GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

Course Objectives:

Understand the significance of GSM traffic statistics in network optimization

 

Grasp common indices in GSM traffic statistics Use GSM traffic statistics for problem analysis and locating

Contents
1 Traffic Statistics Overview...........................................................................................................................1 1.1 Traffic Statistics Significance..................................................................................................................1 1.2 Traffic Statistics Principles and Functions...............................................................................................1 1.3 OMCR Performance Management..........................................................................................................2 1.3.1 System Functions......................................................................................................................2 1.3.2 Implementation Process............................................................................................................4 2 Traffic Statistics Functions...........................................................................................................................6 2.1 Performance Analysis Report..................................................................................................................6 2.2 Traffic Statistics Analysis Functions........................................................................................................6 2.3 Observation Task Management..............................................................................................................11 2.4 Signaling Tracing...................................................................................................................................11 2.5 Call Tracing............................................................................................................................................11 3 Traffic Statistics Indices.............................................................................................................................13 3.1 Traffic Statistics Index Category and Content.......................................................................................13 3.1.1 Original Key Performance Indices.........................................................................................13 3.1.2 Combined Indices...................................................................................................................13 3.2 Counters and Signaling Points...............................................................................................................13 3.2.1 SDCCH Counters and Signaling Points.................................................................................13 3.2.2 TCH Counters and Signaling Points......................................................................................16 3.2.3 Handover Counters and Signaling Points...............................................................................21 3.3 Traffic Statistics Index Definitions........................................................................................................25 4 Problem Locating and Analysis Through Traffic Statistics....................................................................28
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4.1 Traffic Statistics Analysis Preparations.................................................................................................28 4.2 Traffic Statistics Analysis Solution........................................................................................................28 4.2.1 Overview.................................................................................................................................28 4.2.2 Common Traffic Statistics Analysis Procedures and Method................................................29 4.2.3 Combination with Other Network Optimization Methods....................................................29 4.3 TCH Call Drop Problems.......................................................................................................................30 4.3.1 TCH Call Drop Types.............................................................................................................30 4.3.2 Call Drop Signaling Points.....................................................................................................30 4.3.3 TCH Call Drop Solutions.......................................................................................................31 4.4 Handover Problems................................................................................................................................36 4.4.1 Handover Problem Analysis...................................................................................................36 4.4.2 Querying Handover Indices....................................................................................................36 4.4.3 Handover Problem Solutions..................................................................................................36 4.5 TCH Congestion Problems....................................................................................................................38 4.5.1 TCH Congestion Problem Analysis.......................................................................................38 4.5.2 TCH Congestion Problem Solutions......................................................................................39 4.6 SDCCH Congestion Problem................................................................................................................41 4.6.1 SDCCH Congestion Problem Analysis..................................................................................41 4.6.2 SDCCH Congestion Problem Solutions.................................................................................41 4.7 TCH Allocation Problem.......................................................................................................................43 4.7.1 TCH Allocation Process.........................................................................................................43 4.7.2 TCH Allocation Failure Signaling Points...............................................................................44 4.7.3 TCH Assignment Failure Problem Analysis..........................................................................45 5 Traffic Statistics Cases................................................................................................................................47 5.1 Call Drop Problem.................................................................................................................................47 5.2 Handover Problem.................................................................................................................................48 5.3 TCH Congestion Problem......................................................................................................................49
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5.4 SDCCH Congestion Problem................................................................................................................50 5.5 SDCCH Allocation Problem..................................................................................................................51 5.6 TCH Allocation Failure Problem...........................................................................................................51

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1 Traffic Statistics Overview
1.1 Traffic Statistics Significance
Traffic statistics is very important in network optimization, which helps to understand various network performance indices. All communication networks should be monitored and measured, providing quantified service indices. The GSM network performance is monitored and measured through traffic statistics by various network elements. Common traffic statistics indices include: call drop rate, congestion rate, handover success rate, TCH assignment success rate, radio system connection rate, traffic, and channel availability. Traffic statistics is an important part of network optimization and maintenance. It provides a platform for network problem analysis. Through the traffic statistics analysis, users can grasp the radio network running situation, which facilitates network planning, network optimization, and fault handling, and helps operators to gain more profit.

1.2 Traffic Statistics Principles and Functions
Traffic statistics analysis is an important function of OMCR. The following lists main functions of OMCR:
   

Performing BSS configuration management Handling various problems in BSS running Performing performance analysis, statistics, and adjustment for BSS Providing access interface for upper-level Network Management Center (NMC)

Figure 1.2-1 shows the position of OMCR in Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) system.

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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

Figure 1.2-1 OMCR Position in PLMN System

The OMC system is of the client/server structure, as shown in Figure 1.2-2. The application is realized by the application server. The client can not directly establish communication with BSS, and it only provides functions of inputting operation instructions and outputting operation results for users,

Figure 1.2-2 Structure of OMC and BSS

1.3 OMCR Performance Management
1.3.1 System Functions
OMCR performance management involves measurement task management,

observation task management, QoS alarm monitoring, performance analysis, and report
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5 Traffic Statistics Cases

system.
     

Creating measurement task: to create a new measurement task. Modifying measurement task: to modify a created measurement task. Deleting measurement task: to delete a created measurement task. Pausing measurement task: to make a created measurement task pause. Resuming measurement task: to resume a created measurement task. Querying counter for a measurement task: to query the current value of a counter of a measurement object in a measurement task.

Querying historical data for a measurement task: to query the historical data of a measurement task, the query condition might contain object, time, etc.

        

Creating observation task: to create an observation task. Deleting observation task: to delete an observation task. Pausing observation task: to make an observation task pause. Resuming observation task: to resume an observation task. Modifying QoS alarm threshold: to modify the alarm threshold. Pausing QoS task: to make a started QoS task pause. Resuming QoS task: to resume a paused QoS task. Event observation function Synchronization function: to perform synchronization when consistency exist in the following aspects, which is caused by abnormalities:
♦ ♦ ♦

Inconsistency between data of measurement tasks; Inconsistency between data of observation tasks; Inconsistency between QoS management object data and OMC data.

Configuring report: to complete the CS-configured report and output it in Excel form.

Configuring GPRS report: to complete the PS-configured report and output it in Excel form.

Performance report: to display the performance data collection and analysis result
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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

in the form of report and output it in Excel form.
 

Outputting report in Excel form: to output report in Excel form. Graphical analysis function of report: to analyze report data in the form of line chart, table, and pie chart, etc.

Customizing performance indices: to customize indices (if an index that user requires does not exist in the default report, the index can be customized).

Performance report template: to provide the report template. User can save the customized indices or system indices in the template for making report.

Creating automation report task: to provide the function of generating report automatically.

  

Modifying automation report task: to modify a created automation report task. Deleting automation report task: to delete a created automation report task. Automation report log management: to view the automation report generation situation through the report log management.

Timed performance data dump: to perform timed dump for performance data to guarantee that the data volume in the database does not increase without any restriction.

1.3.2 Implementation Process
Performance management client: Graphical User Interface (GUI) is provided for various performance-related operations to display the measurement task information, and to display performance data in the form of list, Excel report, and graphics. Performance management Local Management Function (LMF) end: Various performance management operations from the client are received and processed. For any operation to be sent to the foreground, such as creating a measurement task, convert it into the corresponding operation primitive command of Common Management Information Service (CMIS) and send it to the LAF end for processing. For other commands, such as performance data query and performance data dump, directly access the memory or database to complete the operation and then return the result to the client. The performance management LMF end also receives and processes CMIS response message from the LAF end and the reported observation event message.
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5 Traffic Statistics Cases

Performance management Local Access Function (LAF) end: The CMIS operation request from the LMF end, such as creating the measurement task, is received. After necessary validity check, it is forwarded to the foreground for processing. The response from foreground is received and returned to the LMF end for processing. The observation event reported from foreground is received and forwarded to the LMF end for processing. The performance data reported from foreground is received and processed, and such data are stored in the database through calling the database interface.

