cma-tkXp þ cmam-b-W-¯n-eqsS Hcp At\z-jWw

I.

BZn-Imhysa¶v AXn-{]-kn-²-amb cmam-b-W-Imhyw

cmaIY {InkvXp-hÀjw \memw \qäm-−nsâ Ah-km-\-¯n Kp]vX-þ-Im-fn-Zmk
Ime¯v `mc-X-¯n {]kn-²-am-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v Imfn-Zm-ksâ cLp-hwiw
sXfnhv \ÂIp-¶p. ImfnZmk\v cLp-hw-i-c-N-\¡v t{]cW \ÂInbXmbn hnizkn-¡-s¸-Sp¶ {]`-h-Xn-Kp-]vX- cma-Kn-cn-bn XoÀ¯ cma-t£-{Xhpw _Ô-s¸«
cmaKncn enJnXhpw {iocm-a-I-Y-¡v P\-km-am-\y-¯n\v taep-−m-bn-cp¶ kzm[o\-¯n\v \nZÀi-\-am-Wv. Cu cLp-hwiIme-w apX Xs¶ t£{X-inÂ]-§fn cma-IY {]Xy-£-s¸«p ImWp-¶p. Ggmw \qäm-−nse Imwt_m-P-cm-Pm-hmbn-cp¶ {]Im-i-[À½³ (653þ679CE) BZn-I-hn-bmb hmÂao-In¡v t£{Xw
\nÀ½n-¨-Xmbn tcJ e`y-am-bn-«p-−v. cma-I-Y-bpsS Cu {]Nmcw C¶v e`y-am-bncn-¡p¶ cmam-bWw, Ncn-{Xw AYhm hkvXp-Xm-]-c-amb Hcp IYm-I-Y-\-amsW¶v kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶pthm?
Cà F¶ D¯-c-amWv imkv{Xo-b-amb ]T-\-§Ä \ÂIp-¶-Xv. cma-I-Y¡v Ncn{X-]-c-amb AkvXnXzw \ntj-[n-¡p¶ {][m\ Imc-W-§Ä Xmsg-¸-d-bp-¶p.
1.

cma-I-Y-bpsS BJym\hyXymk§Ä

'F{X ssIs¿-gp¯p {]Xn-Itfm A{Xbpw cmam-b-W-§Ä' F¶ sh_-dpsS
hmIyw D²-cn¨p sIm−mWv bmÀUn Xsâ cmam-b-W-]-T\w Bcw-`n-¡p-¶-Xv.
Imem-´-c-¯n aqe-I-Y¡v F{X-am{Xw hyXym-k-ap-−mImw F¶ hkvXpX
D¯-c, Z£n-W, D¯-c-]-Ýn-a, t\¸m-f, ssaYn-en, _wKm-fn, sXep-Kp, ae-bm-fw,
{KÙ-þ-im-c-Z-þ-tZ-h-\m-Kcn C§s\ hyXy-kvX-amb cmam-b-W§fn \n¶pw
alm-`m-cXw aäp ]pcm-W-§Ä Ch-bnse sshPm-Xy-apÅ cmtam-]m-Jym-\-§-fnÂ
\n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw. {KÙ-L-S-\-bnepw DÅ-S-¡-¯nepw Ch ]e sshPm-Xy§Ä {]ZÀin-¸n-¡p-¶p. s]mXpsh cmam-bWw BZn-Im-hy-ambn ]cn-K-Wn-¡-s¸Sp-¶p-sh-¦nepw Cu k¦Â]-¯n\v A]-hm-Z-§Ä cmam-bW-¯n Zriy-am-Wv.

Cub-Sn-Øm-\¯
- nÂ, alm-`m-cXw cmam-bW
- ¯
- n\v aps¼gp-X-s¸-s«¶v Icp-XnbmÂ, At¸mgpw sshX-cWn {]I-Sa
- m-Wv.
(g) alm-`m-cX
- ¯
- nse t{ZmW-]ÀƯn (VII.141.49) cmam-bW¯n \n¶pw
hmßo-Insb D²-cn¨p ImWp-¶p.
(h) alm-`m-cX
- ¯
- n cmam-bW
- -¯n \n¶pw AÂ]w hyXy-kvXa
- mb cmtam-]mJym\w e`y-am-Wv.
(i) Zi-cY
- P
- m-XI
- I
- Y cma-IY
- ¡v ap¼v ]e \mtSmSn cq]-§f
- p-−m-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶
kqN\ \ÂIp-¶p. ]n¡m-e¯v kwkvIr-X¯
- n-eqsS hmßoInbpsS cmambWw {]Nmcw t\Sn-bt- ¸mÄ \mtSm-Sn-k¦
- Â]-§Ä¡v hwi-\miw D−m-bncn¡mw
(j) hmßo-In-cm-am-bW
- ¯
- nse {][m\s¸« c−v IYm]m{X-§f
- mb P\-I\pw
Aiz-]Xn tII-b\pw ]co-£n-¯n\v tijw Pohn-¨n-cp-¶h
- c
- m-sW¶ hkvXpX¡v _rl-Zm-cW
- y-tIm-]\
- n-j¯v (III.3.1) sXfnhv \ÂIp-¶p. P\-Ik
- `
- bn bmÚ-hI
- y-\v t\tc DbÀ¯nb Iz ]mco-£n-Xm-ƒ`-h³? F¶v tNmZy¯nse ]mco-£nXÀ alm-`m-cX
- ¯
- n ]cm-aÀin-¡s
- ¸-Sp¶ (I.3.1) P\-ta-Pb\pw ]p{X-·m-cmb D{K-tk-\³, `oa-tk-\³, {ipX-tk-\³ F¶n-hc
- m-Wv.
(k) Krly-kq-{X-§f
- psS Ime-L«- ¯
- n\v tij-amWv cmam-bW
- hpw alm-`m-cXhpw cNn-¡s
- ¸-Sp-¶X
- v. aqe-cq-]¯
- n F®m-bncw tÇmI-§Ä am{X-ap-−mbn-cp¶ Pb F¶ CXn-lmkw ]n¶oSv 24000 tÇmI-§fpw imÀÆ-\m-Ysâ
Ime-amb Bdmw \qäm-−n iX-kl
- {- ko-kw-ln-Xbpw Bbn-¯oÀ¶
hkvXpX alm-`m-cX
- ¯
- n \n¶pw Xs¶ \ap¡v a\-Ên-em-¡mw.
Zmi-cYn cma\pw hmkp-tZ-hI
- r-jvW\pw hniz-k\
- o-ba
- m-b, bpàn-kl
- a
- mb Hcp
Ncn-{X-]Ý
- m-¯ew cmam-bW
- hpw alm-`m-cX
- hpw \ÂIp-¶n-söv Cu sshcp²y-§-fn \n¶pw \ap¡v a\-Ên-em-¡mw.
2.

cma-I-Y-bpsS Imem-´c ]cn-Wmaw

¯nse kXy-kmhn-{Xo-IY ]d-bp-¶p. kpµ-c-Im-WvU-¯n \tfm-]m-Jym-\¯nse IYm-]m-{X-§fpw Zriy-am-Wv.
(d) InjvIn-Ôm-ImWvUw (XIII.28) IrjvW\v ]m©-P\yw kn²-amb IY ]dbp-¶p.
(e) e¦m-ImWvUw (CXIX.15-27) cmas\ IrjvW-t\mSv D]-an-¡p-¶p.
(f) e¦m-ImWvUw (XIX.32) epw alm-`m-cXw (II.41.9)epw ']cn-Kr-ly-Kncnw
tZmÀ`ymw h]pÀ hnjvtWmÀ hnUw-_-b³' F¶ hcn ImW-s¸-Sp-¶p.

{In.-ap. A©mw \qäm−p apXÂ A©v Ime-L«- §
- f
- n-eq-sS hyXykvX hyàn-Ifm ]cn-jvIc
- n-¡s
- ¸«mWv cmam-bWw AXnsâ C¶s¯ cq]w ssIh-cn-¨sX¶v bmÀUn-bpsS ]T\w kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p. sFXn-ly-§f
- \
- p-kc
- n¨v `mÀ¤-hI
- p-ePm-X-\mb Di-\Ê
- mWv (ip-{I³) BZn-Ih
- n-sb¶v {]Jym-X\
- mb hmßo-In. aqecq-]-¯n tbmK-im-kv{X-¯n\v {]Xo-Im-ßI
- m-Jym\w \ÂInb cmam-bW
- hpw
`mc-Xhpw {Kojva{- Im´n Bbneyw AYhm hmßoIw F¶ \£-{X-¯nÂ
\n¶ Ime¯v cq]w sIm−p. k]vXÀjn-If
- p-ambn _Ô-s¸-Sp¯n tI«p-hc
- p¶
Im«m-fs\ hmßo-In-bm-¡p¶ IY aIw (Regulus) \£-{X-¯n \n¶pw Ab-\kÔn Bbn-ey-¯n-te¡v kw{I-an¨ Ime-¯nsâ kqN\ \ÂIp-¶p. 2000-1000
BC hsc hmßo-I]
- ÀÆhpw XpSÀ¶v 1000 BC apX {InkvXp-hnsâ Imew hsc
]pjy-]ÀÆhpw \ne-\n¶psh¶v `mc-Xhpw cmam-bW
- hpw kqN\ \ÂIp-¶p-−v.
\mK-þ-{Zm-hn-Uh
- w-iP
- c
- psS tbmK-im-kv{X-]c
- a
- mb k¦Â]-§Ä tPymXnx-imkv{X
an¯p-I-fp-ambpw Ncn-{X-h-kvXp-XI
- f
- p-ambpw Iq«n-¡e
- À¯n hmßoInsb¶
kzbw hnfn¨ Di-\Êv AYhm asämcp ]n¡me `mÀ¤-hsâ {In.-ap. ]¯mw

1

2

(a) BZn-Im-WvU-¯n (X.2-3) IrjvW-hm-kp-tZ-h-s\-¸-än-bpÅ ]cm-aÀiw
(b) Atbm-²ym-ImWvUw (XIV.42) P\-ta-P-b-s\¶ ]qÀÆnI cmPmhv {]Xy-£-

s¸-Sp-¶p.

(c) Atbm-²ym-ImWvUw (XXX.6), kpµ-c-ImWvUw (XXIV.11-12) alm-`m-c-X-

\qäm-−nse cN-\-bmWv cmam-bm-Ww. kmwJy-ZÀi\w ASn-Øm-\-am-¡n-bmWv
cmam-b-W-¯nse IYm-]m-{X-L-S-\-sb¶v Cuiz-c-Ir-jvWsâ ]n¡me kmwJyIm-cnIbn \n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw. tÇmI-§-fpsS A£-c-L-S\sb Ìmän-ÌnIv
hni-I-e\w \S¯n tÇmI-§-fnse hyXykvX ssIs¿m-¸p-IÄ Xncn-¨-dn-bp¶
imkv{Xob amÀ¤-¯n-eqsS aqe-cm-am-b-W-¯n\v ]n¡m-e¯p−mb Iq«nt¨À¡-ep-I-sf-¸än bmÀUn \ÂIp¶ hnh-c-§Ä {it²-b-am-Wv.  

