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CTetlernl Editors H s l g a Iiiikcritz and Cha.rtes T . P r o u t y
T H E TRAGEDY OF MACBETH
edited by Ezcgenc
1ZAVEW A N D TAX'DOX:
Y A I B UNlTEBGITY PILE88
Copyright 1918,1954 h3 Y a l e Zrnizersity Press. P r i ~ t t e din tho United States of d.niericn
All rights reserved in tile editorial contribzbtions to this edition, zuhich n2ay not be reprinted, in whole or i ~ r part, except by w r i t t e n per7nission of the publiuhers. Library of Congrcss calalog card number: 644286
of the General ~ditw3
practically all modern editions of Shakespeare a r e 18th-century versiorls of the plays, based on the additions, alterntions, and emendations of editors of t h a t period. It has been our purpose, as it was Professor Brooke's, t o give the modern reader Shakespeare's plays in t h e approxinlate form of their original appearance. About half the plays appeared in q u a r t o form before the publication of the F i r s t Folio in 1623. T h u s for a large number of plays the only available text is t h a t of the Folio. I n the case of q u a r t o plays our policy has been t o use t h a t text as the basis of the edition, unless it is clear t h a t the t e x t has been contaminated. Interesting f o r us today is the f a c t t h a t there a r e no a c t o r scene divisions in the Quartos with the exception of 0th-ello, which does mark Acts I, 1 ,IV, 1 and V but lacks indications of scenes. Even in the Folio, although a c t divisions a r e generally noted, only a p a r t of the scenes a r e divided. I n no case, either in Quarto o r Folio, is there a n y indication of the place of action. T h e manifold scene divisions f o r the battle i11 such a play a s Antony and Cleopa,tra, together with such locations as c'Anotl~er a r t of the p field," a r e the additions of the 1 8 t h century. W e have eliminated all indications of the place and time of action, because there is no authority for them in the originals and because Shakespeare gives such information, when i t is requisite for understanding the play, through the dialogue of the actnrs. We have been sparing in our use of added scene and, in some
S the l a t e Professor Tucker Brooke has obs'e&ed,
PREFACE OF TRE GENERAL EDITORS
cnwu, a c t tli~Gsions,hct:nl~sc! thrse frequently impede
the flow of the action, which in Shakespeare's time .5*as curiously like t h a t of lnoclcrn films. Spelling lins been mocle~~nizctl except wlic~i the original r:lerzrly indicates n pronunciation unlike our own, e.g. c1,sart (desert j , clivc7 (devil), ban7cet (banquet), and of ten in such ElisnLetl~ansyricopntioris as stolrle (stol'n), arid tnne (tn'en). I n reproducing such forlns we have followed t.hc inconsistent usage of the original. We have also preserved the original capitalization nlicri this is a pztrt of the nrteuning. I n like ~lianner we of hare tended t o adopt the l i r l ~ a t i o ~ l the origir~nlin many cases ~ r ~ h cnlodcrn cditors print prose as verse re o r verse as prose. We have, nlorcovcr, i'ollowed the original pullctuation ~llrtrcvcr t was prncticd)Ie. i I n Tfcrse ive prinl r\ fi11n1-ed t o indicnte its Cull ~ylla.bic -~aluc, otherwise 'd. I n prose W C huvc foauwed the inconsistencies of the original in this respect. Our general practice has bccn t o include it1 faotnotes all inforniation n render needs for immediate understanding of tlie girrn p q e . I n somenl~ntempiric fasliioll we repeat glosscs as we thinlr the rcr~der needs t o bc reminded of the 111euning. F u r t h e r informtiiion is given in notes (indicated by the letter N in ihe footnotcs) t o bc found a t the back of cach rolulne. Appendices deal with the text and sources of tlie play. Square brackets indicate. nlateria1 not found in the original text. Long emendations o r lines taken f r o m rruother authoritative text of tt play a r e inciicated in t11e footnotes f o r the information of the reader. TTe have sileutly corrected obvious typographical errors. vi
Preface of the General JM.itore
The T a t Notes
A P P E X D I X A:
Text and Date Sources
A I ~ P E S D I X 11:
a ~ r ~ h - ~ l n c : R e a d i n g L i s t 186
DUNCAN: hf A L C O L 3 I
King of Scotland his sons generals of tlie Icing's army
DONALRAIN MAC I1ETH
BANQUO NACDUFF LEh'NOX
MENTETH ANGUS CATHXESS FI'EANCE,
} nobiclnen of Sco tiand
son t o Banquo GIWARD, Earl of Northumberland, general of t h English forces Y O U N G SIWARD, his son SEYTON, a n clflcer atteemling on Macbeth B o y , son t o ~ l f a c d u f l An English. Doctor A Scotch Doctor A Captain A Porter An Old M a n
LADY M A C B E T H L A D Y MACDLTFF
Gentlewoman attending on Lolly Alncbefh
Three Witches Lords, Gentle~iran, Olfliccrs, Soldiers, IFIUT therers, Attendants, rrvzci? ~ ? I e s s e ~ ~ g c r s ;Ghost of Banthe quo, and other ,4pparitions
S c E N E : Scotland;
in IV.3, England]
T H E T R A G E D Y O F MACIZETH
T7~under and lightnin.g. Enter three Vitchea.
l Witch. When shall we three nleet again? I n thunder, lightning, or in rain? 9 Witch. When the hurlyburly's done, When the battle's lost and won. 3 Witch. T h a t will be ere the set of sun. l Witch. TThcre the place? Upon the heath. 2 ?Vit cIt,. 3 V"tc7~. There t o meet with Macbeth. l Witch. I come, Graynlnlkin! 9 lT7itch. Paddock calls. 3 T;F7itc7~. Anon! 1 0 All. Fair is foul, and foul is fair: Exeunt. Hover through the f o g and filthy air.
SD Thunder and lightning N (SD is uscd throughout to indicate stage direction; h refers throughout to the corresponding note ' given &tthe end of the text.) 8-12 G r a p a l k i n . . . air N. 10 Anon right away. SD Alarum within trumpet call off staga
T H E TRAGELIY OF MACBETE. I. L
Alarum within. Enter King [Dwrtcan] , Malcolm, Donalbain, Lennox, with Attendants, meeting a bleeding Capta.in. Duncan. W h a t bloody man is t h a t ? H e can report, As scenleth by his plight, of the revolt T h e newest state. Afalcolm. This is the sergeant, Who like a good and hardy soldier fought 'Gainst my captivity. Hail, brave friend! Sap t o the king the lcnowledge of the broil As thou didst leave it. Doubtful i t stood, Cupt a in. As two spent swimmers, that do cling together And choke their a r t . The merciless Macdonwald10 W o r t h y t o be a rebel, for t o t h a t T h e multiplying villainies of nature Do swarm upon him-from the Western Isles Of kerns and gallowglasses is supplied ; And Fortune, on his damned quarrel smiling, Sl~ow'dlike a rebel's whore: but all's too weak; 15 F o r brave Macbeth-well he deserves t h a t nameDisdaining Fortune, w i t h his bran&sllYd steel, Which smok'd with bloody execution, Like TTalor's minion cni*v'd out his passage 20 Till lie fac'd t h e slave; tVliic11 nev'r shooli hands, nor bade farcwell t o him,
3 sergemt thee syllables N. 10 to that to make him so. 13 kerns light-ltrmored Irish foot soldiers. gallowglasses Irish armor-bcarers; F Ga2lowgrosscs. 14 quarrel F Q u a m ~ . execution five syl18 lablea. 19 minion (three syllables) favorite. 21 Which who N.
THE T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T B . I . IL
Till he unseam'd him from the nave t o th' chops, And fix'd his head upon our battlements. Duncan. 0 valiant cousin ! worthy gentleman ! Captain. As whence the sun 'gins his reflection es Shipwracking storms and direful tllunders break, S o from t h a t spring whence cornfort seem'd t o collie Discomfort swells. Mark, Ring of Scotland, mark: No sooner Justice had, wit21 valor arm'd, 29 Compell'd these skipping kerns t o t r u s t their heels, But the Norweyan lord, surveying vantage, W i t h furbish'd arms and new supplies of men Began a fresh assault. Duncan. Dismay'd not this our captains, Macbeth and Bnnquo? SS Captain. Yes, as sparrows eagles, Or the hare the lion. If I s a y sooth, I must report they were As cannons overcharg'd with double cracks, So they doubly redoubled strokes upon the foe. Except they meant t o bathe in reeking mounds, 40 O r memorize another Golgotha, I cannot tell-k~ut I am fnint, My gashes cry for help. Duncan. S o well t h y words become thee as t h y wounds ; 44 They smack of honor both. Go, get him surgeons. [ E x i t Captain, attended.]
22 he i.e. Msclxth. unseam'd ripped. nnve navel. 2$6 As whence thunders break N. 25 reflection (four syllables) shining. 26 break P omits. 31 surveying vantage ~eeing chance. 37 moth his truth. 38 cracks explosions, i.e. charges. 40 except unles. reeking ~toaming. memorize another Golgotha N. 41 3
?HE TRAGEDY OF MACBETH, I. e
Enter Ross and Angus. W h o comes herc? Mulcolm. T h e worthy Thane of Ross. Lennox. W h a t n haste looks through his eves ! So should he look t h a t seerns t o speak things strange. 12oss. God save the king! Duncanf. Whence camYstthou, worthy thane? Ross. From Fife, great king; 50 Where the Norweya~l banners flout the sky And fa11 our people cold. Norway himself, with terrible numbers, Assisted by t h a t most disloyal traitor, m T h e Thane of Cawdor, began a dismal conflict, Till t h a t Bcllona's bridegroom, lnpp'd in proof, Confronted him with self-comparisons, Point against point, rebellious arm 'gainst arm, Curbing his lavish spirit; and t o conclude, The victory fell on us. Duncan. Great happiness ! Ross. T h a t now Swcno, the Norways' king, Craves composition ; Nor would me deign him burial of his nien Till he disbursed, a t Saint Colme's Inch,
4 ' Thane N. 51-2 flout . . cold N. 53 Norway the IGng of 8 Borway. 56 dismal disastrous. 56 Bellona goddess of war. bridegroom i.e. Macbeth. lapp'd in proof clad i11 tested (proved) annor. 57 confronted him with self-comparisons i.e. showed him (Norway) his equal. 58 rebellious N. 59 lavish insolent. 61 Norways' Norwegians'. 62 composition (fire syllables) a truce. 84 Saint Colme's Inch the bland of Inchcolm in the FirtFirth of Fortb.
TIIE 'I'RAGBDY O F M A C B E T H , 1. X
65 Ten thousand dollars t o our general use. Duncnn. N o more t h a t Thane of Cawdor shall deceive Our bosom interest. Go pronounce his present death, And with his former title greet &Iacbctl~. 69 Boss. I'll see i t done. Duncan. W h a t he hath lost noble Macbeth h a t h Exeunt. won.
Thunder. Enter the t7~reeE'itckes.
I Witch. Where hast thou been, sister? Witch. Killing swine. 3 n'itc7~. Sister, where thou? l Witch. A sailor's wife had chestnuts in her lap, And ~nunch'd,and munch'd, and munch'cl: 'Give me,' quoth I : 8 'Aroint thee, witch!' the rump-fed ronyon cries. H e r husband's t o Aleppo gone, master o' th' T i g e r : B u t in a sieve I'll thither sail, And, like tt r a t without a tail, 10 1'11 do, I'll do, and I'll do. b ?lTitch.I'll give thee a wind,. l Witch. Th' a r t kind. 3 H7itch. And I another. l Witclt. I myself have all the other ;
65 dollars 16th-century German and Spanish currency (thaler), general read 'gen'ral' N. 6tt7 deceive . . interest N. 6 Aroint thee begone. rumpfed fat-rumped. ronyon term of abuse; literally 'scab.' 7 Tiger name of n ship. 14 other i.e. other winds.
THE T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , I.
And the very ports they blom,
All the qua.rters t h a t they know 1' th' shipman's card. 1'11 d r a i n him d r y as hay : Sleep shall neither night nor day Hang upon his penthouse lid; EIe shall live a mall forbid. W e a r y sev'nights nine times nine Shall he dwindle, peak and pine: Though his bark carino,t be lost, 25 Yet i t shall be tempest-t.ost. Look what I have. $2 TBitch. Show me, s l ~ o w me. l T i t c h . H e r e I have a pilot's thumb, Drum within. Wlsack'd as homeward he did come. 3 W i t c h . A drum ! a drum ! SO Mczcbeth doth come. $ I I . T h e weyard sisters, hand in hand, Posters of the sea and land, Thus rlo go about, about, 35 Thrice t o thine, and thrice t o mine, And t,hrice again, t o make up nine. Pcace ! .the charm's worind up.
Enter Alacbetlh and Ranquo. ~lfncbeth. o foul and fair a day I have not seen. S Bavtquo. How f a r is't call'd t o F o r r e s ? Whnt a r e these, 40 So wither'd and so mild in their attire,
15 ports they blow p0rt.s to which thcy blow (?) N. 17 card clial of the compass. 20 penthouse Lid eyelid N. 21 forbid accursed. 23 peak waste alvsy. 32 weyard weird; F zceyward N. 33 Posters persons who ride posthaste, 356 thrice to thine .. to make up h e N. 39 Forres F Saris. 6
T H E T R A G E D Y O P M A C B E T I I . 1. 1
T h a t look n o t like th' inhabitants o' th' earth, And yet are on't? Live you? or are you aughL That man may question? You seem t o understand me' Bp each a t once her choppy finger laying 45 Upon her skinny lips. You should be women, And yet your beards forbid me t o interpret T h a t you a r e so. Speak, if you can : what a r e you? itlarcbeth.. 1 Witch. All hail, Macbeth! hail t o thee, Thane of Glamis ! 2 JVitch. All hail, Macbeth! hail t o thee, Thane of Cawdor ! 3 Witch. All hail, Macbeth, t h a t shalt be king hereafter ! 50 Banquo. Good sir, why do you s t a r t , and seem t o fear T h i ~ l g s h a t d o sound so fair? I' tli' nume of truth, t Are ye fantastical, o r t h a t indeed 54 Which outwardly ye show? My noble partner You greet with present grace and great prediction Of noble having and of royal hope, T h a t he seems rapt withal ; t o me you speak not. If you can look into the seeds of time, And say which grain will grow and which will not, 60 Speak then t o mc, who neither beg nor fear Your favors nor your hate. l TVitck. I-Iail! g Witch. Hail! 3 H'itc7~. H a i l ! 65 l Witch. Lesser than &facbcth, ancl greater. 2 Witch. N o t so happy, get much happier. 44 choppy chapped, cracked. 46 beards N. 53 fantastical i m d nary. 56 having estate. 57 rapt withal t#ransported it. by
THN TRAGEDY OF MACBETH, I. 3
3 'CVitch. Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none. So, all hail, Rilacbeth and Banquo! l Witch. Banquo and Macbeth, all hail! Macbeth. Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me nlore. 70 B y Sinel's death 1 know I am Thane of Glarnis ; B u t how of Cawdor? the Thane of Cawdor lives, A prosperous gentleman; and t o be k i n g Stands not within the prospect of belief 78 No more than t o be Cawdor. S a y from whence You owe this strange intelligence, o r why Upon this blasted heath you stop our way With such prophetic greeting. Speak, I charge you. Witches zrankh. Bnnquo. T h e earth hnth bubbles, as the water has, And these are of them. IVhither are they vanish'd? Macbeth. I n t o the air, and what seem'cl corporsl Meltsea, as breath into the wind. Would they had stay'd! Banquo. RTere such things here as we do speak about? 85 Or have we eaten on the insane root T h a t takes the reason prisoner? Ilfacbeth. Your children shall be kings. Banquo. You shall be king. :l-incbeth. And Thane of Cawdor too; went i t not so? Banqz~o.T o th' selfsame tune and words. Who's here? 89
67 get beget. 71 Sine1 Macbeth's father. 81 corporal corporeal. 85 insane causing insanity as, e.g., hemlock w s supposed t do. a o 8
THE TRAGEDY OF MACBIETH, I. 8
Enter Ross and Angus. Ross. T h e king h a t h happily receiv'd, Macbeth, T h e news of thy success; and when he rends
T h y personal venture in the rebels' fight, His nronders and his praises do contend Which should be thine, or his. Silenc'd with that, 95 I n viewing o'er the rest o' th' selfsame day, H e finds thee in the stout Normeyan ranks, Nothing afeurd of what thyself didst make, Strange images of death. As thick as hail Came post with post, and every one did bear 100 T h y praises in his kingdom's great defense, And pour'd them down before him. Angus. W e are sent T o give thee from our royal mafiter thanks; Only to herald thee into his sight, Not pay thee. Boss. And, for a n earnest of a greater honor, 10s 13e bade me, from him, call thee Thane of Cawdor ; I n which addition, hail, most worthy thane! F o r it is thine. What, can the devil speak t r u e ? Ba.nquo. iliacbeth. T h e Thane of Cawdor lives ; Why do you dress me in borrowed robes? A 7 ~ g u J\'1.10 was the thane lives y e t ; ~ B u t under heavy judgment bears t h a t life Which he deserves t o lose.
03-4 His wonders . . Silenc'd with that N. 98 images of death i.e. thosc killed by Macbeth; F p~~nctuates dca.th, as. 98-9 hail/ Came F 17ale/Can. 105 earnest pledge. 107 addition title. 108 devil (one syllable here) often spelled and pronounced 'divel.'
THE TRAGEDY OF MACBRTH, I.
Whettlcr he was combin'd with those of Norway, 115 O r did line the rebel with hidden help And vantage, o r t h a t with both he labor'd I n his country's wrack, I know n o t ; B u t trcnsons capital, confessydand prov'd, Have overthrown him. Jfacbefh. [Aside.] Glamis, and T h a n e of Cawdor : T h e greatest is behind. [ T o Ross and Angus.] Thanks f o r your pains. [ T o Banquo.] D o you not hope your children shall be kings, 121 When those t h a t gave the Tlinne of Cnwdor t o Ine Promis'd n o less t o them? l3anq11.0. 'I'hat, trusted I.lome, Might y e t enkindle you unto the crown, 125 Besides the Tharle of Cawdor. But. 'tis strange: And oftentimcs, t o win us t o our harm, T h e instruments of darkness tell .us truths, Win us with honest trifles, t o betray's 129 I n deepest consequence. Cousins, IL word, I p r a y you. Two t r u t h s are told, Mncbetk. [Aside.] As happy prologues t o tIlc s w c l l i ~ ~ g act Of tlie imperial theme.-I thank you, gentlcmel1.[Aside.] This supernatural soliciting Cannot, be ill, cannot be good ; if ill, 1sz Why ]lath i t give11 me earnest of success, Corllinencing in a t r u t h ? I ttln Thanc of Cawdor. I f good, why do I yield t o t h a t suggestion 'CVhosc horrid imagc clot11 unfix my ]lair 115 line reinforce. 117 wrack ruin. 123 home to the utn~ost,
129 In deepest consequence in mrtttcrs of the gravest importance. 131 smelling stately; see Iienry V , Prologue, 3-4. 133 soliciting prompting. 10
THE TRAGEDY OF MACBETH. I. S
And mnlre my seated henrt knock at niy ribs, 1-10 Against the use of nature? Present fears Are less than horrible imaginings : M y thought, whose murther j e t is b u t fantastical, Shakes so my single s t a t e of nlnn T h a t function is smother'd in surmise, 145 And nothing is but what is not. Nanqu,o. Loolc how our partner's r a p t . illacbet7~. [Aside.] If chance will have me king, why, chance may crown me, Without my stir. New honors come upon him, Bun.quo. Like our strange garments, cleave not t o their molcl B u t with the aid of use. Macbeth. [Aside.] Come what come may, leo Time and the hour runs through the roughest clay. Banquo. W o r t h y Mncbeth, wc s t a y upon your Ielsure. ' Mac bc t h. Give me your f nvor ; My dull brain was wrought with things forgotten. 135 Rind gentlemen, your pains arc register'd Where every d a y i t u r n the leaf t o read them. Let us toward the king. [ T o Bnnquo.] Think upon what hat11 chanc'd ; m d , a t more tirne, T h e interim having weigh'd it, let us speak Our free hearts each t o other.
139 seated h l y fised. 140 Against nature contrary to natural habit. 142 murther common Elizabethan variant of 'murder.' fantastical imaginary. 143-6 Shakes rapt N. 14.7 single state of man N. single, undivided, unbroken. 144 function normal activity of mind and body, 1-19 strange ~~nfamiliar, new. day N. 150 m1s their mold i.e. tho body. 150-1 Come alternative plural form. 153 favor pardon. 154 wrought troubled.
THE TRAGEDY OF MACBETH. I . S
B~nquo. Very glndly. 180 Alacbeth. Till then, enough. Come, friends. Exeunt.
Flozwish. Enter King, Lennoz, ilZnlcolm, Donalbah, acrid A f tendnnts.
Duncan. I s execution (tone on Cawdor? i l r e not those i n conimission yet return'cl? Jfalcolm. Riy liege, thcp a r e not yet come back. n u t I have spoke with one t h a t saw him die; 6 Who did report t h a t very frankly lie Confcss'd his treasons, iinplor'd your highness' pardon, And set f o r t h a deep repentance. Nothing in his life became him Like thc leaving it. EIc dicd As one t h a t had been studied in his death T o throw away the dearest thing he ow'd As 'tmere a careless trifle. Duncan. There's no art T o find the mind's construction in the face: H e was a gentleman on whom I built An absolute trust.
Enter ~ l f a c b e t hBanquo, Ross, and Angus. ,
0 worthiest cousin, The sin of my ingratitude even now Was heavy on me. Thou a r t so f a r bcforc, T h a t swiftest wing of recompense is slow
owned. 17 before ahead.
SD Flourish trumpet fnnfarc. 2 Are F Or. in commission charged with the duty. 10 had been studied had trained himself. 11 ow'd
T H E T R A G E D Y OF M A C B E T H , I . 4
T o overtake thee. TVould thou hadst less deserv'd, T h a t the propel-tion both of thanks and payment Might have beer1 mine ! o ~ l l y have left t o say, I 21 &gore is t h y due thiin more than all can pay. nfacbeth. T h e service and the loyalty I owe, I n doing it, pays itself. 25 Your highness' p a r t is t o receive our duties; And our duties a r e t o your throne and state, Children and servants, which do b u t what they should, By doing everything safe toward your love ~ n honor. d Duncan. TVelcome hither : 30 I have begun t o p l a n t thee, and will lnbor T o make thee full of growing. Noble Bnnquo, T h a t hast no less dcserv'd, nor must be known N o less t o have done so, let me inf old thee And hold thee t o my heart. Banquo. There if I grow, T h e hnrves t is your own. Duncan. My plenteous joys, T'V~nton fullness, seek t o hide tl~emselves in I n drops of sorrow. Sons, kinsmen, thanes, And you whose places are the nearest, 1ino.c~ W e vill establish our estate upon Our eldest, Rlalcolm, whom we name llercnfter The Prince of Cunlberland ; which honor must N o t untlcco~npanied invest him only, B u t signs of nobleness, like stars, shall shine On all deservers. Fronl hence t o Inverness, 45 And bind us f u r t h e r t o you. 20-1 That . . mine N. 21 1 have rcud 'I've' N. 28 safe toward
to guarantee. 36 Wanton unrestrained. 30 establish our estate settle the succession. 41 Prince of Cumberland N.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C R R T H . L. 4
illncbeth. T h e rest is labor, which is not us'd f o r you : I'll be myself the harbinger, and make joyful
The hcaring of my wife rFitll your approach; So, humbly take m y lcave, Dtlncan. My worthy Camdor ! Macbeth. [Aside.] T h e Prince of Cumberland! t h a t is a step 50 On which I must fall down, or else o'er-leap: F o r in my way i t lies. Stars, hide your fires; 14etnot light see my black firid deep desires ; 54 T h e eye wink a t the hand; yet let t h a t be Which the eye fears, when i t is done, t o see. Exit. Duncan. True, wortlly Banquo ; he is full so valiant, And in his commendations 1 am fed: It is n banquet t o me. Let's after him, Whosc care is gone before t o bid us welcome: Flourish. Exeunt. It is a peerless kinsman.
Enter ilfctcbeth's W i f e alone, :etit7~ a letter.
Lady Macbeth. ' T h y n ~ c rne in the day of success ; t i ~ n dI have learn'd by the pcrfcct'st report, they havc more in therrl than 111ortal knowledge. Whcn I burn'd in desire t o question thcnl further, they made themselves air, into which tllcy vanish'd. RThiles I stood rapt in the wonder of it,, came missives from the Iiing, who all-hail'd me, "Thnne of Cawdor," by which title, before, these weyard sisters saluted me, 46 The rest . . . for you N. rest repose. 48 your approach i.e. news of your approach. G missives messcngcrs. 8 weyard F
T H E TRAGEDY OF M A C B E T H , I . b
and referred me t o the coming on of time with "Huil, king t h a t shalt be!" This have I thought good t o deliver thee, m y dearest partner of greatness, t h a t thou r~iiglltstnot lose the dues of rejoicing by being ignorant of what greatness is promis'd thee. L a y i t t o t h y heart, and farewell.' Glamis thou art, and Cawdor, and shalt be lii W h a t thou a r t promis'd. Yct do I fear t h y nature; It is too full o' th' milk of huinan kindness T o catch the nearest way. Thou wouldst be great, Art not without ambition, but without T h e illness should attend it. W h a t thou wouldst high1y '20 T h a t wouldst thou llolily; wouldst not play false, And yet wouldst wrongly win. Thou'dst have, great Glamis, t h a t which cries, 'Thus thou must do,' if thou have it, 25 And t h a t which rather thou dost fear .to do T h a n wishest should be undone. Hie thee hither, T h a t 1 m a p p o u r m y spirits in thine ear, And chastise with the valor of my tongue All t h a t impedes thee from the golden round, 30 Which F a t e and metaphysical aid doth seem T o have thee crown'd withal.
Enter bfessen.ger. W h a t is your tidings ? ilfcssenger. T h e king comes here tonight. Lady Macbeth. Thou'rt mad t o s a y it.
11 deliver report to. 16 shalt w l . 18 catch the nearest way take it the ahortest route. 20 The illness should the wiclccdncss which should. 23-6 Thou'dst have undone N. 28 chastise stressed L 20 round i.e. crown. 30 metaphysical supernatural.
THE TRAGEDY OF MACDETH, I .
