Arabic Alphabet

Learning the Arabic alphabet is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. Without it, you will not be able to say words properly even if you know how to write those words. The better you pronounce a letter in a word, the more understood you will be in speaking the Arabic language. Below is a table showing the Arabic alphabet and how it is pronounced in English, and finally examples of how those letters would sound if you place them in a word. End of the word Middle of the word ‫ـا‬ ‫ـبـ‬ ‫ـتـ‬ ‫ـثـ‬ ‫ـجـ‬ ‫ـحـ‬ ‫ـخـ‬ ‫ـد‬ ‫ـذ‬ ‫ـر‬ ‫ـز‬ ‫ـسـ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫بـ‬ ‫تـ‬ ‫ثـ‬ ‫جـ‬ ‫حـ‬ ‫خـ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ز‬ ‫سـ‬ Beginning of the word

Sound ʾ/ā b t ṯ j ḥ ḫ (kh, x) d ḏ (dh, ð) r z s

Example 'a' as in 'father' 'b' as in 'bed' 't' as in 'tent' 'th' as in 'think' 'j' as in 'jam' Sharp 'h' 'ch' as in German 'Bach' 'd' as in 'deer' 'th' as in 'there' 'r' as in 'run' 'z' as in 'zoo' 's' as in 'sit'

‫ا‬

‫ا‬ ‫ا‬

‫ـا‬

‫ـ‬ ‫ـب ب ب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـت ت ت‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـث ث ث‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـج ج ج‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـح ح ح‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـخ خ خ‬ ‫خ‬

‫ـد د د‬ ‫د‬ ‫ـذ ذ ذ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ـر ر ر‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ـز ز ز‬ ‫ز‬
‫ـ‬ ‫ـس س س‬ ‫س‬

End of the word ‫ـ‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ـشش ش‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـص ص ص‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـض ض ض‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـط ط ط‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـظ ظ ظ‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـع ع ع‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـغ غ غ‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ـف ف ف‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـق ق ق‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـك ك ك‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـل ل ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـم م م‬ ‫م‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـن ن ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ـه ه ه‬ ‫ه‬

Middle of the word ‫ـشـ‬ ‫ـصـ‬ ‫ـضـ‬ ‫ـطـ‬ ‫ـظـ‬ ‫ـعـ‬ ‫ـغـ‬ ‫ـفـ‬ ‫ـقـ‬ ‫ـكـ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـمـ‬ ‫ـنـ‬ ‫ـهـ‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـيـ‬

Beginning of the word ‫شـ‬ ‫صـ‬ ‫ضـ‬ ‫طـ‬ ‫ظـ‬ ‫عـ‬ ‫غـ‬ ‫فـ‬ ‫قـ‬ ‫كـ‬ ‫لـ‬ ‫مـ‬ ‫نـ‬ ‫هـ‬ ‫و‬ ‫يـ‬

Sound š (sh) ṣ ḍ ṭ ẓ ʿ ġ (gh) f q k l m n h w y

Example 'sh' as in 'shut' 's" as in 'sold' 'd' as in 'bulldozer' 't' as in 'Tazmania' 'th' as in 'those' 'a' in 'agh' when suprised 'r' as in 'Paris' 'f' as in 'free' 'q' as in 'Qum' 'k' as in 'king' 'l' as in 'lift' 'm' as in 'moon' 'n' as in 'net' 'h' as in 'house' 'w' as in 'wonder' 'y' as in 'yellow' 'o' as in 'oh'.

‫ـو و و‬ ‫و‬
‫ـ‬ ‫ـي ي ي‬ ‫ي‬

‫ء‬

Top vowel

َ ‎ ُ ِ ‎

a

Sounds like 'a' in Alabama Sounds like 'o' in Open Sounds like 'I' in India

Top vowel

u

Bottom Vowel

i

The Arabic alphabet is written from right to left. It has no capital letters. (Originally Eurpoean alphabet didn’t have capitals either, the Roman alphabet, from which we got ours, existed out of what we now call capital letters, the Capitalis Quadrata. There was also a handwritten script derived from the

Capitalis Quadrata, used by the roman soldiers and merchants. Only during the Middle Ages under Charles the Great, capitals where introduced). The Arabic script is called a running script. In Latin script there is the option to write the letters separate or attached to each other, In Arabic however you are forced to write most of the letters attached and some not. In Latin script when a word doesn’t fit on a line, you split the word up into syllables and break it on that, in Arabic that is not possible. So instead of braking the word into syllables making the word smaller as to fit on a line they make the word bigger by extending the letter, like so ‫“ أنا أكب لك رســـالة مملوء بالحــــــــــــــــــــــــــــب‬Ana aktub lak risalatan mamlu’a bil-hhub I write you a letter ful of love. Some Arabic letters are almost impossible to pronounce, like the hh (a hot h as if you are cleaning a mirrors, or like if you eat hot sambal and your throat is on fire) the 3 as if you burb or like in English “I say” with a cracking voice and the q which is pronounced very deep in your throat with your huig. The g is like our Dutch g in Scheveningen. The glottal stop lik in English Cooperation or in Cockney bo’lle is also a letter in Arabic.

The Arabic Alphabet: Vowels
Name Character Explanation Damma is an apostrophe-like shape written above the consonant which precedes it in pronunciation. It represents a short vowel u (like the "u" in "but"). Wāw is the long vowel ū (like the "oo" in "moon"). It also represents the consonant w. When Waw is used to represent the long vowel, damma appears above the preceding consonant. Fatha is a diagonal stroke written above the consonant which precedes it in pronunciation. It represents a short vowel a (a little like the "u" in "but"; a short "ah" sound). Alif is the long vowel ā (a long "ahh" sound as in English "father"). Kasra is a diagonal stroke written below the consonant which precedes it in pronunciation. It represents a short vowel i (like the "i" in English "pit"). Ya' is the long vowel ī (like the "ee" in English "sheep"). It also represents the consonant y. When Ya' is used to represent the long vowel, kasra appears above the preceding consonant. Pronunciation Example Transcription

Damma

5 ُ

u

ž ‫بت‬

but

Wāw

‫و‬

ū

ž ‫بوت‬

būt

Fatha

َ5 ‫ا‬ ِ 5

a

‫ت‬Ÿ‫ب‬ ‫بات‬ ‫بت‬

bat

Alif

ā

bāt

Kasra

i

bit

Ya'

‫ي‬

ī

‫بيت‬

bīt

Sukūn

5 ْ

Shadda (or tashdīd)

5 ّ

Whenever a consonant does not have a vowel, it receives a mark called a sukūn, a small circle which represents the end of a closed syllable (CvC or CvvC). It sits above the letter which is not followed by a vowel. Shadda represents doubling (or gemination) of a consonant. Where the same consonant occurs twice in a word, with no vowel between, instead of using consonant + sukūn + consonant, the consonant is written only once, and shadda is written above it.

ž ¡ ‫بنت‬

bintu

Ÿ ‫ب¢ت‬Ÿ‫ث‬

thabbata

English Pronouns Pronouns I you he she we they me you him her us them my your his her our

Arabic Pronouns Ÿ ¢ ¡ ‫ - الضمائر‬althamaa'er ‫ا‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa ¡ ‫نت‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aant ž ‫ - هو‬how ‫ - هي‬heee ¡ ‫حن‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn ž ‫ - هم‬hom ‫ا‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa ¡ ‫نت‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aant ‫ه‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬lah Ÿ ‫ها‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬lahaa Ÿ ‫نا‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬lanaa ž ¡ ‫ - منهم‬menhom ‫ - لي‬leee ‫م‬ž‫ك‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬lakom ‫ه‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬lah Ÿ ‫ها‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬lahaa Ÿ ‫نا‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬lanaa

English Pronouns their mine yours his hers ours theirs

Arabic Pronouns ‫ - من‬men Ÿ ¡Ÿ ‫ - منجم‬manjam ‫ك‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬lak ‫ه‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬lah Ÿ ŸŸ Ÿ ‫ - خاصتها‬khaasatahaa Ÿ ‫نا‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬lanaa ž ‫هم‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬lahom

As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Pronouns in Arabic has a logical pattern. Locate the Pronouns above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Arabic. In Arabic the possessive is written attached and behind the noun possessed. It is used both for the possessive and accusative only the first person differs yi for a noun and ni for a verb (accusative)‫هو ضربني بكتابي‬ Huwa yaddrabuni bi kitabi, he hits me with my book. List of Pronouns in Arabic Below is a list of the Personal pronouns, indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns, reciprocal or reflexive pronouns in Arabic placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Arabic vocabulary.

English Pronouns I speak you speak he speaks she speaks we speak they speak give me give you give him give her give us give them my book

Arabic Pronouns ‫كل¢م‬Ÿ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ا أ‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa aatakalam Ÿ ¡ ‫تكل¢م‬Ÿ‫ - انت ت‬ant tatakalam Ÿ Ÿ ‫تكل¢م‬Ÿ‫ - هو ي‬how eeatakalam Ÿ Ÿ ž ‫تكل¢م‬Ÿ‫ - هى ت‬hea tatakalam Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ‫تكل¢م‬Ÿ‫حن ن‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn natakalam Ÿ Ÿ ž ¡ ž Ÿ Ÿ ‫تكل¢مون‬Ÿ‫ - هم ي‬hom eeatakalamown ¡ ‫عطني‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aa'teneee ¡ ž ‫ك‬Ÿ‫ - أعطي‬ao'teeeak ¡ ‫ه‬Ÿ‫ - اعطي‬a'teeeah Ÿ ¡ ‫ها‬Ÿ‫ - اعطي‬a'teeeahaa Ÿ¡ ¡ ‫ينا‬Ÿ‫ - اعط‬a'taeenaa ž ¡ ¡ ‫ - اعطيهم‬a'teeehom Ÿ ‫ - كتابي‬ketaabeee

English Pronouns your book his book her book our book their book

Arabic Pronouns Ÿ ‫ - كتابك‬ketaabek Ÿ ‫ه‬Ÿ‫ - كتاب‬ketaabah Ÿ Ÿ ‫ - كتابها‬ketaabehaa Ÿž Ÿ ‫ - كتابنا‬ketaabonaa ž Ÿ ‫هم‬Ÿ‫ - كتاب‬ketaabahom

Personal pronouns, indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns, reciprocal or reflexive pronouns have a very important role in Arabic, therefore they need very special attention.

one 1 wahed | ‫واحد‬ five 5 khamsah | ‫خمسة‬ nine 9 tes'ah | ‫تسعة‬

two three 2 3 ethnan | ‫اثنان‬ thalathah | ‫ثلثة‬ six seven 6 7 setah | ‫ستة‬ sab'ah | ‫سبعة‬ ten 10 'asharah | ‫عشرة‬

four 3 arba'eh | ‫أربعة‬ eight 8 thamaneyah | ‫ثمانية‬

Arabic Plural
Learning the Arabic Plural is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Arabic language. But first we need to know what the role of Plural is in the structure of the grammar in Arabic. Arabic Plurals are grammatical numbers, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. In the English language, singular and plural are the only grammatical numbers. In Arabic the formation of the plural is difficult, since there are many patterns. It is advised to learn the plural with the singular, a good Arabic dictionary like the “Hans Wehr Arabic dictionary will include the plural or plurals (sometimes there are more) in each entry. Examples are kitaab –kutub, [book books], walad – awlad [boy – boys], sayara – sayaraat [car – cars], radjul – rejaal [man – men]. The last two are examples of the sound plural which for masculine adds un at the end and for feminine aat at the and. (Note the ta marbuta has to be change to a normal open t).

Here are some examples: Plural my book my books ¡ Ÿ ¡ ¡ ‫ة الجمع‬Ÿ‫ - صيغ‬seeeghah aljam' Ÿ ‫ - كتابي‬ketaabeee žž ‫ - كتبي‬kotobeee

our daughter our daughters I'm cold we're cold his chickens their chicken

ŸŸŸ¡ ‫ - ابنتنا‬abnatanaa Ÿ Ÿ ‫ناتنا‬Ÿ‫ - ب‬banaatenaa ž ¡ Ÿ ¡žž¡ ‫ - ان§ى اشعر بالبرودة‬ana ash'or bealborowdah ž ¡ ¡ Ÿ ¡ žž¡ ‫شعر بالبرودة‬Ÿ‫حن ن‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn nash'or bealborowdah Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ - دجاجه‬dajaajah ž Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ – دجاجهم‬dajaajahom

English Plural alligator alligators bear bears bird birds bull bulls cat cats cow cows deer many deer dog dogs donkey donkeys eagle eagles elephant elephants giraffe

Arabic Plural ¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫ - تمساح إستوائي‬temsaah eestewa'eee ¡ Ÿ ‫ماسيح‬Ÿ‫ - ت‬tamaaseeeh Ÿ ‫ - دب‬dab ‫ة‬Ÿ‫ب‬Ÿ‫ - دب‬debabah ‫ائر‬Ÿ‫ - ط‬taa'er ¡ž ‫يور‬ž‫ - ط‬toeeowr ¡ ‫ور‬Ÿ‫ - ث‬thawr Ÿ ‫ران‬Ÿ‫ - ثي‬theeearaan ‫ - قط‬qat Ÿ ‫ط‬Ÿ‫ - قط‬qatat Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ‫قرة‬Ÿ‫ - ب‬baqarah ¡ ‫ار‬Ÿ‫بق‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aabqaar ‫ي§ل‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aaeeel ‫ - الغزلن‬alghezlaan Ÿ¡ ¡ ‫ - كلب‬kalb ¡Ÿ ‫ - كلب‬kelaab Ÿ Ÿ ‫ - حمار‬hemaar ¡ ‫ر‬Ÿ‫ - حمي‬hemeear ¡ ‫سر‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nasr ¡ ž ž ‫ - نسور‬nosowr ¡ ‫ - فيل‬feeel ‫ة‬Ÿ‫ل‬Ÿ‫ - في‬feeealah ‫ - زرافة‬zaraafah Ÿ ŸŸ

English Plural giraffes goat goats horse horses lion lions monkey monkeys mouse mice rabbit rabbits snake snakes tiger tigers wolf wolves

Arabic Plural ‫ - زرافات‬zaraafaat Ÿ ŸŸ Ÿ ‫ - ماعز‬maa'ez Ÿ ‫ - ماعز‬maa'ez Ÿ ‫ - حصان‬hesaan ž ‫ - خي§ل‬khoeeel Ÿ ‫سد‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aasad Ÿ ¡ ‫سود‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aaswad ¡ ‫ - قرد‬qerd ¡ž ‫رود‬ž‫ - ق‬qorowd ‫ - فأر‬faar ¡Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ‫ - فئران‬fe'raan ¡ ‫ب‬Ÿ‫رن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aarnab Ÿ ‫رانب‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aaraaneb ¡ž ‫ان‬Ÿ‫ - ثعب‬tho'baan ¡ Ÿ ‫عابين‬Ÿ‫ - ث‬tha'aabeeen ‫مر‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬namer ‫م-ور‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬namowr ‫ - ذئب‬the'b ¡ ‫اب‬Ÿ‫ - ذئ‬the'aab

Arabic Prepositions
Learning the Arabic Prepositions is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Arabic language. But first we need to know what the role of Prepositions is in the structure of the grammar in Arabic. Arabic prepositions link nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. Here are some examples:

English Prepositions Prepositions inside the house outside the car with me without him

Arabic Prepositions ¡ ž ž Ÿ ¡ ‫ - حروف الجر‬horowf aljar ¡Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ‫ - داخل المنزل‬daakhel almanzel Ÿ ¢ ¡ Ÿ ‫ - خارج السي¢ارة‬khaarej alsaeeaarah Ÿ ‫ - معي‬ma'eee ¡ ž ‫ - بدونه‬bedowneh

English Prepositions under the table after tomorrow before sunset but I'm busy

Arabic Prepositions ¡ ‫ة‬Ÿ‫حت الط¢اول‬Ÿ‫ - ت‬taht altaawlah ¡ ¡ ‫د‬Ÿ‫عد غ‬Ÿ‫ - ب‬ba'd ghad ¡Ÿ ¡ ž ž ¡ ‫ - قبل الغروب‬qabl alghorowb ¡ ž ¡ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ا مشغول‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫كن أ‬Ÿ‫ - ول‬walaken aanaa mashghowl
Arabic Prepositions