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2 Traffic Statistics Functions
2.1 Performance Analysis Report
ZTE OMCR has powerful network performance index statistics functions, which includes:
    

Creating performance report Defining report template Automatically generating report Customizing user index formula Setting timed automatic dump for performance data

It also provides statistics functions for traffic of different types, different levels, and different ranges.

2.2 Traffic Statistics Analysis Functions
ZTE OMCR provides many types of measurement task management functions. Basically, ZTE traffic statistics falls into the following six types:
     

Circuit Switching (CS) service basic measurement BTS measurement Radio measurement A-interface measurement Resource occupation measurement Packet Switching (PS) service measurement

1. CS basic measurement

CS service basic measurement (commonly used) The basic measurement task is the measurement used to generate the basic performance report, which includes information such as the resource situation,
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5 Traffic Statistics Cases

service situation, and channel quality. It gives an overall description of the entire network situation.

Q3 module measurement In Q3 module measurement, some service data statistics are performed according to modules. Such statistics are mostly related to assignment, handover, and CPU load, and are mainly performed for RMM (for SMM, only the CPU load statistics is performed).

Q3 cell BTS measurement counters The BTS power, signal level, signal quality, and call distance are measured according to cells. The measurement values of all carriers in the cell are accumulated in the carrier power control counter and then reported.

2. BTS measurement

Power control measurement According to the following two conditions, BTS decides whether the power control should be performed for MS or BTS:
♦The ♦The

receiving level and receiving quality in MS measurement report receiving level and receiving quality measured by BTS

BTS then performs statistics according to different power control reasons.

Carrier service measurement (commonly used) It takes the carrier as the measurement unit and measures information related to channel activation, assignment, handover success or handover failure, carrier interference band, and maximum and minimum uplink/downlink signal level. It helps to understand the carrier situation, facilitating adjustment and maintenance.

Paging measurement It performs statistics for discarded pagings and queue length, with the carrier as the measurement unit.

Carrier-level basic measurement It measures the carrier occupation situation, including:
♦The

number of times of TCH being occupied and the relevant
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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

occupation duration
♦The

number of times of SDCCH being occupied and the relevant

occupation duration 3. Radio measurement

Cell radio measurement (commonly used) It measures the interference on each channel (in idle state and in the state of being occupied) in the cell and the service quality.

Radio access measurement It measures the MS’s radio random access process, including the number of access attempts due to different reasons, the number of processing times, and the number of successes.

SDCCH measurement It measures the SDCCH allocation, occupation, assignment, and usage, reflecting the SDCCH service situation.

TCH/F measurement It measures TCH/F-related resource allocation, occupation, assignment, and usage. It is used in channel configuration and relevant parameter adjustment.

SAPI3 measurement It measures the number of point-to-point short message link establishments and the number of received messages and sent messages.

RMM assignment measurement It describes the RMM assignment situation, including assignment attempts due to various reasons, assignment executions, and queuing.

RMM call drop measurement It measures the number of RMM call drops on various channels in the signaling flow, RMM call drop causes. It helps to understand the network running situation, facilitating network performance evaluation and network parameter adjustment.

Handover cause measurement

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It measures the number of incoming handover (outgoing handover) attempts due to various causes.

General handover measurement It performs statistics for handover due to various causes, including the number of handover attempts, executions, successes, and failures. It reflects the handover success rate.

Handover synchronization measurement It measures the number of handovers of various synchronization modes.

Adjacent cell handover measurement (commonly used) It measures the handovers between some cells and their adjacent cells.

 

Paging measurement Abis interface signaling statistics It measures the number of signalings transmitted at Abis interface.

Radio resource availability measurement It measures the radio channel resource usage of each cell.

HR statistics measurement It is a basic measurement added according to users’ requirement. It mainly describes the TCH/H resource usage and service situation.

4. A-interface measurement

A-interface signaling statistics measurement It measures the number of signalings generated by BSC, forwarded by BSC, and received by BSC. The measurement is performed according to signaling name and signaling type.

A-interface assignment, call drop, and handover statistics measurement It measures the number of assignments, call drops, and handovers at Ainterface, and performs statistics for failures according to corresponding types. It facilitates problem locating and handling.

SCCP connection measurement and terrestrial circuit resource availability measurement
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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

It measures the SCCP link establishment situation and the availability of terrestrial circuit resource. 5. Resource occupation measurement

TRX LAPD link measurement It measures the signaling interaction on the LAPD signaling link of each TRX. The measurement task is performed when the LAPD board transmits or receives message, and the measurement unit is TRX LAPD link.

O&M LAPD link measurement It measures the signaling interaction on each O&M LAPD signaling link. The measurement task is performed when the LAPD board transmits or receives message, and the measurement unit is O&M LAPD link.

SCCP link measurement It measures the signaling interaction on each SCCP signaling link, and the measurement unit is SCCP link.

Processor load measurement It measures the CPU load, occupied memory, service load, and file system load of each SMM and each RMM. The measurement unit is module. The measurement task is performed periodically (usually 5 minutes).

6. PS service measurement

PS basic measurement This measurement task generates the PS basic performance report, which contains information of the resource usage, service situation, and channel quality, etc. comprehensively describing the PS network situation.

NS measurement It takes a single Network Service Virtual Connection (NSVC) as the measurement entity and measures data transmission of NSVC link, signaling interaction, and abnormality if there is any.

BSSGP measurement It measures the message transceiving situation on BSSGP layer at Gb interface in GPRS service.
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NSE measurement It takes a single NSE as the measurement entity and measures the number of paging, the number of state indication messages, and the number of signaling BVC resetting.

PS traffic statistics measurement It performs statistics for the cell services, including the radio block usage and changes in coding schemes.

Resource management measurement It performs statistics related to BSC system resource usage, including the channel resource usage measurement and measurement of request, access, and assignment.

2.3 Observation Task Management
The observation task is started according to certain task scheduling rules. Data collection for the observation object is triggered by the observation event, in other words, once an observation event is triggered, the observation report is generated and reported immediately, and real-time analysis for the observation object can be performed.

2.4 Signaling Tracing
The signaling tracing is performed during the commissioning and debugging process (with low traffic), to realize BSC tracing from one terminal and save the tracing file at the same time for future analysis. It facilitates checking the signaling flow to locate the signaling fault.

2.5 Call Tracing
To perform the call tracing, MSC must initiate the tracing of specific resource first, MSC then sends message to activate BSC to perform call tracing. After that, press the Start button at the call tracing client interface to receive the call tracing message sent from the foreground. Note:

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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

This document mainly introduces the traffic statistics analysis. For OMCR operation details, refer to relevant materials.

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3 Traffic Statistics Indices
3.1 Traffic Statistics Index Category and Content
3.1.1 Original Key Performance Indices
      

SDCCH congestion rate SDCCH assignment success rate TCH congestion rate TCH assignment success rate TCH call drop rate Handover success rate Voice channel availability

3.1.2 Combined Indices
  

Traffic call drop ratio Radio system connection rate Worst cell ratio

3.2 Counters and Signaling Points
3.2.1 SDCCH Counters and Signaling Points
1. C11603 Number of SDCCH call attempts

Meaning: This counter counts the number of SDCCH call attempts in the cell. The call attempt includes the following cases that require SDCCH allocation: normal originated call, location update, call reestablishment, IMSI request, IMSI detachment, and short message request.

Calculation formula:
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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

C11603 (number of SDCCH call attempts) = C10101 (number of SDCCH occupation attempt (for assignment)) + C10104 (number of SDCCH occupation attempt (for handover)) 2. C11604 Number of SDCCH overflows

Meaning: This counter counts the number of SDCCH call attempts that fail to occupy the SDCCH channel. If SDCCH channel is requested successfully but the actual assignment fails, this counter does not count.

