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The Origin of Species and Societies by Means of Three-Level Selection

The Origin of Species and Societies by Means of Three-Level Selection

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Published by dao einsnewt
Natural selection is three-level selection in the chronological order of individual, relational (kin), and group selection. The principal bases for cooperation in individual, relational, and group selections are unconditional reciprocity with no pre-condition for individuals, beneficial relatedness derived from caring relation as the turning point deviated from reciprocity, and existential division of labor derived from handicapped individuals as the turning point deviated from relatedness, respectively. In group selection, all individuals are handicapped, and the existence of all individuals is dependent on existential division of labor that overcomes individual handicaps. Group fitness becomes much more important than individual fitness, including the fitness by reciprocity and relatedness. Only few insects (bees, wasps, termites and ants) and humans are in group selection, but they dominate the earth. Individual, relational, and group selections correspond to individualistic, collectivistic, and harmonious social interactions and societies, respectively. Three-level selection is divided into three parts: (1) the three-branch way, (2) the development of the three-branch way, and (3) the Postmodern Period.
(1) Three-level selection is based on the three-branch way consisting of the three basic human social lives (interactions): yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collectivistic relation, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively, derived from neuroscience and psychology. The origin of the human social lives is explained by human evolution. The emergence of the harmonious social life and society occurred during human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. (2) In the Prehistoric Period, the harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the collectivistic society, the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism) dominated. In the individualistic society, the state individualism (Greek mythology and science) dominated. Later, the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) emerged. In the Modern Period, the modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches of human society for the modern three-branch society. (3) In the Postmodern Period, the postmodern economy is divided into individualistic (capitalistic), collectivistic (socialistic), and adaptive (unified) economies. The postmodern unified politics is divided into democracy (individualistic politics) for the partisan unified popular semi-professional system and meritocracy (collectivistic politics) for the nonpartisan unified semi-popular professional system. The downfall of democracy is civil war through zero-sum partisan competition, and the down fall of meritocracy is political collapse through weak private sector. The balanced unified education system should follow human development from primarily collectivistic education for childhood to primarily individualistic education for adulthood. In the postmodern religious system, the postmodern harmonious religion complementary to the collectivistic and individualistic societies is the most suitable postmodern religion. Permanent world peace can be achieved by the balanced unified economic, political, educational, and religious systems.
Natural selection is three-level selection in the chronological order of individual, relational (kin), and group selection. The principal bases for cooperation in individual, relational, and group selections are unconditional reciprocity with no pre-condition for individuals, beneficial relatedness derived from caring relation as the turning point deviated from reciprocity, and existential division of labor derived from handicapped individuals as the turning point deviated from relatedness, respectively. In group selection, all individuals are handicapped, and the existence of all individuals is dependent on existential division of labor that overcomes individual handicaps. Group fitness becomes much more important than individual fitness, including the fitness by reciprocity and relatedness. Only few insects (bees, wasps, termites and ants) and humans are in group selection, but they dominate the earth. Individual, relational, and group selections correspond to individualistic, collectivistic, and harmonious social interactions and societies, respectively. Three-level selection is divided into three parts: (1) the three-branch way, (2) the development of the three-branch way, and (3) the Postmodern Period.
(1) Three-level selection is based on the three-branch way consisting of the three basic human social lives (interactions): yin, yang, and harmony for feminine collectivistic relation, masculine individualistic achievement, and harmonious cooperation, respectively, derived from neuroscience and psychology. The origin of the human social lives is explained by human evolution. The emergence of the harmonious social life and society occurred during human evolution, including ape evolution and hominid evolution. (2) In the Prehistoric Period, the harmonious social life was evolved to adapt to the small social group in the prehistoric hunter-gatherer society. In the Early Period starting from the Neolithic Revolution, the inevitable large civilized social group of the agricultural-nomad society destroyed the prehistoric harmonious small social group. As a result, the collectivistic society and the individualistic society were formed separately. In the collectivistic society, the state collectivistic religion (Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Confucianism) dominated. In the individualistic society, the state individualism (Greek mythology and science) dominated. Later, the harmonious religions (Christianity, Buddhism, and Daoism) emerged. In the Modern Period, the modern mass printing and increased literacy led to communication and understanding among the three branches of human society for the modern three-branch society. (3) In the Postmodern Period, the postmodern economy is divided into individualistic (capitalistic), collectivistic (socialistic), and adaptive (unified) economies. The postmodern unified politics is divided into democracy (individualistic politics) for the partisan unified popular semi-professional system and meritocracy (collectivistic politics) for the nonpartisan unified semi-popular professional system. The downfall of democracy is civil war through zero-sum partisan competition, and the down fall of meritocracy is political collapse through weak private sector. The balanced unified education system should follow human development from primarily collectivistic education for childhood to primarily individualistic education for adulthood. In the postmodern religious system, the postmodern harmonious religion complementary to the collectivistic and individualistic societies is the most suitable postmodern religion. Permanent world peace can be achieved by the balanced unified economic, political, educational, and religious systems.

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Published by: dao einsnewt on Jun 21, 2012
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01/26/2013

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A typical modern government structure is the three-branched government, consisting
of executive, legislative, and judiciary. The goal of people in executive branch is the
cohesiveness of the administrative network. The goal of people in legislative branch is
the dominance in the competitive hierarchy. The goal of people in judiciary is the
maintenance of the constitution of legal system. They share political power in such way
that they are each subjected to reciprocal checks, so each of them does not have a
threatening structure to other branches. People with propensity to work with other people
closely go to the executive branch. The people with propensity to compete go to

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legislative branch. The people with the propensity to comprehend objectively go to the
judiciary branch.

The two basic models for democratic government are presidentialism and
parliamentarism. In presidentialism, both presidents and representatives are elected
directly by people, so there are two legitimate sets of majority rule. Both presidents and
representatives serve certain periods of time except in extraordinary circumstances.
During their terms, severe persistent confrontation can occur between president and
representative, resulting in instability that leads to collapse or stalemate of democratic
governments. Therefore, there are few democratic governments with presidentialism
model.

The parliamentarism model, on the other hand, has one legitimate set of majority
rule. Any political party or coalition of political parties can form the cabinet as the
executive branch of government. All members of the cabinet are the representatives
elected by people. When the cabinet loses the confidence from the parliament, it has to
call for new election to form new cabinet. There is no severely persistent confrontation
between the executive branch and the legislature branch.
Because of the possible short live of the cabinet, the governmental service
depends on professional governmental civil and military service that carries out the
policies determined by the cabinet. Because of specific period of terms in
presidentialism, presidentialism has much more political appointments in governmental
service than parliamentalism. The professional governmental service allows much less
corruption, incompetence, and inefficiency than the political appointment governmental
service. Therefore, parliamentalism, cabinet, and professional governmental service
minimize instability and inefficiency in constitutional democracy.

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