English Prepositions about above across after against among around as at before behind below beneath beside between beyond but by despite down during except for from in inside

¡ Ÿ ‫ - حول‬hawl ¡Ÿ ‫ - فوق‬fawq ¡ Ÿ ‫' - عبر‬abr ¡ ‫عد‬Ÿ‫ - ب‬ba'd ‫ - ضد‬thed ¡ ‫ين‬Ÿ‫ - ب‬baeen ¡ Ÿ ‫ - حول‬hawl Ÿ Ÿ ‫ - كما‬kamaa ‫ - في‬feee ¡Ÿ ‫ - قبل‬qabl ŸŸ ‫ - وراء‬waraa' ‫ل من‬ž‫ق‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aaqol men ¡ ‫حت‬Ÿ‫ - ت‬taht Ÿ ‫ - بجانب‬bejaaneb ¡ ‫ين‬Ÿ‫ - ب‬baeen ŸŸ ‫ - وراء‬waraa' ‫كن‬Ÿ‫ - ل‬laken ¡Ÿ ‫ - من قبل‬men qabl ¢ ¡ Ÿ ‫ى الرغ¡ م من‬Ÿ‫' - عل‬alaa alraghm men Ÿ ¡ ‫سفل‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aasfal ‫ - خلل‬khelaal Ÿ ‫ - إل‬eelaa ‫ى‬Ÿ‫ - إل‬eelaa ‫ - من‬men ‫ - في‬feee Ÿ ‫ - داخل‬daakhel

English Prepositions into near next of on opposite out outside over per plus round since than through till to toward

Arabic Prepositions

under unlike until up via with within without two words according to because of close to due to except for

‫ى‬Ÿ‫ - إل‬eelaa ¡ž ‫ - قرب‬qorb ¢¡ ‫ - التالي‬altaaleee ‫ - من‬men ‫ - في‬feee Ÿ ž ‫ - معاكس‬mo'aakes Ÿ ‫ - خارج‬khaarej Ÿ ‫ - خارج‬khaarej ‫ - خلل‬khelaal Ÿ ‫ل‬ž‫ - لك‬lekol Ÿ ‫ - زائد‬zaa'ed ¡ Ÿ ‫ة‬Ÿ‫ - جول‬jawlah ¡ž ‫ - منذ‬month ‫ - من‬men ‫ - من خلل‬men khelaal Ÿ ¢ Ÿ ‫ - حتى‬hataa ‫ى‬Ÿ‫ - إل‬eelaa ¡ ‫حو‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahw ¡ ‫حت‬Ÿ‫ - ت‬taht Ÿ ‫ى عكس‬Ÿ‫' - عل‬alaa 'aks ¡ Ÿ ¢ Ÿ ‫ - حتى‬hataa ¡Ÿ ‫ - فوق‬fawq Ÿ ‫ة‬Ÿ‫ - بواسط‬bewaasetah Ÿ ‫ - مع‬ma' ¡ ‫ - ضمن‬themn ¡ ž ‫ - بدون‬bedown ¡ŸŸ Ÿ ‫ - كلمتين‬kalemataeen Ÿ Ÿ ‫ - بحسب‬behasab Ÿ ‫ب‬Ÿ‫ - بسب‬besabab ¡ Ÿ ‫ة من‬Ÿ‫ - قريب‬qareeebah men Ÿ ‫ب‬Ÿ‫ - بسب‬besabab Ÿ¡ ¡ ‫ - باستثناء‬beastethnaa'

English Prepositions

Arabic Prepositions

far from inside of instead of near to next to outside of prior to three words as far as as well as in addition to in front of in spite of on behalf of on top of demonstratives this that these those Arabic Articles

Ÿ ¡Ÿ ž ‫ - بعيد عن‬bo'aeed 'an Ÿ ‫ - داخل‬daakhel ‫دل من‬Ÿ‫ - ب‬badalaa men ŸŸ ¡ ž ¡ ‫ - بالقرب من‬bealqorb men ¡ž ‫ - قرب‬qorb Ÿ ‫ - خارج‬khaarej ¡Ÿ ‫ - قبل‬qabl Ÿ Ÿ ‫لث كلمات‬Ÿ‫ - ث‬thalaath kalemaat Ÿ ¢ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ - بقدر ما‬beqadar maa ‫لك‬Ÿ‫ - وكذ‬wakathalek Ÿ Ÿ ‫ى‬Ÿ‫ - بالضافة إل‬bealeethaafah eelaa Ÿ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ‫مام‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aamaam ¢ ¡ Ÿ ‫ى الرغ¡ م من‬Ÿ‫' - عل‬alaa alraghm men ¡ ‫ - باسم‬beasm ¡Ÿ ‫ - فوق‬fawq ¡ ž ž Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ž ‫ - برهاني¢ة حروف الجر‬borhaaneeeah horowf aljar Ÿ ‫ا‬Ÿ‫ - هذ‬hathaa ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aan ‫ - هؤلء‬ha'olaa' Ÿž Ÿ ‫ - هؤلء‬ha'olaa' Ÿž Ÿ

Learning the Arabic Articles is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Arabic language. But first we need to know what the role of Articles is in the structure of the grammar in Arabic. Arabic articles are words that combine with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. Generally articles specify the grammatical definiteness of the noun. Examples are "the, a, and an". Here are some examples:

English Articles Arabic Articles articles ‫الت‬Ÿ‫ - مق‬maqaalaat Ÿ Ÿ the ‫ - ال‬al a no equivalent in arabic - no equivalent in arabic

English Articles Arabic Articles Ÿ one ‫ - واحد‬waahed ¡ some ‫عض‬Ÿ‫ - ب‬ba'th ¡ Ÿ few ‫ - قليل‬qaleeel the book the books a book one book some books few books Ÿ ¡ ‫ - الكتاب‬alketaab ž ¡ ‫تب‬ž‫ - الك‬alkotob Ÿ ‫ - كتاب‬ketaab Ÿ Ÿ ‫ - كتاب واحد‬ketaab waahed žž ¡ ¡ ‫عض الكتب‬Ÿ‫ - ب‬ba'th alkotob žž ¡ ¡¡Ÿ ¡ ‫ - القليل من الكتب‬alqaleel men alkotob

In Arabic the definite article is ‫ ال‬al. As for the indefinite article, there is none. An indefinite noun in Arabic is indicated by a declension, or rather “nunation” of the noun. Each definite noun in Arabic has the definite article ‫ ال‬attached to it and ends on u, a or I, depending if it is a subject, object ore possessive. When the noun is indefinite, the nouns end on respectively un, an or in, hence the name Ÿ ¡ žŸ ¡ ž ž ¢ “nunation”, th n in Arabic is pronounced nun ‫ .ن‬For example ‫قرء الجريدة‬Ÿ‫ الرجل ي‬Ar-rajalu yaqra’u al¡ ž ž ¡ Ÿ ¢ Ÿ ž djaridata, The man reads the newspaper, ‫أكل خبزا‬Ÿ‫ محمد ي‬Muhammed ja’akulu gubzan - Muhamad eats a bread. A very important rule in Arabic is ‫ المضاف والمضاف إليه‬Al-mudhaf wa-al-mudhaf ilaihu. This is used to denote the passive like in the book of the man is translated as ‫ كتاب الرجل‬kitaab ar-radjuli. According to the Arabic grammarians, book is made definite by the man so it doesn’t need a definite article! Also the man is declined with I the sign of the possessive. If one wants to say the book of this man, then this must be put at the end of the construction, since nothing may break it. ‫كتاب الرجل هذه‬ Book (of) the man this.

Like English, Arabic has one definite article "the", but it has no indefinite article “a”. Instead the Arabs use a declension to indicate that a noun is indefinite. For example the book is translated as Al-Kitabu having al- in front (note the indefinite article is written attached to the noun it describes, so is ,‫الكتاب‬ meaning and) and ending on the vowel u indicates that the noun is indefinit ‫ و‬wa where a n is added at the end of the vowel to indicate the ‫ كتاب‬A book however is written as Kitabun .noun is indefinite, Arab grammarians call this nunnation Sun Moon letters The l of the definite article al assimilates with the letter following it. If the pronouncation of the letter following the l is pronounced in the same region of the l, i.e. in front, the l changes to the consonant following the l, making this consonant effectively spoken twice, when the consonant following the l is pronounced in the back then the pronunciation of the l is maintained. The Arabs call this sun and moon HHarf(u)-asj-sjamsi and ‫ حرف الشمس‬letters

The l in case of sun letters is written but in pronnounsiation replace by the sound following .‫حرف القمر‬ .it

Arabic Verbs
Learning the Arabic Verbs is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Arabic language. But first we need to know what the role of Verbs is in the structure of the grammar in Arabic. Arabic verbs are words that convey action (bring, read, walk, run), or a state of being (exist, stand). In most languages a verb may agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object. Arabic to has only 2 times, the perfect and the imperfect, but there is a difference, in the west we look at the points in time in where a action takes place, the Arabs however look at the aspect of a verb meaning they ask is the action finished or not (They don’t ask themselves when did it finish or not). Of course a finished action corresponds with the past as does a unfinished action with the present, but not necessarily so. Here are some examples: English Verbs Verbs Past I spoke I wrote Arabic Verbs Ÿ ¡ ¡ ‫فعال‬Ÿ‫ - ال‬alaaf'aal Ÿ ¡ ‫ - الماضي‬almaatheee ¢ Ÿ ‫حدث¡ت‬Ÿ‫ - ت‬tahadatht ‫ت‬Ÿ‫تب‬ž‫ - ك‬kotebat

I drove I loved I gave I smiled I took he spoke he wrote he drove he loved he gave he smiled he took we spoke we wrote we drove

¢ ž ‫ - قدت‬qodat ¡ž ‫ - كنت أحب‬kont aoheb ž ¡ ¡ ‫يت‬Ÿ‫عط‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aa'taeet Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ¡ ‫ - ابتسمت‬abtasamat Ÿ ‫ت‬Ÿ‫خذ‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aakhathat § Ÿ ž ‫ - تحدث‬tohadeth ‫تب‬ž‫ - ك‬koteb ‫ - قاد‬qaad Ÿ ‫ - احب‬aheb ‫ - قدم‬qadem Ÿ Ÿ¡ ‫ - ابتسم‬abtasem Ÿ ‫ - اخذ‬akhath Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ‫كل¢منا‬Ÿ‫ - ت‬takalamnaa Ÿ¡ŸŸ ‫ - كتبنا‬katabnaa ¡ ‫ا‬Ÿ‫دن‬ž‫ - ق‬qodnaa

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

we loved we gave we smiled we took Future I will speak I will write I will drive I will love I will give I will smile I will take

Ÿ¡ ¡ ‫بنا‬Ÿ‫حب‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aahbabnaa Ÿ ¡ ž ‫نا‬Ÿ‫ - أعطي‬ao'teeeanaa Ÿ ¡ Ÿ Ÿ¡ ‫ - ابتسمنا‬abtasamnaa Ÿ ‫ا‬Ÿ‫ - اخذ¡ ن‬akhathnaa Ÿ ¡ ž ‫ - مستق¡بل‬mostaqbel ¡ Ÿ ‫كل¢م‬Ÿ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ - سوف أ‬sawf aatakalam Ÿ ž¡ ¡ Ÿ ‫كتب‬Ÿ‫ - سوف أ‬sawf aaktob ¡ ž ¡ Ÿ ‫قود‬Ÿ‫ - سوف أ‬sawf aaqowd ‫ - سوف أحب‬sawf aoheb ž ¡ Ÿ ¡ ž ¡ Ÿ ‫ - سوف أعطي‬sawf ao'teee ¡ Ÿ Ÿ ‫تسم‬Ÿ‫ب‬Ÿ‫ - سوف أ‬sawf aabatasem ¡ Ÿ ‫خذ‬Ÿ‫ - سوف آ‬sawf aakheth

he will ž ¡ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ‫تحدث‬Ÿ‫ - سوف ي‬sawf eeatahdoth speak ž¡ ¡ Ÿ he will write ‫كتب‬Ÿ‫ - سوف ي‬sawf eeaktob ¡ ž ¡ Ÿ he will drive ‫قود‬Ÿ‫ - سوف ي‬sawf eeaqowd ž ¡ Ÿ he will love ‫ - سوف يحب‬sawf eeoheb ¡ Ÿ ¡ ž he will give ‫ - سوف يعطي‬sawf eeo'teee ¡ Ÿ Ÿ¡ he will smile ‫بتسم‬Ÿ‫ - سوف ي‬sawf eeabtasem ž ¡ ¡ Ÿ he will take ‫أخذ‬Ÿ‫ - سوف ي‬sawf eeaakhoth we will speak we will write we will drive we will love we will give we will smile we will take ¡ Ÿ ‫تكل¢م‬Ÿ‫ - سوف ن‬sawf natakalam Ÿ Ÿ ž¡ ¡ Ÿ ‫كتب‬Ÿ‫ - سوف ن‬sawf naktob ¡ ž ž ¡ Ÿ ‫ - سوف نقود‬sawf noqowd ž ¡ Ÿ ‫ - سوف نحب‬sawf noheb ¡ Ÿ ¡ž ‫ى‬Ÿ‫ - سوف نعط‬sawf no'taa ¡ Ÿ Ÿ ‫تسم‬Ÿ‫ب‬Ÿ‫ - سوف ن‬sawf nabatasem ž ¡ ¡ Ÿ ‫أخذ‬Ÿ‫ - سوف ن‬sawf naakhoth

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

Present I speak I write I drive I love I give I smile I take he speaks he writes he drives he loves he gives he smiles he takes we speak we write we drive we love we give we smile we take

Ÿ ¡ ‫ - الحالي‬alhaaleee ‫كل¢م‬Ÿ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ا أ‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa aatakalam Ÿ ž¡ ‫كتب‬Ÿ‫ا أ‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa aaktob ¡ ž ‫قود‬Ÿ‫ا أ‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa aaqowd Ÿ ‫حب‬Ÿ‫ا أ‬Ÿ‫ - ان‬anaa aahab ¡ ‫ى‬Ÿ‫ - اانا اعط‬aana a'taa ¡ ‫بتسم‬Ÿ‫ا أ‬Ÿ‫ - ان‬anaa aabtesem ‫خذ‬Ÿ‫ا آ‬Ÿ‫ - ان‬anaa aakheth ‫تكل¢م‬Ÿ‫ - ي‬eeatakalam Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ¡ ž ‫ - يكتب‬eeoktab ¡ ž ‫قود‬Ÿ‫ - ي‬eeaqowd ž ‫ - يحب‬eeoheb ¡ ž ‫ - يعطي‬eeo'teee Ÿ¡ ‫بتسم‬Ÿ‫ - ي‬eeabtasem ž ¡ ‫أخذ‬Ÿ‫ - ي‬eeaakhoth ¡ ‫تكل¢م‬Ÿ‫حن ن‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn natakalam Ÿ Ÿ ž¡ ¡ ‫كتب‬Ÿ‫حن ن‬Ÿ‫ - ذ‬thahn naktob ¡ ž ž ¡ ‫حن نقود‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn noqowd ž ¡ ‫حن نحب‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn noheb ¡ž ¡ ‫حن نعطي‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn no'teee ¡ Ÿ¡ ‫بتسم‬Ÿ‫حن ن‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn nabtasem ž ¡ ¡ ‫أخذ‬Ÿ‫حن ن‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn naakhoth

Arabic verb conjugation is a bit complex, although very regular the so called semivowels alif, waw and ya and the glottal stop hamza cause irregularity in Arabic verb conjugation. The simplest Arabic verb excist out of three consonants like ‫ كتب‬KaTaBa meaning he wrote or he has written. The past tense is conjugated by suffixes, the present tense by prefixes. The Arabs use the verb fa3ala (to do) to represent all possible forms a verb may have. The problem lies in the fact that any of those root consonants might be an hamza, the glottal stop or an alif, a waw or a ya, the so called semi-consonants. They might be retained or disappear according to certain rules. Arabic verbs have ten (even more) forms. To give you an example,third rule ‫م‬Ÿ‫ عل‬allama means to know, The second form ‫ عل §م‬allama with the second consonant doubled means to let know meaning to teach, the fifth form ‫ تعل §م‬ta3allama means to let your self know meaning to study! The tenth form

istaf3ala means in general to think to act out an action described by the verb, so istahhasana to think to be beatifull from hhasana to be beautiful. I once made a joke during my Arabic studies. In Holland we call a street car (an electric street car) a tram. This exactly fits the Arabic verb paradigm. Back in those days I sometimes sat in the tram without a ticket which we Dutch call zwart rijden (driving black). So I said if tram would be an Arabic verb ‫ ترم‬TRM the zwart rijde would be translated as IstTarama ‫استر§م‬ thinking to ride on a tram (with a ticket). As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Verbs in Arabic has a logical pattern. Locate the Verbs above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Arabic.