Calculation formula: C11604 (number of SDCCH overflows) = C10103 (number of SDCCH occupation failures (for assignment)) + C10106 (number of SDCCH occupation failures (for handover)

3. C11644 Number of SDCCH assignment successes

Meaning: This counter counts the number of MS successfully accessing SDCCH after BSC sending the immediate assignment message IMM_ASS. After BSC responds to the channel request message and successfully activates SDCCH, BSC sends the immediate assignment message IMM_ASS to MS to notify MS to use this channel. After MS receives the message, MS sends the SABM frame to BTS on SDCCH, and BTS sends the ES_IND message to BSC. If BSC receives the correct EST_IND message within specified time, it indicates that the SDCCH assignment succeeds, and the counter accumulates.

Measurement point: The counter counts when BSC receives the correct EST_IND message or the assignment completion message.

4. C11645 Number of SDCCH assignment failures

Meaning: This counter counts the number of MS failing to access SDCCH after BSC sending the immediate assignment message IMM_ASS.
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After BSC responds to the channel request message and successfully activates SDCCH, BSC sends the immediate assignment message IMM_ASS to MS to notify MS to use this channel. After MS receives the message, MS sends the SABM frame to BTS on SDCCH, and BTS sends the ES_IND message to BSC. If BSC receives the incorrect EST_IND message or T3101 is timeout, then the SDCCH assignment fails, and the counter and C10115 accumulates simultaneously.

Measurement point: The counter counts when BSC receives the incorrect EST_IND message or when T3101 is timeout.

5. C11605 Number of SDCCH call drops

Meaning: This counter counts the number of call drops during the call process when SDCCH is assigned but TCH is not occupied.

Calculation formula: C11605 (number of SDCCH call drops) = C10643 (number of SDCCH call drops)

6. C11606 SDCCH traffic during busy hour

Meaning: This counter counts the total traffic on SDCCH during busy hour.

Calculation formula: C11606 (total SDCCH busy time) = C11504 (total SDCCH busy time) Total traffic = Total SDCCH busy time / statistics period

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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

MS
CHL_REQ

BTS

BSC

CHL_RQD

SDCCH congestion

A1
CHL_ACT

CHL_ACT_ACK

A2
IMM_ASS_CMD IMM_ASS SABM EST_IND
SDCCH assignment success

A3

Figure 3.2-3 SDCCH Performance Measurement Signaling Measurement Point

3.2.2 TCH Counters and Signaling Points
1. C11607 Number of available voice channels

Meaning: This counter counts the number of TCHs that can be assigned normally, including the number of available TCH/Fs and the number of available TCH/Hs.

Calculation formula: C11607 (number of available voice channels) = C11507 (average number of available TCH/Hs) + C11513 (average number of available TCH/Fs)

2. C11608 Number of unavailable voice channels

Meaning: This counter counts the number of TCHs that can not be assigned normally, including the number of unavailable TCH/Fs and the number of unavailable TCH/Hs.

Calculation formula: C11608 (number of unavailable voice channels) = C11508 (average number of
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unavailable TCH/Hs) + C11514 (average number of unavailable TCH/Fs) 3. C11609 Number of call attempts on voice channel (excluding handover)

Meaning: This counter counts the number of call attempts on TCH (occupation attempt) after all SDCCHs are occupied in the cell. The call attempt includes cases that the calling/called party attempts to establish a call, including TCH being assigned as SDCCH during the Very Early Allocation (VEA) and excluding various handover situations. The TCH channel includes the TCH/F channel and the TCH/H channel.

Calculation formula: C11609 (number of call attempts on voice channel (excluding handover)) = C10301 (number of TCH/F occupation attempts (signaling) (for assignment)) + C10320 (number of TCH/F occupation attempts (voice) (for assignment)) + C10351 (number of TCH/F occupation attempts (data) (for assignment)) + C10401 (number of TCH/H occupation attempts (signaling) (for assignment)) + C10420 (number of TCH/H occupation attempts (voice) (for assignment)) + C10451 (number of TCH/H occupation attempts (data) (for assignment))

4. C11610 Number of voice channel overflows (excluding handover)

Meaning: This counter counts the number of overflows of calls for TCH after all SDCCHs are occupied in the cell. The overflow includes cases that the calling/called party fails to establish a call on TCH after occupying SDCCH, including TCH being assigned as SDCCH during the Very Early Allocation (VEA) and excluding various handover situations. The TCH channel includes the TCH/F channel and the TCH/H channel.

Calculation formula: C11610 (number of voice channel overflows (excluding handover)) = C10303 (number of TCH/F occupation failures (signaling) (for assignment)) + C10322 (number of TCH/F occupation failures (voice) (for assignment)) + C10353 (number of TCH/F occupation failures (data) (for assignment)) + C10403 (number of TCH/H occupation failures (signaling) (for assignment)) + C10422 (number of TCH/H occupation failures (voice) (for assignment)) +
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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

C10453 (number of TCH/H occupation failures (data) (for assignment)) 5. C11611 Number of call attempts on voice channel (including handover)

Meaning: This counter counts the number of call attempts on TCH (occupation attempt) after all SDCCHs are occupied in the cell. The call attempt includes cases that the calling/called party attempts to establish a call, including TCH being assigned as SDCCH during the Very Early Allocation (VEA) and including various handover and direct retry situations. The TCH channel includes the TCH/F channel and the TCH/H channel.

Calculation formula: C11611 (number of call attempts on voice channel (including handover)) = C11609 (number of call attempts on voice channel (excluding handover)) + C10304 (number of TCH/F occupation attempts (signaling) (for handover)) + C10323 (number of TCH/F occupation attempts (voice) (for handover)) + C10354 (number of TCH/F occupation attempts (data) (for handover)) + C10404 (number of TCH/H occupation attempts (signaling) (for handover)) + C10423 (number of TCH/H occupation attempts (voice) (for handover)) + C10454 (number of TCH/H occupation attempts (data) (for handover))

6. C11612 Number of voice channel overflows (including handover)

Meaning: This counter counts the number of overflows of calls for TCH after all SDCCHs are occupied in the cell. The overflow includes cases that the calling/called party fails to establish a call on TCH after occupying SDCCH, including TCH being assigned as SDCCH during the Very Early Allocation (VEA) and including various handover and direct retry situations. The TCH channel includes the TCH/F channel and the TCH/H channel.

Calculation formula: C11612 (number of voice channel overflows (including handover)) = C11610 (number of voice channel overflows (excluding handover)) + C10306 (number of TCH/F occupation failures (signaling) (for handover)) + C10325 (number of TCH/F occupation failures (voice) (for handover)) + C10356 (number of TCH/F occupation failures (data) (for handover)) + C10406
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(number of TCH/H occupation failures (signaling) (for handover)) + C10425 (number of TCH/H occupation failures (voice) (for handover)) + C10456 (number of TCH/H occupation failures (data) (for handover)) 7. C11613 Number of voice channel being occupied (excluding handover)

Meaning: This counter counts the number of TCH being occupied successfully (excluding handover), including voice occupation and data occupation. The TCH channel includes the TCH/F channel and the TCH/H channel.

Calculation formula: C11613 (number of voice channel being occupied (excluding handover)) = C10302 (number of TCH/F being occupied successfully (signaling) (for assignment)) + C10321 (number of TCH/F being occupied successfully (voice) (for assignment)) + C10352 (number of TCH/F being occupied successfully (data) (for assignment)) + C10402 (number of TCH/H being occupied successfully (signaling) (for assignment)) + C10421 (number of TCH/H being occupied successfully (voice) (for assignment)) + C10452 (number of TCH/H being occupied successfully (data) (for assignment))

8. C11614 Number of voice channel being occupied (including handover)

Meaning: This counter counts the number of TCH being occupied successfully (including handover), including voice occupation and data occupation. The TCH channel includes the TCH/F channel and the TCH/H channel.