{In.-ap. A©mw \qäm-−n (450 BC) kqX\pw ]p{X-\mb D{K-{i-h-kuXnbpw `mc-X-¯n-se-¶-t]mse cmam-bW IY-bnepw Iq«n-t¨À¡-ep-IÄ
hcp¯n.
lcn-hw-i-Im-c³ {In.-ap. c−mw \qäm-−nepw ]ÀÆ-kw-{K-l-Im-c³ {In.-ap.
H¶mw \qäm-−n-epw Iq«n-t¨À¡-ep-IÄ \S¯n, XpSÀ¶v cmam-b-W-¯nsâ
C¶v e`y-amb GI-tZ-i-cq]w {InkvXp-hn\v tijw H¶mw \qäm-−n \S¯nb tNÀ¡-ep-I-tfmsS \ne-hn h¶p.

bmÀUnbpsS kmwJnI (Ìm-än-Ìn-Ivkv) ]T\-§-fpsS \nK-a-\-§Ä¡v kn.-hn.
sshZy-sb-t¸m-se-bpÅ ap³Ime ]WvUn-X-·mÀ cN\mssien-bpsS Ncn-{X-]Ým-¯ew ASn-Øm-\-am¡n \S-¯nb Is−-¯-ep-Ifpambn H¯p-h-cp-¶p-sh¶Xv Cu \nK-a-\-§Ä¡v km[pX ]I-cp¶ kwK-Xnbm-Wv.
II.

hmßoIn cmam-bWw

hmßo-In-bpsS cma-I-Y-b-\p-k-cn¨v hmßoIn cma\v ka-Im-en-I-\m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã.
\mc-Z-ap\nbneqsS tI« cma-I-Y¡v hmßoIn am \njm-Z... BZn-bmbn ]pd¯p
h¶ Xsâ kÀ¤-ssh-`hw sIm−v cmam-bWw F¶ IrXn-cq]w \ÂIp-I-bmWv
hmßoIn sNbvX-Xv. H¶mw kcv¤-¯nen¡mcyw BZn Ihn hyà-am-¡p-¶p-−v.
C£zm-Iq\manZw tXjmw cmÚw hwti alm-ß\mw
al-Zp-Xv]¶amJym\w cmam-b-W-anXn {ipXw
IqSm-sX,
C£zmIp hwi-{]-`thm cmtam \ma Pss\x-{ipXx

IcWw {XtbmZihn[w XZmlcW[mcW{]ImiIcw
Imcyw N Xky Zi[m lmcyw [mcyw {]Imiyw N

(Cu.Ir.Im.32).

IcW§Ä ]Xnaq¶mWv. Ah lcWw, [mcWw, {]Imi\w Cu
kz`mht¯mSp IqSnbhbmWv. AhbpsS 10 Imcy§Ä Cu kz`mhm{inXambn
lmcyw, [mcyw, {]Imiyw ChbmWv.
A´¡cWw {Xnhn[w Zi[m _mlyw {Xbky hnjbmJyw
km{¼XImew _mlyw {XnImew B`y´cw IcWw
(Cu.Ir.Im.33)
apIfn ]dª ]Xnaq¶p IcW§Ä ]©X·m{XItfmSv tNÀ¶v kq£va
icocw cq]saSp¡p¶p. ]©X·m{XIfn \n¶v KpW§tfmSv IqSnb AhnZy
bmÀ¶ ]©`qX§fp−mIp¶p. Cu kq£vaicocw (enwKw) IcWm{inXamb
`mhþ[À½mZnIfm \bn¡s¸«v amXrþ]nXrZ¯amb icoc§tfmsS {`qWam
bn¯ocp¶p. Cu enwKþ`mh]camb Cu {]hÀ¯\¯n\v ]Xn¶mev Xe§
fmWv þ 8 Znhyw, 1 am\pjw, 5 XncyIv (hm\cw), BsI 14.
AjvShnIÂt]m ssZhkvXncytKym\Ý ]©[m `hXn
am\pjyssÝIhn[x kamktXm `uXnI kÀKx
(Cu.Ir.Im.53)

(I.5.3)

`uXnIkrjvSnbpsS F«v hnIÂ]§Ä tZhKWhpw A©v XncyIvKWhpw
H¶v a\pjy\pamWv.

(I.1.8)

DuÀ²zw k¯zhnimekvXtam hnimeÝ aqeXx kÀKx
at²y ctPmhnimtem {_ÒmZnkvXw`]cy´x
(Cu.Ir.Im.54)

cmam-bWw cNn-¡-s¸« Ime¯v cma-s\-¸än tI«p-tIÄhn am{X-am-Wp-−m-bn-cp¶-sX¶v Cu tÇmI-§Ä hyà-am-¡p¶p. \mcm-Z³ ]dª ]gb IYsb
Imhy-am-¡p-hm³ kmwJy-ZÀi\k¦Â]-§-fp-]-tbm-K-s¸-Sp¯nbmWv hmßoIn
]m{X-krjvSn \S-¯n-b-sX¶v _me-Im-WvU-¯nse Zi-c-Y-Ip-Spw-_-¯nsâ {]Xn]m-Zy-¯n \n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw. ]n¡m-e¯v InkvXp-hÀjw Bdmw \qäm−n kw{K-ln-¡-s¸« CuizcIrjvWsâ kmwJyImcnIbn cmam-b-W-Im-hy¯nsâ A²ym-ß-hn-Zym-]-c-amb ASn-¯d at\mlcambn hÀ®n¡s¸«p ImWp¶p.
1.

`mcy-am-cp-sSbpw
(A-´x-¡c
- W
- §
- Ä)
IYm-]m-{X-krjvSn
B´cnIamb
IcW§Ä aq¶pw _p²n, AlwImcw, a\Êv) _mlyambh ]¯pw
(Úm\þIÀt½{µnb§Ä). BsW¶ kmwJy-X¯
- zs¯ ASn-Øm-\a
- m-¡n-bmWv. _mlyambXv B´cnIamb aq¶nsâ hnjb§fmbn hym]cn¡p¶
aWvUe§fmbn
]dbs¸Sp¶p.
hÀ¯am\Ime¯nemWv
_mlyamb
IcW§Ä¡v
{]hÀ¯\w
km²yambn«pÅXv.
B`y´
cambh
{XnImehÀ¯nIfmWv.
B`y´camb
IcW§sf
]Xv\namcm¡n
Nn{XoIcn¨Xv A´x-¡c
- W
- -§f
- psS hnjbhym]cWamWv Zi[m _mly sa¶v
\nÀÆ-Nn-¡s
- ¸« ]s¯¶Xn\memWv.

_me-ImWvUw:

{_Òmhv apX hr£§Ä hscsbÃmw Cu ]Xn\mev KW¯n s]Sp¶p.
apIfn k¯zKpWm[nIyhpw Xmsg XtamKpWm[nIyhpw a²y¯nÂ
ctPmKpWm[nIyhpamWv kz`mhw.
X{X PcmacWIrXw ZpxJw {]m]vt\mXn tNX\x ]pcpjx
enwKkym%hn\nhrt¯x XkvamZv ZpxJw kz`mth\ (Cu.Ir.Im.55)
AhnsS, PcmacW§fpsS ZpxJw _p²ntbmSv IqSnb ]pcpj³ enwKicoc
¯nsâ apàn¡mbn A\p`hn¡p¶p.
2.

Atbm-²ym-ImWvUw

]Xn-aq-¶n-{µn-b-§-tfmsS ]¯v hn[-amb Imcy-§-fpÅ kq£va-i-co-cn-bmb
Bßmhv icocw CÑn-¡p-¶p. ]p{X-Im-tajvSn \S-¯p¶ Zi-c-Ysâbpw aq¶v

3

4

Atbm-²y-bpsS IÂ]\bpw A²ym-ß-hn-Zym-]-c-am-Wv. kqcyhwi cmP[m\nbm
b Atbm-²ybpw cm£-k-þ-cm-h-W-]p-cn-bmb e¦bpw Bßm-\p-`-h-¯n\v Imc-Wamb {]mWþA-]m-\-hr-¯n-I-fpsS ico-c-¯nse {[ph-§-fm-Wv.
Atbm-²ym-ImWvUw Bcw-`n-¡p-¶Xv `c-X-þ-i-{Xp-Lv\-·m-cpsS tII-b-¯n-te¡pÅ bm{X-tbm-sS-bm-Wv. Zti{µnb§Ä¡v kzmanbmb a\Êpw Al-¦m-chpw
Atbm-²y-sb¶ ]pcp-j-]pc¯p \n¶pw Aiz-]-Xn-bmb tII-bsâ \m«n-te¡v
t]mIp-¶Xv a\-Ênsâ Aiz-cq-]n-bmb C{µnb hym]-c-Ws¯ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p.
C{µn-b-§-fmb Aiz-§-fpsS cmPm-hmb Aiz-]Xn tII-b³ _p²n-bmb
ssItI-bn-bpsS ]nXrXzw `mhn-¡p¶ a\-Êm-Wv. `c-X-þ-i-{Xp-Lv\-·m-cmb a\-Ênsâbpw Al-¦m-c-¯n-sâbpw asämcp ]Xn-s¸¶v ]d-bmw.
apàn-¡mbn P·w t\Snb Zi-c-Y-s\¶ kq£va-i-co-cn-bmb Bßmhv a\Êpw
Al-¦m-chpw AI-¶p-t]mb Ah-k-c-¯n _p²n-tbm-Sp-Iq-Snb ]pcp-js\
Atbm-²y-bn A`n-tjIw sN¿m-\p-d-¨p. ]pcp-j\v Alw-Im-c-amb Iuk-ey-bneqsS e`y-amb Pohmßmhn\v _p²n-bmb ssItI-bnbpw a\-Êmb kpan-{Xbpw
t]mä-½-am-cm-Wv. _p²n-bmb ssItIbn {]mc-_v[- IÀ½-¯n\v hnt[-b-bmbn
A`n-tjIw apS-¡p-¶p. a\-Êmb `c-Xs\ Atbm-²y-bn Ah-tcm-[n-¡p-¶Xn\pw cma-s\¶ {]mW-kz-cq-]-\mb Pohs\ C{µn-b-§Ä hnl-cn-¡p¶ sImSpw
Im«n-te-¡-b-¡p-¶-Xn\pw Jn¶-\mb Zi-c-Y³ Xocp-am-\n-¡p-¶p.
cma³ {]mc-_v[m-\p-`-h-¯n-\mbn Atbm²y Dt]-£n-¡p-¶p. ]n¶oSv ImWp¶
{][m\ cwKw Nn{X-Iq-S-¯n koX-tbmSpw e£vaWt\mSp-sam¸w hkn-¡p¶
cmas\ Ipe-Kp-cp-hmb hkn-jvT-s\m¸w `c-X-i-{Xp-Lv\-·mcpw A½-amcpw
kµÀin-¡p-¶-Xm-Wv. Ah-cpsS kµÀi-\-¯n\v tijw Ejn-amcpw koXmcma-e£va-W-·mcpw Nn{X-IqSw Dt]-£n¨v ZWvU-Im-c-Wy-¯n {]th-in-¡p-¶p. bap\-bpsS Ic-bnse ]nXr-XÀ¸Ww P·w \ÂInb {]mc_v[ IÀ½s¯
l\n¡p¶-Xn-\pÅ A²ymß{]bm-W-¯nsâ XpS-¡-am-Wv.
3.