List of Verbs in Arabic
Below is a list of the conjugated Verbs in the present past and future in Arabic placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Arabic vocabulary. English Verbs Arabic Verbs

I can accept that she added it we admit it they advised him I can agree with that she allows it we announce it I can apologize she appears today they arranged that I can arrive tomorrow she can ask him she attaches that we attack them they avoid her I can bake it she is like him we beat it they became happy I can begin that we borrowed money they breathe air

¡ ž ‫ه‬Ÿ‫ل‬Ÿ‫قب‬Ÿ‫ن أ‬Ÿ‫/ يمكن أ‬iomkin an aqbalah ¡ ‫ن¢ه‬Ÿ‫ضافت أ‬Ÿ‫/ وأ‬waadaafat anah Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫لك‬Ÿ‫عترف بذ‬Ÿ‫حن ن‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nahn na'tarif bithalik ž Ÿ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ‫يه‬Ÿ‫شاروا عل‬Ÿ‫/ وأ‬waashaarowa 'alaih ž ¡ žŸ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ت¢فق معه‬Ÿ‫ن أ‬Ÿ‫/ ويمكنني أ‬waiomkinonii an atafiq ma'ah Ÿ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ‫ها‬Ÿ‫سمح ل‬Ÿ‫ها ت‬Ÿ‫/ ان‬anahaa tasmah lahaa ¡ž ‫لك‬Ÿ‫/ نعلن ذ‬no'lin thalik ž ¡ žŸ Ÿ ¡ ‫عتذر‬Ÿ‫ن أ‬Ÿ‫/ ويمكنني أ‬waiomkinonii an a'tathir ž ¡ ¡ ¡ Ÿ ‫وم‬Ÿ‫بدو ان¢ها الي‬Ÿ‫/ ي‬iabdow anahaa aliawm žŸ Ÿ ¢ ‫ت‬Ÿ‫كنها ورت§ب‬Ÿ‫/ ل‬lakinahaa warotibat ž ¡ žŸ ‫دا‬Ÿ‫صل غ‬Ÿ‫ن ي‬Ÿ‫/ ويمكنني أ‬waiomkinonii an iasil ghada ¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫ه‬Ÿ‫سأل‬Ÿ‫ن أ‬Ÿ‫ستطيع أ‬Ÿ‫/ ت‬tastatii' an asalah Ÿ ¡ ¡ Ÿ Ÿ ž Ÿ ‫يه‬Ÿ‫ها تعل §ق عل‬Ÿ‫/ ان‬anahaa to'aliq 'alaih ž Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ¡ ‫حن نهاجمهم‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nahn nhaajamihom ž¢ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ها‬Ÿ‫تجنبون ل‬Ÿ‫/ ي‬iatajanabown lahaa ž ¡ žŸ Ÿ ‫ز‬Ÿ‫ن خب‬Ÿ‫/ ويمكنني أ‬waiomkinonii an khabaz ‫/ فهي مث¡له‬fahii mithlih Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫يه‬Ÿ‫حن عل‬Ÿ‫/ فاز ن‬faaz nahn 'alaih Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ ž ¡ ‫حوا سعيد‬Ÿ‫صب‬Ÿ‫/ أ‬asbahowa sa'iid ž ¡ ž ¡ ¡ ‫ه‬Ÿ‫شغيل‬Ÿ‫/ يمكنني ت‬iomkinonii tashghiilah ¡ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ¡ ‫حن اقترضت المال‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nahn aqtaradat almaal Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ¢ ŸŸ ‫تنفس الهواء‬Ÿ‫/ ت‬tatanafas alhawaau

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

¡ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ه‬Ÿ‫ستطيع جعل‬Ÿ‫/ ل أ‬laa astatii' ja'alah Ÿ ž ¡ žŸ ¡ ¡ Ÿ ‫يه‬Ÿ‫بني عل‬Ÿ‫ن ن‬Ÿ‫/ ويمكنني أ‬waiomkinonii an nabnii 'alaih Ÿ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ‫ائي¢ة‬Ÿ‫شتري المواد الغذ‬Ÿ‫ها ت‬Ÿ‫/ ان‬anahaa tashtarii almawaad ¡ she buys food alghithaaiiiah ž ¡ we calculate it ‫ن¢ه‬Ÿ‫حسب أ‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nahsob anah ¡ Ÿ they carry it ‫ه‬ž‫حمل‬Ÿ‫ها ت‬Ÿ‫/ ان‬anahaa tahmiloh Ÿ they don't cheat ‫/ ان¢هم ل خداع‬anahom laa khidaa' Ÿ ž Ÿ Ÿ ¡ she chooses him ‫ه‬Ÿ‫/ اختارت ل‬akhtaarat lah ¡ we close it ‫حن إغ¡ لقه‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nahn iighlaaqah Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ž he comes here ‫أتي هنا‬Ÿ‫/ ي‬iaatii honaa ¡ ž ¡ ž Ÿ ž Ÿ ž I can compare that ‫تها‬Ÿ‫ارن‬Ÿ‫/ يمكنني مق‬iomkinonii moqaaranatohaa Ÿ she competes with me ‫تنافس مع ل §ي‬Ÿ‫ها ت‬Ÿ‫/ ان‬anahaa tatanaafas ma' lii Ÿ ŸŸ Ÿ ¡ ¡ Ÿ ¡ we complain about it ‫و منها‬ž‫شك‬Ÿ‫حن ن‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nahn nashkow minhaa they continued Ÿ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ت القراءة‬Ÿ‫ن¢ها واصل‬Ÿ‫/ أ‬anahaa waasalat alqiraauah reading Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ he cried about that ‫لك‬Ÿ‫/ صرخ عن ذ‬sarakh 'an thalik ž ¡ žŸ ž I can decide now ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ر§ر ال‬Ÿ‫ن تق‬Ÿ‫/ ويمكنني أ‬waiomkinonii an toqarir alaan ¡ Ÿ žŸ she described it to me ‫/ ووصفت لي‬wawosifat lii ¡ ž ¡ Ÿ ¡ ¡ Ÿ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ we disagree about it ‫ا الموضوع‬Ÿ‫ختلف حول هذ‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nakhtalif hawl hathaa almawdow' they disappeared Ÿ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ ž ‫/ اختفائها بسرعة‬akhtifaaiihaa bisor'ah quickly ž¡ Ÿ Ÿ I discovered that ‫ن¢ها‬Ÿ‫/ اكتشفت أ‬aktoshifat anahaa ž Ÿ Ÿ she dislikes that ‫ن‬Ÿ‫/ ان¢ها ل تحب أ‬anahaa laa tohib an ¡ Ÿ ¡ we do it ‫لك‬Ÿ‫فعل ذ‬Ÿ‫حن ن‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nahn naf'al thalik ž ž ¡ Ÿ they dream about it ‫لك‬Ÿ‫حلمون عن ذ‬Ÿ‫/ ي‬iahlomown 'an thalik Ÿ Ÿ I earned ‫لك‬Ÿ‫/ حصل لي ذ‬hasal lii thalik he eats a lot ‫ل الكثير‬ž‫أك‬Ÿ‫/ ان¢ه ي‬anah iaakol alkathiir Ÿ ¡ ¡ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ we enjoyed that ‫لك‬Ÿ‫/ استمتعنا ذ‬astamta'naa thalik Ÿ ž ¡ž Ÿ Ÿ they entered here ‫/ دخلوا هنا‬dakhalowa honaa Ÿ Ÿ ž he escaped that ‫/ هرب هو‬harab how ¡ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ I can explain that ‫لك‬Ÿ‫ستطيع شرح ذ‬Ÿ‫/ ل أ‬laa astatii' sharh thalik Ÿ ž ¡ ¡ Ÿ she feels that too ‫يضا‬Ÿ‫ن¢ها أ‬Ÿ‫شعر أ‬Ÿ‫/ ت‬tash'or anahaa aida Ÿ ž Ÿ ¡Ÿ Ÿ we fled from there ‫/ هربنا من هناك‬harabnaa min honaak I can bring it I can build that

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

they will fly tomorrow I can follow you she forgot me we forgive him I can give her that she goes there we greeted them I hate that I can hear it she imagine that we invited them I know him she learned it we leave now they lied about him I can listen to that she lost that

¡ ¡ Ÿ ‫دا‬Ÿ‫طير غ‬Ÿ‫/ سوف ي‬sawf iatiir ghada

ž ¡ žŸ ¡ž ‫م‬ž‫ك‬Ÿ‫ن تتبع ل‬Ÿ‫/ ويمكنني أ‬waiomkinonii an totbi' lakom ¡ ‫سيت من§ي‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nasiit minii ¡ ‫ه‬Ÿ‫غ¡فر ل‬Ÿ‫حن ي‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nahn iaghfir lah ¡ ž Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ž ‫ها‬Ÿ‫ها ل‬Ÿ‫ن أعطي‬Ÿ‫/ يمكن أ‬iomkin an ao'tiiahaa lahaa Ÿ ž Ÿ ‫ذ¡ هب هناك‬Ÿ‫/ ت‬tathhab honaak ž ¡ ¡ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫حن منهم‬Ÿ‫ل ون‬Ÿ‫/ استقب‬astaqbal wanahn minhom ž Ÿ ¡ ‫كرهه‬Ÿ‫/ أ‬akrahoh ž ¡ žŸ Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ‫سمعه‬Ÿ‫ن ت‬Ÿ‫/ ويمكنني أ‬waiomkinonii an tasma'ah ¢ Ÿ Ÿž ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ن¢ها كان‬Ÿ‫/ يتصور أ‬iotasawar anahaa kaanat Ÿ Ÿ ž ¡ Ÿ Ÿ ‫هم‬Ÿ‫ا ل‬Ÿ‫/ دعون‬da'awnaa lahom ¡ ‫ه‬ž‫عرف‬Ÿ‫ا أ‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫/ أ‬anaa a'rifoh ¡ Ÿ ‫ن¢ه‬Ÿ‫عل¢مت أ‬Ÿ‫/ ت‬ta'alamt anah ž ¡ ‫ن‬Ÿ‫/ ن¢ترك ال‬natrok alaan ¡ ¡Ÿ ‫/ كذ¢ب عنه‬kathab 'anh Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫يها‬Ÿ‫ستطيع الستماع إل‬Ÿ‫/ ل أ‬laa astatii' aliastimaa' iilaihaa Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ها خسرت‬Ÿ‫/ ان‬anahaa khasirat ¡ Ÿ ž ¡ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ‫مس‬Ÿ‫نفسنا أ‬Ÿ‫ى أ‬Ÿ‫/ ال¢تي قط¢عناها عل‬alatii qata'naahaa 'alaa we made it yesterday anfosinaa ams ¡ ž Ÿ Ÿ ¡ they met him ‫ه‬Ÿ‫/ اجتمعوا ل‬ajtama'owa lah Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ I misspell that ‫ن¢ها‬Ÿ‫تها أ‬Ÿ‫ا كتاب‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫/ أ‬anaa kitaabatihaa anahaa Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ž I always pray ‫/ أصل §ي دائما‬aosalii daaiimaa Ÿ ž Ÿ she prefers that ‫لك‬Ÿ‫ها تفض§ل ذ‬Ÿ‫/ ان‬anahaa tofadil thalik ž ¡ ¡ ¡ Ÿ we protected them ‫حن منهم‬Ÿ‫/ محمي¢ة ن‬mahmiiah nahn minhom ¡ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ž they will punish her ‫تها‬Ÿ‫/ سوف معاقب‬sawf mo'aaqabatahaa Ÿ ž Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ I can put it there ‫ستطيع وضعه هناك‬Ÿ‫/ ل أ‬laa astatii' wada'ah honaak Ÿ ¡ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ žŸ ¡ she will read it ‫قرأها‬Ÿ‫ها سوف ي‬Ÿ‫/ ان‬anahaa sawf iaqraaohaa Ÿ¡ ¡ we received that ‫لك‬Ÿ‫لقينا ذ‬Ÿ‫/ ت‬talqiinaa thalik Ÿ ¢¡ ¡ ž Ÿ Ÿ they refuse to talk ‫/ رفضوا التحد-ث‬rafadowa altahadoth Ÿ ž Ÿ I remember that ‫ذك¢رها‬Ÿ‫ت‬Ÿ‫/ أ‬atathakarohaa she repeats that ‫لك‬Ÿ‫ها تكر§ر ذ‬Ÿ‫/ ان‬anahaa tokarir thalik Ÿ ž Ÿ Ÿ we see it ‫راه‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬naraah

English Verbs

Arabic Verbs

they sell it I sent that yesterday he shaved his beard it shrunk quickly we will sing it they sat there I can speak it she spends money we suffered from that they suggest that I surprised him she took that we teach it they told us she thanked him I can think about it she threw it we understand that they want that I can wear it she writes that we talk about it they have it I watched it I will talk about it he bought that yesterday we finished it

Ÿ ž ¡ ‫بيعها‬Ÿ‫/ ت‬tabii'ohaa ¡ ¡ ‫مس‬Ÿ‫/ أرسلت بال‬aorsilt bialams ¡ ¡ž ¡ ‫ته‬Ÿ‫ق لحي‬Ÿ‫/ ان¢ه حل‬anah hilaq lihiatih Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ž ‫قل¢صت بسرعة‬Ÿ‫ها ت‬Ÿ‫/ ان‬anahaa taqalasat bisor'ah ¡ ž Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ‫/ سنقوم غنائها‬sanaqowm ghinaaiihaa Ÿ ž ¡ ž Ÿ ‫سوا هناك‬Ÿ‫/ جل‬jalasowa honaak Ÿ Ÿ ¢¡ ¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫ستطيع التحد-ث بها‬Ÿ‫/ ل أ‬laa astatii' altahadoth bihaa Ÿ ¡ž Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ‫/ إن¢ها تنفق المال‬iinahaa tonfiq almaal ¡ Ÿ¡ Ÿ ‫ينا منه‬Ÿ‫'/ عان‬aanainaa minh ¡ž Ÿ ‫ن¢ها‬Ÿ‫/ فهي توحي أ‬fahii towhii anahaa Ÿ ž ‫وجئ¡ت به‬ž‫/ ف‬fowojiit bih Ÿ ‫ت إن¢ها‬Ÿ‫/ وقال‬waqaalat iinahaa Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ¡ ‫ن¢ه‬Ÿ‫م أ‬Ÿ‫عل‬Ÿ‫حن ن‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nahn na'lam anah Ÿ ¡ž Ÿ ‫نا‬Ÿ‫/ قالوا ل‬qaalowa lanaa ¡Ÿ Ÿ ‫ه‬Ÿ‫/ شكرت ل‬shakart lah ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢¡ ¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫ستطيع التفكير في المر‬Ÿ‫/ ل أ‬laa astatii' altafkiir fii alamr Ÿ Ÿ ‫ت إن¢ها‬Ÿ‫ى قال‬Ÿ‫لق‬Ÿ‫/ أ‬alqaa qaalat iinahaa Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫فهم‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬nafham ¡ ž ¡ ž ¡ž Ÿ ‫لك‬Ÿ‫/ كانوا يريدون ذ‬kaanowa ioriidown thalik Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ¡ ¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫ستطيع ارتداء الحجاب‬Ÿ‫/ ل أ‬laa astatii' artidaau alhijaab Ÿ ž¡ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ‫يه‬Ÿ‫كتب عل‬Ÿ‫ها ت‬Ÿ‫ت ان‬Ÿ‫/ وقال‬waqaalat anahaa taktob 'alaih Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ¢ Ÿ Ÿ ‫لك‬Ÿ‫تحدث عن ذ‬Ÿ‫/ ن‬natahadath 'an thalik ¡ Ÿ ¡Ÿ ‫يه‬Ÿ‫ديهم عل‬Ÿ‫/ ل‬ladaihim 'alaih ¡ Ÿ Ÿ ‫لك‬Ÿ‫/ شاهدت ذ‬shaahadt thalik ¡ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ص معك‬ž‫رق‬Ÿ‫ا أ‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫/ وأ‬waanaa arqos ma'ak Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ¡ Ÿ ‫ها‬Ÿ‫/ اشترى امس ان‬ashtaraa ams anahaa Ÿ¡Ÿ Ÿ¡ ‫لك‬Ÿ‫/ انتهينا ذ‬antahainaa thalik

Arabic Negation
Learning the Arabic Negation is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Arabic language. But first we need to

know what the role of Negation is in the structure of the grammar in Arabic. Arabic negation is the process that turns an affirmative statement (I am happy) into its opposite denial (I am not happy). In Arabic there are a few words for negation la ‫,ل‬ma ‫ ما‬and ‫ لن‬lan. Lan is used to negate the future. In Arabic slang they use the negation ma plus sh ‫ ما ش‬the word being negated put in between, like in French ne – pas (je ne parle pas), for example ma 3araf sh ‫ ما عرفش‬I don’t know, ma 3ali sh ‫, معلش‬ this is a very common phrase meaning It doesn't matter. Here are some examples:

Arabic Negation ¡ ‫في‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nafee ¡ Ÿ ž ‫يس هنا‬Ÿ‫ - ان¢ه ل‬anah laees honaa ¡ Ÿ Ÿ ‫يس كتابي‬Ÿ‫ا ل‬Ÿ‫ - هذ‬hathaa laees that is not my book ketaabeee ž ¡ Ÿ do not enter ‫دخل‬Ÿ‫ - ل ت‬laa tadkhol As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Negation in Arabic has a logical
pattern. Locate the Negation above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Arabic.

