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Medical Bacteriology

Medical Bacteriology

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Published by: SorinaLucia on Jun 21, 2012
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03/08/2015

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Bacteremia is defined as mere presence of bacteria in blood. It
occurs in normal person after invasive medical procedures. The
organism which causes bacteremia are less virulent and usually
cleared from blood with in 3o min.
Complications of septicaemia
. Infective endocarditis
. Endotoxic shock
. Acute pyogenic meningitis
. Septic arthritis

Infective endocarditis

1. Acute endocarditis
. It occurs in normal and abnormal heart valves and tissues with
fulminant course resulting in death in six weeks time if not treated.
Etiologic agent: S. aureus

S. pyogenes
S. pneumoniae
N. gonorrhea

2. Sub acute endocarditis
. It occurs in acquired or congenitally damaged heart valves with
less fulminant course resulting in death after six weeks if not
treated.
.Etiologic agent: Viridans streptococci
Enterococci

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S.epidermidis
S.aureus
S.epidermidis

Laboratory diagnosis:
Specimen: Blood
. Amount needed is 2ml for a child and 10 ml for an adult to give
1:10 dilution of the specimen.

Culture: Blood culture
. Blood culture bottle should have 18 ml and 90 ml of broth for a
child and an adult respectively.
NB: Numbers of culture required are 3-6 with in 24 hrs.
Time of incubation of blood culture is 7 days and subculture is done
in first, third and seventh day of incubation.
If the appearance of blood culture is changed to cloudy, it indicates
bacterial growth.

Interpretation of results

• Positive bacterial growth in three of blood culture broth -----
Definitive diagnosis
• Positive bacterial growth in two of blood culture broth-----
Probable diagnosis
• Positive bacterial growth in one of blood culture broth-----
Contamination

Common contaminants of blood culture

S. epidermidis
Corynebacterium spp.
Bacillus spp.

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Treatment: Antibiotic should be started after collection of the
specimen.
Medication should be given intravenously based on 'best guess
basis'.

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