Ts n o t t h y master with him? who, were't so, Would have inform'c' f o r preparation. Messenger. S o please you, i t is t r u e : our thane is coming ; a 5 One of mv f elloms had the speed of him, Who, almost dead f o r breath, had scarcely more T h a n would make u p his message. Give him tending ; L a d y lVacbet7t. Exit Messenger. H e brings g r e a t news. T h e raven himself is hoarse 40 T h a t croalts the f a t a l entrance of Duncan Under my battlements. Come, you spirits Thttt tend on mortal thouglits, unses me here, And fill me from the crown t o the toe top-full Of direst cruelty! Malce thick my blood, 45 S t o p up th' access and passage t o remorse, T h a t n o compunctious visitings of nature Shnke my fell purpose, nor keep peace bctween T h ' effect and i t ! Come t o my woman's breasts, And take m? milk for gall, you murth'ring ministers, ~ 7 1 ~ e r e rin ryour sightless substances c 50 You wait on nature's mischief! Come, thick Night, Ant1 pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell, T h a t my keen knife see not the wound it makes, N o r H e a w n peep througli the blanket of the dark, T o c r y 'I-Xold, hold !'
Enter ilfacbeth. Great Glamis ! worthy Cawdor !
34 preparation five syllablcs. 36 had the speed of outspeeded. 39 raven N. 40 entrance perhaps three syllables here. 42 mortal murderous. 47-8 keep it N. 48 it F hit. 49 take exchange. 5 3 sightless invisible. 52 pall enshroud. dumest murkiest.
THE TRAGEDY OF MACBETII, 1 . 6
Greater than both, by the all-hail hereafter! T h y letters have transported me beyond This ignorant present, and I feel now The f u t u r e in the instant. Macbetit. My dearest love, SS Duncan comes here tonight. And when goes hence? Lady ~Wacbeth. nlacbeth. Tomorrow, a s he purposes. Lady Jfncbeth. 0, never Shall sun t h a t morrow see ! Your face, my thane, is as a book where men M a y read s t r a n g e matters. T o beguile the time, Look like the time; bear welcome in your eye, Your hand, your tongue: look like th' innocent flower, R u t be the serpent under't, H e that's coming Must be provided f o r ; and you shall p u t This night's g r e a t business in to my dispatch ; \Vhich shall t o all our nights and days t o come 70 Give solely sovereign sway and masterdom. Mncbeth. W e will speak further. Only look up clear ; L a d y Illacbeth. T o alter favor ever is t o fear. Exeunt. Leave all the rest t o me.
56 hereafter following, i.e. t.he third all-hail. 64 T o beguile the time F punctuates nmtters, to beguile the time N. 69 dispatch management. 72 clear with unclouded face. 73 favor facial expression.
T H I S T R A G E D Y O F M A C B I C T E , 1. 6
Hoboyes and torches. Enter King, Malcolm, Donalbain, Banquo, Le~tnox, Macduff, Ross, Angus, am1 Attendants.
Duncan. This castle hut11 a pleasant s e a t ; the a i r Nimbly and sweetly reconlmcnds itself Unto our gentle senses. Banquo. This guest of summer, T h e temple-haunting martlet, does approve S By his lov'd rnansionry t h a t the heavens' breath Sillclls wooingly here; no j u t t y , frieze, Buttress, nor coign of vantage, but this bird Hat11 made his pendent bed and procreant cradle: Where they most breed tlnd haunt, I have observ'd T h e air is delicate.
Duncan. See, see, our honor'd hostess ! T h e love t h a t follows us so~netime o u r trouble, is W7hicll still we than]; ILS love. IIcrein I tench yo11 1 3 0 you shall bid God eyld us for your pains, ~ And thank us f o r your trouble. Lady Macbcth. All our service, I n cvcry point twice done, and then done double, Were poor and single business, t o contend
SD Hoboyes (phonetic spelling of kbautboys')woodwind instru~ncnls,related to modern oboe. torches N. 1 seat sit~~at~ion. 4 martlet l? Barlet N. approve prove. 5 mansionry home-btddiug. G jutty projection. 7 coign of vantage advantageous projecting corner. 8 procreant cradle cradle where he brectls. 9 most P must. 11-14 The love trouble N. 13 eyld (proba,bly pronounced 'eeld') reward. 16 single trivial.
THE TRAGEDY OF MACBETB, I .
Agr~instthose honors deep and broad Wherewith your rrlnj esty loads our house. F o r those of old, and the late dignities 20 Henp'd u p t o them, nre rest your ermitcs. Da~nca.rz. FVherc's the Thnrlc of Cawdor? CT7c cours'd him a the heels, and had a purpose ' b T o be his purveyor; but he rides well, And his g r e a t love, sharp ns his spur, h a t h holp him 25 T o his home before us. F a i r and noble I.iostcss, W e a r e your guest tonight. Lndy Afncbeth. Your servants ever Havc theirs, themselves, ancl w h a t is theirs, in compt, T o make their audit a t your highness' pleasure, Still t o return your own. Duf?zcan. Give me your hand ; 30 Conduct nle t o mine host: we love him highly, And shall continue our graces towards him. By your Ieuvc, hostess. Exeunt
11obo;yes. l'orciles. Enter n Semer, n?2d diaera Servants with dishes service over the sta-gc. Then enter Jfacbeth. bfncbetic. I f i t were done, when 'tis done, then 'twere well It were done quickly. I f th' assassination
20 ermites Ilormits, i.o. to pray for you. 33 cours'd rode nfkr. 23 purveyor stressed -- N. 24 holp helped. 27 Have . . in 1 compt (pronounced 'count') hold . accountable. theirs their retainers. 20 still always. 31 our probably disyllabic here. SD Sewer chief butler.
TIIE T R A G E D Y O F M A C R E T H . I . 7
Could trammel u p the consequence, and catch With his surcease success: t h a t but this blow 8 Might he t h e be-all arid the end-all-here, B u t here, upon this bnnk and shoal of time, We'd j u m p the life t o come. B u t in these cases \VC still have judgment here; t h a t we but teach Bloody instructions, whicll being taught, return T o plague th' inventor. This even-handed justice 10 Comnlends t h yingredients of our poison'd chalice T o our own lips. I-Ic's here in double trust: First., as I a m his lii~ismanand his subject, S t r o n g both against the deed; then, as his host, 14 Wllo should against his lnurthercr shut the door, Not bear the lcnife myself. Besides, this Duncan 11~1thborne his faculties so meek, hath been So clear in his great office, t h a t his virtues Will plead like angels, trumpet-tongu'd against m T h e deep dnnlnation o E his taking-off ; And Pity, like a naked new-born babe, Striding the blast, or heaven's cherubin, hors'd Upon the sightless couriers of the air, Sll-lnll blow the horrid deed in every eye, T h a t tears shall drown the wind. I have no spur 2s T o prick the sides of m y intent, but only Vaulting ambition, which o'er-leaps itself And falls on th' o thcr.
3 trammel up bold, a in a net; hamper. 4 his surcease N. 5-7 s here . come N. G shoal F Schoole (a 17th-century spelling of shoal). 7 jump risk. 8 have judgment receive sentence N. 17 faculties powers. 18 clear bls~nelcss.22-3 heaven's . air N. 23 sightless invisible. 27-8 Vaulting ambition on th' other N.
How now? 7Vhnt ncnrs?
Lady Jincbeth. N e has almost supp'd. \37hy have
you left the chamber?
1Cla.cbeth. H a t h he ask'd for me? Know you not he La.dy 17lacbeti~.
Macbeth. \VC will proceed no furtlier in this business ; 13c h a t h honor'd me of late, and I llrrvc bought Golden opinions from all sorts of people, Which would be worn now in their ne\trest gloss, N o t cast aside so soon. L a d y Af ucbeth. W a s the hope drunlr 3s Wherein you drcss'd yourself? H a t h i t slept since? pale And wakes it now t o look so green n r ~ d At what i t did so freely? From this time Such I account t h y love. Art thou n f c t ~ r d 40 T o be the same in thine o m act and v ~ t l o r As thou a r t in desire? Wouldst thou have t h a t Which thou cstecnl'st the ornament of life, And lire a coward in thine own esteem, Letting 'I d a r e not' wait upon 'I would,' Like the poor c a t i' t h y adage? Jlacbeth. Prithcc, peace. 45 I dare do all t h a t may become tl man ; Who dares do more is none. Lady 14facbeth. VVhat beast wtts'l; then T h a t made you break this enterprise t o me? When you d u r s t do i t then you were a m a n ; And, t o be more t h a n what you were, you would 50 Be so much more the man. Nor time nor place Did then adhere, and yet you mould make both: 45 cat i' th' adage N. 47 do F no N. 48 break broach. 52 adhere
T H E T R A G E D Y O F MACBRT1.Z. I . 7
They have made tllemselves, and t h a t their fitness now 54 Does unmake you. I have given suck, and know H o w tender 'tis t o love the babe t h a t milks meI would, while i t was smiling in m y face, Have pluck'd my nipple from his boneless gums, And dash'd the brains out, had I so sworn As you have done t o this. Macbeth. If we should fail? Lady Afacbeth. We fail? B u t screw your courage t o the sticking-place, 60 And \trc'll not fail. When Duncan is aslecpWhercto the rattler shall his day's h a r d journey Soundly invite him-his two chamberlains Will I with wine and wtlssail so convince T h a t memory, the warder of the brain, Shall be rt fume, and the receipt of reason A lirrlbcck only. When in swinish sleep Their drenched natures lies as in a death, What cannot you and 1 perform upon 70 Th' unguarded Duncan? wlint not p u t upon His spongy officers, who shall henr the guilt Of our g r e a t quell? I3ring forth men-children only ; Mncbeth. F o r t h y undaunted rnettlc should compose 74 Nothing but males. Will i t not be receiv'd Wllciz we have mark'cl with blood those sleepy two Of his own chamber, and us'cl their very daggers,
53 that their fitness that fitness of tilllc and plaw:. 54 unmake unnerve. 60 But only. sticking-place N. 64 convince overpower, G5-T memory only N. 66 receipt receptltclc. 67 limbeck alcml~ic,an apparatus forrnc:rly wed in clktillhg. GS lies lie. 71 spongy drunken. 72 quell killing. 73 mettle (same word as 'metal') su'mtnnce, spirit. 74 males p;un on 'mails,' thc mctal rings of which niuil armor wtls composed. receiv'd undcrc;tood.
T n E T R A G E D Y OF MACBETEI, I . 7
T l l ~ they have done't ? ~t Who dares receive i t other, La*dy Jf acbeth. .-is ITC shall make our griefs and clamor r o a r TJpon his death? I arn settled, and bend up Macbeth. 80 Each corporal agent t o this terrible feat. Away, and mock the time with fairest show: False face must hide what the false heart doth know. E,rc?im.. t
77 other otherwise. 80 corporal agent bodily faculty. 81 t h e world; see 1.5.64-5.
Enter Banquo. and Fleance with a torch before him.
Bnnquo. How goes the night, boy? Flcance. T h e moon is clown; I have not heard the
Banquo. And she goes down a t turelve. Flcrrnce. I take't, 'tis later, sir. Banquo. Hold, take my
sword. S in ; There's l ~ u s b a n d r y hcnve~l Thcir candles a r e all out. T a k e thee t h a t too. A heavy sulnnions lies like lead upon me, And yet I ~vould not sleep. Merciful powers, rest~qainin me the cursed thoughts T11n.tn a t u r e nrny to in repose. zo
E.n.ter ilfa.cbet~~., a. Serva.nt with a 2 0 ~ ~ 7 ~ and Give me Iny sword. Who's there? ~lfncbeth. A friend. Banquo. lTTllat, sir, not yet a t r e s t ? T h e king's
a-bed. H e Imth been in unusual plcasurc, And sent forth g r e a t largess t o your offices.
SD torch i.e. torchbemcr*. 5 husbandry economy. G that i.c. a shield (?) or cloak (?). 7 summons i.e. to sleep. 14 largess gift.8. offices servants' quarters.
T H E T R A G E D Y O P M A C D E T H , 11. 1
S : This diamond he greets your wife withal, By the name of most kind hostess, and shut up I n meclsureless content. nfacbeth. Being unprcpar'd, Our will became the servant t o defect, Which else should free have wrought. Banqulo. All's well. I dreamt l a s t night of the three weyard sisters: 20 T o you they have show'd some truth. ~llacbeth. I think not of them. Yet, when we can entreat an hour t o serve, We would spend it in some words upon t h a t business, If you would g r a n t the time. Bnnquo. A t your kind'st leisure. Jiacbeth. I you shall cleave t o my consent, when f 'tis, 25 It shall make honor for you. Ba.nqz~o. S o I lose none I n seeking t o augment it, but still keep Rly bosonl franchis'd and allegiance clear, I shall be counsell'd. Macbeth. Good repose the while! 30 Banquo. Thanks, sir: the like t o you. Exit Banq.140 [with Fleance.] Macbeth. Go bid thy mistress, when my drink is ready She strike upon the bell. Get thee t o bed. Exit [Servant.] Is this cr dagger which I see before me,
16 shut up ended (his remarks or his day). 17-19 Being . . wrought N. 20 weyard F weyward. 25 cleave . 'tis be of my party when the time comes. 28 franchis'd free of blame.
TZE TRAGEDY O P MACBETH,
The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee. I have thee not, and yet I see thee still. SP A r t t+llounot, fatal vision, sensible T o feeling as t o sight? or a r t thou but A dagger of the mind, a false creation, Proceeding from the hest-oppressed brain? I see thee yet, in form as palpable As this which now I draw. Thou inarshall'st me the may t h a t I was going, And such ail instrument I vas t o use. %fine eyes are made the fools o' th' other senses, 45 Or else worth all the rcst. I sec thee still ; And on t h y blade and duclgeon gouts of blood, Which was not so before, There's no such thing: It is the bloody business nrliich il!forms T h u s t o mine eyes. Now o'er the one half world ao Nature seems dead, and wiclied clreams abuse The curtain'd sleep; witchcraft celebrates Pale IIcccat's off'rings ; and wither'd Murther, Alarum'd by his sentinel, the wolf, Whose howl's his wn tch, thus nri t h his stealthy pace, W i t h Tnrquin's ra.crislling s t.1-ides, towards his design Moves like a ghost. Thou sure and firm-set earth, H e a r not my steps, which way they walk, for fear T h y very stones p r a t e of my mllereabout, 69 And .talrc the present horror froin the timc,
36 sensible perceptible. 46 dudgeon handle. gouts drops. 48 informs gives information; takes shape (?). 32 Heccat's off'rings offerings to I-Iecak, the classical goddess of witchcrnft (the phonetic spelling of l? indicates the pronunciation). 53 darum'd aroused. 54 Whose howl's his watch N. 55 Tarquin's N. strides P sides. 56 sure F sowre. 57 way they F lhey nmy. 59 present horror i.e. silence.
T n E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , 11. 1
Whicli now suits with it. T57hiles I threat he lives: Words t o the heat of deeds too cold breath gives. A bell rings. I go, and it is done; the bell invites me. I-Ienr it not, Duncan, for it is a knell Exit. T h a t summons thee t o heaven or t o hell.
Lady Ilfacbeth. T h a t which h a t h made them drunk h a t h made me bold: W h a t h a t h quencll'd them h a t h given me fire. H a r k ! Peace! It was the owl t h a t shriek'd, The fatal bellman, which gives thc stern'st good night. 6 H e is about it ; the doors a r e open ; And the surfeited grooms do mock their charge W i t h snores. I have drugg'd their possets, T h a t death and nature do contend about them, Whether they live or die. Who's there? what, ho ! Macbeth. [Tl'ithin.] Lady Ilia.cbet7~. Alack! I nm afraid they have anrak'd, 10 And 'tis not done; th' attempt and not the deed Confounds us. H a r k ! I laid their daggers ready; EIe could not miss 'em. H a d he not resembled M y father as he slept I had done't.
4 bellman watchman, town crier N. 7 posset a punch made of hot milk curdled with ale or wine. 12 confounds ruins. SD Enter
My husband ! JIacbefh. I have done the deed. Didst thou not hear n noise? IS L a d y Jlacbeth. I heard the owl scream and thci crirliets cry. Dicl not you speak? Jincbeth.. When ? Lady nIacbet7~. Now. Jlacbcth. As I descended? L a d y nlacbeth. Ay. Elark! Who lies i' th' sccond Jlncbeth. chamber ? Lad9 Jlacbeth. Donalbain. Jlacbcth. [Looking on his hands.] This is a sorry sight. Lady Jfacbeth. A foolish tliought t o say n sorry sight. U ) Jlacbetl~. There's one did laugh in's sleep, And one cried 'Murther!' t h a t they did wake each other. I stood and heard them; but they did say their prayers, Ancl acldress'd thern ngtlin t o sleep. L a d y Macbeth. 'I'hcre are two lodg'd togctller. Macbeth. One cried 'God bless us !' and 'Amen' the 25 other, As they ]lad seen me with tllcsc hnngma~l's hands. List'ning their fear, I could not say 'Amen,' JVhcn they did say 'God bless us!' La.d?j Illacbeth. Consider it not &I deeply. 11 1acheth. But wherefore could not I pronounce 'Amen' ?
26 As as if. hangman used loosely for 'executioner.' 28
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , 11.
I had most need of blessing, and 'Amen'
Stuck in my throat. Lady Jfacbeth. These deeds must n o t be thought After these n a y s ; so, it will make us mad. Afacbeth. Methought I heard a voice c r y 'Sleep no more ! Macbcth does murther Sleep,' the innocent Sleep, 35 Sleep t h a t knits u p the ravel'd sleave of care, T h e death of each day's life, sore labor's bath, Balm of h u r t minds, great nature's second course, Chief nourisher in life's feast,L a d y Macbeth. W h a t d o you mean? nfacbeth. Still it cried, 'Sleep no morc !' t o all the house ; 39 'Glamis h a t h murther'cf sleep, and therefore Cawdor Shall sleep no more: Macbeth shall sleep no more!' Lady Macbeth. Who was it t h a t thus cried? Why worthy thsnc, You d o unbend your noble strength t o thinlr S o brninsic1;ly of things. Go get some water, And wash this filthy witness from your hand. 45 \Vhy did you bring these daggers from the place? They must lie there. Go carry them, and smear The sleepy grooms with blood. Ilfacbeth. 1'11 g o no more. I am afraid t o think what I have done ; Look on't again I dare not. La.dy 17lncbetA. Infirm of purpose ! 50 Give me the daggers. The sleeping and the dead Are but as pictures; 'tis the eye of childhood
35 lmits ties, fastens. ravel'd frayed, disintegrated. sleave slcndcr filament of sill: obtained by separatine (sleaving) thickcr thread. 37 second course i.e. the main course of an Elizabethan dinner. 43 unbend relax. 2 9
T H E T f i A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , LT.
T h a t fears a painted devil. I he do bleed, f I'll gild the faces of the grooms withal, Exit. Knock within. F o r i t must seem their guilt. ~Ifacbeth. Whence is t h a t knocking? SS Now is't with me, when every noise appalls me? W h a t hands are here? Ha ! thev pluck out mine eyes. \$'ill all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood Clean from my hand? No, this rnv hand will rather BO T h e nlultitudinous seas incarnardine, binking the green one red.
Enter Lady. Lady .dIacbeth. My hands are of your color, but I shame T o wear n heart so white.Knock. I hear n knocliing a t the south entry. 65 Retire we t o our chamber. A little water clears us of this deed. How easy is it, then ! Your collstancy Hntll left you unattended. Knoclc. H a r k ! more knocking. Get on your night-gown, lest occasion call us, 70 And sllow us t o be watchers. Be not lost So poorly in your thougl~ts. Knock. Afcr.cbeth. T o know m y deed 'Twere best not know myself. Wake Duncan with t h y knocking! I mould thou coulds t ! Exeunt.
60 incarnardine incarnadine, recldon. 67-8 constancy unattended firmness has abandoned you. 69 night-gown dressing $ 0 ~ 3 . poorly feebly. '71
TEE TRAGEDY OF MACIIETH,
Enter a. Portcr. Knoclii,ng zuith.in. P o ~ t e r Herc's a knocking, indeed! If a rnan were . porter of hell-gate hc should havc old turning thc key. (Knoclt.) Knock, knock, knock ! Who's t.hcre, i' th' name of Belzcbub? I3ere's n farmer t h a t hang'd himself on th' expectation of plenty. Come in, tinled server; have napkins enow about y o u ; hcre you'll sweat Sor't. (ICTLOC~C.) ICnocI<, knock ! IVho's there, in th' 0 t h - devil's name? Faith, here's a n equivocator, t h a t could swcar in both the scalcs against either scale; who comnlitted treason enough f o r God's sake, y c t could not equivocate t o heaven. 0, come in, equivocator ! (IL'noc7s.) Knock. knock, knock ! Who's there? F a i t h , here's a n English tailor come hither for stealing o u t of a French hose. Come in, t a1 or ; '1 hcre you mnv roast your goose. ( K n o c k . ) Knock, knock! Never a t quiet! \Vl1nt a r e you? B u t this place is too cold f o r hell. I'll devil-port,er it no further. I had thought to h a r e let in some of all professions, that go the primrose arny t o th' everlasting bonfire. (K120cli.) Anon, a11011 ! I p r a y SOU, remetnber the porter. [Opens the gate.]
Enter Illacdz~jr and Len?zo,~.
lil'acdv~ff.W a s i t so late, friend, ere you went t o 23 bed, that you do lic so late?
2 should U-oultl. old plenty of (colloquial). 4 Belzebub Ucelzebub. farmer N. 5-6 come in, time-server F Ccmte in tinze N. 6 napkins handlicrchiefs. enow enough. 8 equivocator N. 14 stealing . . . hose N. 15 goose smoothing iron N. 20 anon right away. 2 26 Was things F prints as verse. 31
THE T R A G E D Y OF XIACBETH,
Porter. Faith, sir, we were carousing till thc second cock; and drink, sir, is a great provoker of three things. fifacdu#?.W h a t three things does drink especially 28 provoke? Porter. Marry, sir, nose-painting, sleep, and urine. Lechery, sir, i t provokes, and unprovokes: i t provokcs the desire, but i t takes away the performance. Therefore much drink may be said t o be a n equivocator with Lechery: i t makes him, and i t mars him; it sets hirn on, and i t takes him off; it persuades hirn, and disheartens him; ~nakcslii~nstand to, and not stand t o ; in conclusion, equivocates hiin in a sleep, nnd, giving him the lie, leaves him. 37 Jfacduf. I believe drink gave thee the lic last night. Porter. Tllat i t did, sir, i' t,he very t h r o a t on me; but I requited hirn f o r his lie; and, I thilik, being too sI;rong for him, though he toolc u p m y legs sornetirnc, yet I made n shift t o cast him. 42
dlacd~u.#.I s thy master stirring? Our knocking has tiwnk'd him; here he comes. .Le~~.n.ox. morrow, noble sir. Good 111acbeth. Good morrow, both. .-Macdug.Is the king stirring, worthy thane? Macbetit. Not yet.
24 second cock i.e. about 3 A.M. 41 took up my legs got my fect off thc g ~ u u n d in wrestling). 42 made a sbift contrirrcd. 42 cast (as throw; also 'vomit.' SD Enter Macbeth N.
TEB Y 5 A " u E D Y O F M A C B E T H , 11.
J f a c d u f . H e did cqraaaad me to call timely on him; I have almost slipp'd the hour. 1'11 bring you t o him. Ilfacbeth. Macduff. I krlow this is a joyful trouble to you;
B u t yet 'tis one. 50 Jlacbeth. The labor we delight in physics pain. This is the door. 1'11 make so bold t o call, ilfacduf f . Exit Macduff. F o r 'tis my limited service. Lennox. Goes the king hence t o d a y ? H e does ;he did Jlacbcfh. appoint so. SJ Lennox. The night has been unruly. Where we lay, our chimneys were blown down, And, as they say, larnentings heard i' th' air, S t r a n g e screams oE death, And prophesying with accents terrible 80 Of dire combustion and confus'cl events Nex- hatch'd t o th' woeful time. Tlle obscure bird clalnor'd the livelong night. Somc s a y the e a r t h was feverous, and did shake. 64 ~Macbeth.'Twas a rough night. Le~~mos. young remembrance cannot parallel My A fellow t o it.
0 horror ! horror ! h o r r o r ! ilfncduf. Tongue n o r h e a r t cannot conceive n o r name tlreel
What's the xnntter i "acheth*) Lennox. Ilfacduff. Confusion now llath made his masterpiece!
45 slipp'd missed. 51 physics curcs. 53 limited appointed. 55-63 The night shake N. 60 combustion tumult, disorder. 62 ob
scure bird bird of darkness, the owl. 66 fellow equal.
.THE T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , 11. b
70 &lost sacrilcgious murther hat11 bro1;e ope The Lord's anointed temple, and stole thence The life o' th' building ! 11 3acbeth. What is't you s a y ? the life? Lennox. Jlean you his majesty? Ilf acdzrf. Approacl~the chamber, and destroy your sight 75 \;TJith rr, new Gorgon. D o n o t bid me spealr. See, and then spcalr yourselves. Exez~nt~Ifncbethand Lennom. Awnkc ! awake ! Ring the alnrum-bell. Murther and treason ! Banquo and Dollalbain ! 3ialcolm, awake ! Shake off this downy sleep, clcath's counterfeit, 80 And look on death itself! up, up, and see Tlie grcat doom's image ! Malcolm, Bunquo, As from your graves rise up, and ~ v n l klike sprites, T o countenance this horror! Ring the l~cll.
Bell ~ i n y s . Enter Lady. Lady Afacbeth. What's the business, 85 T h a t such a hideous trumpet calls t o parley The sleepers of the house? speak, spcnli! 11 1ncdrbf. 0 gentle lady, 'Tis not for you t o hear what I can speak; T h e repetition in a woman's ear Would murthcr as it fell. Enter Ba.nqu,o.
71 Lord's anointed temple rtnoint,cd body of the king. 75 Gorgo~ a monster whose aspect turned the beholder to stone. 81 great doom's image likeness of do011mdsy. 82 sprites spirits. 83 countenance face (?) or accord with (?),
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , 11.
0 Banquo, Banquo, Our royal master's murther'd ! L a d y dlacbath. Woe, alas ! What, in our I~ouse? Banquo. T o o cruel anywhere. Dear Duff, I prithee contradict thyself, And s a y it is not so.