Ac-Wy-ImWvUw

ZWvU-Im-cWyw cma-þ-cm-h-W-kw-LÀj-¯n\v AYhm {]mW-þ-A-]m-\-hr-¯n-IfpsS thZn-bmb Poh-i-co-c-am-Wv. cma-þ-cm-h-W, kpc-þ-A-kpc CXym-Zn-bmb ZzµX, hn`P\w AYhm {[pho-I-cWw {]mWhr-¯n-bpsS `uXn-Im-²ym-ß-X-e-§sf
{]Xn^en¸n¡p¶Xmbn OtµmKyw _rlZmcWyw Chbn \n¶v \nÊwibw
a\Ênem¡mw. ]pcpj³, kqcy\n A[nhkn¡p¶h³ AYhm {]Imi¯nÂ
can¡p¶h\mWv kp+c³, AXm-bXv ico-c-¯nse kqcy-\m-Un-bn Ncn-¡p¶
{]mW³. Akp-c³ icocØ N{µ-\m-Un-bn can¡p¶ AYhm a\-Ên can¡p¶ A]m-\-\m-Wv. lncWyKÀ`\nemcw`n¡p¶ krjvSnbpsS Ac-WyImWvUw C{µ³, hnjvWp, BZnXy³ Fs¶ms¡ hnti-jn-¸n-¡-s¸-Sp¶
AZnXn]p{X·mcmb kpc·mcpsSbpw lncWym£³, {]lvfmZ³, alm_en
apX-emb ZnXn]p{X·mcmb Akpc·mcpsSbpw kwLÀj¯neqsSbmWv apàn
{]Z-ambn ]cnWan¡p¶Xv. ZWvU-Im-c-Wy-amb ico-c-¯nse {]mWþA-]m\
A´x-kw-LÀjs¯,
A]m\s\ {]mW-\n ebn-¸n-¡p¶ {]{In-bsb
Akpc·mcpsS ]pcpj\pambpÅ, cma-\p-am-bp-Å, {]mWsâ AYhm kqcysâ
(hn-jvWp-hnsâ) Ah-Xm-c-§-fp-am-bpÅ ZWvU-Im-c-Wy-¯nse \nXy-kwLÀjhpw hocarXyphneqsS Akp-c-·m-cpsS kzÀ¤{]m]vXnbpambn hmßoIn
Nn{Xo-I-cn-¡p-¶p. A²ymßhnZybpsS clkyamb cmaþcmhWkwLÀj¯n

5

sâ Cu BßobXeamWv cmh-Ws\ ]cassithm]mkIm\mbpw Úm\nbmbpw X]-kzn-bmbpw Nn{Xo-Ic
- n-¡p-hm³ hmßo-In¡v t{]c-Ia
- m-bX
- v.
cmhWs\¶ t]cn\À°w Icbp¶h³ (= chn, cmhbnXoXn) F¶msW¶Xpw
{i²n¡Ww. cp{Zk¦Â]w A\p-kc
- n¨v ]¯n{µnb§tfmSpw a\tÊmSpw
IqSnb GImZicp{Zsâ P·w Ic¨ntemSp IqSnbmWv. aqem[mcmZv
{]YaapZntXm... F¶ tÇmIw hfsc {]JymXamWv.
hntZ-l-Ip-am-cn-bmb koX A]-lc
- n-¡s
- ¸-Sp¶p
Ac-Wy-Im-WvU¯
- nse Gähpw {it²-ba
- mb kw`-ha
- mWv hntZlIpamcnbmb
koX-bpsS cmh-W\
- m-epÅ A]-lc
- W
- w. GtXm cmasâ ]Xv\n-bm-bn-cp¶ Pm\Insb cmh-W³
- ]pjv]I
- s
- a¶ hnam-\¯
- n-se¯n A]-lc
- n-¨X
- mbn \mw hnizkn-¡-Wtam?
koX AYhm sshtZlnsb¶ hmÂaoInbpsS IYm]m{Xw. anYnesb¶mÂ
anYp\§fpsS kwKaØm\sa¶v AÀ°w ]dbmw. Poh{]m]vXnbpsS
hnhcWw \ap¡v e`n¡p¶Xv tbmKimkv{X ]cambmWv. \hPmXiniphnsâ
{]Yaizmkw aqem[mc¯n \n¶mcw`n¨v CUþ]nwKfm\mUnIfn IqSn
ZzmZim´w (\mknI¡v Xmsg ]{´−wKpew) F¶ hntZlcmP[m\nbnÂ
DghpNmeneqsS (\mUn) F¯p¶p. X{´hnZybn NnZw_ck¶n[nbmWo
Øm\w. aqem[mcamWv e¦, {]Ya\nxizmkamb A]m\³ {]IrXnbpsS
{]Xn\n[n BbXn\memWv hmßoIn koXsb¶ kv{XoIYm]m{X¯n\v P·w
\ÂInbXv. hntZ-l¯
- n {_Ò-Úm-\n-bmb £{Xn-bc
- m-P\
- mb P\-I\
- mÂ
hfÀ¯-s¸-«v, P\I]p{Xnbmbn cmat\mSv tNÀ¶v inhþ]mÀÆXo cq]¯nÂ
a\pjysâ A´À¿man Bbn¯o-cp-¶p. ]pcpjþ{]IrXn, inhþiàn, \c-þ\
- mcm-b-W, Pohm-ßþ- ]
- c
- a
- mß k¦Â]-amWv koX-bp-sSbpw cma-sâbpw ]m{X-krjvSn-bn hmßo-In¡v Ah-ew-_w.
cmh-W-]p-{Xn-bmb koX
cmhWs\¶m Icbp¶hs\¶mWv AÀ°sa¶v apI-fn kqNn-¸n-¡p-Ib
- p−m-bn. {]Yaamb chw aqem[mc¯n \n¶pamWv. Pohsâ ]nWvUmWvU
¯nse {]hÀ¯\¯n\v kzÀ¤w, `qan, ]mXmfw C§s\ aq¶v Øm\§fp−v.
]mXmfw ]mZ¯nsâ At[mXeamWv. {]mWcq]nbmb a\pjyPoh\v AhnsS
_ÔanÃ. `qanbmb
aqem[mc¯nemWv
{]mW\pZn¨v
ZzmZim´amb
kzÀ¤¯nte¡pw Xncn¨pw Kan¡p¶Xv. hntZlþcmPm[m\nbn Poh\mb
Pm\IntbmSv tNÀ¶ cma³ Atbm²ybnse cmPIpamc\mWv, kmwJyZÀi-\¯nse ]pcpj\mWv. cma-\Ã
- msX aämcpw AhnsS hmgp-¶n-sö Imcyw
hmßoIn `wKn-bmbn `c-XIY-bn N
- n-{Xo-Ic
- n¡p¶Xv {i²n-¡p-I. tZln-bmbn
amdp¶ ]pcp-j³ {]Ir-Xn-bm t\cn-Sp¶ ]co-£W
- a
- mWv koX-tbm-sSm-¸a
- pÅ
Pohn-Xw. Poh-izmk¯nsâ k©mcw NnZm-Im-i¯
- n\pw aqem-[m-c¯
- n-\p-an-Sb
- nemWv, tZ-ln-bmb {]mW-þ-A]
- m\ Zzµ¯memWv Poh-hr¯n km²y-am-Ip-¶Xv.
Pm\Insb At[mXeamb e¦bnse kz]nXmhmb cmhW³ (KpWsshj-ayamÀ¶ {]IrXn) sIm−v t]mIp¶p. almtaml-§Ä¡-Sn-s¸« k¨n-Zm-\µ
- k
- z`mhw ssIhn« ]pcp-js
- \-bmWv hmßoIn cmh-W\
- mbn Nn{Xo-Ic
- n-¨n-cn-¡p-¶X
- v.

6

ZWvU-Im-cWyw \a-apsS ico-c-¯nse Atbm-²y¡pw e¦ƒ¡pw CS-bn-epÅ
tacp-Z-WvU-¯nse {]mW-hm-ln-I-fmb \mUo-irw-J-e-bm-Wv. A]m\\nÂ, (N{µ\m-Un-bnse {]mW-kz-cq-]w) a\-Ên can¡p¶ Akpc\mb cmhW³ ]ca
]pcpj\mb, Bßkzcq]\mb {]mWs\, cmas\ e¦bnte¡v X{´¯neqsS
kz´w apànem`¯n\mbn BIÀjn¡pIbmWv koXm]lcW¯neqsS
sN¿p¶Xv. A]m\\mWv cmhWs\¶Xn\m koX cmhW]p{XnbmsW¶
Xpw km{¼ZmbnIambn \ne\n¡p¶ Nn´mKXnbmWv.
4.

InjvInÔ-ImWvUw

]¼-bpsS Ic-bn Jn¶-cmb cma-e-£vW-·mÀ kqcy-]p-{X\pw hm\c\pamb
kq{Kohs\ I−p-ap-«p¶p. kqcysâ ]nXrXzw kp{Ko-h\v {]mW-kz-cq]w \ÂIp¶p. aÃ-bp-²-¯n-teÀs¸-Sp¶ ktlm-Z-c-\mb _men¡v C{µsâ ]nXr-Xz-am-Wv,
C{µ³ ChnsS {]Xo-Im-ß-I-ambn C{µn-b-§Äs¡ms¡ A[n-]-\mb a\-Êm-Wv.
cma-þ-cm-hW, {]mW-þ-A-]m\ ZzµX t]mse Xs¶ aÃ-bp²w sN¿p¶ {]Xn-Zzµn-I-fmbn«mWv hmßoIn kp{Ko-h-s\bpw _men-sbbpw Ah-Xc
- n-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv.
E£-b-ap-Jm-N-e-sa¶ ]ÀÆXw {]mW-\m-Un-bpsS inc-Ênse ØnXn kqNn-¸n¡p-¶-Xmbn Icp-Xmw. hkn-jvT, hnizm-an-{X, KuX-amZn k]vXÀjn-IÄ apJ¯nse k]vX-Zzm-c-§-fn A[n-h-kn-¡p-¶-Xmbn k¦Â]-ap-−v. cma-kp-{Ko-h-·mcpsS ssa{Xn, hmbp-]p-{X-\mb l\p-am³ (]-©-{]m-W³), AwK-Z³ (hym-\-s\¶
hmbp AwK-§-fn hym]n¨p \n¡p-¶p), N{µ-]p-{X-\mb (a-\-Êv) _men-bpsS
Xmc-sb¶ ]Xv\n (Xm-c-§Ä _mly-kw-th-Z-\-§Ä), C§s\ InjvIn-Ô-bnÂ
\mw ImWp-¶-sXÃmw Xs¶ tbmK-i-co-c-¯nse hmbp-hr-¯n-bpsS {]Xo-I-§fm-Wv. Atbm-²ym, InjvInÔ, e¦ Ch-bpsS ]c-kv]-c-_Ôw Xn«-am-Ip-¶-Xn\v
tbmK-i-co-c-s¯-¸än AÂ]w hni-Z-amb NÀ¨ Bh-iy-am-Wv.