English Negation Negation he is not here

List of Negation in Arabic
Below is a list of the Negation and negative expressions in Arabic placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Arabic vocabulary.

English Negation I don't speak I don't write I don't drive I don't love I don't give I don't smile I don't take he doesn't speak he doesn't write he doesn't drive he doesn't love he doesn't give he doesn't smile he doesn't take

Arabic Negation ‫كل¢م‬Ÿ‫ت‬Ÿ‫ا ل أ‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa laa aatakalam Ÿ Ÿ ž¡ Ÿ ‫كتب‬Ÿ‫ا ل أ‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa laa aaktob ž Ÿ ‫ا ل اقو§د‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa laa aqowd ‫ا ل أحب‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa laa aoheb ž Ÿ ¡ ž Ÿ ‫ا ل أعطي‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa laa ao'teee Ÿ¡ Ÿ ‫ا ل ابتسم‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa laa abtasem ž Ÿ ‫خذ‬Ÿ‫ا ل آ‬Ÿ‫ن‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aanaa laa aakhoth ¢ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ‫تحدث‬Ÿ‫ - ان¢ه ل ي‬anah laa eeatahadath ž¡ Ÿ ‫كتب‬Ÿ‫ - ان¢ه ل ي‬anah laa eeaktob ¡ ž Ÿ ‫قود‬Ÿ‫ - ان¢ه ل ي‬anah laa eeaqowd ž Ÿ ‫ - ان¢ه ل يحب‬anah laa eeoheb ¡ ž Ÿ ‫ - ان¢ه ل يعطي‬anah laa eeo'teee Ÿ¡ Ÿ ‫بتسم‬Ÿ‫ - ان¢ه ل ي‬anah laa eeabtasem ž ¡ Ÿ ‫أخذ‬Ÿ‫ - ان¢ه ل ي‬anah laa eeaakhoth

English Negation we don't speak we don't write we don't drive we don't love we don't give we don't smile we don't take

Arabic Negation Ÿ ¢ Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ‫تحدث‬Ÿ‫حن ل ن‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn laa natahadath ž¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫كتب‬Ÿ‫حن ل ن‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn laa naktob ¡ ž ž Ÿ ¡ ‫حن ل نقود‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn laa noqowd ž Ÿ ¡ ‫حن ل نحب‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn laa noheb ¡ž Ÿ ¡ ‫حن ل نعطي‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn laa no'teee Ÿ¡ Ÿ ¡ ‫بتسم‬Ÿ‫حن ل ن‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn laa nabtasem ž ‫اخذ‬Ÿ‫حن ل ن‬Ÿ‫ - ن‬nahn laa naakhoth Ÿ ¡

Arabic Questions
Learning the Arabic Questions is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Arabic language. But first we need to know what the role of Questions is in the structure of the grammar in Arabic. Arabic questions may be either a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or else the request itself made by such an expression. Usually it starts with why, how, where, when ... In Arabic there are two question word, ‫( هل‬hal) and ‫( أ‬a) Are you from Egypt? Hal anta min masri ‫هل‬ ‫ أتت من مصر؟‬He is a Morrocan isn’t he? Huwa maghrabiyun alais kadhalik? ‫هو نغبي أليس كذلك‬ Here are some examples: English Questions Arabic Questions

Questions how? what? who? why? where?

¡ ¡ ‫ة‬Ÿ‫سئل‬Ÿ‫ - ال‬alaas'elah ¡Ÿ ‫ - كيف؟‬kaeef? Ÿ ‫ا؟‬Ÿ‫ - ماذ‬maathaa? ‫ - من؟‬men? Ÿ ‫ا؟‬Ÿ‫ - لماذ‬lemaathaa? ¡ ‫ين؟‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aaeen?

List of Questions in Arabic
Below is a list of the Questions and interrogative expressions in Arabic placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Arabic vocabulary. English Questions Arabic Questions

where is he? what is this? why are you sad?

ž ¡ ‫ين هو؟‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aaeen how? Ÿ Ÿ ‫ا ؟‬Ÿ‫ - ما هذ‬maa hathaa ? Ÿ Ÿ ¡ ‫نت حزين؟‬Ÿ‫ا أ‬Ÿ‫ - لماذ‬lemaathaa aant hazeeeen?

English Questions

Arabic Questions

how do you want to pay? can I come? is he sleeping? do you know me? do you have my book? how big is it? can I help you? can you help me? do you speak English? how far is this? what time is it? how much is this? what is your name? where do you live?

¡Ÿ ‫ - كيف تريد الدفع؟‬kaeef toreeed aldaf'? ¡ ¢ ¡ ¡ ž ¡ ž Ÿ ‫تى؟‬Ÿ‫ - هل يمكن ان آ‬hal eeomken an aatea? ž Ÿ ‫ائم؟‬Ÿ‫ - هل هو ن‬hal how naa'em? ¡ Ÿ ‫ني؟‬ž‫عرف‬Ÿ‫ - هل ت‬hal ta'refoneee? ¡Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ديك كتابي؟‬Ÿ‫ - هل ل‬hal ladaeek ketaabeee? Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ žŸ ‫ا؟‬Ÿ‫ - ما مدى كبر هذ‬maa madaa kabor hathaa? ž ¡ ž Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ž ‫ - هل يمكننى مساعدتك؟‬hal eeomkenonea mosaa'adatek? ž ¡ ž Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ž ‫ - هل يمكنك مساعدتي؟‬hal eeomkenok mosaa'adateee? ¡ ¡ Ÿ ‫تكل¢م النجليزي¢ة؟‬Ÿ‫ - هل ت‬hal tatakalam Ÿ Ÿ alanjeleeezeeeah? Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ¡ Ÿ ‫ا؟‬Ÿ‫عد هذ‬Ÿ‫ - ما مدى ب‬maa madaa ba'd hathaa? ‫ - ما هو الوقت؟‬maa how alwaqt? ¡Ÿ ¡ ž Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ ‫ا؟‬Ÿ‫من هذ‬Ÿ‫ - كم ث‬kam thaman hathaa? Ÿ ž ¡ ž Ÿ ‫ - ما هو اسمك؟‬maa how asmok? ¡ ¡ ‫عيش؟‬Ÿ‫ين ت‬Ÿ‫ - أ‬aaeen ta'eeesh?

Arabic Verbs Form
Learning the Arabic Verbs Form is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The table below shows all possible forms an Arabic verb can have. It is a so called Arabic verb-paradigm. By changing the root the meaning of a verb is extended, for example form II a intransitive verb I transitive. The table below shows all the possible forms a verb might take, examine it carefully:
verbs active imperfectperfect I Fa3aLa yaF3aLu passive imperfect perfect Fu3iLa yuF3aLu Fa`3ieLun maF3uuLun to many derived patrticiples active passive masddar

َ َ ‫فــَعل‬
II

ُ َ $ ‫يَفـعل‬

َ َ ‫فــَعل‬
Fu33iLa

ُ َ $ ‫يَفـعل‬

' ‫فـَائِل‬

' ُ $ َ ‫مفعول‬
muFa33aLun Fa3ieLun

Fa33aLa yuFa33iLu

yuFa33aLu muFa33iLun

َ , ‫فـَعل‬

ُ -ِ $ ُ ‫يفــعل‬

َ , ‫فـَعل‬
Fuu3iLa

ُ -ِ $ ُ ‫يفــعل‬

' -ِ َ ُ ‫مفعل‬

' , َ ُ ‫مفعل‬
muFaa3aLun

' ِ ‫فـَعيل‬
Fi3aaLun

III Faa3aLa yuFaa3iLu

yuFaa3aLu muFaa3iLun

َ ‫فـَاعَ ل‬

ُ ِ ُ ‫يفـَاعل‬

َ َ ‫فـَاعل‬
`uF3iLa

ُ ِ ُ ‫يفـَاعل‬
yuF3aLu

ُ ' ِ ‫مفـَاعل‬
muF3iLun

ُ ' َ ‫مفـَاعل‬
muF3aLun `iF3aaLun

IV `aF3aLa yuF3iLu

َ َ $ ‫أَفـعل‬

ُ ِ $ ُ ‫يفـعل‬

َ َ $ ‫أَفـعل‬

ُ ِ $ ُ ‫يفـعل‬

' َ ُ ‫مفـ-عل‬

' ِ ُ ‫مفـ-عل‬

' $ ‫اِفـعَال‬

taFa33a yataFa33aL tuFa33iL yutaFa33aL muttaFa33iLu muttaFa33aLu taFa33uLu a a a n n n V La

َ , ‫تَفـَعل‬

ُ , َ ‫يَتبَعل‬

َ , ‫تَفـَعل‬

ُ , َ ‫يَتبَعل‬

' -ِ َ ُ ‫متفـَعل‬

' , َ ُ ‫متفـَعل‬

' 3 ‫تَفـَعل‬

taFaa3a yataFaa3aL tuFaa3iL yutaFaa3aL muttaFaa3iLu muttaFaa3aLu taFaa3uLu u a u n n n VI La

َ , ‫تَفـَاعل‬

ُ َ َ , ‫تَفـَاعل يَتفـَاع,ل‬
n/a

ُ َ ‫يَتفـَاع,ل‬
n/a n/a

' -ِ َ ُ ‫متفـ-اعل‬
munFa3iLun n/a

' , َ ُ ‫متفـ-اعل‬

' ُ ‫تَفـَاعل‬
`inFi3aaLu n

VI inFa3aL yanFa3iLu I a

َ َ ‫إِن$فـَعل‬

ُ ِ $ ‫ يَنفـَعل‬n/a

' ِ $ُ ‫ منفـَعل‬n/a
muFta3iLun muFta3aLun

' ‫إِن$فـِعَال‬
`iFti3aaLun

VI II iFta3aLa yaFta3iLu

uFta3iLa yuFta3iLu

َ َ َ$ ‫إِفـتعل‬
IX iF3aLla

ُ َ َ$ ‫يَفـتعل‬
yaF3aLlu

َ َ َ$ ‫إِفـتعل‬
n/a n/a n/a

ُ َ َ$ ‫يَفـتعل‬

' ِ َ$ ُ ‫مفـتعل‬
muF3aLlun n/a

' َ َ$ ُ ‫مفـتعل‬

‫إفـتـعال‬
`iF3iLalun

, َ $ ‫إِفـعل‬

‫ يَفـعل‬n/a 3 َ $

‫ مفـعل‬n/a 7 َ $ ُ

' $ ‫إِفـعَلل‬

istaF3aL yastaF3iLu X a

ustuF3iL `istiF3aaLu a yustaF3aLu mustaF3iLun mustaF3aLun n

َ $ ‫إِستفـَل‬ ُ $ َ $ ُ $ َ $ َ َ $ ‫يَستفـعَل إِستفـَل يَستفـعَلَل‬

' ِ $ َ $ ُ ‫مستفعل‬

$ ‫إِستِفـَعَال‬ ' َ $ َ $ ُ ‫مستفعل‬ ‫ل‬

uF3uu3iL yuF3aw3aL `iF3i3aaLu XI iF3aw3a yaF3aw3iLu a u muF3aw3iLun muF3aw3aLun n I La

$ $ ‫إِفـعَوعَل‬ ‫إِفـعَوعَل‬ ُ‫يفـعوعل‬ ُ َ $ َ ُ $ َ ُ ‫َ َل‬ ‫يفـعوعل َل‬

' َ $ َ $ ُ ‫مفـعوعل‬

' َ $ َ $ ُ ‫مفـعوعل‬

' ِ $ ‫إِفـععَال‬

The table above shows all possible forms a Arabic verb can have. It is a so called Arabic verb-

paradigm. By changing the root the meaning of a verb is extended, for example form II a intransitive verb I transitive, for example KaRaMa mean to e noble (it is intransitive since it doesn’t carry over on a object like the verb DDaRaBa to hit someone, Intransitive verbs usually denote a state or condition.) in its second form is Kabbara which means to make (someone) noble i.e. to honor. Form V makes a verb of form I reflexive, as in 3aLaMa ta3aLlaMa meaning to let oneself know, i.e. to study. The paradigm shows the active perfect and imperfect and the passive perfect and imperfect forms. When the passive is used in Arabic, the actor must not be mentioned. So the letter was written can be translated in the Arabic passive, but the letter was written by the man can not, since it mentions the actor! Note the passive is made by changing the vocalization KaTaBa he wrotes / has written KuTiBa he is /has been written. This makes Arabic particularly difficult to read, since the vowels are not written. Verbs therefore can be read actively or passively. There where the right interpretation is important, sometimes only the first passive vowel is written. The verb Fa3aLa (he did or has done) is used as standard verb. Forms VII and 9 IX in them selves are already passive forms, hence they have no passive forms.

Arabic Cases
Learning the Arabic Cases is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you master it the more you get closer to mastering the Arabic language. But first we need to know what the role of Articles is in the structure of the grammar in Arabic. Cases

The Arabic language has three cases, ‫( الرفع‬The nominative case (subject) in Arabic ‘ar-raf3(u ‫( النصب‬The accusative case (object) in Arabic ‘an-nasb(u ‫( الجر‬The genitive case (to denote possession) ‘al-jarr(u
The nominative case ends on u when definite and on un when indefinite, the accusative case on a or an, and the genitive case on i or in. When indefinite the noun will not be preceded by the definite article Al and it will end on a n, this n however will not be written, instead the vowels u, a, i are written twice, and in case of a when the noun does not end on a .an allif is added at the end ‫ ة‬ta marbuta Infect this is very common in Arabic, many standard phrase are written in this form, like

! ‫ مرحبا‬Welcome ‫ اهل وسهل‬My place is yours
English Transcription

‫العربي‬

Subject ‫الرفع‬ Object ‫النصب‬ Possive ‫الجر‬

The book A book I read a book I read the book I gave him a book

al-kitabu kitabun ‘Ana Iqra’a kitaban ‘Ana Igra’a al-kitaba ‘Ana 3ataitaha kitabin

‫الكتاب‬ ;‫كتاب‬ ‫أنا أقرأ كتاب<ا‬ ‫أنا أقرأ الكتاب‬ ‫أنا أعطيه‬ ‫كتاب‬ ‫أنا أعطيه‬ ‫الكتاب‬

I gave him the ‘Ana 3ataitaha albook kitabi

In normal speech these declensions are not pronounced, so in either three of these you will hear alkitab, Ana i3ttaiha alkitab etc. Only when reading the quran and in official speeches the declension ending are pronounced and only then in connection, i.e. when it is followed by an other word, not at the end of a sentence. The construct state The construct state is a very important rule in the Arabic language the Arabs call Al-muddaf wa-al. ‫ المضاف والمضاف إل ¡ ه‬muddaf ilaihi ‫يه‬ Look at the following expression the house of the man. Both nouns have the definite article the. But according to the Arab grammarians, the house is already definite since it is the house of the man, not the house of the woman. So the in the house is not needed so according to the Arabs one should write house the man. To indicate that there is a strong relationship between those nouns, the second known with the definite article is in the genitive case so it reads: bait-u-r-radjuli This construct is so important and strong that nothing can separate it. If you want to say the house of this men you have to place this after the construction so literally house the man this. The house of the man burned down the house of this men yahhraqu baitu-rradjuli baitu-r-radjuli hadha

‫يحرق بيت الرجل‬ < ‫بيت الرجل هذا‬ <

Plural nouns ending on a n or dual nouns ending on a n, will lose the n in this construct.