Enter ~Jfacbeth. and Lennox. Jfacbeth. I3ad I but died an hour bcfgre this chance, I had liv'd a blessed time; for, from this instant 95 There's nothing serious in mortality : All is but tops ; renown and grace is dead, T h e wine of life is d r a m , and the mere lees Is left this vault t o b r a g of. Enter 1C3alcol~nand D o n a l b ~ i n . Don.nlbain. W h a t is amiss ? Mncbct?~. You are, and do not know't : loo T h e spring, the head, the fountain of your blood I s stopp'd; the very source of i t is stopp'd. ~liacdu,ff. Your royal fatller's murtlicr'd. 1Malcolvz. 0, by .\rrhom? Lennox. Those of his chamber, a s it secm'd, had done't. 104 Their hands and faces were all badg'd with blood ; So were their daggers, which unn-ip'd we found Upon their pillows. They star'd and were distracted . N o man's life was t o be trusted with them.
dD Enter Macbeth and Lennox N. 96 mortality mortal lifa 97 toys trifles. 99 vault N. l05 badg'd marked with.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C D E T I I , 11. S
Jfncbeth. 0, yet I d o rcpcnt me of n ~ y fury, T h a t I clid kill them. Macduff. n7herefore did you so? 110 Jlacbeth. W h o can be wise, amaz'd, temp'ratc and furious, Loyrtl and neutral, in a moment? N o man, Thy expedition of my violent love Outrun the pauser, reason. Here lay Duncan, 11s His silver skin lac'd with his golden blood; And his gash'd stabs look'd like a breach in nature F o r ruin's wasteful entrance ; there, the murthercrs, Steep'cl in the colors of their trade: thcir daggers Unmannerly breech'd with gore. V'ho could refrain, T h a t had a heart t o love, and in that heart 120 Courage t o make's love known? Help me Iicncc, ho ! Lady Macbeth. Macduff. Look t o the lady. Matcolm. [Aside t o Donalbain.] IVhy d o we hold our tongues, That most may claim this argument for ours? Donalbnin. [Aside to Malcolm.] W h a t should be spoken here, 14s Where our fate, hid in an auger-hole, M a y rush and seize us? Let's away. Our tears are not yet brew'd. Jfalcol~m. [Aside t o Donalbain.] Nor our strong sorrow Upon the foot of motion. Banquo. 1,ook t o the lady. [ L a d y 1Nacbeth is carried out.]
113 expedition speed. 114 Outrun outran. 115 lac'd decorated i a n lacy pattern. 110 Unmannerly . . gore N. 123 argument subject. 125-6 where . . seize us N. 125 auger-hole i.e. a small hole. 127-0 Our tears . . motion N.
T H E ' I ' R A G I S D Y O F M A C I I E T R , 11.
And when we have our naked frailtics hid, 130 Th:tt suffer in exposure, lct us meet, And qucstion this most bloody piece of wol-li, T o know it further. Fenrs and scruples shake us. I n the g r e a t hand of God I stand, and thence Against thc undivulg'd pretence I fight Of trcasonous malice. And so do I. 11 cduf . 1n All. S o all. 133 n-lacbet7~. Let's briefly p u t on manly readiness, And meet i' t11' hall together. -411. Well contented. Exe7~n.t[aU but Jfalcolm and Von~albai?~.] Malcolm. Wllat mill you d o ? Let's n o t consort with them. 139 T o show a n unfelt sorrow is a n office Which the false man does easy. Il t o England. 'l Donalbain. T o Ireland, I ; our separntccl fortune Shall keep us both thc safer. \Frhere we arc, There's daggers in nicn's snlilcs ; the near in blood, T h e nearer bloody. Mnl col?n. Tliis murtllerous shaft that's shot 145 N a t h not pet lighted, and our safest way I s t,o avoid t,he aim. Therefore, t o Ilorsc! And let us not be dainty of lcnve-taking, B u t shift anray. There's warrant in t h a t theft Which steals itself \vhen there's no mercy lcft.
129 naked frailties N. 134 pretence design. 136 briefly quickly. 143 near ncal,cr. 147 dainty of particular about. 148 shift steal. warrant justificntion. 37
THE TRAGEDY OF MACDETH,
Old M a n .
Enter Ross with
Old illan. Threescore and ten I can remember well, '6Vithin tlle volume of which tilne I have seen Hours dreadful and things strange, but this sore niglit H a t h trifled former I~nowings. Boss. H a ! good father, 4 Thou seest the heavens, as troubled i t h man's act, Threatens his bloody stage. 13y th' clock 'tis day, ,4nd yet d a r k night strangles tllc tl.areling lamp. Is't night's prcdominnncc, or the day's shame, Q That darkness does the face of earth entomb, When living light should kiss i t ? Old ~ l f n n . 'Tis unnatural, Even like the deed that's done. On Tuesday last, A falcon, tom'ring in her pride of place, W a s by n inousing o ~ hu~vlr'd at and kill'd. l Boss. And Duncan's horses-a thing most strangc and cert nin-, 15 Beauteous and swift, the nlilliolls of t.heir race, Turn'd wild in nature, broke their stalls, flung out, Contencti~lg 'gainst obedience, as they mould h.lal;e m a r with mankind. 'Tis said they e a t each Old Man. other.
4 trifled made trifles of. 5-20 thou upon't see 11.3.55-63 N. G Threatens threaten. stage N. 7 lamp i.e. the sun. 12 tow'ring place N. 13 mousing i.e. that normally flies near to the ground. 15 minions darlings, i.e. best. 18 eat ate. 38
T I I E T R A G C D Y O F M B C B R T B , 11. 4
Ross. T h e y did so, t o th' amazement of mine eyes, T h a t look'd upon't.
Enter ilIacduff. Here comes the good Macduff. H o v goes the world, sir, now T ll-iacduf. W h y see you not? Ross. Is't known who did this Inore tllr~nbloody deed ? Jfacdzrff. Those t h a t bfacbetll hat11 slain. Ross. Alas, the day ! What good could they pretend? ,!fa.cduff . They were suborn'd. 25 Malcolm and Donalbnin, the king's two sons, Are stol'n away and fled, wllichp*uts upon them Suspicion of the deed. Ross. 'Gninst nature still ! Thriftless ambition, t h a t will ravin up Thine own life's means! Then 'tis most like The sovcreigrity will fall upon Macbcth. 30 1CIac~uff.H e is already nam'd, and gone t o Scone T o be invested. Boss. Where is Duncun's body? llfacdu-ff. Carried t o Colmekill, 34 T h e sacred storel~ouseof his predecessors And guardian of their bones. Ross. Will you t o Scone? &lacduff. No, cousin, I'll t o Fife.
24 pretend intend. suborn'd induced to commit a crime. 28 ravin up swallow greedily. 32 invested robed and crorcncd. 33 Cohekill ialand in the Hebrides now called Iona. 83 '
T E E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T B . 11.
Well, I wl il thither. Maedvf. Well, may you see things well done there. Adieu ! Lest our old robes sit easier than our new! Ross. Farewell, father. Old Man. God's benison go with you, and with
That would make good of bad, and friends of foes!
40 benison t,JesFling.
Banquo. T h o u h a s t it now: king, C a d o r , Glamis,
all, As the weynrd women promis'd; and I fear T h o u play'dst most foully for't ; yet it was said It should n o t stand in t h y posterity, B u t that myself should he the root nnd father Of many kings. I there come trutlr from thcmf As upon thee, Macbeth, their specchcs shincWhy, by the verities on thee made good, May they n o t be my oracles a s well, And set me u p in hope? B u t hush, no more.
Sennet sounded. Enter JIa.cbeth, as king; La.dy: Lennox, Ross, Lords, and Atten.da,nts. ilriacbcth. Here's our chief guest. I f he had been forLady Macbeth.
It had been as a gap in our g r e a t feast, And all-thing unbecoming.
,;ilacbetIz. Tonight we hold a solemn supper, sir, Arld 1'11 request your presence. Banquo. L e t your highness
SD Semet trumpet call. 13 all-thing wholly. 1 solemn f o d , 4 ceremoniou?; see III.4.3G8.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B B T H , 111. 1
16 Cotrlmnnd upon me, t o the which my duties Are with a most indissoluble tie Forcver knit. ~llacbeth. Ride you this afternoon? Bnnqz~o. Ay, nzy good lord. 14fn.cbeth.. W e should hare else desir'cl your good
nd.c ' 'lCC+-
T17hicli still h a t h been both grave and prosperousI n this clay's council; but we'll take to~norrow. Is't f a r you ride? Bnnqz~,o. far, my lord, as mill fill u p the time As 'Twist this and supper. Go not my horse the better, I must become a borrower of the night 26 F o r n d a r k hour or twain. Jlacbc th. Fail n o t our fcnst. U n n p o . M y lord, I will not. Itfncbctlt. \ITe hear oul* bloody cousins arc bestows<i 30 I n England and in Ireland, not confessing Their cruel parricide, filling their hearers With strange invention. But of t h a t to~norrow, Whcn thcrewithnl me shall have cause of skate 34 Craving us jointly. Hie you t o horse. Adieu, Till you return a t night. Goes Fleance with you? B a ~ ~ q u o . my good lord; our time does call Ay, upon's. Jfarcbeth.I wish your horses swift and sure of foot; And so I do cornnlend you t o their backs. Ezit Banqq~o. Farewell. L e t every man be master of his time 40 17 indissoluble stressed - - 2 -. 21 still . . . prosperous
has always been weighty and profitable. 25 Go . . . better N. 33 cause of state public business. 34 craving us jointly demandillg our joint attention.
T H E T B A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , 111. 1
Till seven a t night ; T o make society the sweeter welcome, W e will keep ourself till suppel-time alone. While then, God be with you. Exeunt [all but Macbeth and a Serva.1~t.l Sirrah, a word with you. Attend those men our pleasure? Servant. They are, my lord, IVithout t h e palace gate. Macbet h. Bring them before us. 46 Exit Servant. T o be thus is nothing, b u t t o be safely thus. Our fears i n Banquo stick deep, And in his royalty of nature reigns T h a t which would be fear'd. 'Tis much he dares, 50 And t o t h a t dauntless temper of his mind I-Ie hat11 a wisdom t h a t dot11 guide his valor T o a c t in safety. There is none but h e TqTllosebeing I do fear; and under him 55 s l y genius is rebuk'd, as i t is said &lark Antony's was by Caesar. H e chid the sisters When first they p u t the name of king upon me, And bade them speak t o hiin. Then, prophet-like, They hail'd him father t o a line of kings. 60 Upon my head they plac'd a fruitless c r o w , And p u t a barren scepter in my gripe, Thcnce t o be mrench'd with an unlineal hand, No son of mine succeeding. If't be so, 44 3 F o r Bnnquo's issue have I fil'd my mind;
42-7 T make o safely thus N. 42 sweeter more sweetly. 44 While then till then. 47 but unless. 6.54 M y genius . Caesar N. 65 genius guardian spirit. rebuk'd cowed. 64 fil'd dofilcd. 43
T U E T R A G E D Y O F M A C 3 E T E . 111. l
F o r tllcrn the gracious Duncan have I m u r t h e i d ; P u t rn~lcors the vessel of my peace in Only f o r them ; and mine eternal jewel Given t o the common enemy of man, T o make t 2 ~ m kings, the seeds of Banquo kings ! Rather than so, come Fate into the list, And champion me t o th' utterance! Who's there?
Enter Seraant and two d4z~rtl~erers. Now g o t o the door, and s t a y there till we call. E s i t Servant. Wns i t not yesterday me spoke together? M?~rtherers. t was, so please your highness. I Macbetll. W ell thcn, Now have you consider'd of my speeches; I<norn t h a t it was llc, in the tiincs past, liThicllheld you so under fortune, Which you thought had been our innocent self. This I made good t o you in our last conference; 80 Pnss'd in probation with you How you were borne in hand, how cross'd, T h e instruments, who wrought with thcm, And nii things eIse t h a t might t o half a soul And t o a notion craz'd say, 'Thus did Banquo.' 1 Murtherer. You made it known t o us. 85
66 rancors bitter enmities. vessel of my peace pcncc i compared s t n liquid in a container. 67 jewel i.e. soul. 70 list lists. 71 o champion fight. utterance uttermost. Who's there? a customary phrase to sunlmon the servant. 75 have you you have. 76 Know i.e. now you know. 77 under fortune in distress. 79 made good provcd. S0 Passydin probation went over the proofs. 81 bomc in hand dcceivcd. 84 notion mind.
THE TRAGEDY OF MACBETE, I l l . 1
Illacbeth. I did s o ; and ~ e n further, which is now t Our point of secorld nleeting. D o you find Your patience so predominant in pour nature T h a t you can let this g o ? Are you so gospel'd 90 T o p r a y f o r this good lnun and for liis issue, i'Vhosc heavy hand h a t h bom'd you t o the grave And beggar'd yours forever? l 1llz~7.therer. l T ea r c men, n ~ liege. y Macbcth. Ay, in the catalogue ye g o f o r men, As hounds and greyhounds, mongrels, spaniels, curs, Shoughs, waterrugs, nild derni-molvcs, a r e clipt 9s All by t,lle name of dogs. The valued file Distinguishes the swift, the slow, tile sllhtle, Tlie housekeeper, the hunter, every one According t o the g i f t which bounteous nature 1110 H a t h in him clos'd; whereby he does receive Particular addition, from the bill T h a t writes them all alike ; :and so of men. Now, if you have a station in the filc, N o t i' t h y worst r a n k of manhood, say't ; 10s And I will p u t t h a t business in your bosoms, Whose cxecution takes pour enemy off, Grapples you t o the heart and love of us, Who wear our health bllt sickly in his life, Which in his death were perfect. I am one, my liege, 9 Afurtherer. 110 Whom the vile blows and buffets of the world Hath so incens'd t h a t I nm reckless what
80 gospel'd so filled with Christian forgiveness. 95 Shoughs pronou~lcctl'sl~ocks'; shilg-l~airod dogs. watenvgs shaggy water dogs. clipt called. 96 valued file list i which vulnc? is recorded. 101 n addition title. 101-2 from . alike i.e. to di~t~inguish from him the othem in the general category of dogs. 108 in during. 111 hath
THE T R A G E D Y ~ O F A C B E T E , 111. M
I d o t o spite the world.
l 1CfurtJterer. ilrld I another, S o weary wit h disasters, tugg'd with Fortune, T h a t I would set my life on a n y chance, T o melid it o r be rid on't. Jfacbeth. Both of you 118 ICnow Banquo was your enemy. MzrrtJ&ercrs. True, m y lord. ilfacbeth. S o is he inine; and in such bloody distance 'i'hat every minute of his being thrusts Against my near'st of life; and though I could With barefac'd power sweep him from my sight 121 And bid my will avouch it, yet I must not, F o r ccrtain friends t h a t arc both his and mine, Whose loves I may not drop, but wail 21is fall Who I myself struck down. And thence it is 12s T h a t I t o your assistance do make love, Rlslsking the business frorn the colnmon eye F o r sundry weighty reasons. W e shall my lord, 22 I l l ~ ~ r t h c r e r . Perform what you command us. 1 ICI,uUrthcrer. Though our li.ces-Jfo.cbeth. Your spirits shine through you. Within this hour a t most 130 I will advise you where t o plant yourselves, Acquaint you with the perfect spy o' thy time, T h e moment on%, for't must be done tonight, And something fro111 the palace ; always thought
113 tugg'd with pulled about by. 117 distance enmity. 119 near'st of life most vital parta. 121 avouch justify. 122 For on aceoul~t of. 123 but wail but I must wail. 130 advise inform. 131 perfect spy exact indication (literally, 'observation') N. 132 on't for it. 133 something a little way. always thought i.e. it must be kept in mind.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , 111.
T h a t I require a clearness; and with him, 185 T o leave no rubs nor botches in the worB, Fleance his son, t h a t keeps him company, JVhose absence is no less material t o me T h a n is his father's, must embrace the f a t e Of t h a t d a r k hour. Resolve yourselves a p a r t ; I'll come t o you anon. M.u.rtherers. lire are resolv'd, my lord. 140 Jfacbeth. I'll call upon you straight. Abide within. [Emez~rzt11f~urtkerers.l It is concluded. Banquo, thy soul's flight, I i t find heaven, must find it out tonight. f [Exit.]
Emter fifucbeth's La<dy sad a Servant.
Lady Jfacbeth. I s Banquo gone f rom court ? S e r v a n t . Ay, madam, but returns again tonight. Lady ilfacbeth. S a y t o the king, I mould attend his leis use F o r a few mords. Serumzt. Madam, I will. Exit. Lady ~ l l a c b e t h . Nought's had, all's spent, 5 Where our desire is got without content. 'Tis safer t o be t h a t which we destroy T h a n by destruction dwell in doubtful joy.
134 clearness freedom from suspicion. 135 rubs nor botches roughness nor clumsy patching. 139 Resolve yourselves ~ m k up e your minds.
How nov, my lord? Why do you keep alone, Of sorriest fancies your companions making, Q Using those thoughts which should indeed have died FQith them they think on? Things without all remedy Should be without regard: what's done is done. 1CIn.cbeth. W e have scorcltl'd the snake, not kill'd it: She'll close and be herself, whilst our poor malice 15 Reinains in danger of her former tooth, But let the frame of things disjoint, both the worlds suffer, E r e we will eat our meal in fear, and sleep I n the affliction of these terril~lcdreams ?'hut shake us nightly. Better bc with the dead, \IThorn we, t o gain our peace, have sent t o peace, 20 Tlinn on the torture of the mind t o lie I n rcstlcss ecstasy. Duncan is in his grave: 24 Rftcr life's fitful fcvcr h e sleeps well. Treason has done his worst. Nor steel, nor poison, JLulice domestic, foreign levy, nothing Can touch him further. L l t d t ~llfacbeth. Conle on : Gentle my lord, sleek o'er your rugged looks ; De bright and jovitrl among your guests tonight. Mncbeth. So shall I, love, and so, I pray, be you. 31 1,et your remembrance apply t o Banquo; Present him eminence, both with eye and tongueLTnstxfe the while t h a t we must lave Our honors in these flattering streams, 35 And nlalre our fnccs vizards t o our hearts,
13 scorch7d slashed as with a knife N. 16 frame of things disjoint structure o the universe fall to pieces. both the worlds i.e. celesf tial and terrestrial. 22 ecstasy frenzy. 28 sleek smooth. 31 remembrance road 'remeruberance.' 32 Present him eminence do him honor. 33 Unsafe i.e. though we me w a f e . 35 vizards masks.
T I I E T R A G E D Y O F M h C U E ' I ' H , 111. 9
Disguising what they are. You must leave this. Lady Macbeth. Jfacbeth. 0, full of scorpions is my mind, dear wife ! Thou know'st t h a t Banquo and his Flcance lives. Lady iMacbeth. B u t in t h a n nature's copy's n o t eterne. Macbeth. Tliere's comfort yet ; they arc nssclilsblc ; 41 Then be thou jocund. E r e the bat hnth flown His cloister'd flight, ere t o Mack Heccat's sumlnons T h e shard-borne beetle with his drowsy hums H a t h rung night's yawning peal, there shall be done A deed of dreadful note. Lady Afacbeth. What's t o be done? 45 illacbet7~.Be innocent of the knowledge, dearest chuck, Till thou npplnud the deed. Come, seeling night, Scarf u p the tender eye of pitiful day, And with thy bloody and invisible hand 50 Cancel and t e a r t o pieces t h a t great bond Whidl keeps me. pale! Light thickens, and the crow Makes wing t o th' rooky mood. Good things of d a y begin t o droop and drowse, Whiles night's black agents t o their prcys do rouse. Thou marvell'st a t my words; but hold thee still; Things bad bcgnn make strong themsclvcs by ill. Exeunt. S o prithee go with me.
38 lives live. 3'3 copy pattcrn N. 43 shard-borne N. 46 chuck familiar term of endearment. 47 seeling sewing up t h e eyelida (a term from falconry). 50 bond N. 52 rooky filled with roolie.
T H E T R A G E D Y OF M A C B E T H . 111. 9
En.ter three ilfurtherers.
1 Murt71e7.e~.R u t who did bid thee join with us? 3 Ilfzr,rtherer. Macbeth. $9 illurt7~erer.H e needs not our mistrust, since he delivers Our offices and what; we have t o do T o the direction just. l ~747~rtherer. Then stand with us. 4 T h e west get glimmers nith some streaks of day. Now spurs the lated traveler apace T o gain the timely inn, and n e a r approaches Tllc subject of our match. Hark! I hear horses. 3 flfurtherer. Banquo within. Give us a light there, ho! 2 Jlurt7zerer. Then 'tis he ; The r e s t that are within the note of expectation Already are i' th' court. l Mwrtherer. H i s horses go about. 11 3 Murtherer. Almost n mile; but hc does ustzally, So all men do, f r o m hence t o thy palace g a t e IkIalte it their walk.
E n t e r Banquo ancl Fleance with a torch. A light, a Light! 22 Murtherer. 3 Martherer. 'Tis he.
2 He needs not our mistrust i.c. we need not distrust him (the third murderer). 3 delivers reports. 3 offices dulies. 4 To the , direction according to Ibc iu~lruct~ions 4Incbcllz). 10 note of (of expectation list of e x ~ e c t c d guesta. SD Enter Banquo and Fleance See 11.3.42 SD N.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , 111. S
l Jlurtherer. Stand to't. 1S Bn.nquo. It will be rain tonight. L e t i t come down. l Mur therer. [Strilres out l~igkt;stabs Banquo.] Busquo. 0, treachery! Fly, good Fleancc, fly, fly,
fly ! Thou mayst revenge. 0 slave!
[Dies. Fleance escapes.] 3 Ilhrtherer. W h o did strike out the light? l 11faz~~r t 7z.erer. Wasst not the way? 19 3 Rlz~rfherer. There's but one down ; the son is fled. $2 llfurtherer. W e have lost
Best half of our affair. l MurtiLerer. \'"ETell, let's away, and s a y how much E s e z ~t~ z is done.
Bn?tqu,et prepared. Enter i!facbeth. Lady, Ross, Lennox, Lords ta7zd Atten.dants. Rlncbcth. You lcnow your own degrccs : sit down. At first and last, the herwtp M-elcome.
LOI-ds. h t r ~ l k s o you^ r~i,zjest,y. T t Jincbeth.. Oursclf \%-illminglc with society And play the llul~ll,lehost. Our hostess keeps her state, but in best time
We xi11 require her welcollle. Lady ~lIucbct7~. Pronounce it for me, sir, t o all o u ~ fricnds, F o r my heart spealis they are welcorne.
l degrees ro,nh, 2 At first and last ancc for all. 4-6 Ourself state N. 7 require request. l1 5
Enter First &fu,rZhere~ t o the d o o r ] . [ ~Viacbeth,. See, they ericounter thee with their hearts' thanks. 10 Both sides are even; here 1'11 sit i' th' midst. Be large in mirth: anon, we'll drink a measure ?'he table round. [ A p p r ~ a c h i n ~ door.] Thcrc's the blood upon thy face. 14 11f ur the?-er. 'Tis Banquo's, then. nlacbeth. 'Tis better thee without t h a ~ ihe within. Is hc dispatch'd? Blurthercr. M y lord, his throat is cut: t h a t I clid for him. illacbetlt. Thou art the best o' th' cut-throats ; Yet 21~'sgood t h a t did the like for Flcnnce: 10 I thou didst it, thou art .the nonpnrci!. f Mu,rt?~ercr. &lost royal sirFlean cc is 'scap'd. Jlctcbeth. Then comes m y fit again; I 11nd else been perfect ; Wllolc as the marble, founded as the rock, 34 As broad and general as the casing air. B u t now I ain cabin'd, cribh'd, confin'cl, bound i n To saucy doubts and fears. But Bnnquo's safc? Illrr.rtherer. A y , my good lord; safc in n ditdl he bides, Wit11 t\venty trenched gashes on his hcad; T h e least n death t o nature. Jilacbeth. Thanks for that. There tllc grown serpent lies : the worm tlia t's fled
11 Both sides are even i.e. there are equal numbers on both sitlcs of t l ~ c table, 12 measure large goblct. 13 Approaching the door N. 15 thee . . within ot~tsideyou than inside him. 20 nonpareil unequnlcd one. 24 broad and general free and unconfincd. casing surrounding. 28 trenched cut. G2
T U E T R A G E D Y O F N X C I I E T H , PT:.
31 H a t h n a t u r e t h a t in time will venom breed, No teeth for th' present. Get thee gone; tomorrow Wc'll henr ourselves again. Exit Murderer. Lady dfacbetlh. My royal lord, You do n o t give the cheer. The feast is sold T h a t is not often vouch'd, while 'tis &-making; 35 'Tis given with wclcorne. T o feed mere best a t home: From thence, the sauce t o meat is cercmolly ; Meeting were bare without it.
E n t e r the Ghost of Banqzto, an.$s i t s in Illacbetli's place.
Macbcth. Sweet remembrancer ! 39 Now good digestion wait on appetite, And health on both ! hfay't please your highness sit? Lennox. Afacbet7~.H e r e had we now our country's honor roof'd, Were thc grac'd person of our Banquo present ; W110 may I r a t h c r challenge for unkindness T h a n p i t y f o r mischance ! Ross. His absence, sir, 44 Lays blame upon his promise. Please't your highness T o grace us with your royal company? Macbeth. The table's full. EIcre is a place reserv'd, 1,cnnox.
my good lord. W h a t is't that moves
your highness ?
33 hear ourselves confer. 34-6 The feast welcome N. SD Enter . Banquo N. 38 remembrancer one who reminds another N. 41 had we me should have. 41 honor noblemen. roof'd under one roof. 53
l'Hf1 T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T B , 111. S
ddncbcth. Which of you have done this?
What, my good lord? 49 Jfacbeth. Thou canst not say I did it ; never shake T h y g o r y locks a t me. Ross. Gentlemen, rise; his highness is not well. Lady Macbeth. Sit, worthy friends. My lord is often thus, And hnth been from his youth. Pray you, keep seat; T h e fit is momentary; upon a thought 55 We will again be well. I f much you note him Y o u shall offend hirn a i d extend his passion; Feecl. and regard him not. Are you u m a n ? ilfacbeth. A y , and n lrold one, t h a t d a r e loolc on that VIThichmight appal1 tllc divel. Lady ~ l f a c b e t k . 0 proper stuff! so This is the vcry painting of your fear: This is the air-drawn dagger which you said Led you t o Duncnn. 0, thcsc flaws and startsI ~ n p o s t o r sto t r u e fear-would well become 65 A woman's s t o r y a t a vinter's fire, Authoriz'd by her grandam. Sharne itself! Why do you make such faces? When all's done You look b u t on a stool. Afacbeth. Prithee, see there ! 69 Bellold ! look ! 10 ! how say you? Wily, what care I ? I thou canst nod, speak too. f I f charnel houses and our g r a r e s must send Those t h a t we b u r y back, our monuments
55 upon a thought in a moment. 57 extend increae. 63 f a s outlw bursts. G Impostors false pretenders. G6 Authoriz'd stressed 4 -- -; vouched for. 68 stool N. 71-3 If charnel houses ' kites N. charnel houses repositories for bones.