Ôn-X-am-bn) hÀ¯n¡p¶p. cmþ£þk F¶ ]Zw Xs¶ cmþsb¶Xv Aán
JWvUkqN-Ih
- pw, Ass\ÑnIiànbpw, Iv+j D`biànbpw hnjvWphpw,
kþsb¶Xv Úm\iànbpw tkma-JW
- vUhpw F¶n§s\ cp{ZþhnjvWpþ
tkmamßIamWv. aqe{]IrXn aq¶mbn ]ncnªv KpWsshjayap−mIp¶Xn
sâ {]XoImßI hÀ®\bmWv.
Cu A-Sn-Øm-\¯
- nÂ, e¦ Aán-JW
- vUhpw, AÔ-Xm-an-{khpw cmh-W³
Ass\-Ñn-Ii
- à
- nbpw, InjvIn-Ôs
- b¶ a²y-`mKw, PSm-bp-þ-k¼
- m-Xn-amÀ apX-embh sFÑnIþAss\ÑnI D`biàn {]`mhtaJebmb
an{itemIhpw,
Atbm²y Úm\-ià
- ymß-Ia
- mb tPymXnÀtÃm-Ih
- p-am-Ip-¶p. {]mW-kq-cy\mb cmasâ Ab\w C§s\ {Xnhn[-amb Ipe-]-Y¯
- n-em-Wv. tZlm-`n-am-\nbmbn amdn {]mc-_v[a
- \
- p-`-hn-¡p¶ ]pcp-j\v A\p-`h
- -s¸-Sp¶ ambm-ià
- n-bpsS
hnh-c-W-amWv h\-hm-k¯
- nepw koXm-]l
- c
- W
- ¯
- nepw koXm-t\z-jW
- ¯
- nepw
hmßoIn Nn{Xo-Ic
- n-¨n-cn-¡p-¶X
- v.
koXsbt¯SnbpÅ timImIpe\mb cmasâ At\zjWw AhnZybmÂ
{]IrXnbmsW¶v [cn¨pgep¶ ]pcpjsâ {]XoIamWv. Nm]ey¯nsâ
{]IS\w þ Icªp hnfn¨v koXsb¸än kÀÆXnt\mSpw At\zjn¨v ImSmsI
Aebp¶ cma³ {]IrXnhiK\mb ]pcpj\mWv. {]IrXnbm l\n¡s¸«
]£§Ä tOZn¡s¸« ]£n{]hc\mb PSmbp an{i-tem-I¯
- nse D`-bi
- à
- nbpsS {]Xo-Ia
- m-Wv. {]mW-{]-Xo-Ia
- mb kqcym`napJambn ]d¡p¶pbcp¶ D`-biàn kzcq-]a
- mWv hmßoIn-bpsS PSmbphpw k¼mXnbpw. {]mW\v
amÀKZÀi\w an{i-tem-I¯v e`y-am-Ip-¶Xv {it²-ba
- m-Wv. Poh-izm-ka
- mb
koXsb hos−Sp¡m³ th−Xmb Adnhv \ÂIn PSmbp acn¡p¶p.

e-t¦m«nsb¶ ]Zw tImW-Is¯ kqNn-¸n-¡p¶p. e¦-sb-¶m aqem-[mcw
kqNn-X-am-Ip-¶p-sh¶v henb ]mWvUnXyw IqSmsX Xs¶ a\-Ên-em-¡mw.
Ipw`-tImWw F¶m aqem-[m-c-sa¶pw AÀ°-ap-−v.

PSm-bp-hn-\m amÀ¤-ZÀi\w sN¿-s¸«v {]mW-{]-Xo-Ia
- mb cma³, ]c-a]
- p-cp-js\-¯p-¶Xv sFÑn-Iþ- A
- s
- s\-Ñn-Ii
- à
- n-IÄ kwLÀjm-ßI
- a
- mbn hym]-cn¡p¶ InjvIn-Ôb
- n-em-Wv. kp{Ko-h\pw _menbpw bYm-{Iaw sFÑn-Iþ- A
- s
- s\Ñn-I-i-àn-IfmWv.
Ass\-Ñn-Ii
- àn
C{µn-bm-ßI
- a
- mb
(C-{µ-]p-{X³)
_menbpw
sFÑn-Ii
- àn kqcy({]m-W³)]p{X-\mb kp{Ko-h\
- p-am-sW¶
hmßo-In-bpsS Nn{Xo-Ic
- Ww \mw {i²n-¡W
- w. C{µ]p{X\mb _mensb h[n¨v
kqcy]p{X\mb kp{Kohs\ kJmhmbn kzoIcn¨v hmbp]p{X\mb amcp-Xnsb
Zmk\m¡nbmWv cmasâ Z£nWZn¡nte¡pÅ bm{X. Z£nWsb¶mÂ
`qansb¶À°w. ]©{]mW{]XoIamWv ]pcpjs\ (cmae£vaW·msc
hln¡p¶, AhÀ¡v Zmk\mb) amcpXn. _menþkp{KohIYbn {]IrXnþ
]pcpj k¦Â]w {]mW-þ-A]
- m\ aÃ-bp-²a
- mbn {]Xy£s¸Sp¶p. hnthI
clnXamb C{µnb§sf A[rjyamb {]IrXnbmbn Nn{XoIcn¨ncn¡p¶p.
BÀ¡pw C{µnbm`napJambn AXns\ t\cnSpI h¿ þ ]IpXn iàn Xs¶
shÃphnfn¡p¶ GXv iànbn \n¶pw tNmÀ¯nsbSp¡m\pÅ IgnhmWv
_men
hcambn
t\SnbXv.
kp{Koh³
hnthInbmb,
{]ÚbpsS
(kqcykw_Ôw) \nb{´WamÀ¶ sFÑnIi-àn-bm-Wv. ]c-a]
- p-cp-jmÀ°w
km²y-am-¡p-¶X
- n-\mbn FÃm klm-b§
- fpw kp{Ko-h³ sN¿p¶Xv {i²n-¡Ww. E£kz`mhw (Ipc§³amÀ) C{µnbe£WamWv. AwK§sf, Ahbh
§sf \nb{´n¡p¶ AwKþZþ\mWv _menbpsS ]p{X³. C{µnb§fnÂ
]pcpj\pw {]IrXnbpw A[nhkn¡p¶psh¶v k¦Â]ap−v. _menbpsSbpw
kp{Kohsâbpw i{XpX¡v ImcWw ambmhnbmb Akpc\mWv ({`an¸n¡p¶
{]IrXywiamb X¯z§fnsem¶v). C{µnb§fnse hnZymkzcq]amWv hnthI

7

8

k]vXkzÀ¤mßIamb tbmKicochpw iàn-{X-b-§fpw
aqem[mcw apX kl{kmcw hsc kqcyþtkma]Y§Ä¡p at²ybpÅ
kpjpav\mbmWv {]mWsâ Ipe]Yw AYhm kzÀ¤mtcmlW amÀ¤w. `qanbmb e¦-bn \n¶v ]c-a-]-Z-am-b, ]pcp-j-]p-c-amb Atbm-²y-bn-te-¡pÅ cmP]m-X-sb¶v ]d-bmw. Aánþkqcyþtkma JWvU§fmbn Ipe]Yw aq¶mbn
hn`Pn¡s¸«ncn¡p¶p. aqem[mcw apX kzm[njvTm\w hsc Btábw,
XpSÀ¶v A\mlXw hsc kucw, A\mlXw apX BÚhsc Nm{µw þ Cu
JWvU§fnembn cp{ZþhnjvWpþ{_Ò {KÙnIfnembn bYm{Iaw Aánbpw,
BZnXy\pw N{µ\pw ØnXn sN¿p¶p. Ass\ÑnI {Inbmiàn hyhlcn
¡p¶ BtábJWvU¯n\v AÔXman{kw, sFÑnIþAss\ÑnI D`b
iàn {]`mhtaJebv¡v an{itemIw, Úm\iàymßIamb DuÀ²z{]tZi
¯n\v tPymXnÀtÃmIw F¶n§s\ t]À ]dbs¸Sp¶p. Cu Ipe]Yw
km[mcW a\pjycn ASªpInS¡p¶Xn\m a\pjy³ Ass\ÑnI
{InbmiàntbmsS, kpjp]vXnbnem− IpWvUen\ntbmsS, ]ip`mth\ (_ƒ

amb Xmcsb¶v ]dbmw. ]ca]pcpj\mb cma³ C{µnb{]IrXnsb \in¸n¨
t¸mÄ hnthIkzcq]amb Xmc ]p{X\mb AwKþZþt\msSm¸w C{µnb]pcpj
\mb kp{Koht\mSv tNÀ¶p. E£-b-apJm-N-e-¯n koX ImWp-¶Xv A©p
Ipc-§-·m-sc-bm-Wv. Úmt\-{µn-b§-fn A[n-h-kn-¡p¶ A©v {]mW³am-cmWn-hsc¶pw Duln-¡mw.
C{µnb]pcpj\mb kp{Kohsâ BÚm\phÀ¯nbpw ]ca]pcpjsâ Zmk\p
amWv ]©{]mW {]XoIamb amcpXn. hmbp AYhm {]mW³ tbmK\njvTam
Ipw hsc Nm]eyw {]ISn¸n¡p¶Xn\memWv hmbp]p{Xs\ hm\c\mbn
Nn{XoIcn¡p¶Xv. tbmK\njvT\mb ]©{]mW³ A´À¿manbmb cmas\bpw
koXsbbpw lrZbw Xpd¶pIm«n ImWn¡p¶ IYm kµÀ`w HmÀ¡pI.
P\\t¯msS kqcym`napJambn IpXn¨ Cu inhhn`qXnbmb hmbp]p{X³
C{µnbþ{]IrXnbm h{Pmbp[w sIm−v l\n¡s¸«v l\paXv \mamhmbn.
hmbphns\ \nb´n¡phm³ tbmKamÀK¯nep]tbmKs¸Sp¯p¶ aÀ½Øm\
§fnsem¶v XmSnsbÃn\v kao]hÀ¯nbmWv. EjyaqImNew PvRm\mNeam
Wv þAhnsSbmWv hnZymkzcq]nWn ]pcpj\v hgn Im«m³ Xsâ B`cW§Ä
þ Nne¼v þ hens¨dnªXv. {_ÒhnZymKpcp¡·mcmb k]vXÀjnamcpsS
Ccn¸nSamb incÊmWo E£bxapJmNew. _mentIdmae E£bxapJmNeam
Wv. IÀ®§fmb KuXa\pw `cZzmP\pw, t\{X§fmb hnizman{X\pw
PaZánbpw hknjvTþIiy]·mcmb \mknIIfpw \m¡mb A{XnbpamWv Cu
EjnamÀ. C{µnbm[njvTamb {]IrXn¡v ap³]dª \mev Úmt\{µnb§fnÂ
kzm[o\ansöpw C{µnbm[njvTamb ]pcpj\mWv Sn Úmt\{µnb§fnÂ
B[n]Xysa¶pw a\Ênem¡mw. Zpµp`nbpsS I]mehpw k]vXkme
hr£§fpw Ima\IfpsSbpw taml¯nsâbpw ambmtemIamWv.
cqss]x k]vX`ntch Xp _²v\mXymßm\w Bß\m{]IrXnx
k Gh N ]pcpjmÀ°w {]Xn hntamNbtXyIcqt]W (Cu.Ir.Im.63)
Bß{]IrXnbm k]vXcq]§fmemWv (hr£hpw thcpIfpw {]XoIw)
Bßmhv _Ôn¡s¸Sp¶Xv. GIcq]¯m ({]Whsa¶ GImkv{X¯mÂ?)
{]IrXn Xs¶ ]pcpjs\ tamNn¸n¡pIbpw sN¿p¶p.
k]vXkmehr£§sf Hscmä Akv{Xw sIm−mWv cma³ JWvUn¡p¶Xv.
kZm ioÀjmk\w sN¿p¶ Pe¯nepd§nbncp¶ k]vXP\§fmb EjnamÀ
DStemsS kzÀ¤w ]qInsb¶mWv hmÂaoIo ]cªncn¡p¶Xv. k]vXP\sa¶
Xv Ggv tKm{X§sf kqNn¸n¡p¶ ]cmaÀiamWv. BImi¯n ImWmhp¶
Xn\memIWw DStemsS kzÀ¤¯n t]mbXmbn ]dªncn¡p¶Xv. Pe¯n
se Dd¡w k]vXÀjnIfpsS kap{Z¯nse AkvXa\w BWv. Z£nWþ
KmÀl]XyþBlh\ob F¶o aq¶v AánIÄ kZm Pzen¡p¶Xmbn
]dbp¶ B{iaw incÊv Xs¶bmWv.
C{µnb§sfbmWv Nm]eyw klPamb Ipc§·mcmbn ]dªncn¡p¶Xv.
C{µntb`yx Cuiztcm a\x F¶v {]amWapÅXn\m _menbpw kp{Koh\p
a\Êns\bmWv {]Xn\n[oIcn¡p¶Xv. Atbm²ybnse ØnXn¡v GXm−v
kam\amWv InjvInÔbnse ØnXnsb¶v ]ca]pcpj\mb cmasâ
_mentbmSpÅ kwkmc¯n \n¶v a\Ênem¡mw. Xs¶t¸mse cmPyhpw
`mcybpw \jvSs¸«h\mbmWv cma³ kp{Kohs\ ImWp¶Xv. cmakp{Koh
kÔn cmPys¯bpw `mcysbbpw hos−Sp¡phm³ cma³ _mensb h[n¨v