Calculation formula: C11614 (number of voice channel being occupied (including handover)) = C11613 (number of voice channel being occupied (excluding handover)) + C10305 (number of TCH/F being occupied successfully (signaling) (for handover)) + C10324 (number of TCH/F being occupied successfully (voice) (for handover)) + C10355 (number of TCH/F being occupied successfully (data) (for handover)) + C10405 (number of TCH/H being occupied successfully (signaling) (for handover)) + C10424 (number of TCH/H being occupied successfully (voice) (for handover)) + C10455 (number of TCH/H being occupied successfully (data) (for handover))
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9. C11657 Number of TCH assignment successes

Meaning: This counter counts the number of the Establish Indication message or the Assignment Complete message being received after TCH assignment succeeds. TCH assignment includes assignment of signaling, voice, and data.

Calculation formula: C11657 = C10314 + C10345 + C10364 + C10414 + C10445 + C10464

10. C11658 Number of TCH assignment failures

Meaning: This counter counts the number of the Establish Indication message or the Assignment Complete message being not received after TCH assignment succeeds. TCH assignment includes assignment of signaling, voice, and data.

Calculation formula: C11658 = C10315 + C10346 + C10365 + C10415 + C10446 + C10465

11. C11615 Number of call drops on voice channel

Meaning: This counter counts the number of call drops due to radio reasons after the TCH channel is assigned successfully, including call drops during handover and call drops after handover. The TCH channel includes the TCH/F channel and the TCH/H channel.

Calculation formula: C11615 (number of call drops on voice channel) = C10644 (number of call drops on TCH/F) + C10645 (number of call drops on TCH/H)

12. C11616 Total traffic on voice channel

Meaning: This counter counts the total traffic of all TCH channels. The TCH channel includes the TCH/F channel and the TCH/H channel.

Calculation formula: C11616 (total traffic channel busy time) = C11511 (total TCH/H busy time) +
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C11517 (total TCH/F busy time) Total traffic on voice channel = C11616 (total traffic channel busy time) / statistics period TCH performance measurement signaling statistics point:
MS
CHL _REQ CHL _RQD

BTS

BSC

A1
CHL _ACT

CHL _ACT _ACK

A2
IMM _ASS _CMD IMM _ASS SABM EST _IND

A3

Figure 3.2-4 Immediate Assignment Flow

MS

BTS

BSC
ASS_CMD CHL_ACT CHL_ACT_ACK

MSC

B1

B2
ASS_CMD ASS_CMD SABM UA ASS_COM ASS_COM EST_IND

B3

B4

ASS_COM

Figure 3.2-5 Common Assignment Flow

3.2.3 Handover Counters and Signaling Points
1. C11617 Number of handover requests

Meaning:
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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

This counter counts the total number of requests for intra-BSC inter-cell/intracell handover and inter-BSC inter-cell handover. This counter counts when the request is for incoming handover.

Calculation formula: C11617 (number of handover requests) = C10912 (number of BSC-controlled inter-cell incoming handover executions) + C10915 (number of MSCcontrolled incoming handover executions (common)) + C10917 (number of MSC-controlled incoming handover executions (forced release)) + C10919 (number of MSC-controlled incoming handover executions (queuing)) + C10982 (number of intra-cell handover successes)

2. C11618 Number of handover successes

Meaning: This counter counts the total number of successes of intra-BSC intercell/intra-cell handover and inter-BSC inter-cell handover. This counter counts when the incoming handover succeeds.

Calculation formula: C11618 (number of handover successes) = C10913 (number of BSCcontrolled inter-cell incoming handover successes) + C10920 (number of MSC-controlled incoming handover successes) + C10982 (number of intracell handover successes)

3. C11619 Number of dual-band handover call attempts

Meaning: This counter counts the number of handover attempts between GSM 900 system and DCS 1800 system, including handovers in the same layer and handovers between different layers.

Calculation formula: C11619 (number of dual-band handover call attempts) = C10934 (number of incoming handover executions from undefined layer (900 → 1800)) + C10939 (number of incoming handover executions from undefined layer (1800 → 900)) + C10952 (number of hetero-frequency incoming handover executions from the same layer (900 → 1800)) + C10957 (number of hetero-frequency
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incoming handover executions from upper layer (900 → 1800)) + C10962 (number of hetero-frequency incoming handover executions from lower layer (900 → 1800)) +C10967 (number of hetero-frequency incoming handover executions from the same layer (1800 → 900)) + C15972 (number of heterofrequency incoming handover executions from upper layer (1800 → 900)) + C15977 (number of hetero-frequency incoming handover executions from lower layer (1800 → 900)) 4. C11620 Number of dual-band handover successes during busy hour

Meaning: This counter counts the number of handover successes between GSM 900 system and DCS 1800 system, including handovers in the same layer and handovers between different layers.

Calculation formula: C11620 (number of dual-band handover successes) = C10935 (number of incoming handover successes from undefined layer (900 → 1800)) + C10940 (number of incoming handover successes from undefined layer (1800 → 900)) + C10953 (number of hetero-frequency incoming handover successes from the same layer (900 → 1800)) + C10958 (number of hetero-frequency incoming handover successes from upper layer (900 → 1800)) + C10963 (number of hetero-frequency incoming handover successes from lower layer (900 → 1800)) + C10968 (number of hetero-frequency incoming handover successes from the same layer (1800 → 900)) + C15973 (number of heterofrequency incoming handover successes from upper layer (1800 → 900)) + C15978 (number of hetero-frequency incoming handover successes from lower layer (1800 → 900)) Handover performance measurement signaling statistics point:

23

GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

MS
MEAS_REP

BTS

BSC

MSC

MEAS_RES CHL_ACT CHL_ACT_ACK

C1

C2
ASS_CMD ASS_CMD SABM UA ASS_COM EST_IND ASS_COM

C3
HO_PREFORM

Figure 3.2-6 Internal Handover Flow (Intra-Cell Handover)

MS

BTS:Ori_Cell

BTS:Des_Cell

BSC:Ori_Cell

BSC:Des_Cell

Measurement Report

Handover Algorithm Measurement Report RADIO APPLY

A1
CHANNEL ACT CHANNEL ACT ACK

A4

RADIO AVAIL
HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER COMPLETE HANDOVER COMMAND

A2

A5

HANDOVER COMPLETE

HANDOVER COMPLETE

A6

A3

Figure 3.2-7 BSC-Controlled Inter-Cell Handover Flow

24

5 Traffic Statistics Cases

MS

BTS

BSC
HO_REQ CHL_ACT CHL_ACT_ACK

MSC

D1

D2
HO_REQ_ACK HO_ACCESS PHY_INFO SABM UA HO_COM HO_COM HO_DETECT HO_DETECT

D3

HO_COM

Figure 3.2-8 External Handover Flow

3.3 Traffic Statistics Index Definitions
1. SDCCH congestion rate SDCCH congestion rate (%) = (number of SDCCH overflows / number of SDCCH call attempts) × 100% = C11604 / C11603 × 100% 2. SDCCH call drop rate SDCCH call drop rate (%) = (number of call drops on SDCCH / number of SDCCH being occupied successfully) × 100% = C11644 / (C11644 + C11645) × 100% 3. SDCCH assignment success rate SDCCH assignment success rate (%) = number of SDCCH assignment successes / number of SDCCH assignment attempts × 100% 4. TCH congestion rate

TCH congestion rate (excluding handover) (%) = number of TCH overflows (excluding handover) / number of call attempts on TCH (excluding handover) × 100% = C11610 / C11609 × 100%

TCH congestion rate (including handover) (%) = number of TCH overflows (including handover) / number of call attempts on TCH (including handover) × 100% = C11612 / C11611 × 100%
25

GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

5. TCH assignment success rate TCH assignment success rate (%) = voice channel allocation success rate (excluding handover) = number of service channel being occupied (excluding handover) / number of call attempts on voice channel during busy hour (excluding handover) × 100% 6. TCH call drop rate