T I I E T R A G E D Y O F h l A C I I E T H , 111.
[Exit Ghost.] Shall be the ma.rvs of kites. W h a t ! quite unmenn9d in Lady ~ l l a c b e t h . folly? Aia.cbeth. If I stand here, I saw him. Lady Jfacbeth. Fie, for shame ! Mncbeth. Blood h a t h been shcd ere now, i' th' olden time, 75 E r e humane statute purg'd the gentle wca!; Ay, and since too, murthers hare been perform'd Too terrible for the ear. The times has been, T h a t , when the brains were out, the nlun would die, And there an elld. B u t now they rise again, 80 With twenty mortal murthers on their crowns, And push us from our stools. This is Inore strange T h a n such a murthcr is. Lady ~lfa~cbeth. My worthy lord, Your noble friends do lack you. ,$Ia+cbeth. I do forget. 85 Do not nluse et MC, my most worthy friends ; I hare a strange infiAity, which is nothing T o those t h a t know me. Come, lore and health t o all; Then, I'll sit down. Give me some wine ; fill full.
E n t e r Ghost.
I drink t o th' general ,joy o' th' whole table, And t o our dear friend Banquo, wllo~nwe miss. Would he were hcre! t o all, and Ilirn, urc thirst, And all t o all. Our duties, and 'the pledge. Lords.
, both 'human' and 'humane.' gentle 7G humane stressed weal civilized state. 78 has Cqve. 81 murthers i.e. wounds. 84 muse wonder. SD Enter Ghost sec III.4.38SD N. 01 thirst are wger to drink. 92 all to ail all drink to all.
THE TRAGEDY OF MACBETH, III. 4
Macbeth. Avaunt, and quit my sight ! Let the ear& hide thee ! T h y bones a r e marrowless, t h y blood is cold; T h o u hast nr! speculatior~in those eyes Q. Which thou dost glare with. L a d y Macbeth. Think of this, good peers, B u t as a thing of custom. 'Tis no other; Only i t spoils the pleasure of the time. ~Ifacbeth.W h a t man dare, I dare. Approach thou like the rugged Russian bear, 100 T h e arm'd rhinoceros, o r th' Hyrcan tiger; T a k e a n y shape but tllst, and my firm nerves Sha.11 never tremble. Or be alive again, And dare me t o the dcsart with t h y sword; 105 I trembling I inhabit then, protest me f The baby of a girl. I-Ience, horrible shadow! [E& Ghost .l Unreal mock'ry, hence! Why, so ;being gone I am a man again. Pray you, sit still. Lady Macbeth. You htzve displac'd the mirth, broke the good meeting W i t h most admir'd disorder. Ilfncbeth. Can such things be 111 And overcome us like n summer's cloud, mTithout our special wonder? You make me strange E~vent o the disposition t h a t I owe, When now I think you can behold such sights, 115 And keep the natural ruby of your checks,
95 speculation comprehending vision. 97 of custom usual. 101 Hyrcan I-Ij~canianN. 102 that i.e. o Banquo. nerves sinews. f
104 desart desert, i.e. any solitnry place. 105 inhabit live, con106 tinue to live. protest proclai;~~. The baby of a girl a baby girl. 109 displac'd banished. 110 admir'd wondered at. 111 overcome pass over. 112-13 You , owe N.
TEIE T R A C E 1 ) Y O P M A C B E T B , 1 1 1 .
When mine is blanch'd with fear. W h a t sights, my lord ? Lady Macbeth. I pray you, speak not. H e grown worse and worse; Question enrages him. A t once, good night. Stand not upon the order of your going, B u t g o at once. Lennoz. Good night; and better health 1% Attend his majesty ! A lcind good night t o all! Lady Macbeth. Exeunt Lords [and Attendants]. Ma,cbeth. It will have blood, they say: blood will llrrvc blood. Stones have been known t o move and trees t o speak; Augured and understood relations hare By maggot-pies and choughs and roolts brought 128 forth Thc secret'st man of blood. W h a t is the night? Lady Macbeth. Almost a t odds with morning, which is which. Macbeth. How sayst thou, t h a t Macduff denies his person At our g r e a t bidding? Did you send t o him, sir? Lady A4ncbet7~ :?iaCcbeth.I hear i t by the way; but I will send. 131 There's not a one of t.hem but in his house I keep n servant fee'd. I will tomorrowAnd betimes I will-to the weyard sisters. hforc shall they speak; for now I am bent t o know
116 is are. 119 Stand going N. SD Exeunt F Exit. 124 Augures auguries. understood relations N. 125 maggot-pies magpies. choughs birds of the cronyfamily, 127 at odds with disputing with. 128 How sayst thou what do you say to this. 130 by the way incidentally.
T H I S T R A G E D Y O F M A C U E T H . 111. 4
By the worst means the worst. F o r mine own good All causes shall give way. I am in blood 130 Stepp'd in so f a r t h a t , should I wade no more, Returning were as teclioils as go o'cr. S t r a n g e things I have in ]lead t h a t will t o h m d , Which must be actccl ere they inny be scnnn'd. 140 Lady Ilfacbetk. You lack the season of all natures, sleep. &facbeth. Come, we'll t o sleep. M y strange and selfabuse Is the initiate fear that wants h a r d use; We are y e t b u t young in deed. Exeunt.
Thunder. Enter the three Witches, meeting Heccat.
1 V i t c h . Why, how now, IIcccat? You look angerly
IZeccnt. Have I not reason, bcldnms as you are, Saucy and orerbold? How did you dare
T o t r a d e and traffic with Macbeth I n riddles and affairs of cleat11 : And I, the mistress of your charms, T h e close contl.ivcr of all harms, W a s never call'd t o bear iny p a r t , Or show the glory of o u r : L I * ~ ? And, which is worse, all you have done Hat11 been but for a wayward son, Spiteful and wrnthful ; who, as others do,
140 scann'd considered. 141 season preservative. 143 strange and self-abuse strange and sclf-inlposed delusion. 144 in deed P ii+ M.Scene 6 N. 2 beldams hags. 7 close secret.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , 111.
Loves for his owl1 ends, not for you. B u t make ninends now. Get you gone, And a t the p i t of Acheron Meet mc i' th' morning. Thither he Will come t o know his destiny. Your vessels and your spells provitfe, Y o u r charms and every thing beside. I a m f o r th' a i r ; this night I'll spend Unto a dismal and a f a t a l end. Great busi~lesslnust bc u-rought ere noon. Unon the corner of the lnoon I There hangs a vap'rous d r o p profound; I'll catch it ere i t come t o ground ; And t h a t distill'd by magic sleights Shall raise such artificial sprites As by the strength of their illusion Shall draw him on t o his confusion. H e shall s p u r n fate, scorn death, and bear His hopes 'bow wisdom, grace, and f e a r ; And you a11 h o w security Is mortals' chiefest enemy. Music and a song. Sing with.in,
'Come away, come away,' etc.
Harlr! I am call'd ; my little spirit, see, Sits in a foggy cloud, and s t a y s for me.
[Exit Heccat.] 1 Witch.. Come, let's make haste; she'll soon be back again. Exeu:nt
15 Acheron a river of I-Iades. 27 artificial cunning, well-contrived. sprites spirits. 29 confusion ruin. SD Sing within N. 34-5 Hark for me N.
T H E T B P . G E D Y O P M A C B E T H , 111.
Enter L m o , n d nnotkcr Lord. ~
Lennox. My former speeches have but hit your thoughts, IVhich can interpret farther. Only I say Things have been strangely borne. The gracious lluncan Was pitied of Macbcth. Marry, he was dead! 5 Arld the right valiant Eanquo walk'd too late; \Vllonl you may say--if't please you-Plcnncc kill'd, For Fleance fled. Men must not walk too late. Who cannot want the thought how lnonstrous It was for lllalcolm and for Donalbain 10 T o kill their gracious fatller? Dainrled fact! Wow i t did grieve Macbcth! Did he not straight I n pious rage the two delinquents tear, T h a t were the slaves of drink and thralls of sleep? \ I T a s not t h a t nobly done? Ay, and wisely too; 16 F o r 'twould have anger9d any heart alive T o hear the men tleny't. So t h a t I say I-Ic has borne all things well; and I do think T h a t , had he Duncan's sons under his keyAs, and't please heaven, he shall not-they should find 20 'CVhut 'tn-ere to kill u father; so should Fleance. But, pence! for from broad words, and 'cause lle f nil'd
Scene 6 N. 1 hit coincided with. 3 borne managed. 4 of by. 8 cannot want can avoid. monstrous perhaps i.hrce syllables here. 19 and if. 21 broad frank, outapokcn. 21-2 fai13d/Ris presence did not. appear. SO
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , 111.
His presence a t the tyrant's feast, I hear
Macduff lives in disgrace. Sir, can ypu tell Where hc bestows hirnself? Lord. T h e son of Duncan, 25 Fro111 whom this t y r a n t holds the due of birth, Lives in t h e English court, and is recciv'd Of the most pious Edward with such grace TIlat the malevolence of fortune nothing Takes "rom Ilis high respect. Thither Mncduff 30 I s gone t o p r a y the holy king, upon his aid T o wake Northumberland and warlike S i ~ a r d ; T h a t , by the help of these (wit11 Him above T o r a t i f y the work) we may agnin 34 Gi-~e o our tables meat, sleep t o our nights ; t Free from our feasts and banquets bloody knives ; Do faithful homage and receive free honors, All which we pine f o r now. And this report Hath so esnsperate the king that he Prepares f o r some attempt of war. Lennox. Sent he t o Mac-
duff? Lord. I-Ie did; and with an absolute 'Sir, not I'
T h e cloudy messenger turns me his back, And hums, a s who should sily, 'You'll rue the time T h a t clogs me with this answer.' Lennox. And t h a t well miglit Advise him t o a caution, t3hold what distance
24 son I" Sonnes. 27 .+EdwardEdrt-ard the Conlessor, IGng of Englsnd (1042-66). 30 pray , , upon his aid i.e. ask for his a.sist$anceN. 35 Free knives N,36 free not bought by s u b serviencc to the tyrant. 35 exasperate exaspcratcd. the F their. 40 absolute unconditional, 'Sir, not I' Nacduff's mes-sage. 41 cloudy frowning. 43 clogs hampers N.
THE T R A G E D Y OF M A C B E T H ,
His wisdom can provide. Sorne holy angel Fly t o the court of Englnnd and uilfold H i s message erc he comc, t h a t II swift blessing 3lay soon return t o this our suffering country
Unt'lel- n hand accurs'd!
1'11 send my prayers with Exeunt.
Thunder. Enter the three Witches.
1 Witch. Thrice the brinded cat hath mew'd, d FVitc7~.Thrice, and once the hedge-pig whin'& 3 W i t c h . Harpier cries ; 'tis time, 'tis time. l Witcfz.Round about the cauldron go ; In the poison'd entrails throw. Toad, t h a t under cold stone Days and nights ]ins thirty-one Swclt'red venom sleepiilg got, Boil thou first i' th' charmed pot. AIL. Double, double, toil and trouble ; Fire burn, and cauldroll bubble. 9 W i t c h . Fillet of n fenny snalie, I n the c:~uldronboil nncl bake ; Eye of newt., and toe of frog, 'EVool of bat, and tongue of dog ; Adder's fork, and blind-worm's sting, Lizard's Icg, ancl ho~-let's wing : F o r a charm of pom'rful trouble, Lilte rt hell-broth boil and bubble. All. Double, double, toil and trouble ;
1 brinded brindled. 3 hedge-pig hedgehog N. 3 Harpier see 1.1.8-12 N. 8 Swelt'red 'exuded,' like swca.t. 12 Fillet slice. fenny from the fens. 16 fork forked tongue. blind-worm a small lizard17 howlet owlet.
THE TRAGEDY OF MACDETH, IV. 1
Fire burn, and cauldron buhl~lc. 3 TVitch. Scale of dr~~.gon, tooth of wolf, Witches' mummy, man. rind gulf Of the ravin'd salt-scn sllnrk ; Root of hemlock digg'd i' thy dark; Liver of blaspheming J e w , Gall of goat, and slips of yew Sliver'd in the moon's eclipse ; Nose of Turk, and Tartar's lips; Finger of birth-strangled babe Ditch-deliver'd by u drab, Make the gruel thick and slab. Add thereto n tiger's chawdron, F o r t h y ingredients of o u r cawdron. .All. Double, double, toil and trouble; Fire burn, and cauldrorl bubble. 3 Witch. Cool it with 11baboon's blood; Then the charm is firm and good.
Enter Heccat and the 0 t h three Witches. Heccat. 0, well done ! I commend your pains, 40 And every one shall share i' th' gains. And now about the cnulclron sing, Like elves and fairies in a ring, Ellchanting all that you put in. Jlz~sicand a song, 'Blaclt Spirits,' etc. [Exit Heccat .l B Witch. B y the priclring of niy thumbs, 45 Something nriclicd t,his way comes. Open, locks, whoever lcnocks.
23 mummy mummified flesh N. m w and gulf storn~~ch 24 N. ravin'd glutted with prey, or rnvenous (7). 31 Ditch-deliver'd born in n clitch. drab whore. 32 slab thick. 33 chawdron el~traila 34 cawdron cnuldron. 37 baboon's stressed --. SD Entei Eeccat . . . Ui'itches N. 3cG-43 O,well done , . you put in N.
TBE T R A G E D Y QP MACBETH, IV. E
Enter Macbeth. Macleth. How now, you secret, black, and midnight hags ?
W h a t is't you d o ?
All. A deed without a name. ilIa.cbeth. I conjure you, by t h a t which you profess50 IIo~rere you come t o know it-answer me. l'liough you untie the winds and let them fight Against the churches; though the yesty waves Confound and swallow navigation u p ; Though bladed corn be lodg'd and trees blown down; Though castles topple oti thcir warders' heads ; 5s Though palaces and pyramids do slcpe 'Their heads t o their foundations ;though the treasure Of nature's germens tumble all together, Even till destruction sicken ; answer me T o what I ask you.
S TTritch. S Titch.
We'll answer. 1 Witch. Say if t' hadst rather hear it from our h
mouths, Or from our masters? Call 'em; let me see 'em. h1a.cbeth. 1 Witch. P o u r i n sow's blood, t h a t hath eaten H e r nine farrow ;grease, that's sweat.cn F r o m the murderer's gibbet, throw 'Into the flame.
49 that which you profess i.e. your magic art. 52 yesty frothy. 54 bladed corn gain not yet i the ear. lodg'd boaten flat. 58 n germens seeds (see King Learn U . . ) 64 farrow young p i p I2S.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F N A C B E T H , IV.
Come, high or low ; All. Thy self and office deftly show. T h s ~ n d e rFirst A p p ~ r i i ~ i o n , Amned Head. . an Macbeth. Tell me, thou unknown powerl TVitc?~. He knows t h y thought: Hear his speech, but say thou nought. 1 Apparition. Blacbeth ! hxacbeth ! Macbeth ! bc70 mare Jlacduff ; Beware the Thane of Fife. Dismiss me. Enough. H e descends. Macbeth. Whate'er thou a r t , for t h y good caution thanks ; Thou hast harp'd my fear aright. B u t one word morel T.17itc?~.H e will not be commanded. Here's another, 75 Morc potent than the first. T?~under. Second Apparition, n Bloody Child. $2 Apparition. Blacbeth ! Macbeth ! blacbcth ! Macbeth. H a d I three ears, I'd hear thee. S Apparition. Be bloody, bold, and resolute; laugh t o scorn 79 T h e power of ~ n n n for none of woman born ; Shall harm 31acbeth. Descends. Macbeth. Then live, Afacduff; what need I fear of thee ? B u t yet I'll nlnkc assurance double sure, And take a bond of fate. Thou shalt not live;
67 office function. SD First Apparition N. 73 harp'd guessed.
SD Second Apparition N. 83 bond i.e. further guaranty.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C D E T H , IV. 1
T h a t I m a p tell pale-hearted fear it lies, And sleep in spite of thunder.
Thunder. Th.ird Apparition, a Child Crowned, with a tree in 7 t h 7z.n.nd.
1T7hat is this, S T h a t rises like the issue of a king, And wears upon his baby brow the round And t o p of sovereignty? Listen, but speak n o t to't. All. 3 Apparition. Be lion-mettled, proud, and take no care b. W h o chafes, wllo frets, o r where conspirers are. hlacbeth s'hall never vanquish'd be until Great Birnam wood t o high Dunsinane hill Shall come against him. Descend. T h a t will never be : Ilfacbet h. 94 \FTho can impress the forest, bid the tree Unfix his earth-bound r o o t ? Sweet bocler~ients good! ! Rebellious head, rise never till the wood Of n i r n a m rise, and our higll-plac'd Macbet11 Shall live the lease of nature, p a y IGs breath T o time and mortal custom. Yet my heart loo Throbs t o know one tliing: tell me, if your a r t Can tell so much: shall Banquo's issue ever Reign in this kingdom? Seek t o know no more. All. Jfacbeth. I will be satisfied. Deny me this, And a n eternal curse fall on you! Let me know. 104 Why sinks t h a t cauldron? and what noise is this?
SD Third Apparition N. 92 Dunsinane st.ressed - - (hem only). SD Descend N. 94 impress elllist forcibly. 95 bodements prophecies. 96 head F dead N. 97 Birnam F Byrnan h. 98 lease ' of nature normal life-span. 105 sinks that cauldron N.
T I I E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , IV. 1
l Witclt. Show! ~~7,itch. w! s o 3 TVitch. Show! 8 1 Show his eyes, nncl grieve his heart ; 1. Come like shadows, so depart.
, show of eight Kings a.nd Ranquo, [ t h e ] last [king] 4
with a glass in his 7zand. Macbeth. Thou a r t too like the spirit of Banquo; down ! T h y crown does sear mine eyeballs. And thy hair, Thou other gold-bound brow, is like the first. 114 A third is like the former. Filthy hags! lV11p d o you show me this?-A fourth? S t a r t , eyes! W h a t ? will the line stretch out t o th' crack of doom? Another yet? A seventh? I'll see no more. And yet the eighth appears, who bears a glass Which shows me many more; and sornc I sec 120 T h a t twofold balls and treble sccpterv carry. Horrible sight! Now, I sec, 'tis true, F o r the blood-bolter'd nanquo smiles upon me, And points nt them for liis. [Apparitions vaaish.] FVhnt? is this so? 1 T i t c h . Ay, sir, all this is so. B u t why 125 S t ands hlacheth thus alnazedly ? Come, sisters, cheer we up his sprites, And show the hcst of our delights. 1'11 charnl the air t o give n sound, While you perform your antic round, 130 T h a t this great lii~lg may kindly say,
SD A show of eight Kings N. 116 crack of doom sound of the trumpet on doomsday. 118 eighth F eight. glass N. 120 twofold . .scepters N. 122 blood-bolter'd having the hair clotted with blood. 124-31 Ay, sir, his welcome pay N. 129 antic
fantmtic. round danca
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , IV.
Our duties did his welcome pay. Music. Tltc Witches da.nce, and vanish. llrlacbeth. Where are they? Gone? Let this pernicious hour Stand aye accursed in the calendar! Come in, without there !
Enter Lennox. 'FCThat's your grace's will? S a w you the weyard sisters? No, m y lord Caxne they not by you? No indeed, my
Lennox. Jlcrcbeth. Lenn ox. iliacbeth. Lennox. lord. 1 3 iklacbetlt . Infected be the air ml~creoxlthey ride, And dainn'd all those t h a t trust thcrn! 1 did hear The galloping of horse. W110 was't came by? Lennox. 'Tis two or threc, my lord, t h a t bring you 140 word Macduff is fled t o England. JIacbeth. Fled t o England? Le~tnox. Ay, m y good lord. Ma,cbeth. Time, thou anticipat'st my drcad exploits ; T h e flighty purpose never is o'crtook 145 Unless tlie deed go with it. From this moment Tllc vcry firstlir~gsof 1 x 1 ~ heart shall bc The firstlings of m y hand. A n d even now, T o crown mny thouglits with acts, be i t thought and
The castle of Macduff I will surprise, Seize upon Fife, give t o th' edge 6' tb' sword
143 exploit stressed Grstlings first-born.
- L. 144-5
. . . it
T B E T R A G E D Y O F MACIDETH, I V . 1
H i s wife, llis babes, and all u n f o r t u n ~ t e souls T h a t trace llinl in his line. N o boasting like a fool; This dectl I'll do I~eforethis purposc coal ; B u t no more sights ! Where a r c these gentlemen? Esavnt. Come, bring me where they are.
Enter Nncduff's Wife, her Son, an.d Ross.
Lady Jfa,cduf. W h a t hucl he done t o make him fly the Innc!? Rosa. you nlust have patience, madam. 13e had La tlg Jfn,cd ufl.
nonc. H i s flight was madness. When our nctioirs do not, Our fears do make us tl-aitors. Ross. You know not 5 Whether it v n s his wisdom or his fear. Lrtrly I l i n c d ~ i ~ fFVisdom ! t o leave his wife, t o leave f. his babes, H i s mansion, and his titles, in a place F r o m whencc himself does fly T He loves us not ; H e wants the 11aturnl toucll. For the poor wren, 1 0 Thc i ~ o s diminitive of birds, will fight, t H e r young ones in her nest, against the owl. All is the fear and nothing is the love; As little is the wisdom, where the fliglit So runs against all rcason. Ross. Rfy dearest coz, 14 I p r a y you school yourself. B u t , for your husband,
152 trace follow, i.e. are rclntctl to. 7 titles pouscssions. 9 wants lacks. 10 diminitive diminutive. 14 coz short for 'coush' 15 school control.
THE T R A G E D Y O F MACBETIT, I V .
H e is noble, wise, judicious, and best knows T h e fits 0' th' season. I dare not speali much f u r t h e r ; B u t cruel a r e the times, when we a r c t r a i t o r s And do not know ourselves, when wc hold rumor 20 F r o m what we fear, yet know not what we fear, But float upon a wild ancl violent sea E a c h way, and move. I take my leave of you. Shall no-t be long b u t I'll be here again. Things a t thc worst will cease, o r else climb upward T o what they were before. My p r e t t y cousin, 25 Blessing upon you ! L a d y nlczcduff. Father'd he is, and yet he's fatherless. Ross. I am so much a fool, should I s t a y longer, 29 It would be my rlisgracc, and your discomfort: E i Ross. xt I take lriy leave a t o n e . L a d y Afacduff. Sirrah, your father's dead ; And what nil1 you do now? How will you live? Son. As birds do, mother. Lady Macduff. What, with worms and flies ? Son. W i t h what I get, I mean; and so do they. L a d y Afacdzbf. P o o r bird ! thou'dst never fear the net nor lime, 35 T h e pit-fall nor the gin. Son. W h y should I, mother? Poor birds they a r e not set for. M y father is not dead, for all your saying. L a d y d a c d u f . Yes, he is dead. How wilt thou do for a f a t h e r ? Son. Nay, how will you do for a husband?
17 fits disorders. 30 Sirrah form of ddrcss often used by parenta to children. 34 lime birdlime. 35 gin snare. 36 they i.e. traps and
TEE TRAGEDY OF MACBETH,
L n d y Macduff. Why, I can buy me twenty a t any
Son. Then you'll buy 'em t o sell again. Lady Ma.cduf. Thou speak'st with all t h y wit; And yet, i' faith, with wit enough f o r thee. Son,. Was my father a traitor, mother? Lady iffacdtlff. Ay, t h a t he was. Son. W h a t is n t r a i t o r ? L n d y Macduff. Why, one t h a t swears and lies. Son,. ,4nd be all traitors t h a t do so? Lady M a c d u f . Every one t h a t does so is n traitor, ant1 must be hang'd. 50 Son. And must they all be hang'd t h a t swear and lie ? L a d y ilfacdujg. Every one. Son. U7ho must h a n g them? 55 L a d y Jfacdul'f. Why, the honest men. Son. Then the liars and swearers a r e fools, f o r there are liars and slvettrers enow t o beat the honest men and hang u p thcm. Lrtdy Macduff. Now God help thee, poor monliey !
60 But how wilt thou do for rz father? Son, I he were dead, you'd weep for him. If you f would not, i t were a good s i p t h a t I should quicldy have n new father. Lady Macduff. P o o r prattler, how thou tnlk'st!
Enter a Messenger. nfe.vsen.ger. Bless you, fair dame! I am not t o you
known, Though in your s t a t e of Ikonor I a m perfect.
48-50 Every one
hang'd 17 prints n verse. 57 enow enough. 9 5940 Now . . father Pprint,sns verse. 66 i . . perfect pern fectly acquainted with your honorable station.
THH T R A G E D Y O F MACEE'I'R, I V . 9
I doubt some danger does approach you nearly. I you mill take a homely man's advice, f Be not found liere; hence, with your little ones. T o fright you thus methinks I am too savage; 70 T o do worse t o you were fell cruelty, Which is too nigh your person. Heaven preserve you ! I dare abide no longer. Esi t ~ l i e s s m g c r . Lady Macduff. Whither should I flp? I hare done no harm. B u t I remember now 75 I a m in this earthly world, where t o do harm I s often laudable, t o do good sonletime Accounted dangerous follp. W h y then, alas, Do I put u p t h a t womanly dcfense, T o s a y I have done no harm?
E n t e r ~Vurtlherers.
'CTThat are these faces ? 80 ~Vlurtherer. Where is your husband? Lady M a c d u f f . I !lope in no place so unsanctified FVhcrc such as thou mayst find him. ~Jfurtherer. He's rr traitor. Son. Thou liest, thou shag-hair'd villain. Blur t f ~ e r e r . What ! you egg* Young fry of treachery !
[Stabbing h.irn.] 13.e has killed me, mother.
85 Run away,' I p r a y you ! Exit [ L a d y Ilfacduff] crying '1Mu.rtl~er.'
67 doubt fear. G8 homely humble. 70 thus methinks F punct11~ttc.g thus. Me thinlces. 83 shag-hair'd F shagge-ear'd N.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T E , IV.
Enter Ma.lcoEm and Macduff.