9

kp{Kohs\ klmbn¡psa¶pw {]Xyp]Imcambn Xsâ `mcysb hos−Sp¡p
hm³ kp{Koh\pw aäv Ipc§·mcpw cmaþe£vaW·msc klmbn¡msa¶p
amWv. `cX\n \n¶v hyXykvX\mbn Aip`mNcWw \S¯nbXn\memWv
adªv \n¶v £{Xnb\mb Xm³ _mensb h[n¨sX¶v cma³ hyàam¡p¶p
−v. ]camßmhnsâ \nÝbw AYhm A´À¿manbmb ]pcpjs\ [À½w
ewLn¡p¶hÀ¡v {]Xy£ A\p`hamIp¶nsæn IqSn bYmhn[n in£n
¡s¸Spsa¶mWv ChnsS hyàamIp¶Xv.
5.

bp²-ImWvUw

e¦sb¶ {]IrXnbnse cmPmhv ctPmKpWamb cmhW\pw X]kzn k¯zKp
WamÀ¶ hn`ojW\pw Bekyw AYhm \n{Z Ipw`IÀ®s\¶ XtamKpW
hpamWv. F{X at\mlcamWv, imkv{XobamWv ]m{XkrjvSn. AWphnS
imkv{Xw hyXnNen¡p¶nÃ. AÀ²hmÀjnIamWv XtamKpWnbmb Ipw`IÀ®
sâ \n{Zm`wKw. kw{Im´nIfnÂ, AXm-bXv, aIcþIÀ¡nSI kw{Im´nIÄ
{]IrXnbn izmkþ\nxizmk¯nsâ Bcw`§fmWv, B´cnIamb anYnebpw
(hn-tZ-lw) e¦bpw t]mse. XtamKpWnbn Pohe£Wamb izmkþ\nxizmk
§Ä am{XamWv \S¡p¶Xv. GXv XtamKpWnbnepw \n{ZbmÀ¶h\nepw
kw{Im´nIfpsS {]m`hap−mIp¶psh¶ kqN\ ChnsS e`n¡p¶p. tZhbm
\hpw ]nXrbm\hpamWo \nxizmkþizmk{InbIÄ AYhm kqcyþN{µ\mUn
IÄ.
cmaþcmhWbp²w
]pcpj\pw
{]IrXnbpsS
X¯zk©bhpambpÅ
kwLÀjamWv. ]pcpj³ {]IrXnbpsS hnImcssk\ys¯ \in¸n¨v,
k¯z{][m\am¡n
{_ÒhnZymkzcq]nWnbmb
koXsb
hos−Sp¡p
¶tXmsS AhnZybpw {]mc_v[hpw Ahkm\n¨v ]pcpj³ Xsâ ]camß`mhw
t_m²ys¸«v ]ca]Z¯nte¡v aS§p¶p. cmas\¸än l\pam³ cmhWt\mSv
]dbp¶Xv cma³ ]pcptjm¯a\msW¶v hyàam¡p¶p.
kÀÆtemIm³ kpkwlrXy k`qXm³ kNcmNcm³
]p\tch XYm {kjvSpw itàm cmtam almbix
cmasâ tbm²msh¶ iàn shfnhm¡phm³ BZy hcntb BhiyapÅp þ
kÀÆtemI§sfbpw NcmNc§sfbpw k`qXw kwlcn¡m³ Ignbp¶h\m
Wv F¶v aXn. ho−pw AtX ]Sn krjvSn¡phm³ ià\msW¶ ]cmaÀiw
kmwJy]pcpjsâ {]Xn^e\amWv. ]m{XkrjvSn¡v Ahew_amb imkv{X
bpàn s]mXphmb Úm\w sh¨v Duln¨v ]dbp¶Xv
ss{XKpWyhnjbamb t`mKw A\p`hn¡p¶ ]pcpjsâ IcWhr¯nbmWv
bp²w. {]mc_v[amWv l\n¡s¸Sp¶Xv. {_ÒIpe¯n hn{ihÊnsâ
]p{XcmbmWv {XnKpW§Ä AhXcn¡p¶Xv. Ejn hn{ihÊv krjvSnbpsS
kqNIamWv. tkXphnsâ \nÀamWw {]mc_v[¯nsâ `mKamWv. tIm]
t¯msS {]mc_v[¯nsâ ISÂ hän¡m³ {ian¨ cmat\mSv hcpW³ ]dbp¶
Xv Gähpw {it²bamWv.
]rYnhohmbpcmImiamt]m tPymXnÝ cmLh
kz`mth kuayXnjvT´n imizXw amÀKam{inXmx
XÕ`mthm aamt]yj bZKmt[m%la¹hx

10

hnImckvXp `thXv Km[ GXXv tX {]hZmaylw
\ Imam¶ N tem`mXv hm \ `bmXv ]mÀ°nhmßPm
{Kml\{ImIpePew kvXw`tbbw IYw N \
]©`qX§Ä k\mX\amb [À½s¯ B{ibn¨v AhbpsS kz`mh¯nÂ
kÀÆZm Øncambn \n¡p¶p. Fâ kz`mhhpw AXv Xs¶bmWv þ Fsâ
AKm[X XcWw sN¿pI km²yaÃ. XcWw km²yam¡pIsb¶Xv F\n¡v
[À½hncp²hnImcambn `hn¡pw. Imaþtem`þ`bmZn ImcW§fmsem¶pw,
]mÀ°nhmßPm, Cu Pew kvXw`n¡pIbnÃ.
{]m]©nI ]camÀ°amWv cma\v hcpW³ shfnhm¡ns¡mSp¡p¶Xv.
]mÀ°nhmßPs\¶mWv (AXmbXv, a®n \n¶v ]ndhn) cmas\ hcpW³
kwt_m[\ sN¿p¶Xv. `qX§fpsS k\mX\ [À½s¯ ]mÀ°nh\mb
\n\¡v amän adn¡m³ Ignbnà þ `qXkz`mh¯n\v tbmPn¨ aäv hgn t\m¡pI
sb¶mWv hcpW³ ]dbp¶Xv. cmasâ hm\cssk\yw IcW§fmWv.
KpWmZn {]IrXnbn \n¶v Pohmßmhns\ ]pcpj³ hos−Sp¡p¶p. Pm\In
]rYznbmWv. ]mÀ°nhamb Pohs\¡qSmsX ]pcpj\v {]IrXnsb t`mKn¡pI
km²yaÃ. ]pcpjs\ apà\m¡m³ {]IrXn Xs¶bmWv Pm\Inbmbn
AhXcn¨v `qanbnte¡v Xs¶ aS§p¶Xv. Pm\In kzÀ¤mtcmlWw
sNbvXXmbn hmÂaoIn FgpXmªXnsâ ImcWw CXmWv.
6.

cmh-Wsâ Nn{Xo-I-cWw

cmh-W-s\¶ hnNn-{X-amb Zi-{Ko-h-\mb IYm-]m-{Xs¯ hmßoIn Nn{Xo-I-cn-¨ncn-¡p-¶Xv kmwJyþtbmK-X¯z {]Xo-Im-ß-I-Xsb ASn-h-c-bn«v Øm]n-¡p-¶p.
cmhW\v ]¯v incÊv F¶v tIÄ¡pt¼mÄ Úm\IÀt½{µnb§fmWv
s]s«¶v a\Ênse¯p¶Xv. ]s£ icnbmb k¦Â]w GsX¶v kmwJy
ImcnI {i²n¨v hmbn¨m a\ÊnemImw.
Gj {]XybkÀtKm hn]cybmiànXpjvSnkn²ymJymx
KpWsshjayhnaÀ±mXv Xky N t`ZmkvXp ]©miXv (Cu.Ir.Im.46)
_u²nIamb Cu krjvSnbn KpWsshjay§fpsS kzm[o\¯m A¼Xv
e£W§fp −mIp¶p. Ch AhnZy, Aiàn, XpjvSn, kn²n C§s\ \mev
KW¯n s]Sp¶p.
]©hn]cybt`Zm`h´y%iànÝ IcWsshIeymXv
AjvSmhnwiXnt`Zm XpjvSnÀ\h[mjvS[m kn²nx

(Cu.Ir.Im.47)

