
m deep, 2−5 m long and 2−10 m wide) . Entrance should be downstream parallel to the river, while exit
must be away from the spillway. Water flow velocity in the ladder should be about 0.5 m/s.
• Fish lifts (locks) −Operation similar to navigation lock, except that through-flow is maintained to
guide fish in and out of chamber. Cyclic operation. In comparison with the navigation locks and
overflow dam, the fish locks have the most complex and diverse mechanical equipment. (E.g., In
Tikhovsk Hydro Development Russia out of the total mass of 2560 tons of mechanical equipment the
57
fish locks accounts for 1130 tons! − The upstream and downstream slotted gates form a working
chamber in which the pools are isolated and the fish are examined and counted. Directly behind the
upstream slotted gate is an ichthyological platform. The fish locks in addition to their main function −
forceful transport of fish from the lower to the upper pool, can serve as a natural laboratory for
developing ways of attracting various fish species).
• Fish traps −for high head structures, fish ladders are not sufficiently feasible. Tramways or cableways
are used. Hoppers into which fish swim are transported to reservoir by one of these ways.
• Fish barrier dams −low head weirs with electrical field that stop induce fish to swim into a ladder or
hopper downstream. From there they are transported by tank tracks with cooled and aerated water.
• Downstream passing facilities −screens to divert fish from intakes and spillways into safer by-passes.
They can be mechanical or electrical. Water velocity is around 0.5 m.
8.2 Spawning Channels
Most of the dams are equipped with fish ladders, elevators or the like but many passes are released with
varied success. Sometimes better long-term solution can be offered by implementation of artificial
spawning channels. By provision of stable favorable flow and bed conditions in the channel during
spawning season for laying eggs, these facilities can even increase the survival rate (compared to natural
conditions) as much as nine-fold.
Design of spawning channels depends a great deal on type of original climate and biota specific for the
river. Natural conditions should be restored/imitated as much as possible. Fish behavior, number,
58
swimming ability and other factors should be studied and accounted for. Geometry of the structure is of
the vital importance. Usually rectangular or trapezoidal shapes are selected. The entrance is most crucial.
The flow of water attracts the fish into the channel. In order to adjust entrance to water level fluctuations
additional fish ladder could be provided between the channel and lower pondage. Entrance should be close
to hydraulic obstruction and easily perceivable by the fish. It is essential to establish correct capacity of
inflow, where ichthyologist should contribute in the design. Favorable bed condition (sand or gravel), and
optimal water depth and channel slope should be provided. Flooding of the channel in spawning season
must be avoided at any cost. Settling of suspended materials as well, since silt deposition harms the eggs.
Prevention of entrance of predatory fish is important, but care must be taken to prevent humans as well.
Density of fish (can reach over 60 per m
2
) may attract people to harm the fish.
To illustrate main problems and diversity in the area of spawning channels, a few examples taken from the
abstracts in the literature are listed below:
• Selection of spawning sites by kokanees and evaluation of mitigative spawning channels in the
Green River, Wyoming.
Selection of spawning sites by kokanees Oncorhynchus nerka was assessed over a 1-km reach of the Green River in
the tailwater of Fontenelle Dam in Wyoming, during 1990 and 1991. Within this reach three spawning channels were
constructed in 1990 to mitigate losses of spawning habitat that were believed to have resulted from extensive
deposition of gravel and rubble in 1986. The channels were built through an island of gravel and rubble in the river
channel. Kokanees selected certain water depths, current velocities, and substrate sizes for spawning, but these three
variables were not sufficient to fully account for spawning site selection. The distribution of recently deposited gravel
and rubble, and the presence of shallow riffles that discouraged entry to a spawning channel also influenced spawning
site selection. The spawning channels provided a substantial portion of the spawning habitat used by kokanees during
1990 and 1991, but high spring flows in 1991 substantially altered the morphology of the spawning channels and
reduced their mitigatory value.
• Installation of a Fish Migration Channel for Spawning at Itaipu
A fish migration channel for spawning at the Itaipu (Brazil and Paraguay) hydroelectric station was installed to
improve fish recovery downstream from the dam. The complex had caused a significant reduction in the spawning
area, with a deleterious effect on the reproductive cycle of the native species. An experimental model of a fish
migration channel was installed, having a system of 'tank steps' at the foot of the dam, a sheet-metal ladder, a
serpentine-style channel for the spawning of the fish, and two marginal lagoons for incubation of the eggs and growth
of the larvae. The return migration of the hatchlings will be made through a trough linking the marginal lagoons
directly to the Parana River. A 56-m-long ladder forms the first phase of the project. Preliminary data from the first
phase has proved that fish (3000/day) of tropical climates can ascend ladders exceeding 8 m. The results of the first
phase indicate the efficiency of the experimental project, with the entry and ascendancy of fish in a migration channel
ladder. These data now provide the technical basis for implementation of the complementary spawning channel stage.