TCH call drop rate (excluding handover) (%) = number of call drops on voice channel / number of voice channel being occupied (excluding handover) × 100% = C11615 / C11613 × 100%

TCH call drop rate (including handover) (%) = number of call drops on voice channel / number of voice channel being occupied (including handover) × 100% = C11615 / C11614 × 100%

Trigger point: after the ASSIGMENT COMPLETE message. 7. Handover success rate

Handover success rate (%) = (number of handover successes / number of handover requests) × 100% = C11617 / C11616 × 100%

Dual-band handover success rate (%) = (number of dual-band handover successes / number of dual-band handover requests) × 100% = C11619 / C11618 × 100%

8. Voice channel availability Voice channel availability (%) = number of available service channels / number of configured service channels × 100% = C11607 / (C11607 + C11608) × 100% 9. Traffic call drop rate Traffic call drop rate = voice channel traffic during busy hour × 60 / number of call drops on voice channel during busy hour Service channel traffic: total traffic of voice channels in all cells Unit: minute, indicating the average interval between two call drops. 10. Radio system connection rate Radio system connection rate = (1 - TCH congestion rate) × (1 – SDCCH congestion rate)
26

5 Traffic Statistics Cases

It reflects the network resource usage. 11. Worst cell ratio Worst cell ratio = number of worst cells / number of cells × 100% The worst cell satisfies the following conditions: During busy hour, traffic per TCH channel > 0.1 Erl, call drop rate on voice channel > 3% or congestion rate on voice channel > 5%.

27

4 Problem Locating and Analysis Through Traffic Statistics
4.1 Traffic Statistics Analysis Preparations
The GSM system provides comprehensive traffic statistics functions, facilitating maintenance personnel to analyze and control the network performance. It should be noticed that the network performance analysis is not based on the traffic statistic data of a certain day or a certain time, instead, the analysis requires traffic statistic data of a period of time. Usually, the average traffic statistic data during busy hours in one week is used to evaluate the network performance. Traffic statistics indices are correlated, for example, in a cell with high congestion rate, the incoming handover success rate is low. Any abnormal traffic statistics index might indicate the existence of network problem, which makes the network maintenance to be performed in time. Before the traffic statistics is performed, at least one week’s traffic statistic data should be obtained, including data related to BSC performance measurement, cell performance measurement (TCH measurement and SDCCH measurement), and intercell handover performance measurement. Also, information of the network structure, site distribution, and carrier configuration and capacity should be grasped before the traffic statistics is performed. It is advised to use ASSET and MAPINFO to print the site distribution map, in which the site name, cell direction, and BCCH frequency point are marked (information such as BSIC, cell traffic, antenna height, and transmission power can also be marked in the map), facilitating comparison in the traffic statistics.

4.2 Traffic Statistics Analysis Solution
4.2.1 Overview
According to the characteristics of traffic statistic data, the traffic statistics analysis is implemented from the entire network performance measurement to the cell performance measurement, from major index analysis to minor index analysis. In other
28

5 Traffic Statistics Cases

words, during the traffic statistics analysis process, the entire network performance is analyzed first, after deciding which performance indices are poor, perform analysis for cells that might cause the problems. Network optimization operations can be used in the traffic statistics analysis for problem locating and analysis.

4.2.2 Common Traffic Statistics Analysis Procedures and Method
General principle: From global range to local range, from network indices of one day to network indices of one week, from a single index to correlated indices, from major cells to minor cells. TOP10 Analysis Method

Application principle All statistic data are mutually correlated. The standard of evaluating whether an index is good is not fixed, thus it is difficult to define an exact value as the threshold distinguishing a good index and a bad index for different systems.

Method description Use Excel or other software tools to implement data sorting and filtering functions, to sort traffic statistic data from bad to good. In this way, it is easy to associate various data and find the internal law, and to locate the problem. The network quality can be evaluated by examining and comparing the BSC-level traffic statistics report.

If it is found in the BSC-level traffic statistics report that an important index (such as the call drop rate or handover success rate) is abnormal, check the cell-level traffic statistics report for further analysis.

Check cells where only a single index exceeds the standard range or the absolute number of faults (call drop, congestion, and handover failure) is large, to decide whether further handling should be performed.

4.2.3 Combination with Other Network Optimization Methods
Drive Test (DT): Simulate the mobile call process to analyze coverage, quality, handover, and signaling. Call Quality Test (CQT): Dial a large number of calls at different places. Signaling tracing: Collect signaling through the signaling testing instrument or the
29

GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

signaling tracing function in OMCR.

4.3 TCH Call Drop Problems
4.3.1 TCH Call Drop Types
Usually, TCH call drop problems falls into the following three categories:
  

Call drop due to radio link failure Call drop due to LAPD link failure Call drop due to handover failure

4.3.2 Call Drop Signaling Points
1. Call drop due to radio link failure Figure 4.3-9 shows the signaling point of call drop due to radio link failure.
MS
Meas Report

BTS
Meas Result ……. Meas Result CON Fail Ind
I/RLM/DATA REQ FACCH/I/RR

Pn

P0

MSC

App/Release

CMD

DT1/BSSM

CHAN REL
[reason] FACCH/[LAPDm] FACCH/[LAPDm]

CHAN REL[reason]
I/DCM

CLR_REQ[-/-]
DT1/BSSM

DEACT SACCH[-/-]
I/DCM

CLR_CMD[reason=
normal.]

DISC UA

RF CHAN REL[-/-]
I/RLM DT1/BSSM

C10602 number of radio link failures (on SDCCH) C10608 number of radio link failures (on TCH/F signaling) C10614 number of radio link failures (on TCH/F voice) C10620 number of radio link failures (on TCH/F data) C10626 number of radio link failures (on TCH/H signaling) C10632 number of radio link failures (on TCH/H voice) C10638 number of radio link failures (on TCH/H data)

REL IND[-/-]
I/DCM

CLR_CMP[-/-]

RF CHAN REL ACK[-/-]

Figure 4.3-9 Call Drop due to Radio Link Failure

2. Call drop due to handover failure Figure 4.3-10, Figure 4.3-11, and Figure 4.3-12 show signaling points of call drops due to handover failure.

30

5 Traffic Statistics Cases

MS

BTS:TRX CHANNEL ACTIVATE CHANNEL ACTIVATE ACK

BSC

A1
ASSIGNMENT COMMAND

SET T3107

T3107 Timeout

A2
Figure 4.3-10 Call Drop due to Intra-Cell Handover Failure

MS

Old BTS :

New BTS CHANNEL ACT CHANNEL ACT ACK

BSC

A1
HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER COMMAND

SET T 3103

T3103 Timeout

A2
Figure 4.3-11 Call Drop due to Intra-BSC Inter-Cell Handover Failure

Figure 4.3-12 Call Drop due to Inter-BSC Handover Failure

4.3.3 TCH Call Drop Solutions
The TCH call drop is usually due to the following causes:
31

GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

     

Equipment hardware fault Poor radio signals, causing poor coverage in some area Interference (intra-network interference or external interference) Inappropriate radio parameter settings Unbalance between uplink and downlink Unstable transmission or problems in repeater and tower amplifier

This section introduces solutions for call drop problems due to the above causes respectively. 1. Call drop due to hardware fault

Traffic statistics analysis

Cell performance report: SDCCH availability and TCH availability are abnormal, which are lower than 100%; TCH allocation failure rate is high, which is higher than 10%.

♦ ♦

BTS measurement: locate call drops and assignment failure at carrier level. Alarm statistics and dynamic channel observation: the carrier occupation is abnormal.

♦ 

NMS measurement: TCH occupation duration is short.

Solution Locate the hardware fault range according to the above statistics analysis. Check whether there is any fault in the following parts:
♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

TRX CMM TIC Combiner Divider Tower amplifier Repeater The power amplifier’s output power is too low
32

5 Traffic Statistics Cases

2. Call drop due to interference (intra-network interference or external interference)

Traffic statistics analysis

Analyze the interference band level and occurrence law with the change of time and traffic.