‫ بيت المعلمين‬instead of ‫ بيت المعلمي‬For example the house of the teachers would be baitu-l-mu3alami
.baitu-l-mu3alamin Below is a table with all possibilities with nouns with and without the definite article al, two of them are the construct state, the two others imply to be, which usually is not translated in Arabic in the present tense. Construct state The house of the man Baitu-a-r-radjuli

‫بيت- الرجل‬

A house of a man The house is big A house is big

Baitu radjulin Al-baitu kabirun Baitun Kabirun

4 ‫بيت- رجل‬ ‫البيت- كبير‬ ‫َيت كَبير‬

Hebrew Alphabet
Learning the Hebrew alphabet is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. Without it, you will not be able to say words properly even if you know how to write those words. The better you pronounce a letter in a word, the more understood you will be in speaking the Hebrew language. Below is a table showing the Hebrew alphabet and how it is pronounced in English, and finally examples of how those letters would sound if you place them in a word.

Hebrew Alphabet

English Sound Pronunciation Example a b g d h v z sharp h as in Albert as in Bob as in galaxy as in door as in hotel as in vest as in zebra as in Hamburg

‫א‬ ‫ב‬ ‫ג‬ ‫ד‬ ‫ה‬ ‫ו‬ ‫ז‬ ‫ח‬

Hebrew Alphabet

English Sound Pronunciation Example t y k (final) k l m m n (final) n s ‘a p (final) p ts (final) as in town as in year as in neck as in kit as in light as in home as in moon as in man as in nice as in sweet no equivalent as in loop as in pony as in cats

‫ט‬ ‫י‬ ‫ך‬ ‫כ‬ ‫ל‬ ‫ם‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ן‬ ‫נ‬ ‫ס‬ ‫ע‬ ‫ף‬ ‫פ‬ ‫ץ‬

Hebrew Alphabet

English Sound Pronunciation Example ts qu r sh t as in tsunami as in queen as in room as in show as in team

‫צ‬ ‫ק‬ ‫ר‬ ‫ש‬ ‫ת‬
Other Nikkudim

‫ב‬ ‫כ‬ A‫פ‬ A‫ת‬ A‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ B‫א‬ C‫א‬

b k p t u v a a

as in bank as in king as in park as in time as in ultimate as in vanity as in Albert as in alphabet

Hebrew Alphabet

English Sound Pronunciation Example sh s o as in shine as in small as in olympics

D‫ש‬ E‫ש‬ F‫ו‬

Long "Filled" Vowels
Hebrew Name of the vowel The Sound

Vowel

‫ו‬ ‫ו‬ ‫א_י‬

‫חול6ם‬ ‫מ6ל;א‬ ‫שורוק‬

Kholam Maleh

O (as [aw] in law) U (as [oo] in food) E, EI, EY

"Stable" long O, which is not changing with name declination.

Shuruk

"Stable" long U, which is not changing with name declination.

‫צ;ירה‬ B ‫מ6ל;א‬

Tzeireh Maleh

(as in Eh or Hey!)

Strictly speaking, Tzeireh Maleh can be "filled" not only with Yud, but also with Aleph, or theoreticaly with any of "matres lectionis" (in practice, it's either Yud or Aleph.)

Either EY or E works for both Tzeires (Male and Khaser.) However, in some cases EY is preferred. First of all, there are certain words where EY is traditionally pronounced:

‫[ ה_א‬hey] (name of letter Hey) versus more common case like ‫ר‬c‫[ ספ‬sefer] (book) _
or:

‫ה‬f‫[ ב_יצ‬beytza] (egg) versus more common case like ‫ר‬c‫[ ספ‬sefer] (empty) _
Please note, that the Yud in the word ‫ ביצה‬is part of Tzeireh Maleh diacritic, because it does not have a diacritic of its own! Sometimes EY is preferred when we want to distinguish between different grammatical constructs:

‫יר_נו‬k‫[ ש‬shirenu] (our song) ‫יר_ינו‬k‫[ ש‬shireynu] (our songs)
Also, European-born Jews of senior age oftenly pronounce any Tzeire as EY (which is a rule in Ashkenazi/Yiddish tradition.) Bottom line: the rule of thumb is, Tzeire Male is rather pronounced as EY, while Tzeire Khaser (see below) - as E in most cases. If you use this rule, it will be totally correct, and also understandable and acceptable by native Hebrew speakers. It's important to not confuse Tzeire Male with a case when comes as an indication of Segol (see below "Special Cases of Filled Vocalization").

‫י‬k‫א‬

‫יריק‬E‫ח‬ E ‫מ6ל;א‬

Khirik Maleh

I (as [ee] in feed)

In modern Hebrew pronunciation there is no difference between long [ee] and short [i]

Long "not filled" vowels

n‫א‬ f‫א‬ _‫א‬

‫חול6ם ח6ס;ר‬ ‫קמ6ץ ג6דול‬ 6 ‫צ;ירה חס;ר‬ 6 B

Kholam Khaser

O (as [aw] in law)

Kamatz Gadol

A (as [a] in father)

Tzeire Khaser

E (as [e] in mess)

Short vowels

f‫א‬
‫ה‬f‫מ‬p‫כ‬f‫ח‬ ‫רו‬p‫ש‬f‫י‬ ‫ם‬f‫אמנ‬ p

‫קמץ ק6ט6 ן‬ 6 6

Kamatz Katan

O (as [aw] in law)

The general rule is: Kamatz Katan (Small Kamatz) can appear in unstressed closed syllable only; in open or stressed syllable Kamatz should be read as Kamatz Gadol. Examples: [khokhma ] [yoshro] [omnam] wisdom his straightforwardness, his honesty however

Of course, every rule has exceptions. Here is the most classic one:

‫ים‬k‫ש‬f‫ר‬f‫ש‬

[shorashim]

roots

u‫א‬ v‫א‬ c‫א‬ k‫א‬

‫בוץ‬N‫ק‬ ‫ת6ח‬P‫פ‬ ‫גול‬B‫ס‬ ‫יק ח6ס;ר‬E‫יר‬E‫ח‬

Kubbutz

U (as [oo] in book)

Patakh

A (as [a] in father)

Segol

E (as [e] in mess)

Khirik Khaser

I (as [ee] in feed)

Ultra-short (or Reduced) vowels

w‫ח‬ x‫ח‬ y‫ח‬

‫ ף־‬P‫ט‬W‫ח‬ ‫קמ6ץ‬ 6 ‫ ף־‬P‫ט‬W‫ח‬ ‫ת6ח‬P‫פ‬ ‫ ף־‬P‫ט‬W‫ח‬ ‫גול‬B‫ס‬

KhatafKamatz

Ho

The Khatafs are pronounced same way as corresponding short vowels (kamatz katan, patakh, and segol), but the Khatafs are shorter. Some scholars claim, that in modern language this shortness is pretty much theoretical; however my personal observation (and my personal sense of language too) approve the opposite. The Khatafs always appear with guttural sounds (with maybe couple of exceptions all over Hebrew vocabulary.)

KhatafPatakh

Ha

KhatafSegol

He

p‫ח‬

‫ ו6א‬Y‫ש‬

Schwa [shva]

He sometimes Ha

Pronunciation of Schwa diacritic mark (the name is pronounced shva) depends on where it stands in a word. It either means absense of any vowel ("silent schwa"); or a reduced unstressed vowel, something like the "a" in "about" ("moving schwa".)

Daggesh
Daggesh is a dot inside a letter ( ) used to distinguish between different ways to read that letter.There are two types of dagesh: "light" (dagesh qal) and strong (dagesh khazaq).

‫ב‬

‫ ב‬without dagesh at all reads as V (‫בוד‬f‫ - כ‬kavod). ‫ ב‬with dagesh qal is B (‫ר‬c‫ק‬n‫ - ב‬boqer), and ‫ ב‬with dagesh chazaq, which is "theoretically" BB: ‫ת‬f‫ שב‬v
Here is a simple example: shabbat. We say "theoretically" because consonant gemination is hardly heard in modern Hebrew (as well as in some other languages which have consonant gemination in writing.

Patakh Ganuv
There is a special case, when a Patakh is pronounced before the consonant rather than afterwards. This is so-called sneaky Patakh. It appears under the letters , , when those letters are located in the very end of the word, and the sound preceiding the consonant is "incompatible" with the guttural nature of those consonants. To make long story short, if the preceding vowel is not an "A"-sound, the sneaky Patakh is going to sneak in. By the way, this Patakh is never stressed.
profession wind; spirit brain affecting, influencing miqtzoa` ruakh moakh mashpia`

‫חע ה‬

‫מקצוע‬ v p k v‫רוח‬ v‫ח‬n‫מ‬ ‫יע‬k‫משפ‬ v p v

high (m) neglecting

gavoah mazniakh

v‫בוה‬f‫ג‬ v‫יח‬k‫נ‬p‫ז‬v‫מ‬

Most Israelis though pronounce the Patakh ganuv with Hei and Ain as a regular Patakh: gavoha, miqtzo'a -- or just
gavoa, miqtzoa

Mappiq
Rarely found, the Mappiq has the following meaning: it indicates that the letter which you might think was a Mater Lectionis, is indeed a consonant. In Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) the Mappiq is found in the letters ‫ א‬and ‫ ;ה‬but in the modern language it's used only in ‫ ה‬in the following cases: 1. Words derived from the root ‫ ,גבה‬like: ‫ה‬v‫ב‬n‫ ג‬govah (hight), ‫ גבוה‬gavoah (high), ‫יה‬k‫ב‬p‫ מג‬magbiah (raising). v 2. Suffixes -ah (meaning "her") of noun and preposition derivation: ‫ה‬f‫ של‬shelah c (her)
The modern Israeli pronunciation is just skipping the Hei with Mappiq, pronouncing it like a Mater Lectionis - an indication of a final A-sound: gavoa, shela.

Hebrew Pronouns
Learning the Hebrew Pronouns is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Hebrew language. But first we need to know what the role of Pronouns is in the structure of the grammar in Hebrew. Hebrew pronouns include personal pronouns (refer to the persons speaking, the persons spoken to, or the persons or things spoken about), indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns (connect parts of sentences) and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns (in which the object of a verb is being acted on by verb's subject). Here are some examples:

English Pronouns Pronouns I you he she we aney - ‫אני‬ ateh - ‫אתה‬ hoa - ‫הוא‬ heya - ‫היא‬

Hebrew Pronouns shemot kheynoey - ‫שמות כינוי‬

aneẖeno - ‫אנחנו‬

English Pronouns they me you him her us them my your his her our their mine yours his hers ours theirs hem - ‫הם‬

Hebrew Pronouns

aotey - ‫אותי‬ lekh - ‫לך‬ aoto - ‫אותו‬ leh - ‫לה‬ aoteno - ‫אותנו‬ lehem - ‫להם‬ sheley - ‫שלי‬ shelekh - ‫שלך‬ shelo - ‫שלו‬ sheleh - ‫שלה‬ sheleno - ‫שלנו‬ shelehem - ‫שלהם‬ sheley - ‫שלי‬ shelekh - ‫שלך‬ shelo - ‫שלו‬ sheleh - ‫שלה‬ sheleno - ‫שלנו‬ shelehem - ‫שלהם‬

As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Pronouns in Hebrew has a logical pattern. Locate the Pronouns above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Hebrew.

List of Pronouns in Hebrew
Below is a list of the Personal pronouns, indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns, reciprocal or reflexive pronouns in Hebrew placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Hebrew vocabulary.

English Pronouns I speak you speak he speaks she speaks we speak they speak give me give him give her give us give them my book your book his book her book our book their book Hebrew Articles

Hebrew Pronouns aney meḏever - ‫אני מדבר‬ ateh meḏever - ‫אתה מדבר‬ hoa meḏever - ‫הוא מדבר‬ heya meḏeveret - ‫היא מדברת‬ aneẖeno meḏevereym - ‫אנחנו מדברים‬ hem meḏevereym - ‫הם מדברים‬ ten ley - ‫תן לי‬ ten lo - ‫תן לו‬ ten leh - ‫תן לה‬ ten leno - ‫תן לנו‬ ten lehem - ‫תן להם‬ hesefer sheley - ‫הספר שלי‬ hesefer shelekh - ‫הספר שלך‬ hesefer shelo - ‫הספר שלו‬ hesefer sheleh - ‫הספר שלה‬ hesefer sheleno - ‫הספר שלנו‬ hesefer shelehem - ‫הספר שלהם‬

Learning the Hebrew Articles is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Hebrew language. But first we need to know what the role of Articles is in the structure of the grammar in Hebrew. Hebrew articles are words that combine with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. Generally articles specify the grammatical definiteness of the noun. Examples are "the, a, and an". Here are some examples:

English Articles articles the h-‫ה‬

Hebrew Articles meylot eyẖes oẖeyvor - ‫מילות יחס וחיבור‬

English Articles a one some few the book the books a book one book some books few books h-‫ה‬ aẖeḏ - ‫אחד‬ khemeh - ‫כמה‬

Hebrew Articles

me'eṭeym - ‫מעטים‬ hesefer - ‫הספר‬ hesefereym - ‫הספרים‬ sefer - ‫ספר‬ sefer aẖeḏ - ‫ספר אחד‬ khemeh sefereym - ‫כמה ספרים‬
khemeh sefereym -

‫כמה ספרים‬

Hebrew Plural
Learning the Hebrew Plural is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Hebrew language. But first we need to know what the role of Plural is in the structure of the grammar in Hebrew. Hebrew Plurals are grammatical numbers, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. In the English language, singular and plural are the only grammatical numbers. Here are some examples: English Plural Hebrew Plural

Plural my book my books our daughter our daughters I'm cold we're cold his chickens their chicken

reveym - ‫רבים‬ hesefer sheley - ‫הספר שלי‬ hesefereym sheley - ‫הספרים שלי‬ hevet sheleno - ‫הבת שלנו‬ hevenot sheleno - ‫הבנות שלנו‬ ker ley - ‫קר לי‬ ker leno - ‫קר לנו‬ heterenegueolot shelo - ‫התרנגולות שלו‬ heterenegueol shelehem - ‫התרנגול‬

English Plural

Hebrew Plural

‫שלהם‬
As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Plural in Hebrew has a logical pattern. Locate the Plural above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Hebrew.

List of Plurals in Hebrew
Below is a list of the Plurals and Singulars in Hebrew placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Hebrew vocabulary.