• Rare Fishes of Himalayan Waters of Nepal
The fishes of Himalayan waters are biologically diverse. More than 130 species occur in the rivers and mountain lakes
of the Nepalese highlands. In some rivers, dams and barrages have been constructed for hydroelectric power stations
and navigational purposes. The dams do not have fish ladders and they obstruct and prevent upstream and downstream
movements of fish. Fisherman, poachers, and predatory animals, killing rare fishes exploit the shallow tailwater
regions below dams where fish congregate. The scientific management of the Nepalese mountain streams has just
begun. The local human population has increased dramatically. Sewage, detergents and herbicides entering the rivers
are causing a critical deterioration of water quality. Spawning beds are being removed to provide sand and gravel for
the building industry. Changes in land use and deforestation cause soil erosion and the rivers are loaded with silt in the
rainy season. In order to conserve the rare and threatened species in Nepal, suitable water levels must be maintained in
the tailwater regions of dams during the breeding season for stone carps, loaches, and catfishes. The provision of
59
special spawning channels would help to maintain populations of masheer, snow trout, stone carp and torrent catfish.
Consideration should also be given to the creation of one or more artificial river parks, containing channels and
impoundments suitable for breeding rare fishes
• Mitigation, Compensation, and Future Protection for Fish Populations Affected by
Hydropower Development in the Upper Columbia System, Montana, U.S.A.
The construction of Hungry Horse Dam resulted in estimated annual losses of 65,500 migratory juvenile westslope
cutthroat and 1965 adult migratory bull trout from the Flathead Lake and River system. In addition, operations of
Hungry Horse and Kerr dams caused annual losses conservatively estimated at 96,300 river-spawning and 131,000
lakeshore-spawning kokanee adults. Water level fluctuations caused by dam operations at Libby and Hungry Horse
reservoirs result in: (1) altered thermal stratification; (2) indirect losses in phytoplankton and zooplankton production,
(3) direct washout of phytoplankton and zooplankton through dam penstocks; (4) reductions in standing crop of
benthic organisms and of insects on the water surface; and (5) reduced fish growth in the late summer and fall.
Mitigative measures include: (1) 99.2 and 113.3 cu m/s minimum flows in the Flathead and Kootenai rivers
respectively, to protect salmonid eggs and juveniles; (2) improvement of fish passage to restore migrations between
the Flathead and Swan systems; and (3) biological rule curves for operations at Libby and Hungry Horse reservoirs. To
compensate for fisheries losses, enhancement of spawning and rearing habitat, introductions of hatchery juveniles, and
spawning channels are recommended. In addition, protection from further hydropower development for 100 stream
reaches for fish species of special concern, and for outstanding sport fisheries is recommended. These and other
measures will be considered by various agencies in developing an overall fisheries restoration plan which should be
flexible, and employ principles of adaptive management.
• Fish Passage, Control Devices and Spawning Channels in New Zealand
The construction of a hydroelectric power scheme on a river usually creates a barrier or impediment to the passage of
fish travelling either upstream or downstream. This may adversely affect the fish population depending upon the river,
the fish species involved and the location of their spawning grounds. Some of the fish species present in New Zealand,
such as quinnat salmon, whitebait and some bullies, spawn in freshwater and the young in the form of eggs, larvae or
juveniles move into the sea for a period before returning to freshwater to complete the life cycle. Some fish, such as
eels, are catadromous, that is the adults migrate to the sea to spawn and the offspring move back into freshwater to
complete the life cycle. Other species may reside in freshwater for their entire life but migrate from their residential
areas to spawning areas. The need to maintain continuity between upstream and downstream fish populations, each of
which can exist separately, is less clear-cut. The measures taken to maintain the fish population are usually either the
provision of passage facilities or the provision of artificial spawning and rearing areas such as in spawning races and
hatcheries. This chapter reviews information on the passage of fish past barriers, the problems associated with guiding
or excluding fish and the construction and operation of spawning channels. It also discusses provisions, which have
been made on New Zealand hydroelectric schemes.