♦ ♦

Block carriers one by one to observe the change of interference band. Analyze handover causes, and calculate the proportion of handovers due to poor quality in the total handovers.

Through cell radio measurement, analyze distributions of the signal level and the quality in the cell.

Solution (1) Perform the drive test to check interfered routes and signal quality distribution. (2) Adjust the site transmission power and antenna downtilt or adjust the frequency plan for relevant cells to avoid interference. (3) Use the spectrum analyzer to analyze. (4) Enable Frequency Hopping (FH), Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) and power control to reduce interference. (5) Remove equipment problems, such as TRX’s self-oscillation and antenna’s intermodulation.

3. Call drop due to weak radio signals and poor coverage

Traffic statistics analysis

Power control measurement: the average uplink/downlink signal strength is too low.

Cell radio measurement: the proportion of receiving level being low is too large.

Handover cause measurement: the signal level is too low when handover is initiated, the average receiving level is too low.

Solution (1) Perform the drive test in area with poor coverage.
33

GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

(2) Adjust the following network parameters according to the drive test result. Site transmission power; Antenna downtilt and height; Minimum MS access level; Adjacent cell relationship; Threshold of minimum access level for handover candidate cell. (3) Add sites 4. Call drop due to inappropriate handover parameter settings

Traffic statistics analysis

Handover parameter settings: check whether there is any inappropriate parameter setting.

♦ ♦

General handover measurement: check the outgoing handover failure. Handover cause measurement: check handover causes and proportions of handovers due to various causes.

Adjacent cell handover measurement: find out cells from which the outgoing handover success rate is low and to which adjacent cell the outgoing handover success rate is low, to decide the fault cause.

CS basic service measurement: the number of handovers and the number of TCH occupation successes are out of proportion (>3).

Solution (1) Add appropriate number of adjacent cells. (2) Adjust handover parameters.

5. Call drop due to unbalance between uplink and downlink (tower amplifier, power amplifier, and antenna direction)

Traffic statistics analysis CS basic service measurement and power control measurement: analyze the average uplink/downlink receiving level. Signaling tracing: analyze the uplink/downlink receiving level.

34

5 Traffic Statistics Cases

Solution (1) Check the tower amplifier, CDU, RDU, and BTS boards to ensure they are normal, and check RF connections to ensure they are normal. (2) Remove the antenna feeder problem if there is any: Check whether the antenna azimuth and pitch angle satisfy the design specification. Check feeders and jumpers to ensure they are connected correctly. Check antenna feeder connectors to ensure they are in good contact. Check feeder cables to ensure they are not damaged. Check SWR to ensure it is normal.

6. Call drop due to inappropriate radio parameter settings

Traffic statistics analysis

Relevant parameter settings: Radio Link Timeout (RLT) and the minimum access level are not set appropriately.

Solution Modify inappropriate radio parameters.

7. Call drop due to inappropriate SCCP timer settings

Traffic statistics analysis During the call process, the call drop problem occurs after a fixed interval (4 minutes for example).

Solution (1) Check the SCCP timer. (2) TMIAS: inactivity sending timer (100 ms) = 900 × 100 ms = 90 seconds (3) TMIAR: inactivity receiving timer = 2400 × 100 ms = 240 s = 4 minutes (4) The call drop duration is related to the inactivity receiving timer, in other words, the call is released when the timer is timeout. Modify the inactivity receiving timer’s value to be 10 minutes. After doing that, the fault is removed.

35

GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

4.4 Handover Problems
4.4.1 Handover Problem Analysis
 

Cells with handover problems: all cells, a few cells Cell handover directions: outgoing handover failures and incoming handover failures

Handover failure objects: handover failures between service cell and multiple cells, handover failures between service cell and a few cells.

4.4.2 Querying Handover Indices
1. Find out cells with low handover success rate. 2. Find out cells of which the number of handover failures is large. 3. Find out the number of outgoing handover failures and the number of incoming handover failures. Decide which handover type is the primary problem. 4. Record the outgoing handover performance and incoming handover performance of cells. 5. Observe handover failures and analyze their occurrence laws: For the following cases, decide which one has a lower handover success rate.
♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Handovers to all adjacent cells Handovers to a few adjacent cells Handovers triggered by any condition Handovers triggered by a few conditions

4.4.3 Handover Problem Solutions
The handover success rate might be influenced by the following aspects:
    

Inappropriate handover parameters Equipment problems (a few carrier boards are damaged) Interference Coverage Unbalance between uplink and downlink
36

5 Traffic Statistics Cases

Clock problems (the site adopts internal clock, upper-level clock is unstable or the clock skew is large)

This section introduces solutions for handover problems due to the above causes respectively. 1. Handover problem due to inappropriate parameter settings (parameters related to adjacent cell planning and handover)

Solution (1) Check PBGT threshold and handover threshold to ensure they are appropriate, check handover function options to ensure they are appropriate. (2) If it is found that the number of handovers and the number of TCH occupations are out of proportion, check handover parameter settings and make adjustment if necessary (adjusting the minimum inter-cell handover interval, PBGT threshold, etc).

2. Handover problem due to equipment problems

Analysis objects
♦ ♦

Cells of which the incoming handover success rate is low Adjacent cells of which the outgoing handover success rate is low

Problem locating (1) The destination cell receives the channel activation message CH ACT but responds with the CH ACT NACK message or does not respond (TIMEOUT). (2) The TCH availability is abnormal. (3) The number of call drops due to terrestrial link break is large. (4) If a cell always has high call drop rate and high congestion rate, it might indicate that some equipment in the cell is faulty. (5) Observe transmission and board alarms to check whether there is any clock alarm. (6) If the site’s handover access is restricted by the access level and quality, check relevant parameter settings.

3. Handover problem due to other causes

37

GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

(1) After problems related to parameter configuration, congestion, and equipment faults are removed, perform TCH call drop rate analysis. (2) Perform analysis for adjacent cells in parameter configuration, interference, coverage, and uplink/downlink balance.

4.5 TCH Congestion Problems
4.5.1 TCH Congestion Problem Analysis
Usually, two indices are used for congestion problem analysis:
 

TCH congestion rate SDCCH congestion rate

Congestion in a cell falls into the following three cases:
  

Congestion occurs on both SDCCH and TCH. Congestion occurs on TCH, not on SDCCH. The congestion rate on SDCCH is high, while the congestion rate on TCH is low or there is no congestion on TCH.

After the congestion problem occurs in a cell, check whether carriers in the cell and adjacent cells are faulty first, then perform other analyses. The following describes congestion problem analysis in the three cases mentioned above.

Congestion occurs on both SDCCH and TCH. If congestion occurs on both SDCCH and TCH in the adjacent cell, then add carriers or sites to reduce the congestion rate. If there is no congestion in the adjacent cell, then equalize the traffic in the following sequence: adjust antenna, modify the handover threshold, and adjust cell parameters. If there is no congestion in other cells of this site, reconfigure the cell.

Congestion occurs on TCH, not on SDCCH. In this case, adjust the handover threshold, adjust antenna, adjust cell parameters, or reconfigure the cell.

The congestion rate on SDCCH is high, while the congestion rate on TCH is low
38

5 Traffic Statistics Cases

or there is no congestion on TCH. Observe interference on SDCCH and RF loss situation. If there is serious RF interference on SDCCH, it might cause increase in the number of invalid call attempts and increase in the number of SDCCH RF losses. Moreover, MS frequently occupies SDCCH or the SDCCH occupation duration increases, causing congestion on SDCCH. In such cases, modify the frequency planning or perform SDCCH carrier changeover. Check whether the number of location updates (OK_ACC_PROC[LOCIATIAON_ UPDIATE]) is too large. If the location registration area’s boundary is on the two sides of major roads in cities or area with dense population, it might cause frequent MS location registration in the area, which increases the load of SDCCH and causes congestion. In such cases, optimize the location registration area’s boundary with the following methods: adjusting the cell coverage, increasing the number of SDCCHs, modifying cell parameters, and repartitioning location registration areas. To solve congestion problems on SDCCH due to other reasons, adjust the cell coverage, increase the number of SDCCHs, or modify cell parameters.