IcWsshIey¯mep−mIp¶ A©v AhnZyIfpw 28 AiànIfpw (ip`Ic
W§fmÂ) 9 XpjvSnIÄ, 8 kn²nIÄ Chbpw D−mIp¶p.
t`ZmkvXatkm%jvShnt[m tamlky N Zihnt[m almtamlx
Xmant{im AjvSmZi[m XYm`h´yÔXman{ix
(Cu.Ir.Im.48)

cmambW¯n ZicY\v a{´namÀ F«pt]cmWv. [rjvSnÀþPbt´mþhnPbx
þkn²mÀ°x N AÀ°km[Ix þ AtimtIm þa{´]meÝ kpa{´x þ ChÀ
AjvSkn²nIfpsS {]XoI§fmsW¶v IcpXp¶Xn sXänÃ. XpSÀ¶pÅ
`mK¯v Cu kn²nIÄ GhbmsW¶v ]dbp¶p−v. Dulw (bpàn), {ihWw,
]T\w, {Xnhn[ ZpxJ\miw, kplr¯p¡Ä, Zm\w, Chsb¡qSmsX GXv
cmPmhn\mWv cmPy]me\w km²yam¡pI. almtaml§Ä ]¯msW¶v
ImWpt¼mÄ HmÀ½ hcnI cmhWsâ ]¯v XeIfmWv. Cu ]¯v XeIÄ¡v
{]tXyIXbp−v. cmambW¯n ImWp¶Xv þ
cmhWky intcm Onµ{ÑnaÖzenXIpWvUew
XÑncx ]XnXw `qau ZrjvSw temssIkv{Xn`nkvXZm
XsskyhkZriw Nm\yXv cmhWtkym°nXw incx
Ghtah iXw On¶w inckmw XpeyhÀ¨kmw
Pzen¡p¶ IpWvUe§fm tim`n¡p¶ Hcp incÊv apdn¡pt¼mÄ Xpeyam
b tim`tbmsS asäm¶v AhnsS {]Xy£s¸«p. \qdv incÊv apdn¨ cma\v
kwibw. hncm[s\bpw JcZqjW{XnincmZnIsfbpw k]vXkmehr£§sf
bpw JWvUn¨ Cu Akv{X¯n\v F´p ]än?
H¶p apdn-¡p-t¼mÄ tim`-tb-dnb asäm¶v {]Xy-£s
- ¸-Sp-¶Xv kmwJy-Im-cnI
]cm-aÀin-¡p¶ almtaml§fmsW¶v \ap¡v \nXym-\p-`h
- ¯
- n \n¶v a\-Ênem-¡mw. taml-§f
- psS Cu hn{`-aL
- «- ¯
- n BZn-Xy-lr-Zbw P]n¨v Hscm-äb
- ¼n-\m ]¯v Xe-Is
- fbpw Hcp-an-s¨bvXp hogv¯p-IbmWv cma³ sNbvXX
- v.
A§s\ A]m-\k
- z-cq-]\
- mb cmh-W³ {]mW-\mb cma-\n ebn-¨t- ¸mÄ ]©`q-X-kn-²n-bmÀ¶ {iocm-a³ koX-tbm-sSm¸w Atbm-²y-bn-te¡v aS-§n.
cmam-b-WI
- Ybpw IYm-]m-{X-§fpw Cuhn[w kmwJy-þt- bm-Ki
- m-kv{X-§Ä¡v
`mÀ¤-h-Ipew \ÂInb {]Xo-Im-ßI hnh-cW
- a
- m-Wv. an¯p-Isf imkv{Xw A`ykn-¸n-¡p-¶X
- n-\pÅ kmt¦-XnI D]m-[n-bmbn ]pcm-X-\P
- \
- ]
- Z- §
- Ä D]-tbm-Ks¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶ hkvXpX C¶v s]mXpsh Ncn-{X-Im-c·
- mÀ AwKo-Ic
- n¡p-¶p. cmaIYbnse cmasâ Ab\w kqcysâ AYhm {]mWsâ Ab-\a
- m-Wv.
kqcy-\p-am-bpÅ {]mWsâ {]Xo-Im-ßI
- X
- b
- psS hni-Za
- mb Nˬ {]ivt\m-]\
- nj-¯nepw aäpw e`y-am-Wv. Atbm-²y-bn \n¶pw e¦-bn-te-¡p-ff cmasâ
bm{Xm-hn-hc
- Ww hmßoIn \ÂIn-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv bYmÀ°-¯n tPymXnx-imkv{X-]-ca
- m-Wv. Atbm-²y¡pw kao] {]tZ-i§
- Ä¡pw cmam-b-W¯
- n e`yamb Øe-hn-hc
- Ww A\p-kc
- n¨v \ma-Ic
- Ww \ÂIn-bX
- n-\m-emWv C¶v cmaIY Atbm-²y, kc-bq, Nn{X-IqSw, apX-emb Øe-§sf icn-bmbn hnh-cn¡p¶p F¶ tXm¶-ep-fh
- m-¡p-¶X
- v. ZWvUI
- m-cWyw F¶v h\-`q-an¡v \ÂInb
t]cv ZWvUI + AcWn F¶ tbmKmán Pzen-¡p¶ \s«-Ãnsâ At[m-_n-µphmb aqem-[m-c¯
- nsâ \ma-t[-ba
- m-Wv.
cmam-b-W¯
- n-sâbpw cma-sâbpw A\ym-Zr-ia
- mb {]kn-²n¡v ImcWw ]pcm-X\
- Im-e¯v {]kn-²a
- m-bn-cp¶ IY-bpsS tbmK-þk
- mw-Jy-ZÀi\ ASn-Øm-\a
- mWv.
III.

ss\cmiyhpw tamlhpw 8 hn[w, almtamlw 10, ZpxJhpw Xo{hZpxJhpw 18
hoXw {]ISamWv.

11

cma-IY-bnse tPymXnx-imkv{Xw

cmam-bWw bYmÀ°-¯n tbmKþtPymXnx-im-kv{X§fpsS ]c-kv]c
- _
- Ô
- hpw
{]Xo-Im-ßI
- X
- bpw A´Àeo-\a
- mb `mcv¤h
- I
- p-e-¯nsâ imkv{Xm-`y-k\w

12

e£y-am-¡p¶ cma-I-Ym-Jym-\-am-Wv. B´-cn-I-amb {]mW³ _mly-ambn kqcy\m-Wv. {]mWsâ kqcy-þ-N{µ \mUn-I-fn-eq-sS-bpÅ k©mcw t]mse Xs¶
kqcy\v D¯-c-þ-Z-£nW Ab-\-§-fp-−v. tZhm-b-\-sa¶ D¯-cm-b\w aI-c-kw{Im-´n-bn-em-cw-`n¨v IÀ¡-S-I-kw-{Im-´n-bn-e-h-km-\n-¡p-¶Xv {]mWsâ _lnÀKa\w AYhm \nxizm-khpw ]nXr-bm\w AYhm Z£n-Wm-b\w F¶Xv izmk-hpam-Ip-¶p. C§s\ D¯-c-Z-£nW Ab-\-§-tfmsSbpÅ kqcysâ {]mWm-bm-aamWv cmam-b-W-ambn hmßoIn {]Xo-Im-ß-I-X-tbmsS Nn{Xo-I-cn-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv.

5.

aIcw apXÂ anYp\m´yw hsc-bpÅ D¯-cm-b\
- I
- m-e¯v Zriy-amb JtKmfob {]Xn-`m-k§
- Ä hmßo-Insb kzm[o\n¨psh¶v Icp-Xp-hm³ \ymb-ap−v. {io. ]n.-Pn. IrjvW³ \mb-cpsS CXv kw_-Ôn¨ ]e teJ-\§
- fpw
{]K-Xn-bn {]kn-²o-Ic
- n-¡-s¸-«n-«p-−v.

6.

cma-\pw, cmh-W\pw {]mW-sâbpw kqcy-sâbpw k©m-c¯
- nse {[ph-§f
- mWv. Cu Xm¯znI ]cn-ØnXn cma-s\bpw cmh-Ws
- \bpw hyXykvX {]XoI-§f
- mbn ImWp-hm³ km²y-am-¡p-¶p. kw{Im-´n-If
- pam-bpÅ cma-cm-hW
{]Xo-Im-ßI
- X t]mse Xs¶ Atbm-²ybpw e¦bpw kqcysâ hnjp-hXv
Øm\-§f
- m-sW¶v \ap¡v bpàn-`wKw IqSmsX k¦Â]n-¡m-hp-¶X
- m-Wv.
cmh-Ws\ ss\cr-tX-b\
- mbpw knwln-tI-b\
- mbpw hnti-jn-¸n-¡p¶ aqew
\£-{X-hp-ambn (knwl-]pÑw) AYhm aqem-[m-chpambn A]m-\k
- z-cq-]\mb cmh-W\
- pÅ tbmKm-ßI_Ô¯nsâ cl-ky-amb {]Xn-]m-Z\
- -am-Wv.

tbmK-X-¯zm-Jym-\-¯n\v IYm-]m-{X-§sf krjvSn-¡p-hm³ Xmcm-K-W-§-sf¸än
\ne-\n-¶n-cp¶ \mtSm-Sn-k-¦Â]-§Ä hmßoIn D]-tbm-K-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xmbn cmam-b-W-I-Y-bnse IYm-]m-{X-§-fpsS tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]-c-amb {]Xo-Imß-IX kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p.
1.

2.

3.

4.

cma-I-Y-bpsS ]Ým-¯-e-`qan P_Â]q-cn\v hS¡pw Nn{X-Iq-S-¯n\pw
sX¡pw BsW-¶ hni-I-e-\-¯n\v tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]-c-amb {]k-àn-bp−v. cmam-b-W-I-Y-bnse tPymXnx-imkv{X {]Xo-Im-ß-I-X¡v tbmPn¨ Hcp
Øew Is−¯n AhnsS BIm-is¯ `qan-bn ]IÀ¯p-I-bmWv
sNbvX-sX¶v A\p-am-\n-¡p-hm³ \ymb-ap-−v.
cma-I-Y-bpsS DÛ-h-Im-e¯v ({In.-ap. 950) Ab-\-kÔn Bbneywþ]qbw
\£-{X-k-Ôn-bn-em-bn-cp-¶p. kqcysâ ]c-a-{Im-´n-bpsS Cu Øm\w
240:00' BIp-¶p. P_Â]q-cn\v A£mwiw 23:10 BI-bm hS¡p ImWp¶-Xmbn ]mc-aÀin-¡-s¸-Sp¶ ZWvU-Im-cWyw AYhm ZWvUI AcWn,
{XnIq-S-]ÀÆXw Ch-sbms¡ Xs¶ tacpZWvUw AYhm `qan-bpsS A¨pX-−nsâ A{K-amb {[ph¯n\p Npäpw \£-{X-§Ä Ac-Wn-I-S-bp-¶
{]{In-b¡v kam-\-ambn Id-§p-¶-Xns\ hnti-jn-¸n-¡p¶ {]Xo-I-§-fm-Wv.
kqcysâ D¯-c-þ-Z-£nW Ab-\-§Ä AcWn IS-bp-¶-Xp-t]m-se-bm-Wv.
P_Â]q-cn\v hS¡v kqcy³ aqÀ²m-hn-eqsS kw{I-an-¡p¶ Ime-amWv
{Kojva-{Im-´n.

IV.

cma³ {]mW-\m-Wv, kqcy-\m-Wv þ A§-s\-bpÅ kqcy\v cmta-iz-c¯p \n¶pw
knwl-fZ- zo-]n-te¡v tkXp-hnsâ Bh-iy-sa´v? cma-IY
- ¡v C¶s¯ Atbm-²ybp-sStbm e¦-bp-sStbm Nn{X-Iq-S¯
- n-sâtbm Ncn-{X-hp-ambn Fs´-¦nepw
hkvXp-Xm-]c
- a
- mb _Ô-apt−m?
{]kn-² Ncn-{X-Im-c\
- mb F¨v. Un. k¦m-enb cma-IY
- b
- psS hmkvXhnI-Xs
- b¸än \ÂIp¶ \nK-a\
- §
- Ä Cu teJ-Isâ Sn¸-Wn-s¡m¸w Xmsg Npcp¡n
\ÂIp-¶p.
1.

Atbm-²y-bnse \mK-cnI P\-]Z- ¯
- nsâ Imew {In. ap. Bbn-cm-am-−n-\S- p¯m-sW¶v `qJ-\\
- ¯
- n e`y-amb sXfn-hp-IÄ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶p.

2.

Ncn-{X-tc-JI
- s
- fm¶pw Xs¶ CsÃ-¦nepw, sshZn-Ik
- m-lnXyw au\w ]men¡p-¶p-sh-¦nepw ]pcm-W§
- fpw ]ucm-WnI ssP\-_u-²t- c-J-Ifpw C£zmIp-hw-iP
- \
- mb cma-s\-¸än ]cm-aÀin-¡p-¶X
- n-\m cmas\ Ncn-{X-]c
- a
- mb
AkvXnXzw IÂ]n-¡mw.