English Plural alligator alligators bear bears bird birds bull bulls cat cats cow cows deer many deer dog dogs donkey donkeys eagle eagles elephant elephants giraffe

Hebrew Plural teneyn - ‫תנין‬ teneyneym - ‫תנינים‬ ḏov - ‫דוב‬ ḏoveym - ‫דובים‬ tseyfor - ‫ציפור‬ tseyforeym - ‫ציפורים‬ shor - ‫שור‬ shooreym - ‫שוורים‬ ẖetol - ‫חתול‬ ẖetoleym - ‫חתולים‬ fereh - ‫פרה‬ ferot - ‫פרות‬ tsevey - ‫צבי‬ tseveyeym - ‫צביים‬ khelev - ‫כלב‬ kheleveym - ‫כלבים‬ ẖemor - ‫חמור‬ ẖemoreym - ‫חמורים‬ nesher - ‫נשר‬ neshereym - ‫נשרים‬ feyl - ‫פיל‬ feyleym - ‫פילים‬ gue 'eyrefeh - ‫ג 'ירפה‬

English Plural giraffes goat goats horse horses lion lions monkey monkeys mouse mice rabbit rabbits snake snakes tiger tigers wolf wolves Feminine he is happy she is happy he is American she is American man woman father mother

Hebrew Plural gue 'eyrefot - ‫ג‬ ‫'ירפות‬ 'ez - ‫עז‬ 'ezeym - ‫עזים‬ sos - ‫סוס‬ soseym - ‫סוסים‬ areyh - ‫אריה‬ areyot - ‫אריות‬ kof - ‫קוף‬ kofeym - ‫קופים‬ 'ekhever - ‫עכבר‬ 'ekhevereym - ‫עכברים‬ arenev - ‫ארנב‬ areneveym - ‫ארנבים‬ neẖesh - ‫נחש‬ neẖesheym - ‫נחשים‬ nemer - ‫נמר‬ nemereym - ‫נמרים‬ zeav - ‫זאב‬ zeaveym - ‫זאבים‬ nekeveh - ‫נקבה‬ hoa meaosher - ‫הוא מאושר‬ heya meaosheret - ‫היא מאושרת‬ hoa amereykeaey - ‫הוא אמריקאי‬ heya amereykeaeyt - ‫היא אמריקאית‬ aeysh - ‫איש‬ asheh - ‫אשה‬ avea - ‫אבא‬ amea - ‫אמא‬

brother sister uncle aunt bull cow boy girl

aẖ - ‫אח‬ aẖot - ‫אחות‬ ḏoḏ - ‫דוד‬ ḏoḏeh - ‫דודה‬ shor - ‫שור‬ fereh - ‫פרה‬ eyleḏ - ‫ילד‬ eyleḏeh - ‫ילדה‬

Hebrew Prepositions
Learning the Hebrew Prepositions is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Hebrew language. But first we need to know what the role of Prepositions is in the structure of the grammar in Hebrew. Hebrew prepositions link nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition. Here are some examples: Hebrew Prepositions English Prepositions meylot eyẖes - ‫מילות יחס‬ Prepositions vetokh heveyt - ‫בתוך הבית‬ inside the house

outside the car with me without him under the table after tomorrow before sunset but I'm busy

meẖots lemekhoneyt - ‫מחוץ‬ ‫למכונית‬ atey - ‫אתי‬ vele'eḏeyo - ‫בלעדיו‬ meteẖet lesholeẖen - ‫מתחת לשולחן‬ meẖereteyeym - ‫מחרתיים‬ lefeney heshekey'eh - ‫לפני השקיעה‬ avel aney 'esok - ‫אבל אני עסוק‬

List of Prepositions in Hebrew
Below is a list of the Time place and demonstrative pronouns in Hebrew placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Hebrew vocabulary. English Prepositions Hebrew Prepositions

about above

'el - ‫על‬ me'el - ‫מעל‬

English Prepositions

Hebrew Prepositions

across after against among around as at before behind below beneath beside between beyond but by despite down during except for from in inside into near next of on opposite out

me'ever - ‫מעבר‬ aẖerey - ‫אחרי‬ negueḏ / mol - ‫נגד / מול‬ veyn - ‫בין‬ meseveyv - ‫מסביב‬ khemo - ‫כמו‬ leyḏ / v - ‫ליד / ב‬ lefeney - ‫לפני‬ meaẖorey - ‫מאחורי‬ melemeṭeh - ‫מלמטה‬ meteẖet - ‫מתחת‬ leyḏ - ‫ליד‬ veyn - ‫בין‬ me'ever - ‫מעבר‬ avel - ‫אבל‬ 'el eyḏey / 'el eyḏ / v - ‫על ידי / על יד / ב‬ lemerot - ‫למרות‬ meṭeh - ‫מטה‬ vemehelekh / vezemen sh - ‫במהלך / בזמן ש‬ ẖots m - ‫חוץ מ‬ 'evor - ‫עבור‬ men - ‫מן‬ vetokh / v - ‫בתוך / ב‬ vetokh / vefeneym - ‫בתוך / בפנים‬ letokh - ‫לתוך‬ leyḏ / 'el eyḏ - ‫ליד / על יד‬ hevea - ‫הבא‬ shel - ‫של‬ 'el - ‫על‬ mol - ‫מול‬ ẖots - ‫חוץ‬

English Prepositions

Hebrew Prepositions

outside over per plus round since than through till to toward under unlike until up via with within without two words according to because of close to due to except for far from inside of instead of near to next to

veẖots - ‫בחוץ‬ me'ever - ‫מעבר‬ lekhel / l - ‫לכל / ל‬ o'oḏ / felos - ‫ועוד / פלוס‬ 'egueol - ‫עגול‬ meaz - ‫מאז‬ measher / m - ‫מאשר / מ‬ ḏerekh - ‫דרך‬ 'eḏ - ‫עד‬ al - ‫אל‬ al - ‫אל‬ meteẖet - ‫מתחת‬ shelea khemo - ‫שלא כמו‬ 'eḏ - ‫עד‬ leme'eleh - ‫למעלה‬ veametse'ot / ḏerekh - ‫באמצעות / דרך‬ 'em - ‫עם‬ vetokh - ‫בתוך‬ lelea - ‫ללא‬ shetey meyleym - ‫שתי מילים‬ 'el fey / lefey - ‫על פי / לפי‬ veguelel - ‫בגלל‬ vesemokh - ‫בסמוך‬ veguelel - ‫בגלל‬ ẖots m - ‫חוץ מ‬ reẖok m - ‫רחוק מ‬ vetokh - ‫בתוך‬ vemekom - ‫במקום‬ semokh l - ‫סמוך ל‬ leyḏ - ‫ליד‬

English Prepositions

Hebrew Prepositions

outside of prior to three words as far as as well as in addition to in front of in spite of on behalf of on top of Demonstrative Pronouns this that these those

meẖots l - ‫מחוץ ל‬ lefeney - ‫לפני‬ shelosh meyleym - ‫שלוש מילים‬ khekhel sh / 'eḏ l - ‫ככל ש / עד ל‬ khemo guem - ‫כמו גם‬ nosef 'el / nosef l - ‫נוסף על / נוסף ל‬ mol / veẖezeyt h - ‫מול / בחזית ה‬ lemerot - ‫למרות‬ meṭe'em - ‫מטעם‬ me'ever l - ‫מעבר ל‬

zeh - ‫זה‬ zeh - ‫זה‬ aleh - ‫אלה‬ alo - ‫אלו‬

Hebrew Negation
Learning the Hebrew Negation is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Hebrew language. But first we need to know what the role of Negation is in the structure of the grammar in Hebrew. Hebrew negation is the process that turns an affirmative statement (I am happy) into its opposite denial (I am not happy). Here are some examples: English Negation Hebrew Negation

Negation he is not here that is not my book do not enter

sheleyleh - ‫שלילה‬ hoa lea khean - ‫הוא לא כאן‬ zeh lea hesefer sheley - ‫זה לא הספר שלי‬ lea leheykhenes - ‫לא להיכנס‬

As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Negation in Hebrew has a logical pattern. Locate the Negation above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Hebrew.

List of Negation in Hebrew
Below is a list of the Negation and negative expressions in Hebrew placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Hebrew vocabulary.

English Negation Negation he is not here that is not my book do not enter I don't speak I don't write I don't drive I don't love I don't give I don't smile I don't take he doesn't speak he doesn't write he doesn't drive he doesn't love he doesn't give sheleyleh - ‫שלילה‬

Hebrew Negation hoa lea khean - ‫הוא לא כאן‬ zeh lea hesefer sheley - ‫זה לא הספר שלי‬ lea leheykhenes - ‫לא להיכנס‬ aney lea meḏever - ‫אני לא מדבר‬ aney lea khotev - ‫אני לא כותב‬ aney lea nohegue - ‫אני לא נוהג‬ aney lea aohev - ‫אני לא אוהב‬ aney lea noten - ‫אני לא נותן‬ aney lea meẖeyeykh - ‫אני לא מחייך‬ aney lea lokeẖ - ‫אני לא לוקח‬ hoa lea meḏever - ‫הוא לא מדבר‬ hoa lea khotev - ‫הוא לא כותב‬ hoa lea nohegue - ‫הוא לא נוהג‬ hoa lea aohev - ‫הוא לא אוהב‬ hoa lea noten - ‫הוא לא נותן‬

he doesn't take we don't speak we don't write we don't drive we don't love we don't give

hoa lea lokeẖ - ‫הוא לא לוקח‬ aneẖeno lea meḏevereym - ‫אנחנו לא מדברים‬ aneẖeno lea khoteveym - ‫אנחנו לא כותבים‬ aneẖeno lea nohegueeym - ‫אנחנו לא נוהגים‬ aneẖeno lea aoheveym - ‫אנחנו לא אוהבים‬ aneẖeno lea noteneym - ‫אנחנו לא נותנים‬

we don't smile we don't take Hebrew Questions

aneẖeno lea meẖeyeykheym - ‫אנחנו לא מחייכים‬ aneẖeno lea lokeẖeym - ‫אנחנו לא לוקחים‬

Learning the Hebrew Questions is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Hebrew language. But first we need to know what the role of Questions is in the structure of the grammar in Hebrew. Hebrew questions may be either a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or else the request itself made by such an expression. Usually it starts with why, how, where, when ... Here are some examples: English Questions Hebrew Questions

Questions how? what? who? why?

shealot - ‫שאלות‬ aeykh? - ‫?איך‬ mehe? - ‫?מה‬ mey? - ‫?מי‬ lemehe? - ‫?למה‬

Hebrew Numbers
Learning the Hebrew Numbers is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Hebrew language. But first we need to know what the role of Numbers is in the structure of the grammar in Hebrew. Hebrew cardinal number convey the "how many" they're also known as "counting numbers," because they show quantity. Here are some examples:

English Numbers numbers one two three four five six seven eight

Hebrew Numbers mesefereym - ‫מספרים‬ aẖet - ‫אחת‬ sheteym - ‫שתים‬ shelosh - ‫שלוש‬ areve' - ‫ארבע‬ ẖemesh - ‫חמש‬ shesh - ‫שש‬ sheve' - ‫שבע‬ shemoneh - ‫שמונה‬

English Numbers nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty hundred one thousand

Hebrew Numbers teshe' - ‫תשע‬ 'esher - ‫עשר‬ aẖet 'eshereh - ‫אחת עשרה‬ sheteym 'eshereh - ‫שתים עשרה‬ shelesh 'eshereh - ‫שלש עשרה‬ areve' 'eshereh - ‫ארבע עשרה‬ ẖemesh 'eshereh - ‫חמש עשרה‬ shesh 'eshereh - ‫שש עשרה‬ sheve' 'eshereh - ‫שבע עשרה‬ shemoneh ‫עשרה‬ 'eshereh ‫שמונה‬

teshe' 'eshereh - ‫תשע עשרה‬ 'eshereym - ‫עשרים‬ meah - ‫מאה‬ alef - ‫אלף‬

million meyleyon - ‫מיליון‬ As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Numbers in Hebrew has a
logical pattern. Locate the Numbers above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Hebrew.

List of Ordinal Numbers in Hebrew
Hebrew Ordinal numbers tell the order of things in a set: first, second, third, etc. Ordinal numbers do not show quantity. They only show rank or position. Below is a list of the Cardinal Numbers and Ordinal Numbers in Hebrew. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Hebrew vocabulary.

English Numbers Ordinal Numbers first second third fourth fifth sixth

Hebrew Numbers reashon - ‫ראשון‬ sheney - ‫שני‬ sheleyshey - ‫שלישי‬ revey'ey - ‫רביעי‬ ẖemeyshey - ‫חמישי‬ sheysheyt - ‫שישית‬

English Numbers seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth once twice Greek Alphabet

Hebrew Numbers shevey'eyt - ‫שביעית‬ shemeyneyt - ‫שמינית‬ teshey'eyt - ‫תשיעית‬ 'esheyrey - ‫עשירי‬ aẖeḏ 'esher - ‫אחד עשר‬ sheneym 'esher - ‫שנים עשר‬ shelosh 'esher - ‫שלוש עשר‬ areve'eh 'esher - ‫ארבעה עשר‬ ẖemeysheh 'esher - ‫חמישה עשר‬ sheysheh 'esher - ‫שישה עשר‬ sheve'eh 'esher - ‫שבעה עשר‬ shemoneh 'esher - ‫שמונה עשר‬ teshe' 'esher - ‫תשע עשר‬ 'eshereym - ‫עשרים‬ fe'em - ‫פעם‬ fe'emeym - ‫פעמים‬

Learning the Greek alphabet is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. Without it, you will not be able to say words properly even if you know how to write those words. The better you pronounce a letter in a word, the more understood you will be in speaking the Greek language. Below is a table showing the Greek alphabet and how it is pronounced in English, and finally examples of how those letters would sound if you place them in a word.

Greek Alphabet Αα Ββ Γγ Δδ Εε Ζζ

English Sound Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta

Pronunciation Example a as in smart v as in very between y as in yes and g as in go th as in that e as in very z as in zoo

Greek Alphabet Ηη Θθ Ιι Κκ Λλ Μμ Νν Ξξ Οο Ππ Ρρ Σσς Ττ Υυ Φφ Χχ Ψψ Ωω

English Sound Eta Theta Iota Kappa Lambda Mu Nu Xi Omicron Pi Rho Sigma Tau Upsilon Phi Chi Psi Omega

Pronunciation Example ee as in bee th as in think ee as in bee k as in look l as in log m as in man n as in not x as in wax o as in box p as in top, close to 'b' rolled r as in Roma s as in sap t as in hot, but softer and close to 'd' ee as in bee ph as in photo ch as in the scottish loch ps as in upside o as in box

Vowels
short α ε ι ο υ
as in father as in bed as in pit as in top as in deja vu

long α η ι ω υ
as in father

as in they
as in machine as in tote as in deja vu

BREATHING MARKS
Every word that begins with a vowel will have a breathing mark above the initial vowel (or vowel sound). For lower case letters, the breathing mark is placed just above the vowel. For upper case letters, the breathing mark is placed just before the initial vowel. If the breathing mark is concave to the right (like a reverse comma), as in

ἡμέρα
the mark is called a "rough" breathing mark and indicates an initial "h" sound is to be pronounced.

ἡμέρα is pronounced, "hay-ME-ra". Notice the "h" sound.
If the breathing mark is concave to the left (like a comma), as in

ἀλήθεια
the mark is called a "smooth" breathing mark and indicates that there is no initial "h" sound.

ἀλήθεια is pronounced, "a-LAY-thay-a". Notice the absence of an "h" sound.
Every word beginning with the letter ρ (rho) will have a rough breathing mark.

DITHONGS
Vowels are categorized as either "close" or "open". Pronounce the sound of "a" as in father, and make note that your throat is wide open. Then pronounce the sound of the letter "i" as in pit, and make note that your throat is constricted. Pronounce the sound of the letter "u" in deja vu and although your lips are differently formed, notice that your throat again is constricted. The open vowels are α, ε, η, ο, ω The close vowels are ι, υ A diphthong is a combination of two vowels, but not every pair of vowels is a diphthong. The first vowel of a Greek diphthong will be an open vowel, and the second

vowel will always be a close vowel. Therefore, οι is a diphthong, but ιο is not a diphthong. The following are diphthongs: αι, ει, οι, αυ, ευ, ηυ, ου In addition to these, there are three "improper dipthongs," diphthongs wherein the second vowel, ι, is written as a subscript to the first letter. These are ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ (named respectively, "alpha iota subscript," "eta iota subscript," "omega iota subscript") Finally, there is one exception to the rule that the first vowel must be an open vowel. Even though υ is a close vowel, υι is a diphthong. Although a diphthong is a combination of two sounds with one sliding into the other, for purposes of syllabification, a diphthong is considered to be one vowel sound. contrast the oi in Illinois with the io in Ohio. The i and o in Ohio are clearly two distinct sounds. But the oi in Illinois is a diphthong and makes one vowel sound. The sounds made by Greek diphthongs are these

αι is pronounced ai as in Thailand ει is pronounced ei as in eight1 οι is pronounced oi as in Illinois αυ is pronounced ow as in cow ευ is pronounced eu as in feud2 ηυ is pronounced the same as eu ου is pronounced ou as in soup υι is pronounced uee as in queen
"Improper Diphthongs" ᾳ is pronounced the same as α ῃ is pronounced the same as η ῳ is pronounced the same as ω

1

In the volume on Accidence & Word-Formation by J. H. Moulton and W. F. Howard, (Grammar of New Testament Greek, vol. 2) it is said that in Hellenistic times, ει was pronounced i as in machine. (p. 118) There are a number of instances where the pronunciation typically taught in schools today is known to be different than the pronunciation that existed in Hellenistic times. And in fact, there is some difference of opinion as to which of various pronunciation schemes makes the most sense for modern students. In recent years, some have advocated using Modern Greek pronunciation in New Testament Greek courses. What is important is that the student learn to use a given pronunciation scheme consistently so as to better facilitate committing the vocabulary to memory.
2

Edward Hobbs sent me the following explanation of ευ as an improvement over the illustrative word "feud" : Most textbooks suggest something like "e as in 'get,' followed by -oo- as in 'food'" or the like. Goetchius suggests pronouncing my name (Edward) dropping the "d" between E and d, or saying "house" as they do in some parts of Virginia! [my place of residence, JS] In any case, it is "eh" followed quickly by "oo".