AfalcoZm. L e t us seek out some desolate shade, and
there Weep our sad bosoms empty. Illacduf. L e t us rather ZIolcl fast the mortal sword, and like good men Bcstride our downfall'n birthdom. Each new morn 6 New widows howl, new orphans cry, new sorrows Strike heaven on the face, t h a t it resounds As if it felt with Scotland and yell'd out Like svllable of dolor. Whnt I believe I'll mail, Jfalcolm. PCTliatknow believe, and what I can redress, 10 As I shall find the time t o friend, I rrill. What you have spolie, it may be so perchance. This t y r a n t , whose sole name blisters our tongues, Was once thought honest ; you have lov'd him well; H e llnth not toucll'd you yet. I a m young; but something You rliay discern of him through me, and wisdom T o offer up a wcnk, poor, innocent'lamb T' asppeasean angry g o d . illncdufl. I a m not treacherous. ilfalcolm. B u t Macbeth is. 19 A good and virtuous nntu1.c may recoil I n a n imperial charge. But I shall crave your pardon
3 mortal deadly. 4 Bestride i.e. In its defense. birthdom fatherland. 10 to friend as a friend; i.e. to be ft~vorablo.12 sole mere. 16 discern learn t)y cliEccrnnient N. 19-20 recoil . charge give way under pressure from a ruler.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , IV. S
T h a t which you are m y thoughts cannot transpose; At~gels are bright still, though the brightest fell. Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace, Yet grace must still look so, IlIactlz~fS. I have lost rnv hopes. Malcolnt. Perchance even there where I did find my doubts. 25 Why in t h a t rawness left you wife and child, Those precious motives, those strong knots of love, Witllout lea\-e-taking? I pray you, Let not lily jealousies be your dishonors, B u t mine own snfctics. You may be rightly just, 30 Whatever I shall think. Bleed, bleed, poor country ! ~l_iacd.~i~f. Great tyranny, Iny thou thy basis sure, F o r goodness clare not check thee! W e a r thou t h y wrongs ; T h e title is affcer'd ! F a r e thee well, lord. 35 I would not be the villain t h a t thou think'st F o r the 1v11ole space that's in the tyrant's grasp, Allcl thc rich E a s t t o boot. Mnl colnj. Be not ofl'ended. I speak not as in absolute fear of you. I think our country sinks beneath the yoke ; It weeps, it bleeds, and each new day n gash I s added t o her wounds. I think withal, Tliere would be hnnds upliftcrl i n my right ; And here from gracious England htive I offer
21 transpose alter. 24 so i.e. like itself. 26 rawness unprotected condition. 27 motives persons inspiring love m d action. 29 jealousies suspicions, 34 a£€eer9d confiimed: F aflear'd. 43 gracious England i.e. the English king, Edward the Confessor. 76
T H E T R A G E D Y O F N A C R E T H , IV. 3
Of goodly thousands. But,, for all this, 43 When I shall trend upon thc tyrant's head, Or wear it on my sword, yct my poor country Shall have more viccs than, i t had before, More suffer, and more sundry ways t h a n ever, By him t h a t shall succeecl, Macdu,ff. W h a t should he be? 11ClnZcolrn. It is myself I mean; in whom I know 50 All the particulars of vicc so grafted That, 15-11en they shall bc opcn'd, black Mncbeth Will scel-t~ pure ns snow, and the poor s t a t e as Estecin him as ,z lnrnb, being compar'd With my confineless harms. 111ct.cduff. N o t in the legions 55 Of horrid hell can come n dive1 more dnn~n'd I n evils t o t o p Rfncbeth. I g r n n t him bloody, AIcrlc olm.. Luxurious, avaricious, false, deceitful, Sudden, malicious, smacki~ig every sin of T h a t has a name. B u t there's no bottom, none, I n m y voluptuousness : Four wives, your daughters, Y o u r matrons, and your maids, could not fill up T h e cistern of my lust, and my desire All continent impediments would o'erbenr 65 T h a t clid oppose my will. Better Rlacbeth T h a n such a n one t o reign. 11facduf. Boundless in temperance I n n a t u r e is a tyranny. It hrrth been T 1 untimely emptying of the h a p p y throne, 1' Ancl fall of many kings. B u t fcnr not yet 70 T o t a k e upon you what is yours; yotl 111tly Convey your pleasures in a spacious plenty,
55 confineless boundless. 68 Luxurious lustful. 64 continent restraining. 71 Convey arrange sccretly.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C L I E T H , 17;. 3
And yet seem cold, the time you map so hoodwink. W e have willing dames enough; there cannot be T h a t vulture in you, t o devour so many 75 As will t o greatness dedicate themselves, Finding i t so inclin'd. nfalcol7n. W t this there grows ih I n my most ill-compos'd affection such A stanchless avarice that, were I king, I should cut off the nobles for their lands, 80 Desire his jewels and this other's house: And my more-having would be as a sauce T o make me hunger more, t h a t I should forge Quarrels unjust against the good and loyal, Destroying them for wealth. ICfacdt~,f. This avarice 83 Sticks deeper, grows with more pernicious root T h a n sun~mer-seeming lust, and it hat11 been T h e sword of our slain kings. Yet do not fear; Scotland h a t h foisons t o fill u p your will Of your nlerc own. All these are portable, With other graces weighyd. W ~Ifnlcolm. B u t I have none. T h e liing-becoming graces, As j usticz, verity, temp'rnnce, stableness, Bounty, perseverance, mercy, lowliness, Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude, 95 I have no relish of them, but abound
7% cold, the time F punctuates coM. The time. time see 1.5.64 N. 77 affection dkposition. '78 stanchless insatiable. 86 summerseeming befitting (beseeming) summer, or resembling it. 87 sword i.e. causc of death. 88 foisons plentiful supplies. 89 your mere own what is entirely yours. portable endurable. 90 With . . . weigh'd i.e. when balanced against other graces. 93 perseverance rcad 'pe~vEv'rnnce.'
TEIE T R A G E D Y O F M A C D E T F I , IV. 8
I n the division of each several crime, Acting i t many ways. Nay, had I power, I should P o u r the sweet milk of concorct into hell, U p r o a r the universal peace, confou~ld All u n i t on earth. Jf a,cduff. 0 Scotlnnci, Scotlnncl ! 100 1Cln7colrn. If sucll n onc be fit t o govern, speak. I ain as I have spoken. Jlacdufl. Fit t o govern ? No, riot to live. 0 nation iniserable! With an untitled t y r a n t bloody-scept'rcd, Wllcn shalt thou see tliy wllolcsome days again, l05 Since t h a t the truest issue of tliy thronc Bp liis own interdiction stnt~ds nccus'd, And does blaspheme his brcccl? T h y royal father M7ns R most sainted king; the queen t h a t bore thee, 110 Oft'ncr upon her knees than on her fcct, Diecl cvery d a y she liv'd. F a r e tliee well! These evils thou repeat'st upon thyself EIath banish'd me froin Scotland. 0 m y breast, Tliy hope ends here ! ilin.lco2;rn. illacclufi, this noble passion, 115 Child of integrity, hnth from my soul Wip'ct the black scruples, reconcil'd my thoughts T o thy good t r u t h and Lonor. Divelisl~Mncbcth By many of these trains hntli sought t o win me I n t o liis power, and modest wisdom pluclis me 120 From overcredulous haste; but God above Deal bctween thee and JYW! f o r even now I p u t myself t o tlig direction, and
96 division variation. 98-100 Pour earth N. 107 interdiction statement of unfitness (Icgal term). 111 Died liv'd i.c. tvus a11v:~ys ready for death; sce I Corinthinns l5:31. 113 Hath have. 118 trains atratagcms. L19 modest marked by moderation.
T H E T B A G E D P O F M A C B E T H , IV. 8
Unspeak mine own detraction, here a b j u r e T h e taints and blames I laid upon myself, 125 F o r strangers t o my nature. I am yet Unknown t o woman, never was forsworn, Scarcely have coveted what was mine own, A t no time broke my faith, mould not betray 129 T h e devil t o his fellow, and delight N o less in t r u t h t h a n life. My first false speaking W a s this upon myself. W h a t I am t r u l y I s thine and my poor country's t o command; Whither indeed, before t h y here-approach, Old Siward, with ten thousand warlike men, 135 Already a t a point, was setting forth. Now we'll together, and the chance of goodness Be like our warranted quarrel. W h y a r e you silent? Macduff. Such welcome and unwelcome things a t once 'Tis h a r d t o reconcile.
Enter a Doctor. Malcolm. Well, more anon. Comes the king forth, 1 pray you? 140 Doctor. Ay, s i r ; there a r e a crew of wretched souls T h a t s t a y his cure; their malady convinces T h c g r e a t assu.y of art. But, a t llis touch,
Such sanctity hnth heaven given Iris hand,
They presently amend. Malcolm. I thank you, doctor. 14s Exit [Doctor.]
125 For as being. 133 thy F they. 135 at a point in readiness. 136-7 the chance . . . quarrel N. 142 stay his cure wait for him to cure them N. 142-3 convinces . . . art conquers the greulest efforts of medical skill. 145 presently immediately.
PEE T R A G E D Y O F MACBETH. 1V.
Ma.cdzbff. What's the disease he means ? 2lla7colm. 'Tis crrll'd the evil. A most nlirnculous work in this good king, Which often, since my here-remain in Englnnd, 149 I have sccn him do. I-low hc solicits heaven, Himself best knows ; but strangely-visited people, All swolne and ulcerous, pitiful t o the eye, The mere despair of surgery, he cures, Ranging rt golden stamp about their necks, P u t on with holy prayers; and 'tis spoken 15s T o the succeeding royalty he leaves T h e healing benediction. With this strange virtue, Hc hnth a heavenly gift of prophecy, And sundry blessings hang about his throne T h a t speak him full of grace. See who comes here. Ma.cduff. JfalcoIm. &iy countryman; but yet I know him not. ilfacduff. nip ever-gentle cousin, welcome hither. .!falcol.m. I know him now. Good Gody betimes remove Tllc means t h a t makes us strangers !
ROSS. Sir, amen. ~llacdz~fl. Stands Scotland where it did?
BOSS. M8sy POOI' country, 105 Alrnost afraid t o know itself! It cannot Be cnll'd our mother, but our grave; where nothing, nut w h o knows nothing, is once sccn to smile; 146 evil see W.3.143 K. l50 visited amicted. 151 swolne swollen.
152 mere utter. 153 stamp stamped coin. 161 gentle noble. l62 bctimes speedily. 8C
T U E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T B , IV. I
Where sighs and groans and shrieks t h a t rent the air Are made, not 1narl;'d; where violent sorrow seems A modern ecstnsy : the dead man's knell 170 I s tllcrc scii I-ce ask'd f o r who ; and good men's lives Expire bcforc the flowers in their caps, Dying o r ere they sicken. Macduff. 0, relation T o o nice, and yet too true. IVhnt's the ncn7cs grief ? t nlalcolm. Boss. T h n t of an hour's age doth hiss the speaker; Eacli minute teems a new one. Hon. does my wife? 11 cdulf. 1 Ross. W h y , well. And all my children? &I U cdl~fi, Zioss. Well t 00. iliacd~rfl. T h e t y r a n t has not batter'd a t their pe:~ce? Ross. N o ; they were well at peace when I did leave 'ern. Afu,cdwJT. Be n o t a niggard of your speech: how goes't ? 180 Iloss. Wllen I came hither t o t r a n s p o r t the tidings LVhicli I 11al.e heavily borne, there r a n a rumor Of many wortlly fellows t h a t were o u t ; Which was t o my belief witness'd the 185 F o r t h a t I saw the tyrant's power afoot. Now is the time of help; your eye in Scotland Would create soldiers, make our women fight, T o doff their dire distresses. Mal colwz. Be't their comfort
170 ecsta~yfrenzy N. 173 or ere ere. relation recital. 174 nice minutely accurate. 175 hiss cause to be hissed for giving outdated information. l 7 6 teems gives birth to. 183 out i.e. i ths n field in arms. 186 power army. 8 1
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , IV.
We a r e coming thither. Gracious England ho,th 190 Lent us good Siward and ten thousand men; An older and a better soldier none T h a t Christendom gives out. Boss. JTTould I could answer This comfort with the like! B u t I have words T h a t mould be llowl'd out in the desert air, ITTherc hearing them should not latch thern.
concern they? l95 T h e general cause? o r is i t a fee-grief Due t o some single breast ? Boss. N o mind that's honest Eut in it shares some woe, though the main p a r t Pertains t o you alone. ~lfacduf. If i t be mine,
Keepitnotfrornme;quicklyletmehaveit. 200 &ss. L e t not your ears despise my tongue forevcr, Which shall possess them with the heaviest sound T h a t ever g e t they heard. Humh! I guess a t it. Macduff. Ross.Y o u r castle is surpris'd; your wife and babes 205 Savagely sltlughter'd. T o relate the manner Were, on the q u a r r y of these murther'd deer, T o add the death of you. Malcolm, Jklerciful heaven ! W h a t , man ! Ne'er pull your h a t upon your brows. Give sorrow words; the grief t h a t does not speak Whispers the o'er-fraught heart and bids it break. Macduff. My children too? ail
l89 Gracious England see l. 43. 192 gives out proclaim. 194 would be demand to be. 195 latch catch. 196 fee-grief private grief. 202 heaviest most grievous. 206 quarry game lnlled in
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , IV.
Ross. Wife, children, servants, all t h a t could be
found. Macduff.And I must be from thence ! My wife Irill'd too? Ross. I have said. Mal colm. Be comforted. eis Let's make us med'cines of our g r e a t revenge, To cure this deadly grief. Macduff. H e has n o children. All my p r e t t y ones? Did you s a y all? 0 hell-kite ! A l l? What, all my p r e t t y chickens and their dam At one fell swoop? 220 Malcolm. Dispute it like a man. Macdfl. I shall do so; B u t I must also feel it as a man. I cannot b u t remember such things were, T h a t were most precious t o me. Did heaven look on, And ~ o u l d take their part? Sinful Mncduff, not T h e y were all s.I;rilck for thee! Naught: t h a t I am, N o t f o r their own demerits, b u t for mine, Fell slaughter on their souls. Heaven rest them now ! IClalcol??~. this the whetstone of your sword ; let Be 229 grief Convert t o a n g e r ; blunt not the heart, enrage it. M a c d a f . 0, I could play the woman with mine eyes, And b r a g g a r t with my tongue. But, gentle heavens, C u t s h o r t all intermission. F r o n t t o front Bring thou this fiend of Scotland and myself; Within my sword's length set him; if he scape, 23s Heaven forgive him too ! ilIalcoZm. This tune goes manly.
220 swoop i.e. o tlic hell-kite. 221dispute it contest it (Macbeth'a f action); i.e. avenge yourself N. 226 Naught wicked man. 233 intermission delay. 236 tune F time.
T H E T B A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , LV. I
Comc, go we t o the king ;our power is ready; Our ltlck is nothing b u t our leave. Macbeth I s ripe f o r shaking, and the powers above P u t on thcir instruments. Receive what cheer you may : 240 T h e night is long that nerer finds the day. E x a n t .
237 power army.
23s Our laclr . leave we neccl only perc mksion to go. 240 Put on their instruments arm thcmselvea
Enter a Doctor of Physic a d a Waiting Ge.ntlewocman. Doctor. I have two nights watchyd with you, but
can perceive no t r u t h in your report. When was it
she last walk'd? S Gentlewomun. Since his majesty went into the field, I have seen her rise from her bed, throw her nightgown upon her, unlock her closet, take forth paper, fold it, write upon't, read it, afterwards seal it, and again return t o bed; yet all t-his while in a most fast sleep. 9 Doctor. A great perturbation in nature, t o receive a t once the benefit of sleep and d o the effects of watching! I n this slumb'ry agitation, besides her walking and other actual performances, what, a t any 14 time, have y o u heard her say ? Gentlewomun. T h a t , sir, which I mill not report after her. Doctor. You may t o me, and 'tis most meet you should. Gentlewoman. Neither t o you nor anyone, having 20 no witness t o confirm my speech.
4 into the field i.e. to battle. 5-6 night-gown dressing gown. 6 closet private repository of valuables. 11-12 effects of watching &ions of a waking condition.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C D E T H , V.
Enter Lady, with a taper. Lo you, here she comes. This is her very guise, and upon my life, fast asleep. Observe her: stand close. Doctor. I-IOW came she by t h a t light? Gentlewoman. Why, i t stood by her. She has light W by her continually ; 'tis her command. Doctor. You see her eyes are open. Gentlezuoman. Ay, but their sense a r e shut. Doctor. W h a t is it she does now? Loolc how she rubs her hands. %Q Gentlewoman. It is an accustom'd action with her, t o seem thus washing her hands. I have known her continue in this a quarter of a n hour. Lady Jfacbeth. Yet here's a spot. Doctor. H a r k ! she speaks. I will set down whsd comes from her, t o satisfy my remembrance the more etrongly. SO Lady Macbeth. Out, damned spot ! out, I say ! One; two. IT'hy, then, 'tis time t o do't. Hell is murky. Fie, my lord, fie! a soldier, and afeard? I%Tl~tzt need we fear who knows it, when none can call our power t o accompt? Yet who would have thought the old man 42 t o have had so much blood in him? Doctor. D o you mark t h a t ? Lady Macbeth. T h e Thane of Fife had a wife. Where is she now? What, will these hands ne'er he ciean? N o more o' that, my lord, no more o' t h a t ! 47 You m a r all with this starting. Doctor. Go to, g o to! You have known what you should not.
22 close concealed. 27 are N. 41 accompt account (and so pronounced). 48 Go to, go to come, come. You i.e. Lady Macbeth.
Y i f E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , V. I
Gentlewoman. She has spoke what she should not, I am sure of that. Heaven knows what she has known. Lady Mncbeth. Here's the smell of the blood still. All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little 54 hand. Oh, oh, oh ! Doctor. W h a t cz sigh is there! The heart is ~jorely charg'd. Gentlewoman. I would not have such n heart in my bosom for the dignity of the whole body. Doctor. Well, well, well. 80 Gentlewoman. P r a y God it be, sir. Doctor. This disease is beyond my practice. Yet I have k n o m those which have walk'd in their sleep who have died holily in their beds. Lady Macbeth. Wash your hands, p u t on your night-gown, look not so pale. I tell you yet again, Btlnquo's buried; he cannot come out on's grave. Doctor. Even so? 67 Lady Macbeth. T o bed, t o bed ! There's knocking at the gate. Come, come, come, come, give me your hand. What's done cannot he undone. T o bed, t o bed, t o bed! Exit Lady. 72 Doctor. Will she go now t o bed? Gc?ztlerc~onznn.Directly. Doctor. Foul whisp'rings are abroad. Unnatural deed S 75 Do breed unnatural troubles. Infected minds T o their deaf pillows will discharge their secrets. More needs sllc the divine than the physician. God, God forgive us all ! Look after her ; Remove from her the means of all annoyance, 80 And still keep eyes upon her. So, good night.
56-6 sorely charg'd heavily burdened. 58 dignity worth. 66 on's of b 79 annoyance injury (to herself). .
THE TRAGEDY O F NACBETE,
My mind she has mated, and amaz'd my sight. I think, but dare not speak. Geiztlewo~nan. Good night, good doctor. Exeudn t
Drum rind colors. Enter Alenteth, Cavth,ness,Anguls, Lennoz, Soldiers.
dlenteth. T h e English power is near, led on by
Rtalcolm, His uncle Siward, and the good BIacduff. Rcvcnges burn in them; for their dear causes \Voultl t o the bleeding and the grim a l u m Excite the mortified rnan. Angus. Near Birnain wood Shnll WC well meet them; that way are they coming. Cnfhness. TtT1lo knows if Donalbain be with his brother? Lennox. F o r certain, sir, he is not. I have a file Of all the gentry: there is Simard's son, 10 -4nd m a n y unrough youths t h a t even now Protest their first of manhood. ilfenteth. W h a t does the tyrant? Cat7~ness. Great Dunsinane he strongly fortifies. Some say he's mad; others t h a t lesser hate him D o call i t valiant fury: but, f o r certain, 15 He canno: buckle his distemper'd cause
81 mated bewildered. 1 power army. 3 dear heartfalt. 4 alarm cap to bal,tle. 5 mortified numbed, or even dead. 1 unrough un0 heal-dod. 11 Protest proclaim, 15 distemper'd sick, unruly.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F N A C B E T H . V. f3
Within the belt of rule. Angus. Now does he feel His secret murthers sticking on his hands ; Now l~iinutelyrevolts upbraid his faith-breach. Those he commands move only in command, Nothing in love. Now does h e feel llZs title I-Iang loose about liim, like a giant's robe Upon n dwarfish thief. ddenteth. Who then shall blame His pester'd senses t o recoil and start, is When all t h i ~ t wit hi^ him does condemn Itself for being there? Cathncss. Well, march W C on, T o give obedience where 'tis truly ow'd. Meet m-c the rned'cine of the sickly weal, And with hirn pour me in our country's purge E a c h d r o p of! us. Lmzno'z. Or so much as it needs 29 T o dew the sovcreign flower and drown the weeds. Make we our march towards Birnam. Exelm t ~narching.
Enter Aiacbeth, Doctor, a7acE Attendants.
Macbeth. Bring me no more reports: let them f y l all ! Till Birnam mood remove t o Dunsinnne I cannot taint with fear. I&~hatys boy Malcolm? the
' 8 minutely (stressed 1 - -) happening every minute. 20 Nothing not at all. 23 pester'd troubled. 27 med'cine physician. meal state. 30 dew literally '~rnt~er,' figuratively 'make grow.' sovereign flower N. 3 taint beconlc tainted.
' F E E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , V. B
W a s he not born of woman? T h e spirits t h a t know All mortal consequences have pronounc'd me thus: 'Fear not, hfacbeth; no man that's born of woman Shall ere have power upon thee.' Then fly, false thnnes, And mingle with the English epicures ! g T h e mind I sway by and the h e a r t I bear Shall never s a g with doubt nor shake with fear.
T h e dive1 damn thee black, thou cream-fac'd loon! Where got'st thou t h a t goose look? Seruant. T h e r e is ten thousandMncbeth. Geese, villain? Servant. Soldiers, sir. ;Cfacbeth. Go prick thy face, and over-red thy fear, 15 Tlrou Iily-liver'd boy. What soldiers, p a t c h ? Dcn.th of t h y soul ! those 1ii1c11cheeks of thine Arc connselors t o fear. What soldiers, v.hcyface? Serva.n.t. T h e English force, so please you. M a c b e t l ~ . T a k e t h y f a c e ~ ~ e n c e .[ E x i t S e r v a n t . ] Seyton!-I am sick a t heart zo When I behold-Scyton, I say !--This push Will cheer ine evcr or disseat me now. I have Iiv'd long enough. My way of life I s falne into the sear, the pellow leaf ; And t h a t xhich should accompany old age, 25 As honor, love, obedience, troops of friends,
6 mortal consequences future event6 in human life. 9 sway con* trol ~nyaelf.11 cream-fac'd the sc:rvunt's face is white with f a r . ioon rascal, lout!. 14 over-red cover with red. 15 patch clown, fool. 20 push crisis, attack. 21 cheer N. disse~t,tunseat; F dis-eale. 23 falne fallen.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T E , V. S
I must n o t look t o have; but, in their steed, Curses, n o t loud but deep, mouth-honor, breath, Which the poor heart would fain deny, and dare not. Seyton !
Enter Sey t on. 's Seyton. 1 V h ~ ~ t your gracious pleasure? Afacbetlt. What news more? 30 Seyton. All is confirm'd, my lord, which was reported. Macbeth. I'll fight till from my bones my flesh be hack'd. Give me my armor. 'Tis not needed yet. Seyt on. Macbeth. 1'11 p u t i t on. 35 Send out moe horses, skirr the country round ; H a n g those t h a t talk of fear. Give me mine armor. How does your patient, doctor? Not so sick, my lord, Doctor. As she is troubled with thick-coming fancies T h a t keep her from her rest. Cure her of t h a t ! I. I1 acbetk. 40 Canst thou not minister t o n mind diseas'd, Pluck from the memory n rooted sorrow, Raze out the written troubles of the brain, And with some sweet oblivious antidote Cleanse the stuff'd bosom of t h a t perilous stuff Which weighs upon the heart? Therein the patient Doctor. 46 Must minister t o himself.
26 steed shad. 35 moe more. skirr scour. 30 her F omits. 42 Raze out erase. written Le. permanent. 43 oblivious causing forgetful. nw. 91
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C H E T D . V.
Ilfacbctlt. Throw physic t o the dogs ; 1'11 none of it.
Come, p u t mine armor on. Give me my staff.
Seyton, send out.-Doctor, the thancs fly from me.Conic, sir, dispatch.-lf thou couldst, doctor, cast The water of my land, fincl hcr disease? 51 And purge i t t o a sound ancl pristine health, I would applaud thee t o the very echo, T h a t should applaud again.-l'ull't off, I say.5s What rhubarb, cymc, or w h a t purgative d r u g T;TToulclscour these English hcncc? I'lew'st tllou of them ? Doctor. A y , my good lord. Your royal prcparatlon A5akes us hear something. Xncbcth. 13ring it after me. I will not be afraid of death and bnne 60 Till Birnum forest come to Dunsinane. Doctor. [Aside.] Wcre I from Dunsinane away ancl clear, Profit again should hardly draw me here. Exmnt.
D m m and colors. Enter Mnlcolm, Siwnrd, JIacduff, Sa'ward's Son, Menteth, Cathness, Angus, [Lennox, R o s s , ] and Soldiers ~ ~ z a r c h i f i g .
Afalcolnt. Cousins, I hope the daxs are near a t hand T h a t chambers will be safe. W e doubt it nothing. Illente th. Siward. W h a t wood is this before us? ilfen,tetl~. The wood of Birnam.
50-1 cast/The water analyze tbe urine. 55 cyme n cathartic. N, 2 chambers will be safe i.e. we can sleep in security.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H . V. 4
Malcolm. L e t e v e r soldier hew him down a bough S And bear't before him: thereby shall we shadow T h e numbers of our host, and make discovery Err in r e p o r t of us. Soldier. It shall be done. Siward. W e Icarn no other but the confident tyrant Keeps still in Dunsinane, and will endure Our setting down before't. Malcolm. 'Tis his main hope ; 10 F o r where there is advantage t o be given, Both more and less have given him the revolt, And none serve with him but constrained things Whose hearts a r e absent too. Macduff. L e t our j u s t censures Attend the t r u e event, and p u t me on Industrious soldiership. Siward. T h e time approaches 'rhat will with due decision make us know e W h a t mre shall s a y we h a ~ and what we owe. TllougIlts speculative their unsure hopes relate, 20 B u t certain issue strokes must arbitrate, Towards wfiicl~advance the war. Eot?unt marching.