Z£n-W-mb\m-´y-amb [\p-hnse kqcy-\mWv t]mcm-fn-bmb Zi-c-Y³.
Z£n-Wm-b-\-¯n (]nXr-bm\w) \n¶pw D¯-cm-b\w AYhm tZhm-b\w
t]mse cma³ P\n-¡p-¶p. aI-c-kw-{I-a-Im-e¯v kqcy\v ap¼v DZn-¡p-Ibpw
kmbwkÔy¡v tijw Zriy-am-Ip-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp¶ hnhn[ Xmcm-K-W§sf kw_-Ôn¨ \mtSmSn k¦Â]-§Ä D]-tbm-Kn¨mWv hmßoIn cmaI-Y-¡v cq]w \ÂIn-b-Xv.
aI-c-am-km-cw-`-¯n cmam-b\w XpS-§p-t¼mÄ AkvX-a-b-Im-e-¯nÂ
Ing¡v ]pWÀX-hpw, ]qbhpw Bbn-eyhpw DZn-¡p-¶p. Chsb bYm-{Iaw
cma-sâbpw `c-X-sâbpw e£va-W-þ-i-{Xp-Lv\-·m-cp-sSbpw \£-{X-§-fmbn
cmam-bWw hnti-jn-¸n-¡p-¶p. a²ym-Im-i-¯n Cu ka-b¯v ImWp-¶Xv
{Ko¡van-¯p-I-fnse kv{XoI-Ym-]m-{X-§-fmb A³t{Um-ao-U, Ikn-tbm-]y,
tchXn apX-em-b-h-bpw s]gvkyq-kp-am-Wv. aq¶v `mcy-am-cpsSbpw t]cp-IÄ
þA³t{Um-aoU s]Km-kkv F¶ Xmcm-K-W-¯nsâ `mK-am-I-bm Aiz]XnbpsS aI-fmb ssItI-bn-bmbpw Itkyms]y Iuky-ey-bmbpw
tchXn kpan-{X-bmbpw {]Xy-£-s¸-Sp-¶p.

13

cma-tkXpsh¶ anYy

cma-IY
- b
- nse IYm-]m-{X-§f
- mb anYn-eb
- nse P\-I\
- pw, Aiz-]Xn tIIb\pw APm-Xi
- {- Xp-hn\v ka-Im-en-Ic
- m-sW¶v _rlm-Zm-c-Wy-tIm-]\
- n-j¯n \n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw. _r.-Zm.D]\n-j¯
- nse P\-Is
- âbpw bmÚhÂIysâbpw Imew {In.-ap. Bdmw \qäm-−n-\¸
- pdw km²yaÃm-Xn-cn-s¡,
A¡m-e¯
- mWv cma³ Pohn-¨n-cp-¶s
- X-¦n Ncn-{Xhpw sshZn-Ik
- m-lnXyhpw au\w ]men-¡p-¶s
- X-´mWv? _u²-bp-K¯
- nse kmtI-X-¯n-emWv
cma³ Ah-Xc
- n-¨n-cp-¶s
- X-¦n \mtSm-Sn-¡Y
- b
- nse AkvXn-Xz-¯n-\p-]c
- nbmb {]kàn ssP\-_u-²t- c-JI
- f
- n cma\v e`n-t¡-−X
- m-Wv. anYn-e¡pw
P\-I\pw aäpw X§-fpsS t]cp-IÄ kn²n-¨Xv cma-IY
- b
- nse {]kn-²a
- mb
cmPy-¯mepw cmPm-hn-\m-ep-am-sW¶v Nn´n-¡p-¶X
- mWv IqSp-XÂ bpànklsa¶v tXm¶p-¶p.
3.

cmam-bW
- ¯
- nse Atbm-²y, InjvIn-Ô, e¦ apX-emb \K-cn-If
- psS hnh-cW-§Ä aucy-Im-e¯
- n\p tijw D−mb Ipim-\, Kp]vXI
- m-e§
- f
- nse \Kc-§sf B{i-bn¨v Fgp-Xn-t¨À¯-hb
- m-Wv.

14

cmam-b-W-¯nse km¦Â]nI hÀ®-\-IÄ ASn-Øm-\-am¡n ]n¡me
Ipim-\, Kp]vX-cm-Pm-¡-·mÀ X§-fpsS \K-c-§Ä \nÀ½n¨p F¶v Icp-Xphm\pw Xpey-amb km²y-X-bp-−v. lc-¸m, taml-RvsP-Zmtcm apX-embn
knÔpþk-c-kzXo-\-K-c-§-sf-¸änbpÅ sFXn-ly-§tfm, sak-s¸m-t«m-an-b,
AÊo-dnb apX-emb Øe-§-fnse \K-c-§-sf-¸-än-bpÅ k©m-cn-I-fn-eqsSbpw aäp-apÅ tI«-dn-hp-Ifpw km¦Â]nI hÀ®-\-IÄ¡v t{]c-Iambncp¶n-cn-¡-Ww. ]e-hn-[-¯n cmam-b-W-¯nse \K-c-hÀ®-\-IÄ¡v
hni-Zo-I-cWw \ÂIm-sa¶ hkvXpX \mw {i²n-¡-Ww.
4.     

1 

Atbm²y apX Nn{X-IqSw, XpSÀ¶v ZWvU-Im-cWyw hsc-bpÅ cmasâ
bm{Xm-hn-h-cWw hmßoIn \ÂIp-¶Xv hkvXp-Xm-]-c-am-sW¶pw cma-I-Ybnse Øe-§sf kw_-Ôn¨ hnhmZw tKmZm-h-cn-bp-sSbpw ZWvU-Im-c-Wy¯n-sâbpw sXämb [mc-W-IÄ \nan-¯-am-sW¶pw k¦m-enb ]d-bp-¶p.
hmßoIn \ÂIp¶ `qan-imkv{Xw hkvXp-Xm-]-c-am-sW-¦n F´p-sIm−v
Ncn-{X-Im-c-·mÀ¡v tKmZm-h-cn-bpw, ZWvU-Im-c-Wyhpw ]¼bpw e¦bpw
Z£n-W-tZ-i-¯m-sW¶ [mcW e`y-am-bn. hmßo-In-bpsS hnh-cWw
hkvXp-Xm-]-c-a-söv tKmZm-h-cnbpw ZWvU-Im-c-Wyhpw kw_-Ôn¨ k¦men-b-bpsS hmZw sXfnhv \ÂIp-¶p.

5. 

tKmZm-h-cnbpw ZWvU-Im-c-Wyhpw \mkn-¡n-\-Sp¯ C¶s¯ ]©-h-Sn-bpambpw tKmZm-h-cn-bp-ambpw _Ô-s¸-«-X-söv k¦m-enb Øm]n-¡p-¶p.
]©-h-Sn, Ejy-aq-Iw. ]¼, InjvInÔ, e¦ Ch {]bm-K¡v sX¡v amdnbpÅ Nn{X-Iq-S-¯n\v kao-]-Ø-§-fmb Øe-§-fm-bmWv hmßoIn cmambWw ]d-bp-¶-Xv.
Nn{X-IqSw hn«-Xn\p tijw ASp¯ Znhkw ZWvU-Im-c-Wy-¯n {]th-in¨-Xmbn hmßoIn ]d-bp-¶p.1
ZWvU-Im-c-Wy-¯n ic-`w-Km-{iaw kµÀin¨ cma³ ap\n-bpsS Aán-k-am[n¡v km£n-bm-bn.
]n¶oSv kpXo-£vWsâ B{i-a-¯nepw XpSÀ¶v ]¯v hÀjw aäv B{i-a§-fn-ep-ambn sNe-h-gn¨ tijw ho−pw AhÀ kpXo-£vWm-{i-a-¯nÂ
Xncn-s¨-¯n.
XpSÀ¶v AK-kvXym-{i-a-¯n-se-¯n. AK-kvXy³ ]d-ª-X-\p-k-cn¨v
AhnsS \n¶pw c−v tbmP-\-am{Xw Zqc-apÅ ]©-h-Sn-bn-se¯n cma-e-£vaW-·mÀ B{iaw Øm]n-¨p. ]©-h-Sn-bn-te-¡pÅ bm{X-bn-emWv cma³ PSmbp-hns\ ImWp-¶-Xv. AK-kvXysâ hnh-cWw {i²n-¡p-Iþ AXÝ
Xzmalw `qanw KÑ ]©-h-So-anXn...ktZix ÇmL-\o-bÝ \mXn-Zqtc N
cmL-h, tKmZm-hcymx kaot] N ...Cu tKmZm-hcn \mkn-¡nse tKmZm-h-cnbm-Ip-¶-sX-§s\?
Cu Øe-§-sfÃmw Xs¶ hnÔy-]ÀÆ-X-þ-h-\-{]-tZ-i-§-fn-em-sW¶pw
\À½Z cmam-b-W-¯n ]cm-aÀin-¡-s¸-Sp-¶n-söpw k¦m-enb hyà-am¡p-¶p.   

hnÔy-]ÀÆ-X¯
- n\v sX¡pÅ XoÀ°-{]m-[m-\y-apÅ \À½-Zm-\Zn F´psIm−v cmat\m hm\-c·
- mtcm I−nÃ? ZWvUI
- m-cW
- yhpw cmam-bW
- ¯
- n
se e¦bpw Nn{X-Iq-S¯
- n\v sX¡v \À½-Z¡v hS-¡m-sW¶v Cu \nÀ®mbI hkvXpX kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶ntÃ?
Nn{X-Iq-S¯
- n\v ]Xn-s\m¶v In.-ao. sX¡v tKmZm-hcn Fs¶mcp \Zn ap¼p−m-bn-cp-¶X
- mbn loc-em ]d-bp-¶p.
P_Â]q-cn\v hS-¡mbn cmh-Wsâ e¦-bmb {XnIq-S]
- ÀÆ-Xhpw cmasâ
Xmh-fa
- m-bn-cp¶ kpth-e]
- ÀÆXhpw Zriy-am-sW¶v ]c-ai
- nh A¿sc D²cn¨v k¦m-enb ]d-bp-¶p. {io. Pn.-cm-aZ- m-kv hmßoIn cmam-bWw D²-cn¨p
Xs¶ AaÀI-−ImWv cmhWsâ Øe-sa¶v Øm]n-¡p-¶p. cmam-bWw
(_-tdm-U) 6.112.13 cmh-Ws\ tZh-I−
- I
- s
- \¶v hnti-jn-¸n-¡p-¶p. cmh-Wsâbpw C{µ-Pn-¯n-sâbpw t]cn-epÅ XoÀ°-§Ä ChnsS DÅ-Xmbpw cmaZmkv ]d-bp-¶p.
kme-hr-£§
- f
- pÅ C´y-bnse GI h\-{]-tZiw P_Â]q-cn\v hS¡pw
Nn{X-Iq-S¯
- n\v sX¡p-am-sW¶ hkvXpX InjvIn-Ôb
- nse kmer-£§
- s
- f¸-än-bpÅ hmßo-In-bpsS ]cm-aÀi-¯n\v Ah-ew_w \À½-Z¡v hS¡v
Xs¶-bm-sW¶v hyà-am-¡p-¶p.
cma-s\-¸än kwL-km-ln-Xy-¯n ]cm-aÀi-an-Ã. knwl-fZ- zo-s]¶v {]kn-²amb C¶s¯ {ioe-¦¡v e¦-sb¶ t]cv cmam-bWw {]Nm-c¯
- n-em-btXmsS e`y-am-bX
- m-Wv.
C¶s¯ cmta-izcw `qan-im-kv{X-]c
- a
- mbn Nnd-sI-«p-¶X
- n-\m-hi
- y-amb ]mdItfm ac-§tfm CÃm¯ aWÂ]-c¸
- m-sW-¶Xv cma³ AhnsS IS-enÂ
\qdv tbmP\ \of-¯n Nnd-sI-«n-sb¶ [mc-Wsb \ncm-Ic
- n-¡p-¶p. 