• Babine Lake Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Enhancement Program: Testing some
Major Assumptions
The objective of the Babine Lake sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) enhancement project was to increase fry
outputs (and thus, smolt outputs and adult returns) by expanding and improving available spawning beds through the
use of artificial spawning channels and related water flow control facilities. The project proceeded on four basic
assumptions: (1) the artificial spawning channels would prove an effective means of producing sockeye fry, (2) the fry
produced would be as viable as those produced from natural spawning beds, (3) the lake nursery area had the capacity
to support larger juvenile populations, and (4) increased smolt outputs would result in increased adult returns. A
before and after study has allowed these assumptions to be tested. Egg-to-fry survival in the channels was close to
40%, as expected. Comparisons of wild and channel-produced fry did not reveal any substantial difference in their
distribution, growth, and survival in the lake. Increases in the abundance of fry were followed by corresponding
increases in the abundance of under-yearlings in the lake and seaward migrating smolts. No significant change in the
average size of the juveniles or their survival in the lake could be detected when population size increased. While the
assumptions regarding juvenile production were found to be generally valid, adult returns did not meet expectations.
This was due largely to the lack of response to increased smolt outputs from even-numbered brood years. Some
options for future management are offered.
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8.3 Selective Intakes
In reservoirs (especially larger ones) where stratification of water having different quality (oxygen
content, temperature, salinity, sediment, etc.) occurs (seasonally or all the time), there might be a problem
maintaining supplied water quality, if standard intake structures are used. For different users, different
parameters of quality really matter. For potable water most of them count, while for irrigation (depending
on crops) it’s usually salinity. For hydropower it may be favorable to avoid abrasive sediments and air
intrusion.
On the other hand quality of water in the reservoir may be of interest. Adverse impacts of long water
residence time, stratification and other processes can affect water quality for supply and life of aquatic
fauna as well. To a great extent the ecological safety depends on structure design, equipment, and control
systems. A pronounced transformation occurs in a river ecosystem when a dam is built and a reservoir is
created. A river ecosystem with a longitudinal gradient continues to exist in the free stretches of the river,
and a new ecosystem with vertical trophic distribution forms in the reservoir. The relationship between
these two systems depends on the design of the conveyance structure. For example, the use of a selective-
type intake makes it possible to regulate the water quality in the downstream pools and to transport
aquatic biota. In order to decrease the ecological impacts a greater emphasis is being placed on monitoring
systems and the use of highly skilled personnel to conduct biological surveys. The problems of
incorporating ecological concerns in the design and implementation of large reservoirs require the
development of new ideas in hydraulic construction. Again, there is not much that can be done with
conventional intakes.
Both problems can be dealt with, up to certain extent, by implementation of several intakes at different
elevations or alternatively by single complex intake with inlets at different elevations – selective intake.
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Selective intakes can have different designs, but basic idea is to allow for water withdrawal at different
elevations. In most cases three elevations satisfy demands for water quality control, though other number
could be more appropriate in certain cases.
The number will depend on water quality and stratification studies. Basic schemes are:
• Separate intakes at different elevations leading to separate outlets
• Separate intakes at different elevations leading to the same outlet
Former is usually more economically appropriate. Control structures (gates) and access are usually
dictating intake’s layout. Common layouts are:
• Intakes and control structure in the dam body
• Intakes and control structure in the intake tower
• Intake at the abutment and control structure in the intake tower or underground shaft
• Intake and control structure inclined on the abutment
Intake and (horizontal/sub-horizontal) outlet can be connected:
• Each inlet via separate inclined conveyance pipe
• Water inlets connected via elbow joints with vertical/sub-vertical collection pipe
• Water inlets connected via vertical collection shaft
In any case they are equipped with:
• Trash racks (usually common one, but not necessarily)
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• Control/emergency gates (separate ones)
• Aeration pipes
Operation: One (or two) water inlets are open at one time withdrawing water from most desirable
elevation −where water quality is most appropriate. This depends on the usage of water, climate, reservoir
characteristics and the policy regarding the quality of the water that remains in the reservoir. E.g., if the
water is for drinking purpose and saving in water treatment process is important, water from very top layer
in the reservoir would probably be most convenient.
In principle different parameters of water quality vary in different ways along the depth of the reservoir,
for instance:
• Temperature −drops (or rises in the very cold winter) gradually in first ca 5 m then it drops rather
severely and then gradually reaching more or less constant temperature in great depths
• Salinity (if any) −can have different patterns in different seasons that would be dictated by inflow and
stage of the reservoir. In principle it tends to be lower at the surface.
• Sediment content is highest near the bottom
• Oxygen content is highest near the top, etc.
In most cases decision is driven by demanded water quality for supply. However, in some cases it might be
important to maintain reasonable quality of remaining water in the reservoir and the river downstream as
well and then other criteria might be used.
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