6 shadow partially conceal. G discovery reconnaissance. 1 setting 0 down before laying siege to. 11 where . given i.e. where opportunity is offered. 12 more and less high and low. 1&15 Let . . event Let's wait unlil after the battle to lrlake a true judgment. 14 censures judgments. 15 event outcome. 18 owe own (in fact, as opposed to what we 'stcy we have'). 19-20 Thoughts . . arbitrate N.
T E E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , V.
Enter Jfacbeth, Seyton, and Soldiers, with drum and colors. Macbetlb. H a n g out our banners on the outward walls. T h e c r y is still, 'They come.' Our castle's strength Will laugh a siege t o scorn. H e r e let thern lie 4 Till famine and the ague e a t them up. Were they not forc'd with those t h a t should be onre, 1%'~might havc met them dareful, beard t o beard, And beat them backward home. A cry within of 7vontev8. W h a t is t h a t noise? Seytotz. I t is the c r y of women, my good lord.
Macbeth. I have almost forgot the taste of fears. T h e time has been, my senses would have cool'd T o hear a night-shriek, nnci m y fell of hair Would a t a dismal treatise rouse and s t i r As life were in't. I havc supp'd full with horrors; Direness, f arnilinr t o n ~ y slnugl~terousthoughts, Cannot once s t a r t me.
[Enter Sey ton.]
Wherefore was t h a t cry? Seyton. T h e queen, my lord, is dend. Jfacbeth. She should have died hereafter; There would have been a tirne f o r such n word.
5 forc'd reinforced. 11 fell of hair skin ~ i t hair growing on it. h 12 treatise story. 15 start startle. 17 should would. 18 word i.e. the nnnaunc.cment; of her dnntb.
T E E T R A G E D Y O F PdACBETH,
Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow, Creeps in this petty pace from day t o day, T o the last syllable of recorded time; Ancl all o u r yesterdays have lighted fools T h e way t o dusty death. Out, out, brief candle! Life's but n walking shadow, n poor player T h a t s t r u t s and frets his hour upon the stage, And then is heard no more. It is a tale Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, Signifying nothing.
Thou com'st t o use t h y tongue; thy story quickly. Messen*ger.Gracious my lord, 30 I should report t h a t which I say I saw, B u t know not how t o do't. fiiacbeth. FVeIl, s a y , sir. Messenger. As I did stand my watch upon the hill, I look'd toward Birnam, and anon, methought, T h e wood began t o more. Macbeth. L i a r and slave ! 35 Messenger. Let me endure your wrath if't be not so: Within this three mile may you see it coming; I say, a rnoving grove. Macbeth. If thou speak'st false, Upon the next tree shall thou hang alive 40 Till famine cling thee. If t h y speech be sooth, I care not if thou dost for me as much. 1 pull in resolution and begin T o doubt th' equivocation of the fiend T h a t lies like truth. 'Fear not, till Birnam wood
. . . stage see 11.4.6 N. 39 shall shalt. 40 cling wither. sooth truth. 42 pull in rein in. resolution assurance, confidence.
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T H , V,
45 D o come t o Dunsinanc,' and now n wood Comes toward Dunsinane. Arm, arm, and out! I f this which he avouches does appear, There is n o r flying hence, nor t a r r y i n g here. I gin t o be aweary of the sun, Ancl wish th' estate o' th' world were now undone. R i n g the alarrlm bell ! Blow, wind ! come, wrack ! 51 At least we'll die with harness on our back. Exeulnt.
Drum and colors. Enter Malcolm, Siward, Ma.cdulff, and their A m y , with boughs.
ilfalcol~n.Now near enough ; your leavy screens
throw down, And shorn like those you are. You, worthy uncle, Shall with m y cousin, yorlr right-noble son, Lead our first battle. ?TTorthy Macduff and we S Shall take upon's .rvhut else remains t o clo, According t o our order. Siward. F a r e you well. D o we b u t find the tyrant's pan-er tonight, L e t us be beaten, if me cannot fight. JIacd.u.fl. Make all our trumpets speak; give them all breath, 10 Those clamorous harbingers of blood and death.
Exeunt. Alarums continued.
50 estate o' th' world orderly universe. 51 wrack ruin. 1 leavy leafy. 4 batiile part of the m y ,
THE TRAGEDY ' 0
Ibiacbeth. They have tied me t o a stake; I cannot
But bearlike I must fight the course. Whst's he That was not born of woman? Such a one Am I t o fear, or none.
Enter You17.g Siward. Youn,g Siwnrd. W h a t is thy name?
Thou'lt be afraid t o hear it. S Young Sirua~d.N o ; though thou call'st thyself a hotter name Than any is in hell. Macbeth. Bly name's Rlacbeth. YOUTMJ Sizejard. T h e dive1 himself could not pronounce R, title More 1ilst.eful t o mine ear. Mncbeth. No, nor more fearful. Young Simard. Thou liest, abhorred t y r a n t ; with m y sword 10 I'll prove the lie thou spealr'st. Fight, a.,n.dYoung Sizuard slnin. 13fncbeth. Thou wnst born of woman ; But ; .vords I smile at, weapons laugh t o scorn, Ercit. Brandish'd by man that's of a wornan born.
. . . course N. SD Exit N.
Alnrums. Enter Macduff. lk1arcdu.f. T h a t way the noise is. Tyrant, show thy face ! 15 If thou be'st slain and with no stroke of mine, My wife and children's gl~osts haunt me still. will I cannot strike a t wretched kerns, whose arms Are hir'd t o bear their staves; either thou, l'vlacbeth, Or else my sword with an unbntter'd edge I sheathe again undceded. There thou shouldst be. 21 By -this great clatter, one of greatest note Seerns bruited. Let mc find him, fortune! Exit. Alarzmns. And more I beg not.
Enter Malcolm and Siuard. gently rend'red ; 85 The tyrant's people on both sides do fight; The noble t'rlanes do bravely in the war; The d a y almost itself professes yours, And little is t o do. W e have met with foes Malcol~~t~. That strike beside us, Siward. Enter, sir, the castle. Exeunt. A l a r m .
Enter Macbeth. Macbeth. W h y should I play the Roman fool, and die 30
17 kerns see 1.2.13. 18 staves spears. 22 bruited noised, reported. 24 rend'red surrendered. 26 bravely worthily, excellently. 29 strike beside us deliberately miss us. SD Enter Macbeth N. 30 Roman fool i.e. Brutus, AuLony, etc.
Sward. This way, my lord; the castle's
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T B . V. 7
On mine own sword? whiles I see lives, the gashes D o better upon them.
Enter Illacdztff. Macdu.ff. Turn, hell-hound, turn! Macbeth. Of all men else I have avoided thee. But get thee back, my soul is too much charg'd With blood of thine already. Macduf. I have no words ; ss My voice is in my sword, thou bloodier villain Fight. A l a r m . Than tcrms can give thee out ! ilfacbeth. Thou losest lttbor. As easy mayst thou the intrenchant air With t h y keen sword impress, as make me bleed. do Let fall t h y blade on vulnerable crests ; I bear a charmed life, which must not yield T o one of woman born. Macdufl. Despair thy charm ; And let the angel whom thou still hast serv'd Tell thcc, Macduff was from his mother's womb Untimely ripp'd. 48 illacbsth. Accursed be that tongue t h a t tells me 80, P o r i t hath cow'd my better p a r t of man! And be these juggling fiends no more believ'cl, T h a t palter with us in a double sense; 50 T h a t keep the word of promise to our ear, And break i t t o our hope. I'll not fight with thee. ,$fa*cdzcff.Thcn yield thee, coward, And live t o be the show and gaze o' th' time. We'll have thee, as our rarer monsters are,
31 Lives i.e. living enemies. 38 intrenchant incapable of being cut. 43 still always. 47 better part of man i.e. valor. 49 palter equivocate.
TnE TRAGEDY OF MACBETH, V, 7
8;s Painted upon a pole, and underwrit, 'Here may you see the tyrant.' Jfncbeth. I will n o t yield, T o Iiiss the ground before young Mnlcolm's feet, And t o be baited with the rabble's curse. Though Birnam wood be come t o Dunsinane, m And thou oppos'd, being of no woman born, Yet I will t r y the last. Before my body I throw my warlike shield. Lay on, Macduff, And dtlmn'd be him t h a t first cries, 'Hold, enough !' Exeunt fighting. Alarums.
Enter fighting,and Macbeih slain. Retreat and flourish. Enter, with drum and colorg, ~ i a l c o l mSiuard, Ross, Tkanes, and Soldiers. , blalcotm.. I would the friends we miss were safe urriv'd. 64 & ~ a r d .Some must go off; and yet, by these I see, So g r e a t a d a y as this is cheaply bought. lMalcol?n. Macduff is missing, and your noble son. Ross. Your son, my lord, has paid a soldier's debt. H e only liv'd but ti1.l he wns a man, 70 'The which no sooner had his prowess confirm'd I n the unshrinking station where he fought, B u t like rr man he died,. Siward. Then he is dead? ICoss. Ay, aad brought off the field. Your cnuse of sorrow Must not be measur'd by his worth, f o r then It hath no end.
55 Painted upon a pole i.e. with a painted likeness suspendecl on a pole. 58 baited i.e. like s bear; see V.7.2 N. SD Retreat trumpet signal to cease pursuit. 65 go off &age metaphor for 'die.' 71 un~hrinlringstation i.e. the station where he did not shrink 100
T H E T R A G E D Y O F MACBETLI, V. 7
Siward. H a d he his hurts before? 75 Ross. Ay, on the front. Why then, God's soldier be Siward.
he! H a d I a s many sons as I have hairs, I would not wish them t o n fairer death; And so, his knell is knoll'd. fifnlcol.,n. He's worth more sorrow, And t h a t I'll spend f o r him. Siward. He's worth n o more ; 80 They s a p he p a r t e d well, and paid his score, And so, God be with him! Here comes newer comfort.
Entcr Ilfacd?~f, with ,Macbeth's head. Jfacd~11.fl. I-Iail, king! for so thou a r t . Behold, where
Th' ilsurpcr's cursed h e a d ; the timc is free. I see t h e compnss'd mith thy liingclom's pearl,
T h a t speak my salutation in their minds ; 't7Vhose voices I desire aloud wit11 mine ; Hail, King of Scotland! Hail, King of Scotland ! A7J. -
Flourish 1CialcoE~~n. e shall not spend a large expcnse of W time
90 Before we reckon with your several loves, And make us even with you. Rly thnnes and lrinslnen, Henceforth be earls, the first t h a t erer Scotland i n such an 11onor n:~m'd. IVhnt's more t o do, Il7hich would be planted nevly with the time95 As calling holue our e-d'd friends nbroacl
77 hairs pronounced like 'heirs.' S1 score account. 85 pearl i.c. the oobles. ' 0several loves devotion of cach of you. 3
T H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T R , V. 7
That fled the snares of watchful tyranny, Producing f o r t h the cruel ministers Of this dead butcher and his fiendlike queen, Who, as 'tis thought, by self and violent bands T o o k off her l i f e t h i s , and what needful else That calls upon us, by the grace of Grace We will perform i n measure, time, and place. So, thanks t o all at once ant1 t o each one, Whom me invite t o see us crown'd at Scone.
Flourish. Exeunt omms.
99 self and violent her own violent. 102 i measure i proportion, n n with proper decorurn.
2 c t I, Scene
SD Thunder and lightning The scenes with the witches were
probably staged in a spectacular fashion. The witches may have been revealed on the inner stage by drawing back a curtsin: each of their appearances is accompanied by stage thunder, which wLaa produced by beating drums or by rolling a henvy ball of iron or stonc down an uneven set of steps constructed in the superstructure over the stage. The lightning was made by blowing rosin through a cnndle flame. A stage mist, inade by burning rosin, may have risen through the trap door to make the witches disappear in the 'fog and filthy ar a t the end of this scene, as i' also a t 1.3.78. 8-12 Graymallrin air The witches answer the calls of their 'familiars' or attendant spirits, which have =umed the forms s of animals. Graymalkin i a pet name for a grey cat: Paddock means 'toad.' The farrliliar of the Third Witch, unnamed here, is called Havier in IV.1.3, possibly a corruption of 'harpy.' P ascribes the lines "Paddock calls filthy air" to All; t h e arrangement adopted here is clearly more logical.
Act I , Scene 2
3 sergeant A title which a. commissioned officer might have in the army of Shakespeare's Lime. Modern editors often unnecessarily change Captain to Smgeunt in the stage directions and speech headings. 21 Which Probnlsly refers to Macdonwald, who never took leave of h h b e t h until Macbeth killed hinz. I t may refer to Macbeth; i t is possible that the omission of some lines has obscured the sense. A Ilouch of grim lzumor is ndclcd by reference t o polite forms of leavotaking: 'shook hands,' 'butle farewell.' 25-6 As whence thunders break Storms 2ome out of the east, whellce the sun rises. 41 memorize another Golgotha Make the field memorable as another 'place of the skull,' the literal meaning of Golgotb, where Christ was crucified. 46 Thane A title of nobility in Scotland, corresponding m the English earl.
I ' H E T R A G E D Y O F M A C B E T B , I . E.
51-2 flout cold Insult the Scottish sky and chill the pe~ple with fern. 55 rebellious Snreno, though not a rebel, was assisting rebellion. 65 general Herc and in many other words such as prosperoza, trecwonous, interim, etc. a lightly accented syllable following n heavily accented ~yllsble ~rlny omit,t,cd in pronunciation. Note be also Lhst phrases such as 'to thc' and 'to h 'may be pronounced i 'to th' ' and 'to's.' (36-7 deceive interest Betray the interests closeat to our hem. Here a elsewhere the king uscs the royal plural.
I, Scene 3
15 ports they blow Thc meaning scerns to be that she mill dolay the Tiger's rtrrivzl in port. 20 penthouse lid Tho eyelid is compnrcd to a penthouse, that Ss, a lean-io. 32 weyard One form of 'weird,' derived from the Old English wjrd, 'fate.' F uses t l ~ e forms w e y ~ r dand weyward ( p o ~ i b l y by association with 'wayward'), but never 'weird,' which has bccorno familiar because of Theob:~ld's 18th-century onlendation. Tho form ueyard prwerves the origilial meter. The e m t nature of the 'n-cyard sisters' Li left undefined: they art not merely old hags prwticing sorcery, nor arc they tsuly fates, a they appear 3 to Ix in Iiolinshed's C'hrot~icb, of the chief sources of the play one (see Appendix B). 35 thrice to thine to make up nine The witches probnbly malrc ohciqances to tlicir fttmiiiars. 46 beards A benrd on n woman IVM often thought to indicate that she n r s ts anitch. 03-4 Eis wonders . . Silenc'd with that Since the king is unuble to decide whether s t o n k h c n t or admiration better auswors fiimbeth's uccomplishnent, or better expresses his own feeling, hc is reduced to silence. 143-6 Shakes rapt I-lcre and in a number of other placcs (notably 1.3.1434, 1.4.1-9, 1.6.23-4, 1.7.58-9, 11.1.4-11, 13-14, 11.2.2-7, 21-4, 11.3.55-63, III.1.43-51, 74-86, 111.4.18-21) nlost modcrn editors rearrange the lines in order to approximate more cloeely regular iambic pentameter. Sec Appendix A.
NOTES, I . s
143 single state of man Tbe nature of m m is compared to a aation (as in Juliw Caesar, 11.1.65-8), which internal disturbances may reduce b impotence. 150-1 Come day That is, even the roughest day must come to m end. Tbis fatslistio thought is relevant; to Macbeth's previous aside.
20-1 That mine That I might have been able to make my thanks and reward proportionate to your desert. 21 I have Such contractions as 'I've' were common in Elizabethan speech, but are not always indicated in the spelling. Other examples will be found in 1.7.29-59, and elsewhere. 41 Prince of Cumberland A Scottish title corresponding to Prince of Wdes in England. 46 The rest for you Any relaxation of the effort to serve you h in reality a greater effort.
Act I, Scene $ .
23-GZThou'dst have . . undone That Err, Machct,h mouid have the crown, which demands that he murder in order to have it: m d murder is what he rather fears to do than wishes undone. 39 raven The raven's croaking was traditionally associi~t~ed with gloom and misfortune. 47-8 keep . . it PeaceabIy intervene between my purpose and its zccomplishment. 6-1To beguile the time The time m e w here 'the world' or -the present age'; hence, 'to deceive the world.'
Act I , Scene 6
Act I , Scene G
SD torches Torchcu were often used to indicate that the fiwile took place a t night,, though the stage of the Elizabethan public thcater, lighted by daylight, was ncces.sarily bright. In this scene Duncan approaches the castle gate in the evening. It is light enough for him to see the building and the birds, but the torc11c.s remind us that night, called upon by Lady h b e t h in the p r e ceding scene, is fdling. 4 martlet I n Shdcespeare's day martZel often meant the house
T H E T R A G E D Y OF M A C B E T H , I .
martin, which was supposed to build its nest only in 'fair houses.' 11-14 The love trouble Duncan means that just as we gratefully accept the troublc to which our friends put us as a siw of their love, so Lady Machelh should thank him for the troublt.some visit he is paying her. 23 purveyor An officer whose duty was to ride ahead and make necessary arrangements.
Act I, scene 7' 4 his surcease Probably Duncnn'a death; possibly the arresting of thc consequence. 5 7 here 1 come That is, we'd enjoy the profits of crime in t b present life and take our chances on the next life. 8 have judgment That is, WC may be punished here by those our who ~ollow examplc. 22-3 heavens air Psalm 1S:lO in the Great 13ible (1539) reads: 'He rode upon the Cherubim and dyd flye: he came flycnge with the wynges of the wynde.' 27-8 Vaulting ambition on thy other Ambition, like an overeager horseman, vaulb over the saddle and falls on the other Bide of the horse. The word 'side,' which mould 611 out the mcter of the line, may have dropped out. 45 cat i' th' adage 'The cat would eat fish and would not wet her feet.' 47 do Lady Macbeth's rcply makes 3fscbeth1s implication clear: to do more than becomes a man i~ to behuvc like s beast,. The sense of the context thus justifies the emendation. 60 sticking-place The mctaphor is that of a crossbow, the cord of which must be screwed up to thc notch where it sticks. 65-7 memory only In Elizabethan physiology memory was thought of as a sort of gunld, prepared to warn the brain of attack. It was supposed to be lodged a t the bme of the skull, f reason occupying the upper part. I memory is ovcrcome by fumes of wine risiig from the stomach, no warning is given, and the fumes rise to fill the receptacle of reason.
. . . wrought Our desire to entertain the king waa
Act IT, Scene l
hampered by unpreparedneaa; otherwise we should have done more. 54 Whose howl's his watch The wolf's howl tells Murder that It is time to act. 55 Tarquin's See Shakespeare's The Rape of Lwrrece.
Act I I , Scene $2
4 bellman A bellman m m customarily mnt to ccondenmed prisoners the night before their execution. l4SD Enter Macbeth F gives f i b e t h ' s entrance before his speech, 'Who'a thore?' but this is clearly given offstage.
Act I I , Scene 3 4 farmer He had hoarded grain to sell a t high prices in a famine; the prospeot of a plentiful crop confronkd him with ruin. fj-6 Como in, time-server I t is logical to expect a phrase hcro to parallel the latar 'come in, equivocator' and 'Come in, tailor.' F's C m in time is incomprehensible. J. Dover Wilson, who mggestv tho emendation adopted here, in his edition of AIacbelh (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1951, pp. 125-6) says, 'My y e s s is "conic in, t.ime-server," an epithet appropriate to all farmers, who must serve Time in its changes of s e m n and caprices of weather, and to this farmer in its special sense of one who aclapls his conduct to the time with an eye to tho maiu chance .' 8 equivocator Presumably a reference to Henry Garnet, a Jesuit tried and condemned in 1600 for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot. After perjuring himself at the tirial, hc defended hi^ conduct on the grounds that equivocation was justifiablc in certain circumstances. 14 stealing hose Trousora (hose) made in the latest French style were so tighbfitting that the tailor got caught in trying to stcal cloth as he had done in making the larger ones formerly in fashion. There may be a pun on 'staling' (since s W i n g then had the same pronunciation), 'urinating.' 15 goose Possibly cont,inua the double entendre on stealing,sincs goose also meant a ~lwelling caused by venerecll &ease. @D Enter Macbeth The entrance of a character is frequently 107
TRAGEDY OF M A C B R T E , [I. S
indicated a few lines bcforo his first speech, to give him time to w d k across the large platform stage, and to give characters onstage the chance to sce him and comment on his arrival. 55-63 The night . shake In M&lh, as in many other plitp, Shakespeare mulrea ure of tho commonly hcld belief that dire portents and disorders h nature accompany disruptions of tho social order, such as tho tt.~sussimttion Duncan. of 93SD Enter Macbeth and Lennox F indicates a n entrance for Ross here, but i t is apparent later (TI.4.22 ff) t h t he has not visited Duncan's chamber. 09 vault Refers both to u mine cellar and to the earth, with tha dcy as a roof. 118 Unmannerly gore Tho blood makes unmannerly bwches for the daggers, whose proper breeches would be sheathes. 125-0 Where seize uslThat is, whore wo may be surprised by fate, ?idden in the smallest and least suspected place. 127-9 Our tears motion I'here has not been time yet to weep for our father's death nor to express our sorrow in action. 128 naked frailties All oxcept L m o x and h4acduff are in dressing gowns.
. .. ...
Act II, Scene 4
6 stage The frequent compu~:iaonof tho world to a stage (sce V.5.24-6) had a special appropriateness in the Elizabethan public thcatcr, whcre the canopy over the stage nvaacallod 'the hc~rvcns,' wWe the 'cellarage' beneath it often represented hell. 12 tow'ring place Technical terms in falconry: tauwring m a n s circling upward; place is the higheat point in the falcon's flight.
. . . better Unless my harm gocs fast enough to mako it unnecessary. 42-7 T make . . . safely thus Neither the lineation nor the o
Act ZII, S c m 1
punctuation of F mnlres good sense here. T i arrangement of hs h e s was suggested by ICeuneth Muir in hia edition of iKacbsth (London, Methuen, 1951).
NOTES. 111. 1
56-6 M y genius
. . . Caesar See Anlony and Cleo.nntm; JI.3.
131 perfect spy Macbeth apparently intends to send someone with these final pieces of information; i t is logical to assume that the Third Murtherer of Scene 3 is that person.
Act 111, Scene B
13 scorch'd Thaobald's 18th-century emendation, scotch'd, hm become familiar, but i unwarranted; i t is merely another spellir~g s of the same word. 39 copy May also mean lease, since 'copyhold' was a form of tenure. 43 shard-borne It is difficult to tell whether this meam 'dungbred' or 'borne on scdy wings.' The latter ,wri~? more probable in t h i s context, which calls attention to the beetle's flight, rather than to its origin. 50 bond The prophecy that Banquo's desccndtmts should tx kings.
Act I l l , Scene 4 4-6 Ourself state Thrones, covered by u canopy, are set up on a dais for the king and queen, probably on the inner stage. On the platform stage is the table for the guests. Macbeth means to sit there with them, while Lady Macbet21 mill stay on her canopied throne ('keep her state'). 13 Approaching the door Just as he is about to sit down, liscbeth sees the murderer a t the door upstage, some distance from the table, and goes over to confer with him. 3 4 4 The feast . welcome That is, a feast wherc the u s 4 courtesies of the host are omitted seems like H meal sold a t ztrl inn. 38SD Enter . . . Banquo The ghost may cnter a t anothcr door than t b t wherc hlacbeth hm been talking, or rise through a trap door beside the table. hiacbeth walla back toward the table, but does not a t once see the ghost. He first notes that his place is occupied (1. 47), then, recognizing Banquo, supposes that someone has perpetrated a grim practical joke. Simon Formnn, who saw ilfa;ð a t the Globe in 1611, seems to have been particularly Smprmed by this scene, which he describm in detail (see Appen-
T H E T R A G E D Y 0 1 7 M A C B E T I I . 111. 4
dix A). Ris statement that the ghost entered when Macbeth stood up to toast Banquo has puzzled some editors, but the explanation is simple. Forman apparently remembered the second appearance of the ghost (1. 88), when bhcbeth has finally gone to his place a t the table and proposed a toast. As he turns to sit down (1. 93), he aecs the ghost again. Forman's account shows alcarly that, although the ghost is invisible to all except Macbcth on tho stage, i t is intended to be seen by the audience. 38 remembrancer The word was used as a title for certain officers of the Exchequer, such as The King's Remembranccr. 68 stool The stool was the normal sest for rich and poor in
Elizabethan England. Chairs, which were very rare, were rcscrvcd for the high& ranking persons present. 71-3 If charnel houses kites That is, it may be d c r to let kites (birds of prey) eat dead bodica to prevent them Iron1 returning to haunt us. 101 Hyrcan Hyrank, south of the Caspian Sea, is often mentioned in classical literature as the habitat of tigers. 112-13 You owe You make mo feel unfamiliar with my own disposition. l19 Stand going Don't stand on ceremony, the correcd order of precedence, etc. 124 understood relations Relations as understood by a soothayer.
Act III, Scene 6 Scene 5 This scene was probably t~ddcd Thornas Middlcton by or some othcr contemporary of Shakespenre. The rjongs indicated in thc stage directions here and in N . l are found in full in Middleton's The Wilch. The exact relnt,ionship of the two plaj-s has never been. determined. See N . 1 . 3 9 4 3 N. 33SD Sing within The second part of this stage direction, Sing witk&r~, 'Cot?zeswat/, come away,' etc., is printed in F a t the end of I-Icccat's speech. This may indicate that the song is to conlinue after being interrupted by two spoken lines. Such an arrnugcrncnt js easy t o imagine, since thc song, as we have it f 2h Witch n ' (BI.3), 21in dialoguo form, beginning:
N O T E S , 111.
Come a-waay C m atmy: in ue air& Heccat: IJ&, Come awuv (See bfalone Society Reprint, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1950, p. 57.) Heccat answers, 'I comc, I come,' but she might very well give this answer after 11. 34-5, and then proceed with the rest of the song. Davenant arranged the stage business in this way in his adaptation, which was published in 1674 with the full text of the song. 34-5 Hark for me Heccat's words suggest that the attendant spirit appears in a car suspended on ropes and possibly wrapped in some light cloth (the 'foggy cloud'). At the end of the song Heccat gets into the car,and it is drawn up into 'the heavens.'
Act I I I , scene 6 Scene 6 In thie scene Lennox and t,he other Lord describe the results of the action against Macduff planned by Macbeth in 111.4. Macduff hns already had time to get to England, though the following scene, IV.1, supposedly occurs the day after III.4. There is no logical explanation for this discrepancy. 30 pray upon his aid Upon seems to have the force here of 'relying on.' Shakeapeare m a y have had in rnind the expression, 'pray in aid,' meaning 'claim msistance' (to which one has some right). 35 Free knives That is, free our feasts and banqucts from bloody knives. by the answer IiIacduff 43 clogs The messenger is embarrased makes him return; ha is fearful of l\hcbethls r m i i o n to it.