hm\-c\
- mb _mensb Bcy³ k{¼-Zmbw A\p-kc
- n¨v Zln-¸n-¡p-¶p.
ssN\okv kn¡v [cn¨ koXbpw tdma³ ssh\pw `c-Zzm-Pm-{i-a¯
- nse
kXvIm-ct- h-fb
- n ImWp-¶p−v. Xan-gI
- ¯
- nsâ em©\ t]mepw cmam-bW
- ¯ntem IYm-]m-{X-§f
- ntem Csöv s]cn-tbmÀ, A®m-Zpssc XpS§nbhÀ hfsc ap¼v Xs¶ hyà-am-¡n-bn-«p-−v. 

cma\pw hm\-c·
- mcpw cmta-iz-c¯v IS-en \qdp tbmP\ \ofhpw hoXnbpw
DÅ Nnd-bmWv sI«p-¶s
- X¶ k¦Â]w tbmP-\b
- psS GXv ssZcvLyw
sh¨mWv icn-bm-Ip-¶X
- v. `q]-cn[nbpsS e`y-amb c−v {][m\ aqey-§f
- \
- pk-cn¨v tbmP\ GXm−v ]¯v In.aoätdm A[n-Itam hcp-¶p. \qdp
tbmP\ At¸mÄ Bbncw In.-ao-äd
- m-sW¶v hcp-¶p. \qdp tbmP\ NmSn-¡S- ¡p¶ l\p-am³ B[p-\nI Päv hnam-\¯
- nsâ ]gb ]Xn-¸m-bn-cp-¶n-cn-¡Ww. 

CÑ-s¡m¯v a\p-jy-cq]w [cn-¡p-hm³ Ign-bp¶ Ipc-§·
- m-cmWv cmasâ
kJm-¡Ä. cmh-W³ hmev I¯n-¨X
- mbn hyI-Xa
- mbn ]d-bp-¶Xp sIm−v
hm\-cÃ
- m-bn-cp¶p BZn-hm-kn-If
- m-bn-cp-¶p-sh¶v ]d-bm-\m-In-Ã. 

koX-bpsS Aán-{]th-iw, AXn-it- bmàn IeÀ¶ Ahn-iz-k\
- o-ba
- mb
ambm-{]-IS- \
- §
- Ä, bp²-hn-hc
- W
- w, ]ÀÆ-X§
- f
- n-Ãm¯ cmta-iz-chpw kao-]-

Rāmāyana, Critical edition by Baroda Oriental Institute, II.108-111.

15

16

I-S¯o-chpw C§s\ kmam-\y-_p-²nsb tNmZyw sN¿p¶ IYm-I-Y-\amWv cmam-b-Ww.
XoÀ¯pw A\m-cy-amb I]n-eþ`mÀ¤hmZn \mK-hw-i-P-cmb tbmKo{µ·mcpsS
Úm\-k-ap-¨-b-amb an¯p-Isf Ah-ew-_-am¡n cmh-W-s\¶ (inh-k-am-\\mb) tbmKn-bm \bn-¡-s¸« GtXm \mK-P-\-]Zw Ab-\-k-Ôn-bmb IÀ¡tc-J-bn- Bhmkw Is−-¯nb-XmWv e¦-sb¶ {XnIq-S-]ÀÆX \K-cn. AlnO{Xw Dt]-£n¨v sX¡pIng-t¡m«v \o§nb P\-]Zw cmam-bW IY Bkv]-Zambn \ÂInb Øe-\m-a-§-fmWv {]bm-Kbpw Nn{X-Iq-Shpw tKmZm-h-cnbpw
aäpsa¶v bpàn-]qÀÆw Nn´n-¨m t_m²y-s¸-Sm-hp-¶-Xm-Wv.
tbmK-þ-kmwJyZÀi-\-]-c-amb A²ym-ß-hn-Zym-{]-Xn-]m-Z-\hpw tPymXnx-im-kv{X]-c-amb km[q-I-c-Whpw cmam-b-W-¯nse IYm-I-Y-\-¯n-en-sÃ-¦n sshcp-²y§-fpsS Ie-h-d-bmbn am{Xw ImWp-hm³ Ign-bp¶ cmam-b-W-w D]-\n-j-¯p-¡fpsS ]Ým-¯-e-¯n kwPm-X-am-b-sX-s§s\? Pm_m-en-bpsS P_Â]qcpw,
P\-Isâ hntZ-lhpw ASp-¯-Sp¯v (Z-WvU-Ihpw hntZ-l-hpw) ImWp-¶Xp
Xs¶ {it²-b-am-Wv. cma-I-Y-bnse bYmÀ° `qan-im-kv{X-]-Ým-¯ew Xmsg
\ÂIp-¶p. 

\À½ZbpsS DÛhw AaÀI-−-In-\-Sp-¯m-Wv. 22N40, 81E45 tcJmw-ihpw
A£mw-i-hp-am-Ip-¶p. 

Pm_m-en-bpsS \K-c-¯n 23N10 A£mw-i-¯nepw DÖ-bn-\n¡v 23N10,
75E45 sX¡v HmwIm-tc-iz-dn 22N00 F¶ A£mw-i-¯nepw ImWp¶

cn\v 500 In.-ao. am{Xw AI-se-bpÅ DÖ-bn\o \Kcw Atbm-²y-tb-¡mÄ
F{Xtbm ]pcm-X\
- a
- m-Wv. \À½-Zs
- b¶ t]mse DÖ-bn-\nbpw hmßoIn ]cmaÀin¡p-¶n-Ã. ]¼-bpsS {]m´-{]-tZ-ia
- mbn cmam-bWw ]d-bp¶ InjvInÔ
F§s\ _Ãm-dn-bn k¦Â]n¡mw?
]ÀssP-äd
- psS hnI-ea
- mb ho£Ww X¯ ]dbpwt]mse BhÀ¯n-¡p-t¼mÄ
Z£n-W`
- m-cX
- ¯
- n asämcp hnÔy-]ÀÆXw \ap¡v Is−-t¯-−X
- mbn hcpw.
hmßo-In-cm-am-bWw \ÂIp¶ hnh-cWw \À½-Zb
- psS D¯-c{- ]m-´§
- f
- mb
{]bm-K-þN
- n-{X-Iq-Sþ- ZWvUIm-cWyþe¦bpsSbpw AaÀI-−I
- n-sâXpw BsW¶
shfn-s¸-Sp-¯p¶ ]T-\-§f
- psS ]Ým¯e¯n cmta-iz-c¯v IS-enÂ
ImWp¶ ]md-s¡-«p-IÄ cma-\m \nÀ½n-¡s
- ¸« tkXp-hm-sW¶v k¦Â]n¡pI ]c-am-_²
- a
- m-Wv.
F´p-sIm−v hmßoIn \À½-Zsb Xsâ hnh-cW
- -¯nsâ `mK-am-¡n-bn-sö
tNmZy-¯n\v Htc Hcp-¯cw am{Xw. cma-IYbpsS `qan BIm-ihpw a\p-jy-sâ
{]mW-hr-¯n-bpsS \mUoi-co-ch
- p-am-Wv. KwKbpw bap-\bpw {]bm-Kbpw tbmKim-kv{X-¯nsâ `mK-am-Wv. tPymXnx-im-kv{X-]c
- a
- mbn kqcysâ IÀ¡-kw-{Im´n
AaÀI-−I
- n\pw \À½-Z¡pw Hcp Un{Kn sX¡mWv Xe¡v apI-fn kw`-hn-¨ncp-¶-Xv. Sn Øe-¯n-sâ `qan-im-kv{X-]c
- a
- mb InS-¸Ã cmam-bW
- ¯
- nse hnjbw
þ cmam-bW
- ¯
- nse `qan-im-k{Xw km¦Â]nIw am{X-am-Wv.

\À½Z `rKp-I-Ñ-¯n IS-en hogp-¶p. 

\À½-Z¡v hS-¡mWv IÀ¡-tcJ (Tropic of Cancer) F¶v \ap¡v a\-Ên-em¡mw. {InkvXp-hn\v ap¼v ]¯mw \qäm-−n ]qbw-þ-B-bneyw kÔn-bnÂ
Ab-\-kÔn h¶ Ime¯v AaÀI-−-In\v Hcp Un{Kn hS¡v IÀ¡-tc-Jbn cmam-bW¯nse aqe-I-Y-bp-ambn F¯n-t¨À¶ P\-]-Z-amWv AhnsS
{XnIq-Sw, tKmZm-h-cn, Nn{X-Iq-Sw, Fs¶ms¡ Øe-§Ä krjvSn-¨-Xv. 

cmasâ h\-bm-{X-bnse {]bmK BIm-i-KwK c−mbn ]ncn-bp¶ Øm\-amsW¶pw ASp-¯pÅ `c-Zzm-Pm-{iaw _rl-kv]Xn tZh-X-bmb ]pWÀXw
\£-{X-am-sW¶pw ZWvU-Im-c-Wy-¯nse ic-`w-K, kpXo-jvW, AK-kvXym{ia§fpw ]©-h-Snbpw E£-b-ap-Jm-N-ew, e¦ Chsbms¡ kqcy]Y¯nse Xmcm-K-W§-fm-sW¶v hmßoIn \ÂIp¶ Ahy-à-amb `qanimkv{Xw kqN\ \ÂIp-¶p. Cu Øe-§-fn-eq-sS-bpÅ cmasâ h\-hm-k¯n\v C¶v \mw Adn-bp¶ \mkn-¡nse ZWvU-Im-c-Wyhpw ]©-h-Snbpw
tIc-f-¯nse i_-cn-a-ebpw ]¼bpw cmta-iz-c-¯n\v sX¡pÅ e¦ Ch-bpambn bmsXmcp _Ô-hp-an-söv k¦m-en-b-bpsS apI-fn \ÂInb \nK-a\-§-fn \n¶pw a\-Ên-em-¡mw.

cmam-bW¯nse {]Xo-Im-ßI {]Xn-]m-Z\w ASn-Øm-\-ambn ]n¡me P\-]Z-§Ä X§-fpsS Øe-§Ä¡pw hyàn-IÄ¡pw t]À \ÂIn-b-XmWv C¶v
cmam-b-W-hp-ambn Ncn-{X-]-c-ambn _Ô-s¸-«-Xmbn tXm¶p¶ Øe-§Ä.
GXm−v 22N00 eqsS kam-´-c-ambn Hgp-Ip¶ \À½-Z- IS-¶-Xmbn hmßoIn
]d-bm¯ cma³ F§-s\-bmWv cmta-iz-c¯v tkXp \nÀ½n-¡pI? P_Â]q-

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sI. N{µ-lcn

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