Diphthongs are always long, except final αι and final οι. For example:

οι in ἄνθρωποι is final and is short.

οι in ἀνθρώποις is not final (it is followed by ς) and is long.
When a word begins with a diphthong, the breathing mark goes over second letter. For example

αὐτός

SYLLABLES
Each syllable must have one and only one vowel sound. A diphthong is considered one vowel sound. In general, syllable divisions should be made immediately following a vowel or diphthong.

λυομεν

λυ-ο-μεν

υο is not a diphthong, and therefore
the two vowels belong to different syllables.

γινωσκω δαιμονιον

γι-νω-σκω δαι-μο-νι-ον

σκ is not split. The syllables are
divided after the vowel preceding σκ.

αι is a diphthong, and therefore is not divided. ιο is not a diphthong, and
therefore the two vowels are divided.

Exceptions arise when there are two consecutive consonants or even three consecutive consonants. In these cases, if the combination of consonants is not one that can appear at the beginning of a word, they are usually divided.

λαμϐανω

λαμ-ϐα-νω

μ goes with the preceding vowel because μϐ cannot begin a word or a
syllable.

ἀνθρωπος

ἀν-θρω-πος

ν goes with the preceding vowel because νθρ cannot begin a word or a
syllable.

ἐχθρος

ἐχ-θρος

χ goes with the preceding vowel because χθρ cannot begin a word.or a
syllable.

Of course, at this point, you don't know what combinations of consonants can appear at the beginning of a word. You could memorize a list of such combinations, but the value

of such is not worth the effort. If you only know that there is one vowel sound per syllable, you can identify the number of syllables and pronounce the word. In time, you will develop a feel for how to allocate consonants to syllables.

ACCENTS
The importance of learning accent rules • fixing the sound in memory is an aid to learning • accent mark helps indentify the form in some cases Terminology • ultima, penult, antepenult • acute, grave, circumflex Significance Originally, words were not written with accent marks. That does not mean they were not fixed. In fact, the various accents were distinct musical pitches. The following anecdote is related on p. 52 in A Grammar of New Testament Greek, Vol. II, "Accidence and WordFormation," by J. H. Moulton and W. F. Howard: We recall the well-known story of the actor Hegelochus, who in declaiming a line of Euripides ending with γαλήν' ὁρῶ = ("I see a calm") pronounced a circumflex instead of an acute, and sent the audience into roars of laughter: γαλῆν ὁρῶ = "I see a weasel." As the Greek language became a world language, spreading to lands where it was not indigenous, the subtleties of pitch were being lost. In a retrenching effort, Greek grammarians encouraged the writing of the accent mark. But the effort succeeded only in retaining a stress on the accented syllable. Distinctions of pitch between the different accents were lost. General Rules 1 . Only the last three syllables of a word may be accented.

2 .

An acute accent may stand on any of the last 3 syllables. A circumflex may stand only on the last 2 syllables. A grave may stand only on the last syllable.

3 . 4 . 5 . 6 .

The antepenult may be accented only if the ultima is short. A circumflex may stand only on a long syllable. An accented penult will have a circumflex if and only if the penult is long and the ultima is short. An acute on the ultima is changed to a grave when the word is followed immediately by another word without intervening punctuation mark. • Special Rule for Verbs For verbs, the accent is recessive. That is, within the constraints of the general rules, the accent will stand on the syllable closest to the beginning of the word. For example, in the case of ἀκολουθήσατε, rule #1 prevents the accent from being placed on any of the first three syllables, but because the ultima is short, the accent can come all the way back to the antepenult. Because this is a verb, the accent must come all the way back to the antepenult.

PUNCTUATION
A period is represented in Greek by a period. A question mark is represented in Greek by a semicolon. A colon or a semicolon is represented in Greek by a dot above the line.

WORD PRONUNCIATION
To pronounce a word, • First, count the number of vowels • Then, where there are two or more vowels in succession, identify pairs of vowels that form diphthongs • Next, counting each diphthong as one vowel sound, and every other vowel as a vowel sound, count the total number of vowel sounds. This is the number of syllables in the word. • Pronounce the syllables, syllable by syllable • Identify the syllable that has an accent mark indicating that syllable should be stressed. • Pronounce the whole word, stressing the accented syllable. Example: θεραπεύω Count the vowels Identify diphthongs Count the vowel sounds Pronounce each syllable Identify the accented syllable Pronounce the whole word, stressing the accented syllable 5 vowels, ε, α, ε, υ, ω 1 diphthong, ευ 4 vowel sounds, ε, α, ευ, ω, and therefore, 4 syllables

πεύ

Greek Pronouns
Learning the Greek Pronouns is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Greek language. But first we need to know what the role of Pronouns is in the structure of the grammar in Greek. Greek pronouns include personal pronouns (refer to the persons speaking, the persons spoken to, or the persons or things spoken about), indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns (connect parts of sentences) and reciprocal or reflexive pronouns (in which the object of a verb is being acted on by verb's subject). Grammar Tips: In English personal pronouns are (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they), and (me, you, him,

her, it, us, you, them), In Greek, the personal pronouns are:

εγώ… (I), εσύ… (you), αυτός… (he), αυτή… (she), αυτό... (ιτ) εμείς… (we), εσείς… (they masc.), αυτοί… (they fem.) αυτές... (), αυτά () Examples: εγώ μαθαίνω (I learn), εσύ μαθαίνεις (you learn), αυτός μαθαίνει (he learns), αυτή μαθαίνει (she learns), αυτό μαθαίνει (it learns), εμείς μαθαίνουμε (we learn), εσείς μαθαίνετε (you learn), αυτοί μαθαίνουν (they learn [masculine]), αυτές aprenden (they learn [feminine]), αυτά aprenden (they learn [neuter]). Direct Object Personal Pronouns Direct object pronouns are words that replace the direct object: με (me), σε (you), τον (him), την (her), το (it), μας (us), σας (you), τους (them – masc.), τις (them – fem.), τα (them – neut.) Examples: Σε βλέπω. (I can see you.) Τα διάβασες; (Did you read them?) Indirect Object Personal Pronouns: Indirect object pronouns are words that replace the indirect object, which is usually a person. μου (me), σου (you),

του (him), της (her), του (its), μας (us), σας (you), τους (them): Examples: Δως μου το βιβλίο (give me the book). Σου λέω (I tell you). Possessive Pronouns: One possession δικός μου (mine masc.), δική μου (mine fem.), δικό μου (mine, neut.) δικός σου / δική σου / δικό σου (yours) δικός του / δική του / δικό του (his) δικός της, δική της, δικό της (hers) δικός του, δική του, δικό του (its) δικός μας / δική μας / δικό μας (ours) δικός σας / δική σας / δικό σας (yours) δικός τους / δική τους / δικό τους (theirs) Examples: Ο υπολογιστής είναι δικός μου. (The computer is mine.) Η σαλάτα είναι δική σου. (The salad is yours.) Το σπίτι είναι δικό μας. (The house is ours.) Many possessions δικοί μου, δικές μου, δικά μου (mine) δικοί σου, δικές σου, δικά σου (mine,) δικοί του, δικές του, δικά του (mine, plural fem.) δικοί της, δικές της, δικά της (mine, plural fem.) δικοί του, δικές του, δικά του (mine, plural fem.) δικοί μας, δικές μας, δικά μας (mine, plural fem.) δικοί σας, δικές σας, δικά σας (mine, plural fem.)

δικοί τους, δικές τους, δικά τους (mine, plural fem.) Examples: Οι υπολογιστές είναι δικοί μου. (The computers are mine.) Οι σαλάτες είναι δικές σου. (The salads are yours.) Τα σπίτια είναι δικά μας. (The houses are ours.)
Here are some examples: English Pronouns Greek Pronouns

Pronouns I you he she we they me you him her us them my your his her our their mine yours his hers

Antwnymies - Αντωνυμίες Egw - Εγώ eseis - εσείς aftos - αυτός afth - αυτή emeis - εμείς aftoi - αυτοί mou - μου esas - εσάς afton - αυτόν afthn - αυτήν mas - μας tous - τους mou - μου sas - σας tou - του ths - της mas - μας tous - τους oryxeio - ορυχείο dikos sas - δικός σας dikos tou - δικός του dikos ths - δικός της

English Pronouns

Greek Pronouns

ours theirs

dikos mas - δικός μας dikes tous - δικές τους

As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Pronouns in Greek has a logical pattern. Locate the Pronouns above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Greek.

List of Pronouns in Greek
Below is a list of the Personal pronouns, indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns, reciprocal or reflexive pronouns in Greek placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Greek vocabulary.

English Pronouns I speak you speak he speaks she speaks we speak they speak give me give him give her give us give them my book your book his book her book our book their book

Greek Pronouns Milaw - Μιλάω milate - μιλάτε Milaei - Μιλάει milaei - μιλάει milame - μιλάμε miloyn - μιλούν dwse mou - δώσε μου na sas dwsei - να σας δώσει dwse tou - δώσε του dwse ths - δώσε της dwse mas - δώσε μας dwse tous - δώσε τους to vivlio mou - το βιβλίο μου to vivlio sas - το βιβλίο σας to vivlio tou - το βιβλίο του vivlio ths - βιβλίο της to vivlio mas - το βιβλίο μας to vivlio tous - το βιβλίο τους

one 1 ena ένα five 5 pente πέντε nine 9 ennea εννέα

two 2 dyo δυο six 6 eksi έξι ten 10 deka δέκα

three 3 tria τρία seven 7 epta επτά

four 4 tessera τέσσερα eight 8 oktw οκτώ

Greek Articles
Learning the Greek Articles is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Greek language. But first we need to know what the role of Articles is in the structure of the grammar in Greek. Greek articles are words that combine with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. Generally articles specify the grammatical definiteness of the noun. Examples are "the, a, and an". Grammar Tips:

Definite Article: Unlike English, which has only one definite article “the", Greek has 3 definite articles and their corresponding plural forms: Singular Plural Masculine o πατέρας (the father) οι πατέρες (the fathers) Feminine η μητέρα (the mother) οι μητέρες (the mothers) Neuter το παιδί (the child) τα παιδιά (the children) Indefinite Article: While we have (a / an) in English as indefinite articles, we also have ένας / μία / ένα in Greek . In general, whenever (a, an) are used in English you, you need to use (ένας), (μία) or (ένα) to say the equivalent in Greek. ένας άνδρας (a man) μία γυναίκα (a woman) ένα σπίτι (a house)
Here are some examples:

English Articles articles the a one some few

Greek Articles arthra - άρθρα o-ο ena - ένα enas - ένας peripou - περίπου ligoi - λίγοι

the book to vivlio - το βιβλίο the books ta vivlia - τα βιβλία a book ena vivlio - ένα βιβλίο one book ena vivlio - ένα βιβλίο some books kapoia vivlia - κάποια βιβλία few books merika vivlia - μερικά βιβλία As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Articles in Greek has a logical
pattern. Locate the Articles above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Greek.

Greek Plural
Learning the Greek Plural is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Greek language. But first we need to know what the role of Plural is in the structure of the grammar in Greek. Greek Plurals are grammatical numbers, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. In the English language, singular and plural are the only grammatical numbers. Grammar Tips: While in English, the plural is formed by adding (s) to the singular. In Greek, to form the plural of nouns we have to take into account the gender of the word and change the singular suffix accordingly. Here are some examples for each gender:

Masculine:
-ος becomes –οι, for example: ένας φίλος (one friend) becomes δύο φίλοι (two friends) -ής –ές, ένας μαθητής (one pupil) becomes δύο μαθητές -ας –ες, ένας αγώνας (one race) becomes δύο αγώνες -ούς –ούδες, ένας παππούς becomes (one grandfather) δύο παππούδες -ές –έδες, ένας καφές (one coffee) becomes δύο καφέδες

Feminine:
-η –ες, for example: μία κόρη (one daughter) becomes δύο κόρες (two daughters) -α –ες, μία χώρα (one country) becomes δύο χώρες -ος –οι, μία οδός (one street) becomes δύο οδοί -ού, -ούδες, μία αλεπού (one fox) becomes δύο αλεπούδες

Neuter:
-ο –α, ένα δώρο (one gift) becomes δύο δώρα -ι –ια, ένα παιδί (one child) becomes δύο παιδιά -μα –ματα, ένα σώμα (one body) becomes δύο σώματα -ος –η, ένα δάσος (one forest) becomes δύο δάση -ας –ατα, ένα τέρας (one monster) becomes δύο τέρατα
Note that these rules only apply to the Nominative case of nouns. The other three cases (Genitive, Accusative and Vocative) have their own suffixes.

Here are some examples:

Greek Plural Plhthyntikos - Πληθυντικός to vivlio mou - το βιβλίο μου ta vivlia mou - τα βιβλία μου H korh mas - Η κόρη μας oi kores mas - οι κόρες μας Krywnw - Κρυώνω Krywnoume - Κρυώνουμε Oi kotes tou - Οι κότες του Ta kotopoula tous - Τα their chicken κοτόπουλά τους As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Plural in Greek has a logical pattern. Locate the Plural above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Greek. List of Plurals in Greek
Below is a list of the Plurals and Singulars in Greek placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Greek vocabulary.

English Plural Plural my book my books our daughter our daughters I'm cold we're cold his chickens

English Plural alligator alligators bear bears bird birds bull bulls cat cats cow cows deer many deer dog dogs donkey donkeys eagle eagles elephant elephants giraffe giraffes goat goats horse horses lion lions monkey monkeys mouse

Greek Plural alligatoras - αλλιγάτορας alligatores - αλλιγάτορες arkoyda - αρκούδα arkoydes - αρκούδες pthno - pouli - πτηνο - πουλί pthna - poulia - πτηνά - πουλιά tayros - ταύρος tayroi - ταύροι gata - γάτα gates - γάτες agelada - αγελάδα agelades - αγελάδες elafi - ελάφι polla elafia - πολλά ελάφια skylos - σκύλος skyloi - σκύλοι gaidaros - γάιδαρος gaidoyria - γαϊδούρια aetos - αετός aetoi - αετοί elefantas - ελέφαντας elefantes - ελέφαντες kamhlopardalh - καμηλοπάρδαλη kamhlopardaleis καμηλοπαρδάλεις katsika - aiga - κατσικα - αιγα katsikes - aiges - κατσικες - αιγες alogo - άλογο aloga - άλογα liontari - λιοντάρι liontaria - λιοντάρια maimoy - μαϊμού maimoydes - μαιμούδες pontiki - ποντίκι

English Plural mice rabbit rabbits snake snakes tiger tigers wolf wolves

Greek Plural pontikia - ποντίκια kouneli - κουνέλι kounelia - κουνέλια fidi - φίδι fidia - φίδια tigrh - τίγρη tigreis - τίγρεις lykos - λύκος lykoi - λύκοι

Greek Feminine
Learning the Greek Feminine is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Greek language. But first we need to know what the role of Feminine is in the structure of the grammar in Greek. Greek feminine refers to female qualities attributed specifically to women and girls or things considered feminine. The complement to feminine is masculine. Here are some examples: English Feminine Greek Feminine

Feminine he is happy she is happy he is American she is American man woman father mother brother sister uncle aunt bull cow boy girl

THhlykos - Θηλυκός einai efxaristhmenos - είναι ευχαριστημένος Einai eftyxhs - Είναι ευτυχής einai Amerikanos - είναι Αμερικανός afth einai h amerikanikh - αυτή είναι η αμερικανική anthrwpos - άνθρωπος gynaika - γυναίκα pateras - πατέρας mhtera - μητέρα adelfos - αδελφός adelfh - αδελφή theios - θείος theia - θεία tayros - ταύρος agelada - αγελάδα agori - αγόρι koritsi - κορίτσι

Greek Verbs
Learning the Greek Verbs is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Greek language. But first we need to know what the role of Verbs is in the structure of the grammar in Greek. Greek verbs are words that convey action (bring, read, walk, run), or a state of being (exist, stand). In most languages a verb may agree with the person, gender, and/or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object.