Act IV, Scene l 2 hedge-pig In 1.1 the Second mritch's familiar is a toad. 23 m u m m y Embalmed human flesh and powders or liquidv made from it, all known as tnummy, were used in medicihe and were also thought to havc great magical power. 23 maw and gulf Both words mean 'stomach'; gulf, by suggesting a yawning chamn, emphaaizcs the voracious appetite of the
l'HE T R A G E D Y O F M A C B R T H , I V , I
3SSD Enter Heccat Witches The appearance of EIecca~ and three more witches wns probably R non-Shskcspoarean addition to the play (sec 111.5 N). No exit is indicated for Hcccat, but since she has no lines after 1. 43, she probably leaves a t this point. The other witches may remain to join h1 the danco (doubtlea another addition) after 1. 131. 39-43 0, well done you put in These lines, lilce many in 111.5, nre iambic tetrameter, mhcrens the witches elsen~herc speak in trochaic tetrameter. This cliscrcpancy is orlc rcasorl for doubting lhat thcy originally belongetl in tho play. The reference to 'elvcs and fairies' also strilies a false note. 67SD First Apparition Each of Che thrce apparitions rises and t11c11 dcscends through a trap door, probably on the inner stage. The signif~cnnccof the Armed Ilead is disputable. Some have thought it prefigurcd tho head of Mncbcth, cut off by Macduff a t thc end of the play. It is morc likely that i t represents h!la.cduff, the adversary of whom 31acbetll i here told to beware. As Gcorge s Lyman Icittrcdge has pointed out in his edition OS ~lfacbeth(130ston, Ginn and Co., 1939, p. 189)' each of the other apparitions reprcscnts a person dangcrous to hlciachth; thc first apparilion should set the pattern. Iiittrcdge also notes that 'the F i s t A p paritidn should not reprcsent something that conles to pass later than the events foretold by the Second and Third.' 75SD Second Apparition Represents Nacduff: see V 7 4 - . ..45 85 SD Third Apparition The child is presumably Malcolm, holding a tree to represent the stratagem by which h army a p i pronches Dminane: s x V.4.4-7. e? 93SD Descend An imprctlivc verb is &ten used in Elizabethan stagc directions. 96 head Slacbeth presumably refers again to Macduff, whose 'armed hcad' is the one potenlial threat to his security. F's Rebellious dead has been interpreted by some as evidence that Mtlcbeth is thinking of Ertnquo, whom he mentions a t 1. 101; but Bebellious dead would seem to be plural, and, in any case, Banquo c m n o t well be called %ebellious.' It is more likely that head was mkt,altenly printad as dead. 97 Birnam The modern form of this name, suggested by F B m m a t its first mention (1. 02). has been kent throughout, ?l2
N O T E S , IV. 1
though l? spells it more often with a final n (as herc) or ne. Devirttions from F's spelling of the name are not elsewhcrc noted. 105 sinks that cauldron The cauldron is lowered by a machine through one of the trap doors. 110 SD A show of eight Kings The stage direction ss printed in F, -4shew of eight ICings, and Banq~lolast, with a ylavse in his hand, contradicts 1 118. where it is clear that the last king . carries the glass. Various rcconst~wtionsof the stage business havc been made, with corresponding emendaiions of the text. The emendation adopted here suits the following h-ypotheses: It seems like1y that the 1;ings enter a t one side of t he stage nl~d move across to the other in a dignified m d spectacular procession. They probably remain in sight, until 1. 123, where Unnyuo 'points at them,' afi.er which they may uanish with him in a stage mist, m thc witchcs do. Since they are all Brtnquo's descendants, he may precede ihem onto the stage, slnnditlg aside where Macbcth can note their resemblance to him (l. 111). Howevcr t.his show was staged, it is certain that it hacl a special topical importance ns a compliment to King Jnmcs, before ~rhorn the play was probably first given (sec 1-Ienr-y N. Paul, l'he Royal Play of Macbeth, h'ew yorlr, Macmillan, 1050. pp. 162-82, 317-31). The Stuarts claimed their descent from Banquo, and James was the ninlb Stuart sovereigp. His mothcr, R.Iary, Queen of Scots, whom Queen Elizrtbetl~forced t o abdicate, was the eighth. Faced with the delicate problem of presenting this controversial member of the family, Shakespeare may, as Paul suggests (p. 179) have created a deliberate arubiguity about the eighth 'Icing,' who may have appeared on the stage heavily shrouded and carrying the glass before his face. In this way various mernbers of the audience would be free to rtsslinlc that the mysterious figure represented ihc ill-fated lliary (the eighth %in& in the generic sense of the word) or her fortunate son (the eighth male sovercign), who could not, however, be plainly d o picted nrilhout lbse ~najestd. Shaliespeare may havc seen lhe drawing of the Stlit~rt genealogical tree published during i\.lary's lifetime in John 1,eslie's De Oriyine, hloribus, et Rebus Gestis Swtmcwt (Itome, 1578). showing tlie series of 'eight lcings' descended from 33anquo. On this tree, hlary is the eighth.
T H E T R A G E D Y OF MACBETPI,
118 glass Presumably a magic g h s in which the future cm be seen. 120 twofold scepters The ball is part of the royal rcgdia; twofold probably refers to England and Scotland, united under James; the treble scepters probably indicate that Janles is king of England, Scotltmd, and Ireland. . his welcome pay The nleter and the spisit 124-31 Ay, sir of these lines again seem out of Itceping. They wero probably added with the IIeccat material. 14-44 The flighty it Unless intentions are translated into deeds, they remain forever out of reach.
Act IV, Scene l ? 83 shag-hair'd Refers to the long, unkempl; hair of t.hc Elizabcthan niffian.
-4ct IV, Stem S 15 discern W d u f f may learn something about hlacbeth through hlalcolm's plight, and he may even learn the wisdom of betraying Malcolm to Mscl~ct~h. The unexpected suggestion of the latter part of the sentence makes it a t first obscure. Most editors change discern to deserve, but by this emcndation the second half of tho sentence ia cast adrift: &Iacdu££ doesn't deserve wisdom. 98-100 Pour earth Concord, peace, and unit11 have not only their general significance hero but also s special topical reference, since these were the avowed goals of James 1's foreign and domestic policy. 136-7 the chance . quarrel That is, may tllo chance of good fortune equal the justness of our cause. 142 stay his cure Edwarcl t<hcConfessor was thought to be i able to heal 'the king's evil' (scrofula) by h touch. The passage is presumably an indirect compliment to James T, who claimed the same healing power. 170 ecstasy Probably alludw to the sham fits of peoplc pretending to be 'pmssed.' Soveral such cases moro lrnow~lin Shakespeare's day. 221 dispute it Son~etimes fnterpreted as 'contend with your
NOTES, l\/. 9
sorrow,' but notice that Malcolm ha5 juat urged Macduff to express his sorrow (1. 209).
27 are The plural, though not strictly grammatical, ie probably due to the thought of the two eyes, both unseeing.
Act V , Scen.e 2
30 sovereign flower Suggests both 'flower of true sovereignty'
(m opposcd t o usurping weeds) and 'healing, restorative flower' (as opposed to noxious weeds).
Act V , Scene 3
21 cheer I n Shdtespcare's day, as st,illin many dialects, 'chair' had the same pronunciation. There i therefore a purl on 'chairt s
which relates cheer to dissed. 55 cyme Probably refers to thc 'cymcs' or t o p of the colewort, often taken as a cathartic. May be a misprint for 'cinne,' another spelling of 'selma,' also a c a t h ~ t ~ i c .
. . . arbitrate That is, opthistic specuhtioni
Act V , Scene 7
Act V , Scene 4
is mere wishful thinking; battle \vill decide the issucs.
The comparison is to the populat Elizabethan sport of bear-baiting, in which a bear, tied to a post;, wits attacked by dogs. A course was one round or bout. 13SD Exit Here, or possibly aft4cr 1.23, the body of Young Siward must be removed, for a t 1.73 wc learn that he hii.9 been *brought off the field.' Whet,her or not the body is still onstagc nlien hlncduff enters, it is clear that he does not see it, nor does taheelder Siward when he enters (1. 23). The elltire scene is an oxcellcnt example of the fluidity of ZXzabethan staging. Different locrtlities are sugested in rapid succession by the use of different parts of the stage. Macduff apparently enters a t some distance from the place where hlacbcth l u killed Young Silvud; when Malcolm and the elder Siwurd enter, they probably head l l&
. . . course
T H E T R A G E D Y O P MACBETFI. V. 7
for the inner stage, which may represent the gates of the castle; when Macbeth re-entei-S, zhe actioll is presumably away from the inner stage again. suggesting another part of the field of battle; the entrance a t 1. 63 may be in the inner stage to indicate that. it is inside the castle. Became of the size and the facilities of thc stage this panoramic action can be continuous and the pace rapid. 29SD Enter Macbeth Many editors begin a new sccne hcre, and some begin another new scene a t G3SD. The explanation in the preceding note should make it clcar why such Scene division was unnecessary in writing for the Elizabethan stage.
Test and Date
The Tragedie of Ilfacbeth was h t printed in the Folio of 1623, the First Folio. This is the only authorit.ative text, 3nd is convo quently the basis of the present edition. From the early 1Sth century to the present time many editors, feeling that the Folio text was seriously corn~pt, hare altered it extensi~rcly.The main rensons for this feeling are, first, that the play is abnormnlly ~ h o r t . suggesting that i t nrnscut; second, that certain passage!: preserit irlg Heccat (111.5; W.1.3943, 124-31), stylistically different from the rest of the play, seem to hare been interpolated: and, third, that the lineation of the play is often markedly irregular. Most critics agree that the shortness may be due in part to the special requirements of a court performance, but it cannot be proved that there was a much longer version which was drarqtically cut, as some have suspected. In fact, $tis difficultto imagine what of any importance is missing from the play as it stands. As A. C . Bradley pointed out long ago in his Sh1;csperrrea~z'I'ragcd?j (London, Macmillan, 1812, pp. 468-9): (1) 'tbere is no internal evidoncc of the omission of anything essentia.1t o the plot,' (2) Simoll Fonnan, who saw the play in l611 (see below) nzentions nothing we do not find in t.hc Folio; and (3) if extensive cuts were made, their location is extremely puzzling. The question is complicated by the virtual certainty that Shakespeare did not leave the play in its present form. The I-Ieccat passages, referred to above, not only stand out stylisticnlly, but seem to relate ,'liacbelh to The Witch, a manuscript play by Thomas illiddleton, in which I-Ieccat appears, singing two songs indicated in the fitngc dirertions of kfacbeth (111.5.33, IV.1.43). The exact relationship of these plays is uncertain, but i t is probable that someone, 110ssibly hliddleton himself, added the Heccat passages in the course of revising Shakespeare's play. Although this speculatiorl opens the further possibility that the entire play was substa~lt~itllly altered a t the time of this revision, a conservative vicar limits I,hc changes to the relatively brief interpolations. It is possible, then, that neither the first*nor the second renson 117
for suspecting widespread corruption is valid. Recent editom, such L L ~ J. Dover Wilson and Kenneth hluir, argue against the earlier, pessimistic view. The irregular lineation of the Folio, however, presents a difficult problem. If it is not due to the hand or an unslcillful reviwr, i t may be explained aa the fantasy of a compositor or as an indication of how the lines should be read. Though T do not brush wide thu possibility that the compositor (or a transcriber of the manuscript) reitrrangcd Shakespeare's lines, the alternative explanation seems to me to deserve more considerution than it has been given. For example, V i n l cites the end of 11.2 as a place where the compositom 'have obviously been in order In fill up their monkeying with the verse-lining colurnns.' It may be so, but can me bc certain thnt the Folio printbg does not indicate the pauses occasioned by the knockhg a t the gate and by the anxiety it souses in Lady hlacbet#hand Macbet&?A pause between Macbeth's last two lines seems a neaxssity, and in each of the other cases where thcae half-lines appcnr as ~eparate lines, a marked pawe might crente anrappropriatc effect. I tho half-lines are combined, as is r l ~ ~ a l done, the indication f ly of sucl~ cffeck is losL. EIcrc and in u few comparable situation^ I have retained the ecparato lines, but have introduced modern echnloning. Another cmmple of a sort of punctuation by lino division is provided try 111.2.22-3, which most eclitors pririt as onc line. This alteration not only obscures what may again be the indictlfion 01a pame, but suggests that ecstasy should be crowded into onu foot so as to ~nnlcc roam in the line for 'Duncan is in hiR gr~.ve.) they are printccl in Ihe li'olio, both of thcsc short lines LIB are mnr3e up of three feet, and the rhythm and meaning me better served by reading them in that way. Acccntuation is advcreely affected in another in~taxlce,111.1.77-8, printed by m o ~ odit
which held you So under fortune, which you thought had been O l ~ innocent self. r
1. 3facbeth, Cambridge, Cambridge Tl'niversity Prem, l%~$, pp. 00-1.
The Polio arrangement, reprinted in this test, mggeats the nccen. tustion :
Which you thought had been our innocent self. on This reading, with its heavy cmphs~is Macbeth's deceptive portrayal of himself, seems to me a good one; it is surely not hdicated by the alternative arrangcmcnt. One more instance of whut, may be punctuation by irregulnr lindivision is 11.1.8-10. It is natural for Banquo to pause after the word sleep before utteriug his anguished praycr. Though l. 9 hns ,piu feet ~ n 1 10 only four, d . no rcarrangen~entis entirely mt,isfactory, and the lincs as they stand correspond to a natural mukcnl phrasing. I n the face of such evidence we cannot assume that we shall be getting back to what Shakespeare wrote by rearranging the linca in the closest nppro~irnat~ion iambic pentameter. Since the conto trary assunlption, that the Folio is always right, is also unwarranted, each irrebmlarity must be considered ~eparntely. y aim M has been to reproduce the Folio lineation except where I could find no rcrison d'etre for an irrcgplsrity. or where ono could be corrected eaeily without altering tlic rhythm or meaniug. For example, the Folio prints I .3.133-5 t h u ~ :
This supernatural1 solliciting Cannot be ill; cannot be good. I ill? why hath it giuen me e a ~ n c of tsucmse, f ~
This division might be defended as logical, but no dnmnge i~ donc to a good rending ot the lincs by adding the f i r ~ foot of 1. 135 t o t the end of 1. 134, making then1 bold1 normal five-foot lines. 111 some insinnces, such as 111.1.86-92, the familiar modern rearrangement seems a definite improvement over the Folio's Penseless irregularity. Here is the pa~clage the Folio gives it: as
Macb. I did so: And went further, which is now Our point of second meeting. Doe you finde your patience so predominant, I n your nature, tbnt you can let this goe? Are you so Gospell'd, to pray for this good man,
And for his Issue, whose,heauie hand Hath bow'd you to the Graue, and begger'd Yours for euer? This erratic lineation in no way clarifies the mcaning of the pasa g e , nor does it correspond to any conceivable speech rhythm. In such instances I have reproduced a regularization of the lines. My conclusion is that the case against the irregular lineation of the Folio is not proven. In a large number of passages, therefore, I have preferrcd to nccepl the Folio arrsngcment as possibly deliberate and meaningful. While there is no guarantee that Shakespeare wrote the lines this way, there is nt least a fair chance that they were spoken this way, mliereas the regularizations often represent only the prosody of an 18th-century editor. The argument for the procedure I Iiuvc adopted is strengthened by the fact that conlparable irregularities of lineation occur in Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra, which are thought to have been set up from Shakespeare's own manuscripts. I should point out here that because I have not kept t.he modem regularizations, the line-numbering of this edition often differs olightly from that of the Globe edition, on which many references are based. In There is little obscurity in ~lfacbeth. a very few instances, where it seemed esseutial for the understanding of a passage, I have accepted emendations, recording the divergence from the Folio a t the foot of the page. I llave rejected two emendations which have become so familiar l.liut the original forms will shock many readers. Scorch'd (111.2.13) is a good word, and has been accepted by several modern cditorv in preference t o Theob~ld's unnecessary emendation, scotcl~'d. Thcobnld is also responsible for wezrd, instead of which I have kept weyard, the form occurring most often in the Zi'olio. The spclling weird never occurs there, and Theobald's diaeresis is nn unsatisfactory nleans of indicating She two syllables clearly rccluired by the metcr. Except in such instances as this, where a n nrchnic spelling is a necessnry izldica.;ion of pronunciation, I have used modern American spelling. In punctuating, I have tricd to give the modelv equivalent,^ of the Elizabethan marks. Thc first recorded performance of Macbcfh is that which the astrologer, Dr. Siiion Formnn, atotendedon April 20, 1611. Though his reference to 'women feiries or Nimphes' suggests that he re12c
freehed hie memory of the play by reading in Holinshed's Chronicle, his account of the performance is extremely interesting as showing what particularly struck one contemporary spectator: In Mnckbeth a t the glob2 1610 the 20 of aprill [Saturday". ther wits to be obserued firste howe Maclrbeth and Bsncko 2 noble men5 of Scotland Ridingo thorowe a wod the[r] stode befor them 3 women feiries or Nimphes And Saluted Mackbeth sayinge: 3 t y m vnto him. Haille mackbeth. king of CocIold for thou halt be a kinge but shalt beget No kinges. &c. then said Bancko W l a t all to mackbeth And nothing to me. Yes said the nimphcs Haille to thee Banko thou shalt beget kinges. yet be no kinge And so they departed & cam to the Courto of Scotland to Dunliin king of Scotes and yt was in the dais of Edward the Confessor. And Dunkin bad them both kindly wellcorn. And made hlackbeth forth with Prince of Northumberland. and sent him horn t o his own castell and appointed mnckbeth to prouid for him for he wold Sup with him the next dni a t night. BE did SOC. And mackebeth contrived to kill Dunkin. & thoronve the persuasion of his wife did that night Murder the kinge in his own Castcll bcingc his guest And ther were many prodigies seen that night & the dai before. And when RIack Beth had murdrecl thc kinge the blod on his handcs could not be mashed of by Any meam. nor from his wiues hsndes xliich handled the bluddi daggers i hiding them By which means n they became both moch amazed & aflronted. the murder being knouren Dnnkins 2 sonns fled the on to England the [other to] Walles to sauc thcm eelues. they beinge flod they viesc supposed guilty of the murder of thcir father which was nothinge soThen was Mackbeth. Crowned kinge and then he for fcare of Banko his old Companion that he should beget liinges but be no kinge him self. he contriued the death of Banko and caused him to he hfurdred on the way as he Rode The next night beinge at supper with his noblc men whom he had bid t o a feaste to the which also Banco ~hould haue corn. he began to speake of Noble Banco and to wish that he wer ther. And as he thus did standing vp to drincke a Carouse t o him. the ghoste of Barico came and sate down in his cheier behind him. And he turninge About to sit down dgain a w e the goete of banco which front,ed him so. that ho fell h to a great passion of fear & fury. Vtteringe many 121
mordos about his murder by which when they hard that Banm was Murdred they Suspected blackbet. Then Mack Dovo fled to England to the kinges Nonn. And time they ltuised an -Army and cam into scotlancl. and a t dun ston Ariyse over thrue blackbet. In the meantyme whille Nncdouee was in England Rlackhet slewe hlackdoucs wife & children. nud after in the battelle mackdoue slewe mnckbet. Obscrue Also howe Mackbetes quen did Rise in the night in her slcpe cPt walke and talked and confessed all cPr; the docter noted her wordes.7 That the performance seen by Forman was not the first is Buggeated by what see 3 to be topical tlllusions in the play t o events of 1606, such aa ttnu apparent reference to Garnet in 11.3.8. Macbcth may have been given a t Eampton Court before James I and liis royal guest, Christian IV of Denmark, on August 7, 1606; Shakespeare may even have written the play specifically for this oc~aaioil.~ From various b i b of evidence i t fieem most likely thnt Mucbctir, belongs to tlie year 1606. Any editor of Shfikcspenre is enonuously indebted t bii~ o pmdecessors. I wish t o aclmowledge in particillar my debt to Mark IIarvcy Liddcll (New York, Doublcday, Page, 1 3 ,Gcorgr, W) Lyo~un liittredge (Boston, Ginn, 1039), J. Dover Wilaorl (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1947), and lie~lnethMuir (London, hlethuen, 1951). I am grateful for innumerlrblc suggestions from the general editors of the Yale Shakespeare, Profes~ors Helgc 1.iiikeritz 2nd Charles T. Prouty. 2. 3. 4. 5. G. Miswritterl 'glod.'
- slip for '1611,' as is clear from other entries in the MS. 4
Represented by an astronomical sign for Saturn. It>alicized letters indicate errpamions of M S contractions. hfislvritten 'Codon.' 7. See~liacbeth, G, L. Kittredge, pp. 240-1; K. I<.Churned. hers, JVifliarn ShrJcespeare, 0-dord, Clarendon PZ'CBS, 1930, 2,
8. lIenry N. Paul, The Royal Play of Mucbeth (New York, hlacmillnn, 1960, pp. 317-31), adduces persuasive evidence to support this hypothesis.
Shakeepenre's chief source for Macbeth was the second edition (1M7) Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of Bnglnnrl, Scotland, of a.nd Ireland. The excerpts from 'The Historie of Scotland' printed below illu~trnte how Shakespeare put together details from vuriouq sections of this work. He obviou~ly read in the pages preceding the account of Macbeth about the murder of King Duff by Donrvald, and about the sleeplessness of IGng Kenneth, tormented by guilt after he had murdered his nephew:
But Donmald, not forgetting the reproch which his linage had susteined by the execution of those his kinsmen, whoma the king for 5 spectacle to the people had caused to be hanged,
could not but shew manifest tolicns of great griefe at home amongst hia familie: which his wife perceiuing, ceased not to trauell with him, till she vnderstood what the muse was of hie displensure. Which a t lengt4hwhen she had learned by his owne relation, she as ono that b'we no l e s e malice in hir heart towards the Icing, for the like causo on hir behalfe, than hir husbaud did for hie friends, counselled him (sith the liiug oftentimes vsed to lodge in his housc without anic gard about him, other than thc garrison of the castell, which was wholic t ~ his t commandement) t make him nxaie, and shewcd him the o meanes wherby he might soone~t accomplish it. Donwald thus being the more kindled in wrath by the words of his wife, determined to follow hir aduise in the execution of so heinous an act. Whervpon deui~ing with himelie for a while, which way hoe might best accomplish his curmed interrt, at length gat opportunitie, and sped h& purpow aa followetL. It chanced that the king vpon the daie before he purposecl to depnrt foorth of the castell, wr~s long in hi^ oratolie a t his pruicr~, nncl there continued till it was late in the night. At the last, co~nn~ing foorth, bc callcd such afore hhl M hr~dfaitt~fullic scrucd him in pursutc and apprehension of the rcbcls, and giuing ihem henrtie thanks, 1 0 bcstowe(1 lju~ldriehonorablc: gifts 1 123
amongst them, of the which number Donw~id was one, as he that had beene euer accounted a lilost faithlasll ssruant to the king. At length, hauing Lzlked with them a long time, he got him into his priuie chamber, onelie with two of his ch~mberlains, who hauing brought him to bcd, came foorth againe, ancl then fell to bankettirig with Donw:~lcl his wife, wlio had prepared and diuerse delicate dishes, and eundrie ~ o r t s drinks for thcir of rearc supper or collation, mherat t,hey sate vp so long, till they had charged their stomachs with such full gorges, tklat thcir hends were no sooner got to the pillow, but aslccpe they were so fast, that a man might haue remooued the chamber ouer them, sooner than to haue awaked them out of their droouken sleepe.
Tlicn Donwald, though he abhorred the act greatlie in heart, yet through instigation of his wife hee called fowe of his seruants m t o him (whomc he hod made priuie to his wicked intent before, and framed to his purpose nith large gifts) and now declaring vnto them, after urh:~tsort they should worke tlle fettt, they gladlie obeierl his instxuctions, & speedilie going about the murther, they enter the chamber (in which the king laie) a little before coclis crow, where they secretlie cut his throte as he lay sleeping, without nuic busliling at all: and immedintlie by a postenle gale t h y ctu.ied foorth the dead bodie into the fields
Donwald, about the time th:l:ttthe rnurt-her was in dooing, got h him r~moilgstthem that licpt L o watch, and so continued in conlpanie with them all the residue of the night. But in the morning when the noise was raised in the kings chamber how the l&g was elaine. his bodie conueied awaie, and the bed all bernied with bloud; he with the watch ran thilher, as though he had knowne nothing of the matter, and breaking into the cllamber. and firlding c:~kesof bloud in the bed, and on the floore about the c idea of it, he foorthnith slue the chamberleins, ss guiltie of that llei~ons murther, and tl~eil like n mad nlcn running to and fro, he ~qausacked euerie corner within Lhe cnstell, as though it had beene to haue seene if he might haue
found either the bodie, or anie of the murtherers hit1 in nnie
priuie place: but a t length c o m i n g to the posterne gatc, and finding i t open, he burdened the chamberleins, mhonlc he hnd slaine, wit,h all the fault, they hauing the keies of the gntes committed to their keeping all the night, and fhereforo it could not be otherwise (mid he) but that they mere of counsel1 in the committing of that most detestable nlurther. Finallie, such was his ouer earnest diligence in the seuere inquisition and trial1 of the offendors heerein, t.hat some of the lords began t o mislike the matter, and to smell foortk shrewd tokens, that he should not be altogither cleare himselfe. But for so much as they were in that count~rie,where he had the whole rule, what by reason of his friends and authoritie togithcr, they doubted to vtter what they thought, till time and placc sho~lld better scrue therevnto, and heerevpon got them R W S ~ C euerie man to his home. For the space of six moneths togithcr, after thisheinous murther thus conmitted, there appeered no sunno by day, nor moonc by night in anie part of the realmo, but still was thc skie couered with continuall clouds, and somctimes euch outragious winds arose, with lightenings ancl tempests, that thc people wcrc in great feare of present destruction.