4.5.2 TCH Congestion Problem Solutions
The TCH congestion problem might be due to the following causes:
    

Insufficient system capacity Large interference Coverage Antenna feeder problems Inappropriate parameter settings (system messages)

This section introduces solutions for TCH congestion problems due to the above causes respectively. 1. Congestion problem due to insufficient system capacity or uneven traffic

Judgment
♦ ♦

The traffic per channel is too heavy (traffic per channel > 0.6) The number of overflows is too large, and the phenomenon of long-time full39

GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

busy state exists.

The traffic is not equalized (traffic in the three cells of a site are not equalized, or traffic at several sites are not equalized).

♦ 

The congestion problem is serious.

Solution (1) Expand system capacity, or adjust carrier configurations for busy cells and idle cells. (2) Adjust the cell coverage (adjust the site transmission power, and adjust antenna azimuth, downtilt, and height). (3) Adjust cell parameters (Cell Reselection Offset (CRO), minimum MS access level, enabling load handover). (4) Adjust cell priorities and cell handover parameters.

2. Congestion problem due to interference (intra-network interference, external interference) When the interference reaches a certain level that the Carrier-to-Interference ratio requirement can not be satisfied, the Bit Error Rate (BER) increases rapidly. It causes interference on the assignment command and the assignment process, which results in channel occupation failure. In idle state, the downlink interference forces the DSC counter of MS to decrease to 0, MS then reselects a cell with lower level. This case might also cause the channel occupation failure.

Judgment and solution For details, refer to the part related to interference in TCH Call Drop Solutions.

3. Congestion problem due to antenna feeder problem

Judgment

Cell frequency sweeping: measurement result of the same frequency point by the main receiving antenna and the diversity receiving antenna.

♦ ♦

Cell radio measurement: signal level and quality distributions. Signaling tracing: measurement report analysis.

40

5 Traffic Statistics Cases

Solution Check the antenna azimuth and downtilt, and antenna feeder connections.

4. Congestion problem due to inappropriate parameter settings

Judgment Check data configuration such as the minimum MS access level and parameters related to cell reselection.

Solution Adjust inappropriate parameter settings.

5. Congestion problem due to poor coverage

Judgment and solution For details, refer to the part related to coverage in TCH Call Drop Solutions.

4.6 SDCCH Congestion Problem
4.6.1 SDCCH Congestion Problem Analysis
For details, refer to TCH Congestion Problem Analysis.

4.6.2 SDCCH Congestion Problem Solutions
The SDCCH congestion problem might be due to the following causes:
   

Inappropriate parameter settings (system messages) Insufficient system capacity Inappropriate location area partitions Interference

This section introduces solutions for SDCCH congestion problems due to the above causes respectively. 1. Congestion problem due to inappropriate parameter settings

Judgment Radio access measurement:

The number of immediate assignment successes / the number of immediate
41

GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

assignments > 85%. It is the ratio of the number of est_ind messages reported by MS to the issued immediate assignment commands, which should be larger than 85%. If this value is abnormal, it indicates that relevant parameter settings in the system message data table are inappropriate.

Radio access reason types, the number of calling times, the number of times of being called, the number of location updates, the number of short messages, etc.

Solution (1) Adjust parameters, such as the retransmission times and the number of expanded transmission timeslots. (2) Check parameter settings related to location update (dual-band network 1800 MHz parameter settings, CRO, cell reselection hysteresis, and periodical location update time). (3) In the dual-band network, too many inter-office handovers might cause increase in the number of location updates. In such cases, adjust 1800 MHz handover parameter settings for the dual-band network, and adjust other parameters such as CRO.

2. Congestion problem due to insufficient system capacity To handle the capacity problem in some special circumstances, such as the location updates at boundaries of location areas or near the railway, increase the number of configured SDCCHs or TRX. 3. Congestion problem due to inappropriate location area partition For this case, adjust the location area partition. Note: Inappropriate location area boundary might cause frequent location updates. For example, if a street is taken as the boundary of a location area, pedestrians on the street and multi-path propagation will cause frequent location updates. 4. Congestion problem due to interference The RACH threshold is set too low, if interference exists, the system might misjudge that there are a large amount of SDCCH occupation requests, which
42

5 Traffic Statistics Cases

causes the SDCCH congestion problem.

4.7 TCH Allocation Problem
4.7.1 TCH Allocation Process
Difference among TCH occupation, TCH allocation, and TCH assignment

TCH occupation It refers to the channel resource usage in database in the central controller unit MP. After the CHANNEL REQUIRE message is received, the system queries the channel resources in MP’s database. If there is available channel resource, the channel occupation succeeds (database is running normally); if there is no available channel resource, the channel occupation fails. This process is actually the process of querying and allocating channel resource according to the radio resource data table in MP’s database. For channel occupation failures mentioned above, only those due to no available radio resources are recorded as channel occupation failure.

TCH allocation After the channel is requested successfully from the database, BSC sends the ChannelActivation FOR TCH message to BTS, that is, TCH allocation attempt. After BSC receives the ChannelActivationAck message from BTS, the TCH allocation succeeds. If BSC receives the ChannelActivationNack message or does not receive the ChannelActivationAck due to timeout, it indicates that the TCH allocation fails.

TCH assignment After BSC receives the ChannelActivationAck message during the channel allocation process, it sends the IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND message on downlink SDCCH, and it is recorded as a TCH assignment attempt. The TCH assignment is mainly performed between BSC and MS, and BTS only transparently transfers relevant commands. After BSC receives the EstablishIndication message from BTS, the TCH assignment succeeds; otherwise, the TCH assignment fails. This process mainly involves the radio interface and is interfered by indefinite factors, thus the assignment failure rate is high.

Note:
43

GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

A successful channel allocation does not mean a successful channel assignment. Usually, the number of TCH (or SDCCH) allocations is much larger than the number of TCH (or SDCCH) assignments.

4.7.2 TCH Allocation Failure Signaling Points
M SC BSC Assi gnm ent R equest Assi gnm ent Fai l ure(1) Assi gnm ent Fai l ure(2) C hannel Act i vat i on Channel Act i vat i on Ack Assi gnm ent C m omand Assi gnm ent C m omand SABM Assi gnm ent Fai l ure(3) Assi gnm ent Com et e pl Assi gnm ent Com et e pl U A Assi gnm ent Com et e pl BTS M s

Note: Assignment Failure (1): BSC can not implement the channel request from MSC; Assignment Failure (2): BTS can not implement the channel request from BSC Assignment Failure (3): MS can not occupy the channel assigned by BSC

Figure 4.7-13 TCH Allocation Failure

As shown in Figure 4.7-13, an Assignment Failure corresponds to an Assignment Request, reflecting a TCH assignment failure. For Assignment Failure (1), the failure is mainly due to no available channel; for Assignment Failure (2), the failure is due to site fault; for Assignment Failure (3), the failure involves channel assignment failure at air interface, which is due to coverage problem or interference. The TCH assignment failure process is mainly controlled by T3107.

44

5 Traffic Statistics Cases

Figure 4.7-14 Assignment Success

Figure 4.7-15 Assignment Failure

Figure 4.7-16 T3107 Timeout

4.7.3 TCH Assignment Failure Problem Analysis
To handle TCH allocation failure due to TCH congestion, refer to TCH Congestion Problems. This section mainly analyzes the TCH assignment failure problem. 1. TCH assignment failure causes

Hardware fault: TRX or CDU is faulty, connections on panels are loosened, transmission quality is poor at A-interface or Abis interface.
45

GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

Interference: intra-network co-frequency/adjacent-frequency interference, causing high BER and MS unable to establish link with the network.