- Present Tense In Greek, verbs in the Present Tense of the Active Voice are divided into two groups, which take the following endings: Group A: εγώ -ω, εσύ -εις, αυτός (αυτή, αυτό) -ει, εμείς -ουμε, εσείς -ετε, αυτοί (αυτές, αυτά) -ουν. Example: εγώ παίζω, εσύ παίζεις, αυτός (αυτή, αυτό) παίζει, εμείς παίζουμε, εσείς παίζετε, αυτοί (αυτές, αυτά) παίζουν. Group B: εγώ -ώ, εσύ -άς, αυτός (αυτή, αυτό) -ά, εμείς -άμε, εσείς -άτε, αυτοί (αυτές, αυτά) -ούν. εγώ αγαπώ, εσύ αγαπάς, αυτός (αυτή, αυτό) αγαπά, εμείς αγαπάμε, εσείς αγαπάτε, αυτοί (αυτές, αυτά) αγαπούν. These endings can help you a lot, because with them you can conjugate most of verbs into the present tense, you only need the stem of the verb, for example the stem of (παίζω: to play) is (παίζ).

- Future Tense (Continuous) Forming the future continuous in Greek is very easy; just use the whole present tense verb preceded by the future particle θα: Example: θα παίζω, θα παίζεις, θα παίζει, θα παίζουμε, θα παίζετε, θα παίζουν (=I will be playing…)

Here are some examples:

English Verbs Verbs Past I spoke I wrote I drove I loved I gave I smiled I took he spoke he wrote he drove he loved he gave he smiled he took we spoke

Greek Verbs Rhmata - Ρήματα To parelthon - Το παρελθόν Milhsa - Μίλησα Egrapsa - Έγραψα Odhghsa - Οδήγησα Agaphsa - Αγάπησα Edwsa - Έδωσα Xamogelasa - Χαμογέλασα Phra - Πήρα milhse - μίλησε egrapse - έγραψε odhghse - οδήγησε agaphse - αγάπησε edwse - έδωσε xamogelase - χαμογέλασε phre - πήρε milhsame - μιλήσαμε

English Verbs we wrote we drove we loved we gave we smiled we took Future I will speak I will write I will drive I will love I will give I will smile I will take he will speak he will write he will drive he will love he will give he will smile he will take we will speak we will write we will drive we will love we will give we will smile we will take Present I speak

Greek Verbs grapsame - γράψαμε odhghsame - οδηγήσαμε agaphsame - αγαπήσαμε dwsame - δώσαμε xamogelasame - χαμογελάσαμε phrame - πήραμε Mellon - Μέλλον THa milhsw - Θα μιλήσω THa grapsw - Θα γράψω tha odhghsw - θα οδηγήσω THa agapw - Θα αγαπώ THa dwsw - Θα δώσω tha xamogelw - θα χαμογελώ THa lavw - Θα λάβω tha milhsei - θα μιλήσει tha grapsei - θα γράψει tha odhghsei - θα οδηγήσει tha agaphsei - θα αγαπήσει tha dwsei - θα δώσει tha xamogelasei - θα χαμογελάσει tha lavei - θα λάβει tha milhsoume - θα μιλήσουμε tha grapsoume - θα γραψουμε tha odhghsoume - θα οδηγήσουμε tha agaphsoume - θα αγαπησουμε tha dwsoume - θα δώσουμε tha xamogelasoume - θα χαμογελάσουμε tha lavoume - θα λάβουμε Paron - Παρόν Milaw - Μιλάω

English Verbs I write I drive I love I give I smile I take he speaks he writes he drives he loves he gives he smiles he takes we speak we write we drive we love we give we smile we take

Greek Verbs Grafw - Γράφω Odhgw - Οδηγώ Agapw - Αγαπώ Dinw - Δίνω Xamogelw - Χαμογελώ Pairnw - Παίρνω Milaei - Μιλάει grafei - γράφει odhgei - οδηγεί agapa - αγαπά dinei - δίνει xamogelaei - χαμογελάει pairnei - παίρνει milame - μιλάμε grafoume - γράφουμε odhgoyme - οδηγούμε agapame - αγαπάμε dinoume - δίνουμε xamogelame - χαμογελάμε pairnoume - παίρνουμε

As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Verbs in Greek has a logical pattern. Locate the Verbs above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Greek.

List of Verbs in Greek
Below is a list of the conjugated Verbs in the present past and future in Greek placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Greek vocabulary. English Verbs Greek Verbs

I can accept that she added it we admit it they advised him I can agree with that

Borw na dexthw oti - Μπορώ να δεχθώ ότι To prosthese - Το πρόσθεσε To paradexomaste - Το παραδεχόμαστε Ton symvoylepsan - Τον συμβούλεψαν Borw na symfwnhsw me afto - Μπορώ να συμφωνήσω με αυτό

English Verbs

Greek Verbs

she allows it we announce it I can apologize she appears today they arranged that I can arrive tomorrow she can ask him she attaches that we attack them they avoid her I can bake it she is like him we beat it they became happy I can begin that we borrowed money they breathe air I can bring it I can build that she buys food we calculate it they carry it they don't cheat she chooses him we close it he comes here I can compare that she competes with me we complain about it they continued reading he cried about that I can decide now she described it to me we disagree about it

Afth to epitrepei - Αυτη το επιτρέπει tha to anakoinwsoume - θα το ανακοινώσουμε Borw na zhthsw syggnwmh - Μπορώ να ζητήσω συγγνώμη afth emfanizetai shmera - αυτή εμφανίζεται σήμερα To kanonisan etsi wste - Το κανόνισαν ετσι ωστε Brow na erthw avrio - Μπροω να ερθω αυριο Borei na to rwthsei - Μπορει να το ρωτησει To episynaptei - Το επισυνάπτει Tous epititheme - Τους επιτιθεμε Thn apofeygoun - Την αποφεύγουν Borw na to pshsw - Μπορω να το ψήσω Einai san kai afton - Ειναι σαν και αυτόν To kerdizoume - Το κερδιζουμε Eginan eftyxismenoi - Εγιναν ευτυχισμένοι Borw na ksekinhsw - Μπορω να ξεκινήσω Daneisthkame xrhmata - Δανειστήκαμε χρήματα anapneoun aera - αναπνέουν αέρα Borw na to ferw - Μπορώ να το φέρω Borw na to oikodomhsw - Μπορω να το οικοδομήσω agorazei trofima - αγοράζει τρόφιμα to ypologizoume - το υπολογίζουμε To metaferoun - Το μεταφέρουν Den eksapatoyn - Δεν εξαπατούν Ton epilegei - Τον επιλέγει To kleinoume - Το κλείνουμε erxetai edw - έρχεται εδώ Borw na sygkrinw - Μπορώ να συγκρίνω agwnizetai mazi mou - αγωνίζεται μαζί μου Diamarthrwmaste gia afto - Διαμαρτηρωμαστε για αυτό , synexisan thn anagnwsh - , συνέχισαν την ανάγνωση fwnakse gi 'afto - φώναξε γι 'αυτό Bor'w na apofasisw twra - Μπορ'ω να αποφασίσω τώρα Mou to periegrapse - Μου το περιέγραψε diafwnoyme gia afto - διαφωνούμε για αυτό

English Verbs

Greek Verbs

they disappeared quickly I discovered that she dislikes that we do it they dream about it I earned he eats a lot we enjoyed that they entered here he escaped that I can explain that she feels that too we fled from there they will fly tomorrow I can follow you she forgot me we forgive him I can give her that she goes there we greeted them I hate that I can hear it she imagine that we invited them I know him she learned it we leave now they lied about him I can listen to that she lost that we made it yesterday they met him I misspell that I always pray

eksafanisthkan grhgora - εξαφανίστηκαν γρήγορα Anakalypsa oti - Ανακάλυψα ότι Den ths aresei afto - Δεν της αρέσει αυτό to kanoume - το κάνουμε to oneirevomaste - το ονειρευόμαστε Kerdisa - Κέρδισα trwei poly - τρώει πολύ To apolafsame - Το απολαυσαμε bhkan edw - μπήκαν εδώ drapetefse oti - δραπέτευσε ότι Borw na ekshghsw oti - Μπορώ να εξηγήσω ότι Aisthanetai kai afth - Αισθάνεται και αυτή Fygame apo ekei - Φύγαμε απο εκεί THa petaksoun avrio - Θα πετάξουν αυριο Borw na sas akolouthhsw - Μπορω να σας ακολουθήσω Me ksexase - Με ξέχασε tha ton synchwrhsoume - θα τον συγχωρήσουμε Borw na ths to dwsw - Μπορω να της το δώσω phgainei ekei - πηγαίνει εκεί Tous xairethsame - Τους χαιρετήσαμε To misw afto - Το μισώ αυτό Borw na to akoysw - Μπορώ να το ακούσω Afth fantasthke - Αυτη φαντάστηκε Tous kalesame - Τους καλέσαμε Ton kserw - Τον ξέρω afth to emathe - αυτή το έμαθε feygoume twra - φεύγουμε τώρα Eipan psemata gi 'afton - Είπαν ψέματα γι 'αυτόν Borw na akoysw afth th - Μπορώ να ακούσω αυτή τη To exase - Το εχασε To kaname xthes - Το κάναμε χθές Ton synanthsan - Τον συνάντησαν I anorthografw oti - I ανορθογραφώ ότι Panta proseyxomai - Πάντα προσεύχομαι

English Verbs

Greek Verbs

she prefers that we protected them they will punish her I can put it there she will read it we received that they refuse to talk I remember that she repeats that we see it they sell it I sent that yesterday he shaved his beard it shrunk quickly we will sing it they sat there I can speak it she spends money we suffered from that they suggest that I surprised him she took that we teach it they told us she thanked him I can think about it she threw it we understand that they want that I can wear it she writes that we talk about it they have it I watched it

ekeinh protima na - εκείνη προτιμά να Tous prostatepsame - Τους προστατέψαμε THa thn timwrhsoun - Θα την τιμωρήσουν Borw na to valw ekei - Μπορώ να το βάλω εκεί THa to diavasei - Θα το διαβάσει to lavame - το λαβαμε arnoyntai na milhsoun - αρνούνται να μιλήσουν THymamai oti - Θυμάμαι ότι afth epanalamvanei oti - αυτή επαναλαμβάνει ότι ton vlepoume - τον βλέπουμε To poulane - Το πουλανε To esteila xthes - Το εστειλα χθες aftos ksyrisai geneiada tou - αυτός ξύρισαι γενειάδα του syrriknwthhke grhgora - συρρικνώθηκε γρηγορα tha to tragoudhsoume - θα το τραγουδήσουμε Kathisan ekei - Κάθισαν εκεί Borw na milhsw - Μπορώ να μιλήσω ksodeyei xrhmata - ξοδεύει χρήματα emeis pou ypesth apo thn en logw - εμείς που υπέστη από την εν λόγω ypodhlwnoun oti - υποδηλώνουν ότι Tou ekana ekplhksh - Του εκανα εκπληξη to phre - το πήρε to didaskoume - το διδασκουμε mas eipan - μας είπαν afth ton efxaristhse - αυτή τον ευχαρίστησε Borw na skeftw - Μπορώ να σκεφτώ ekeinh erikse - εκείνη έριξε katalavainoume oti - καταλαβαίνουμε ότι theloun na - θέλουν να borw na to foresw - μπορω να το φορεσω grafei oti - γράφει ότι milame gi 'afto - μιλάμε γι 'αυτό kai oti to exoun - και ότι το έχουν to eida - το ειδα

English Verbs

Greek Verbs

I will talk about it THa milhsw gi 'afto - Θα μιλήσω γι 'αυτό he bought that yesterday to agorase xthes - το αγορασε χθες we finished it to teleiwsame - το τελειώσαμε

Greek Negation
Learning the Greek Negation is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Greek language. But first we need to know what the role of Negation is in the structure of the grammar in Greek. Greek negation is the process that turns an affirmative statement (I am happy) into its opposite denial (I am not happy).

Grammar Tips: In Greek, negation can be made simply by placing "δεν" before the main verb. But sometimes a double negative is required. "Δεν" is the most common negative. Δεν μπορώ να το κάνω. (I can't do this). Δεν έχουν τίποτα να κάνουν. (they don't have anything to do – Double Negative). Δεν το θέλω. (I don't want it)
Here are some examples: English Negation Greek Negation

Negation he is not here that is not my book do not enter

Arnhsh - Άρνηση den einai edw - δεν είναι εδώ afto den einai to vivlio mou - αυτο δεν ειναι το βιβλίο μου Mhn eiserrxesthe - Μην εισερρχεσθε

As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Negation in Greek has a logical pattern. Locate the Negation above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Greek.

List of Negation in Greek
Below is a list of the Negation and negative expressions in Greek placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Greek vocabulary. English Negation Greek Negation

I don't speak I don't write I don't drive

De milw - Δε μιλώ den grafw - δεν γράφω Den odhgw - Δεν οδηγώ

English Negation

Greek Negation

I don't love I don't give I don't smile I don't take he doesn't speak he doesn't write he doesn't drive he doesn't love he doesn't give he doesn't smile he doesn't take we don't speak we don't write we don't drive we don't love we don't give we don't smile we don't take

Den agapw - Δεν αγαπώ Den dinw - Δεν δίνω Den xamogelw - Δεν χαμογελώ Den pairnw - Δεν παίρνω aftos den mila - αυτός δεν μιλά aftos den grafei - αυτός δεν γράφει aftos den odhgei - αυτος δεν οδηγεί aftos den agapa - αυτός δεν αγαπά aftos den dinei - αυτός δεν δίνει aftos den xamogela - αυτος δεν χαμογελά aftos den lamvanei - αυτός δεν λαμβάνει den milame - δεν μιλάμε Den grafoume - Δεν γράφουμε den odhgoyme - δεν οδηγούμε den agapoyme - δεν αγαπούμε den dinoume - δεν δίνουμε den xamogeloyme - δεν χαμογελούμε den lamvanoume - δεν λαμβάνουμε

Greek Questions
Learning the Greek Questions is very important because its structure is used in every day conversation. The more you practice the subject, the closer you get to mastering the Greek language. But first we need to know what the role of Questions is in the structure of the grammar in Greek. Greek questions may be either a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or else the request itself made by such an expression. Usually it starts with why, how, where, when ... Here are some examples: English Questions Greek Questions

Questions how? what? who?

Erwthseis Ερωτήσεις pws; - πώς; ti; - τι; poios; - ποιος;

English Questions

Greek Questions

why? where?

giati; - γιατί; poy; - πού;

As you can see from the example above, the structure of the Questions in Greek has a logical pattern. Locate the Questions above and see how it works with the rest of the sentence in Greek.

List of Questions in Greek
Below is a list of the Questions and interrogative expressions in Greek placed in a table. Memorizing this table will help you add very useful and important words to your Greek vocabulary.

English Questions where is he? what is this? why are you sad? how do you want to pay? can I come? is he sleeping? do you know me? do you have my book? how big is it? can I help you? can you help me? do you speak English? how far is this? what time is it? how much is this? what is your name? where do you live?

Greek Questions Poy einai; - Πού είναι; ti einai afto; - τι είναι αυτό; giati eisai lyphmenh; - γιατί είσαι λυπημένη; Pws thelete na plhrwsete; - Πώς θέλετε να πληρώσετε; borw na erthw; - μπορώ να έρθω; Koimatai aftos - Κοιμάται αυτός eseis me kserete; - εσείς με ξέρετε; exete to vivlio mou; - έχετε το βιβλίο μου; poso megalo einai; - πόσο μεγάλο είναι; borw na sas vohthhsw; - μπορώ να σας βοηθήσω; mporeite na me vohthhsete; - μπορείτε να με βοηθήσετε; milate Agglika; - μιλάτε Αγγλικά; poso makria einai afto; - πόσο μακριά είναι αυτό; Ti wra einai; - Τι ώρα είναι; poso einai afto; - πόσο είναι αυτό; pws einai to onoma sou - πώς ειναι το ονομα σου poy zeite; - πού ζείτε;

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