Monstrous sights also tshatwere seene within the Scolish Icingdome that yeere were these: horsses in Louthian, being of singular beautie ancl sniitnesse, clid eate their o m e ficsh, and would in no \)rise taste anie other meate. I n Angus there nras a gentlewoman brought foorth a child without eies, nose, hand, or foot. There was a sparhawke also strangled by a n omle. Neither was it anie Iese voondcr that thc sunne, as before is said, was continuallie couered with clouds for six monethe space. But all men vnderstood that the abhonlinable murther (Pp. 150-2.) of king Dufle was the cause heereof
Thus might he seerne happie to all men, hauing the loue both of his lords and comnlons: but yet to hirnselfe he seemed most vnhappie, as he that could not but still liue in continuall feare, least his wicked practise concerning the death of 34alcolme M e shouici come to light and knowledge of the world. For so commetll it to passe, that such as arc pricked in conacicilce for 125
nnie secret offense conlmitted, hnue cuer an vnquiet mind. And (as the fame goeth) i t chanced that a voice was hoard m he was in bed in the night time to talic his rest, vttering vnto him these or thc like woords in cffcct: 'Thinke not K e m e t h that Ibe wicked slaughter of h'lnlcolme Du£fe by thee contriued, is kept secret fro111 the knowledge of the eternall God: thou art he that didst conspirc the innoccr~tsdeath, enterprising by traitorous menncs t o doo that t o thy neighbour, which thou wouldest haue reuenged by cruel1 p u n i s b e n t in anie of thy subiects, if it had beene offered to thy selfe. It shall therefore come to p s s e , that both thou thy selfe, nnd thy issue, through the iust veogennce of alniightie God, shall euffer woorthie punishment, to the infamic of thy house and fanlilie for euermore. For euen a t this present are there in hallti secret, prnctises to dispatch both thee and thy issue out of the wnie, that other msie iilioy t h i ~ kingdome which thou doost indeuour to assure vnto thine imue.' The king, with this voice being fitriken into g e n t dread and terror, passed that night without anie sleepo c o d n g in hie eies. (P, 158.)
Ten pages later corn- the story of Duncan's euccedon to t h e throiie :
N t c r Malcolme succeeded his ncphue Duncane the sonlle of his daughter Reatrice: for Malcollne had two daughters, the one which wati this Bwtrice, being giueil in maringe vnto one A b b e 118th Crinen, a man of g c a t nohilitie, and thane of the lles and west parts of Scotlnnd, bare of t h a t mariage thc foresaid Duncnne; the othcr callcc1 Donda, wa8 mniied vnto Sinell the thnne of Glammis, by n-horn she had issue one hlnkbeth n vnlinnt gentleman, and one that if he had not beene somewhat civell of nature, might haue beenc tllougl~t most woorthie the gnuenlenlcnt of a italmo. On the oLller part, Duncnne l v 9 . a ~so soft and gentle of nat,ure, that the people nished the ir~[!li~lations and muners of these two cousins to hauc becne so tempered and interchnngeablie Lestowed betwixt them, that whcrc the ol~o had too nluch of clemencic, and the other of cn~eltie, the meme vertue betwixt these two rtxtremities might haue reigned
A P P E N D I X II
by indifferent partition in them both, eo ehould Duncnne haue proued a woorthie king, and Malcbeth an excellent capteine.
Holinshed then gives a lengthy account of the rebellion of Makdowald (Shakeape:- re's 'mercilem hlacdonwald'), and the wars against Sueno of Norway and Canutc of England, in all of which Macbeth and Banquo fought victoriously for Duncan. The ttrce i ~ c t i o n ~ combined in the account given in 1.2. Next are conies the introduction of Macbeth's ambitiou for the throne: And thebe were the warns that Duncane had nith forrcn enimiea, in the seuenth ycere of his reigne. Shortlie after happened a strange and~couthwoondcr, which aftclward was the ciliiseof much trouble in the realme of Scotland, as ye shall aiter hearc. It fortuned as hklibeth and Banquho iournied ton-ards Forcs, wherc the ling lhen laic, they went sporting by the waie togithcr without other companie, saue onelie themseluee, pnesing thorough the woods and fields, when suddenlie in the middest of rt Inund, there met them three womcn in etrange and wild appnrcll, resembling creatures of elder world, whome when they trttentiuelie behcld, woonde~ing much a t the sight, the f i s t of them spake and said; 'All h:de Mnkbeth, thane of G:smmi~' (for he l1.d latelie entered into that dig~litie and oflice by the death of his father Sinell). The second of them =lid: 'Ertilt, AfakLeth t h m e of Cawder.' But the third mid; 'All hrtile h4akieth that heereafter shalt be king of Scotlmid.' 'Then Bunquho; 'What manner of women (saith he) are you, that seeme so little fauourable vnto me, whereas to my f e l l o ~ heere, bctjides high o6cce, ye a~signe tllm the kingdonle, n p pointing foorth nothing for me a t all?' 'Yes ( ~ i t h first of the them) we promke greater benefits tmto thee. than vnto him, for hc shall rcigne in deed, but with an vnlitckie end: neither shall he leaue anie issue bchhcl him to succeed in his place, where contrarilie thou in deed shnlt not r e i p e at all, but of thee thoec shull be borne which ~hnll gouerno tho Sco14ish kingdome by long order of conti~iualldescent.' Heren-ith the foremid womcn vcnishecl inlmediatlie out of their sight. This u-a8 r e p uted a t the firat but some vuhc fantaaticrtll iilusion by h4nck127
beth m d Banquho, insomuch t h a t 13snquho would call Mmkbeth in iest. king of Scotland; and hfackbeth agtline would call him in sport likewise, the father of n ~ s n i e kings. But afternrards thc common opinion was, Ihnt tlleee women were either the weird sistcm, that is ( a ye would say) the g o d d e ~ ~of sdestinie, ~ e or else some nymphs or feiries, indued with knowledge of pro-. phesic by their ~~ccromanticnll science, bicnuse e u e ~ i ething came t o passe as they had spolien. For shortlie after, the thane of Cnwder being condemned a t Fores of treason against the king conlmitted; his lnnds, liuings, and offices were giuen of the kings liberalitie to hlackbeth. The same night after, a t supper, Banquho iested with him and said; Now Mackbeth thou hnst obteined thofie thinga which the two former sisters prophesicd, there remaineth onelie for thee to purchase that which the third said should come to passe. Whel.cvpon Mackbeth reuoluir~gthe tohingin his mind, began euen then to deuisc how he might atteine to the kingdome: but yet he thought with hirnselt'e that he must tarie a time, which should aduance him thereto (by the diuine prouidence) rta it had come to passe in his former preferment. But shortlio after it chanced that king Duncane, hauing two sourlee by his w f ie which was the daughter of Siwarcl earle of Northumberlmd, he made the elder of them called Iblnlcolme prince of Curnberland, as i t mere thereby to appoint him his successor i the n kingdome, immediatlie after his decease. lfackbeth sore troubled herewith, for that he saw by tlris means his hope sore hindered (where, by the old ]awes of thc realme, the ordinance was, that if he that should succeed were not of able age to take the clinrge vpon himselfc, hc thtit was next of bloud v ~ l t o him should be adnlitted) he began to take cou~~sell he might how vsurpe the kingdome by force, hauir~g iust quarell so to doo n (as ha tooke the matter) for that Duncane did what in him lay to delraud him of all maner of title and c l h e , which he might in tirrle t o come, prctend vllto thc c r o n e . The woords of the three weird ~isters also (of wlio~n before ye hsue heard) greatlie incouraged him h e r m t o , but specinllie his wife lay sore vpon him to attempt the thing, as she that m m
verie ambitious, burning in mquenchable desire to benre the
name ol a queenc. At length therefore, communicating his purposed intent with his tmstie friends, amongst whome Banquho was the chicfcst, vpon confidence of their promised aid, he ~ l u e the lcing a t Enuerns, or (m some say) a t Botgosuane, in the sixt yenre of his reigne. Then hauing a companie about l h of such as he had made priuie to his enterprise, he caused himselfe to be proclamed king, and foorthwith went vnto Scor.e, where (by common con.sent) he receiued the inuasture of the kingdome according to Ihe accustomed maner. The bodie of Dunmnc IVW Grst conueied vnto Elgine, & there buried in kinglie wise; but afte~wnrds was remoued and conueied vnto Colmeit kill, and there laid in a sepulture amongst his predecessors, in the yeare after the birth of our Sauiour, 1046. hIalcolme Canmore and Donald Bane the sons of king Duncam, for feam of their liucs (which they might well know that Mackbeth would seeke to bring to end for his more sure confirmation in the estate) fled into Cumberland, where M a l c o h remsined, till timc that saint Edwnrd the sonne of Ethelrcd qrccoucrcd the dominion of England from idheDanish power, the which Edward receiued hlalcolme by may of most friendlie entertcinment: but Donald pawed ouer into Ireland, rn11er.e he wau tenderlie cherished by the king of that land. Mnckbeth, after the departure thus of Duncanes sonnes, vsed great libcrrtlitie towards the nobles of the realme, thereby to win their fauour, and when he saw that no man went about to trouble him, he set his whole intention to mainteine iustice, and to punish all enormities and abuses, which had chanced through the feeble and slouthfull administration of Duncane. (Pp.
After Holinshed has described some good lams passed by Mncbeth a t the beginning of his reign, he continues: These and the like commendable lawes hlakbeth c a u ~ e d be to put as then in vse, gouerning the realme for the space of ten yeares in equal1 iustice. But this was but a counterfet zeale of equitio shewed by him, partlie against his natural1 inclination 129
to purchase thereby the fauour of the people. Shortlie after, he began to shem what he was, in ~ t of dequitie practising crueltie. For the pricke of conscience (as it chanceth euer in tyiStinis, and such as atteine to nuie estate by vnrighteou~ nlcuns) caused him euer to Ce:ire, least he should bc ~ e r u e d oi the stwne cup, as ho had mini~tl'cdtO hi8 preclece~sor. l'he woords also of thc thrcc weird sistera, would not out of his mind, which as they promked him thc kingdomc, so likewiw did they promiso i t a t the same time vnto the postcritic of Banquho. He d l e d therefore the same Banquho with his soilnc nn~nedFleance, to come t o n supper that he had preparcd for them, which was in deed, as he ]lad deuised, present rleattl n t tllc hands of certeine murde~.crs, whom he l h d fo exccutc that dccd, appointing them to meete with the same Banquho and his s o m e without the palace, as they returned to their lodgings, and there to slca them, so that he would not hauc house slandered, but that in time t o comc he might clenrc himsclfe, if snie thing were lnid t o his charge v p o ~ anie suspicion thut might arise.
I t cllanced yet by the benefit of the darke night, that though the father were slrrinc, the Bonnc yet by the helpe of almightie God reseruing him to better fortunc, escaped that danger: and aftemztrds hnuing some inkeling (by the admonition of sonle friends which he had in the court) how his life nrmsought no lesw than his fathcrs, who was slaine not by chancemecllie (as by the handlii>gof Ihc rnntter klakbeth woould hsue h:~di t to uppeare) but eucn vpon n prepensed deuise: whcrevpon to auoid further perill he fled iuto FtTales. (P. 172.)
An account of the Stuurt d y n a ~ t ~ y follows. Shakespenrc, n t a comprzrnble point in his play, iutroducea the 'show of eight kings.' Holinshed then describes how Macbeth became suspicious of Macduff:
Neither could he afterwards abidc to looke vpon the said hlilskduffel either for that he thought his puissance ouer great; either else for that he had learned of certeixle nizz2~rds, n~ho.w in words he put great confidence (for that the prophesie had happened
so right, which the three faries or weird Bisters had declared vnto him) how that he ought to tako heed of hfakdufle, who In time to come should seeke to destroie him.
And suerlie herevpon had he put hlalcduffe to death, but that EL certeiuc witch, whom hee had in great trust, had told that he should ncuer be slainc with m m borne of anie woman, nor vanquished till the wood of Belvsne came to the castell of Dunsinune. By this prophesie hfakbcth put all feare out of hi3 heart, suppo.siug he ]night doo wllnt he mould, without anie feare to be punished for t.he same, for by t.he one prophesie he beleeucd it was npossible for anie man to vanquish him, and by the othcr vn~~o~~i,sible him. This vairlc hope cnused to slea him to doo manic outrqious things, to the grecuous oppression of h k subiect3. At length hIakdu£fe, to nuoid pcrill of life, purposed wit11 himsclfe t o passe into England, to procure hlalcolme Cammore t o claime the crownc of Scotland. But this was not YO secretlie deuised by h4akd&e, but that RXakbeth had knowledge giuen him thereof: for kings (as is said) hauc sharpe fiight like vnto Lynx, and long ears like vnto hlidas. For hl:tkbeth had in euerie noble mans house one slie fellow or other in fee with him, to reuesle all that was said or doone within the same, by which slight he oppressed the most part of the uobles of his realme. Immediatlic then, being aduertised whereabout hictkduffe went, he cumc hastily with n great power into Fife, ancl foorthwith besieged the cnstell where hinkduffe dwclled, t,rusting to haue found him thcrcin. They that kept the houw, without anie resistance opened the gates, ancl suffered hirn to enter, mistrusting none cuill. But ncucrt,heless hIitkbeih most cruellie c a u ~ e d wife and children of Malrduffe, with all other whom the he found in that castell, to be alainc. Also he confiscated the goods of hlakduffo, proclan~cdhim traitor, and confined him out of all tlle parts of his rcrtlme; but Rlekduffe Fas alreadie escaped out of danger, and gotten into England vnto ~lalcolme Csmmore. to trie what purchme Lee might make by means of his support, t reuenge the slaughter RO cniellic executed on his o wife, his children, and other friends. At his conlrning vllto filal131
colme, he declared into what great miserie the estate of Sc& land was brought, by the clehstable cruelties exercised by the tyrant Makbeth, hauing committed munio horrible slaughters a,nd murders, both as well of the nobles as commons, for the wllicll he was hated right mortallie of all his liege people, de~ i r i n gnothing morc than to be deliucred of thnt intollerable allcl most heauie yoke of tlualdome, which they ~wteined t a such a caitifes hands. Malcolme hearing Makduffc's woords, which he vttered in vcrie Inmentable sort, for rnccre comnpassion ancl verie ruth that pearsed his sorowfull hart, bemrailing the miserable sta.te of his cnuntrie, he fetched a deepc sigh; which AIakduffc perceiuing, began t o fall most earnestlie in hand with him, to enterprise the deliucring of thc Scotisll peol~le of the hands of so cruel1 out and bloudie a tyrant, as Mttlibetlz by too mnnie plaine expertmente did shem himselfc to be: which was an easic matter for him t o bring to passe, considering not onelie the good title he had, but also the earnest desire of the people to hnue some occasion ministred, wl~crcbytbcy might be reuengcd of those notable hliuries, which they dailie susteined by the outragious crueltie of lklakbeths misgouernnnce. Though h'Ialcolmo was verie sorodull for the opprcesion of his countricn~cn Scots, the in maner as IvIakduffe had declared: yet doubting whether he wcre come as one t h i ~ morlt vnfcinedlie as he spalrc, or else as t sent from JIakbeth to betrnie him, hc thought to hauo some further triall, and tllcrevpon dissembling his mind a t the first, he answered as followeth.
'I run trulie verie sorie for the miserie chanced t o my countrie of Scotland, but though I haue neuer so great affection to reI b i e the same, yet by rcnsou of certeilie incurable vices, which reigne in me, I am nothing meet thcreto. First, R U C ~ immosensutllitie (the abhominable founderate lust and voluptuou~ t e h e of all vices) followelh rne, thnt if I were made king of Scots, I should seeke to deflourc your maids and n~atrones, in such wise that mine intemperancie should bc more importabla vnto you than the bloudie tyrannie of Makbeth now is.' Heerevnto 11Iakduffe answered: 'll.'llis suerlie is a vcrie criill fault, for
manie noble princes and lcings haue lost both liues and ]ringdomes for the same; neuerthelease there are women enow in Scotland, and therefore follow my counsell. Make thy selfe king, and I shall conueie the matter so wiselie, that thou shalt be so satisficd a t thy pleasure in such secret wise, that no man shall be aware thereof.' Then said hlalcolnie, 'I am also the most auaritious creature on the ezrth, SO that if I were king, I should seeke so manie waieu to get lands and goods, that 11mould slea the most part of all the nobles of Scotland by ~urlnizedaccusations, to thc end I might inioy their lands, goods, and possessions; and therefore to shew you what luischiefe may insue on you through mine vnsatiable couetomnes, I will rchearsc vnto you a fable. with a There was a fox hauing a sore place on him ouer~et swarme of flies, that continuallie sucked out hir bloud: and when one that came by and s,zw this manner, demanded whether she would haue the £lies driuen beside hir, she answered no: for if these flies that me alrendie full, and by reason ihereof suclie not verie egerlie, should bc chased awaie. other that are cmpt,ie and fellie m hungred, should light in their places, and ~ u c k e the residue of my bloud farre more t o my greeuance out than these, which now being satisfied doo not much annoie me. Therefore' saith &Ialcolme, 'suffer me to remnine where I am, least if I atteine t o the regiment of your realme, mine vnquenchable auarice may prooue such; that ye mould thinke the displcasurcs which now grieua you, should seeme eltsie in respect of the vnmeasurable outrage, which might insce through my comming amongst you.' MakduEe to this made answer, how it was afar moorse fault than thcot.hcr :'for auariccis the rootof all nGschiefe, andforthat crime tohemost part of our kings haue beene slake and brought to their finall end. Yet notvithstanding follow my couneell, and take vpon thee the crowne. There is gold and richea iuough in Scotland to satisfie thy greedie desire.' Theu said IkIdcolrue againe, 'I am furthermore inclinecl t o dissimulation, telling of leasings, and all other kinds of dcceit, so that I naturnl!ie reioise in nothing so much, as to betraie & decciue ~ u c h put as
anie trust oi confidence in nly moords. Then sith there is nothing that more becoxnmeth a prince than constnncie, veritie, truth, and iustice, with the other laudable fellowship of those fairc! and noble vertues which nre comprehcrtded onelic in soothfastncsse, and that lieilg vtterlie ouerthroweth the same; you see how vnnble 1 am to gouerne anie prouince or region: and therefore sith you haue remedies to cloke and hide all the rest of my other vices, I praie you find shift to clokc this vice amongst the residue.' Then said Rlakduffo: 'This yet is the woorst of nil, and theie I leaue thee, and therefore saie; Oh ye vnhappie and miserable Scoti~hmen, which are thua scourged with so manic and sundrie calamities, ecll one iibouo other! Ye haue one cumscd and wicltcd tyrant that now reignoth ouer you, witl~outanie riglit or title, oppressing you with his most blouclio cnieltie. This other that bath the right to the crome, is so rcl~let with the inconstant bebuiour and manifest vices of Englishmen, that he is nothing woorthic to iuioy it: for by his omnc co~fession he is riot onelie a u t ~ r i t i o ~ i ~ , giucn to vnmtinl~lc and lust, I>utso false a traitor withull, that no trust is to bc had vnto anie woord he speakcth. Atlieu Scotland, for now I account my aelfe a banished man for euer, without comfort or consolation' : and with those ~voordsthe bracliish tears tricltlcd d o m e I I ~ H cheekes verie abunduntlic. At the last, when Ilc! mrlu readio to dcpart, lLIalcolmc tmke hirn by thc sleeue, and snitl: 'Bc of good comfort Mnltduffe, for I haue none of these vices before remembred, but haue iested with thcc in this manner, onelie t40prooue thy ~nindfor diuersc : tinles hceretoforc Iiath Malibcth sought by this lnitnncr of meanes to bring me into hia hands, but the more slow I hsuc henred my selfe to conde.scend to thy notion and request, thc more diligence ~ h d I v6e in accomplishing the flame.' hconl tinentlie heerevpon they i m b r a t ~ d ech other, nnd promising t o be faithful1 the onc to the other, they fell in consult:~tiol~ how Lhcy might best proui.1~ all their busincwc, to bring for the snnle to good effect. Snonc after, hlakduffo repairing to the borders of Scotlsntl, : ~ d ~ l ~ ~ liis s c d with uecrct dispatch e ~ Icttcm
vnto the nobles of the realme, declaring how hlalcolme
confedernt with him, to come hastilie into Scotland to c l a h e the crolme, nnd therefore hc required them, sith he WILYright inheritor thereto, to assist him with thcir powers to recouer thc same out of the hands of the wrongfull vsurper. In the menne time, hfalcolme purchased such fauor at king Edwnrds Iianh, that old Siwnrd earle of Northwnberland w:w appointed with ten thousand men to go with him into Scotlanti, to R U P ~ O I % him in this enterprise, for recouerie of his right. ,4fter these newes were spread abroad in Scotland, the noblc~ drew into two seucrall factions, the one taking part with hlakbeth, and the other with Malcolme. Heerevpon insued oftentimes sundrie bickering, & diuem light skirmishes: for those that mere of Malcolmes side, would not ieopard to ioine wit11 their enimies in a pight field, till his conmling out of England to their support. But after that Malrbcth perceiued his enimic~ power to increase, by such aid as came to them foorth of Eng. land wit4h aduersarie hialcolme, he recoiled backe into Fife, his thc!re pu~y~osing abide in campc fortified, a t the castell of to Dunsinane, and to fight with hi^ enimies, if they ment t pursue o him; howbeit some of his friends nduised him, thst i t should be best for him, either to make some agreement with Rlalcolmc, or else to flee with all speed into ttle I l e ~and to take his tl-ea* , ure with him, to the end he night wage sundrie great prince8 of the realme to talre h s part, & retehc strangers, in whome he i might better trust than in his o m e subiects, which stale dnilie from him: but he had such confidence in his prophcoies, that, 1 c hc!lecued he ~hould 1 neuer be vanquidled, till Birnane mood mere brought to Dunsinane; nor yet to be slaine with anie man, that should be or was borne of anie woman. hlnlcolme followil~ghastilie after Makbeth, came the night, before the battcll vnto Birnane wood, and when his arnlie had rested 1~ while there to refresh them, he commanded euel-ie man to get a bough of some tree or other of that wood in lris hand foorth therewith in such as big as he might beare, and to rn~irch wise, tlmt on the next morrow they nlight come closelie txrtd without Gight in this manner within viewe of his enimies. On
the morrow when RlIakheth beheld them cornming in this sort, he first rnaruelled what the matter ment, but in the end remernbred himselfe that the prophesie which he had heard long before t h a t time, of thc coinnling of Binmne woo(i to Dunsinane castell, was likelie to be now fulfilled. Neuerthelessc, he brought his nlen in order of b:lttell, and exhorted them to doo valiantlie, howbei'i his enimies had scmselie cast from them their boughs, when h'lakbeth perceiuing their numbers, betoolre him streict to fligl~t,whom Makcluffc pursued with g e a t hatrcd euen Cill he came vnto Lunfnnnaine, where Mukbeth perceiuing that Makduffe was hard a t his backe, leapt beside his horse, saieng; 'Thou traitor, what meanetli it that thou sllouldest thus in vaine follow me t h a t a m not appointed to be s1:line by snie creut,ure that is borr~o n wornan, come on thcreCore, mcl reof ceiue t h y reward which thou h:~stdeserued for thy pnines,' and therewithall he lifted vp his swoord thinking to haue slaine him. But Makduffe quicklic nuoiding from his horssc, yer he came in a t him, mswered (with his naketl ~woord his hand) aaicng: 'It is t ~ ~ u~!lttlcbeth, now shall thine in~ati:lble c, nncl crueltie h:tuc an end, for I a m euen Ile that thy wizzards h:~uctold thee 01, who wns neuer borne of my mother, but rippc?d out of her wornbe': t.herewithal1 1le stept vnto him, and slue him in the placc. Then cutting his head fro111 his shoulders, he set it vpon a pole, and brought it vnto bInlcolme. This was the end of h%nltbetll,after he hncl reigned 17 yccres ouer tho Scotishmen. I n thc beginning of his reigne he accomplished marlie woorthie acts, verie prc3tnble to the common-wealth (as ye h u e heard), but aftel.~vardby illusion of the diuell, he defamed the same with nlost terrihlo crt~eltio.He was slaine in t*heyeere of the incarllution 1057, a ~ t d the 1 6 yeere of king Edwardu reibme in ouer thc Englishmen. (Pp. 174-6.)
Any reader of these cxcerl~ts observe t h a t Shakespeare d will o parts notably from I-Iolin~hed depicting the characters of Macin beth and Lady SZacbeth. I-lolinsl~ecl's description of Don wald and his wife does not accounl for the departure, and il, may be that of Shakespeare was influenced by other llistorian~ Scotland. Sevl eral scholnrs, 1Icnr.v P ~ umost recently, have suggested that he
was familiar with the Latin Remm Scoticarum Historia (1582) by George Buchanan, whose portrayal of h*lncbeth and Lady h~lnobeth differs considerably from that of Holinshcd. The nature of the difference may be seen £mm the folloning brief excerpts in Paul's translation :1
For hlacbeth had keen intelligence, wa.s absolutely high minded and desirous of great things; had moderation been given to him he would have been worthy to exercise power howsoever great.
By this dream [in Buchanan the meeting with the witches occurs in a dream] his mind, sick with desire and hope, was so profoundly stirred that he kept turning over with himself all the ways for obtaining the kingdom. [Even before the dream he] cherished in his miud a hidden hope of Lcing king,
His mind, bold enough of itself, was spurred on by the almost daily taunts of his wife, who shared all of his plans.
The stings of the king's murder clrove his overwrought mind to a precipice, as he turned his rule gained by perfidy into a cruel tyranny.
1. See Paul, pp. 213-17; Buchanan, pp. 72-3.
A. C. Bradley, 'Jfacbeth,' Slcoksspearam Tragady, London, Maomillan, 1904. C. Brooks, 'The Naked Babe and the Cloak of Manlineas,' The Me Wrought Urn, New York, Reynal and Hitchcock, 1947. rU T. De Quincey, 'On the Ihoclcing at tllc Gate in Macbeth' (1823), A!tisceUuneoua Essays, Boston, 1851. W. Farnham, 'Macbelh,' Shahpeure's Tragic Frontier, Berkelcy, University of California Press, 1950. F. F e r g u ~ o n ,'Macbeth as the Imitation of an Action,' English Institute Essav8 1961, New York, Columbia University Preas, 1952. G. W. Knight, 'Brutus and &lacbe th' and 'Mucbeth and the >%etaphysic of Evil,' The Wheel of Fire, Oxford, Odord University Press, 1930. L. C. E g h t a , "How Many CWdren Httd Lady Rlacbeth," Exphations, New York, Stewart, 1947. H. N. Paul, The Royal Play of ,4fachcth, New York, Macmillan. 1960. E. E. Stoll, 'Macbeth,' Art and Artifice in S h a h p m e , Cambridge, Cambridge University Preea, 1938. E. nil. 1' Tillyard, 'dladeth,' Shakaptxare's Iliatory Pluys, New %. York, Macmillan, 1946. R. Walker, The Time Is Free, London, Andrew Dakera, 1949.
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