Antenna feeder problems: antenna feeder is damaged, the single-polarized antenna’s azimuth and downtilt differ from those of the antenna type, SWR is high, or antenna feeder connection is incorrect.

Inappropriate parameter settings: Hopping Sequence Number (HSN) and Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) are set inappropriately, T3107 is set too small, and the configuration data at background is inconsistent with the planning data.

  

RxLevAccessMin is set too small, MsTxPwrMaxCch is set inappropriately. Coverage problem: weak signal or unbalance between uplink and downlink. Repeater problem: uplink/downlink interference or unbalance between uplink and downlink.

 

Transmission problem: high transmission BER or unstable transmission. Other causes: inconsistency between software versions or between hardware versions, signaling cooperation problem between BSC and MSC, etc.

2. Solutions for TCH assignment failure problems

Check whether cell radio parameters are set appropriately, such as FH parameters and frequency data. Adjust inappropriate parameters.

Check indices such as BER and idle interference band level, and adjust these parameters to reduce radio interference.

Check the cell’s hardware, such as transceiver, combiner, divider, and RF connections among boards. Replace the faulty hardware if there is any.

Perform the drive test and check on the site to see whether the following problems exist: interference, incorrect antenna feeder connection, and incorrect antenna azimuth or downtilt. Solve the problem if there is any.

Perform comprehensive analysis for the performance report, such as the congestion rate, handover success rate, call drop rate, the proportion of handover due to various reasons, to locate the fault.

Check BSC version and site versions to avoid TCH assignment failure due to version inconsistency.

46

5 Traffic Statistics Cases
5.1 Call Drop Problem
[Problem Description] On March 16th, it is found in the OMCR background statistics that the call drop rate at site 3 in PAKTEL network increases greatly: the call drop rate (including handover) is larger than 7%, and the number of call drops increases greatly. [Problem Analysis] 1. Obtain the performance data and check the call drop type. It is found that there are many call drops due to radio link failure. 2. Perform statistics for the cell’s interference bands. It is found that the proportion of interference bands over level-3 is very high. 3. It is doubted that interference exists at the site. Check the frequency plan, it is found that there is no co-frequency/adjacent-frequency interference in the cell and adjacent cells. It is found through BTS measurement that the second carrier and the third carrier have high assignment failure rate. 4. The alarm statistics indicates that there is no hardware alarm at the site, no missed adjacent cell, and handover parameter settings are appropriate. However, it is found through checking the site’s FH parameters that the second carrier and the third carrier have the same MAIO. [Solution] Adjust the third carrier’s MAIO from 8 to 10. After doing that, the interference disappears, the number of call drops decreases greatly, and the call drop rate becomes normal. Figure 5.1-17 shows these indices before and after the adjustment.

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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

Figure 5.1-17 Indices before and after Adjustment

5.2 Handover Problem
[Problem Description] The background performance data indicates that the handover success rate at cellA is low. [Problem Analysis] Check radio parameters, it is found that the parameter settings are appropriate. It is found through Dynamic Data Management at the background OMCR that one carrier in cellA can not be occupied. It is diagnosed that the problem is due to hardware fault. [Solution] Replace the faulty board. After doing that, the handover success rate increases greatly. Figure 5.2-18 shows relevant indices before and after the adjustment. The problem is resolved.

Figure 5.2-18 Indices before and after Adjustment

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5 Traffic Statistics Cases

5.3 TCH Congestion Problem
Case 1 [Problem Description] On December 21st, through the background OMCR statistics, it is found that the TCH traffic in third sector of site106 under BSC8 becomes congested suddenly, and the TCH congestion rate (excluding handover) is over 30%. [Problem Analysis] It is found through investigation that there has no congestion in the third sector before, and the TCH congestion problem occurs suddenly. Perform statistics for surrounding cells’ performance and alarms. It is found that site127 which is relevant to the sector is disconnected, causing the third sector of site106 to absorb more traffic, which result in the TCH congestion problem. [Solution] Make site127 to be commissioned immediately. After doing that, it is found that the TCH traffic congestion problem in the third sector of site106 is removed. Figure 5.3-19 shows relevant indices before and after the adjustment.

Figure 5.3-19 Indices before and after Adjustment

Case 2 [Problem Description] After configuring the dynamic GPRS channel at BSC1, it is found on the next day that the congestion rate increases greatly. [Problem Analysis]
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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

1. Adjust the number of dynamic GPRS channels before busy hour, and enable only one dynamic GPRS channel for all cells. 2. Observe on the next day, it is found that there are many TCH allocation failures (excluding handover) in cells under BSC1, causing the service channel allocation rate to decrease (from 98% to 93%). Through signaling tracing, it is found that, for timeslots which are originally configured as dynamic GPRS channels and later changed to be TCH channels, channel activations all fail, as shown in Figure 5.320.

Figure 5.3-20 Channel Activation Failure

[Solution] Change the dynamic GPRS channel to be static GPRS channel, and then change it to be TCH channel. After doing these, it is found that the number of TCH allocation failures (excluding handover) decreases and the network performance becomes normal.
Note: The dynamic GPRS channel can not be directly changed to be TCH channel, because it might cause the changed channel unable to be occupied, which results in decrease in the TCH channel allocation success rate. Instead, the dynamic GPRS channel should be changed to be static GPRS channel first, and then changed to be TCH channel.

5.4 SDCCH Congestion Problem
[Problem Description] After a site is commissioned, it is found in cell3 that SDCCH congestion occurs suddenly, with a congestion rate higher than 35%. [Problem Analysis] Through the basic measurement statistics, it is found that the SDCCH congestion
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5 Traffic Statistics Cases

problem in cell3 is due to a large amount of location updates. Check the planning data and LAC partition, but all are normal. Thus it is diagnosed that the problem exists in the site’s commissioning data. [Solution] It is found through checking that cell3’s LAC is 8198, but LACs of the other two cells of the site are 8199, which are incorrect and causes a large amount of location updates. After adjusting the two cells’ LAC to be 8198, the SDCCH congestion rate becomes normal, and the problem is resolved.

5.5 SDCCH Allocation Problem
[Problem Description] During the process of commissioning a satellite transmission site, it is found that some handsets can not access the network and can not call either. [Problem Analysis] After performing the signaling analysis, it is found that after BSC issues the IMMEDIATE CMD message, the waiting for EST IND message from MS is always timeout, which causes BSC to release the new channel at the local end. The satellite transmission has a shortcoming that the delay is large. According to the signaling analysis, the unidirectional delay from the ground station to the satellite or from the satellite to the ground station is 150 ms. It causes some handsets unable to receive the immediate assignment command after sending the channel request. Therefore, the handset can not access the network or can not call. [Solution] Implement the immediate assignment optimization at BSC to make the channel activation message and the immediate assignment message to be issued simultaneously. In this way, the signaling transmission delay is reduced. After doing this, the handset can access the network and call normally. The problem is resolved.

5.6 TCH Allocation Failure Problem
[Problem Description]
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GBO_012_E1_0 Traffic Statistic Analysis

It is found in cell3 of site1 that the call drop rate reaches 6.9%, the incoming handover success rate is only 68.38%, and the outgoing handover success rate is 91.31%. [Problem Analysis] It is found through checking that there is no interference, thus it is diagnosed to be hardware problems. After performing BTS measurement statistics for cell3, it is found that the second carrier in cell3 has a very high TCH assignment failure rate, which is over 30%. After performing on-site test, it is found that after the carrier is occupied, the signal level is 20 dB lower than the BCCH carrier level. [Solution] Replace the carrier. After doing this, all indices become normal. Figure 5.6-21 shows relevant indices before and after the adjustment.

Figure 5.6-21 Indices before and after Adjustment

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