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Department: BLOW ROOM Process flow chart:
VISION SHIELD SHIELDSHIELD OUTPUT
I NPUT: Cotton Mixing
PROCESS: The purpose of blow room process is to open, removal of heavier impurities present and clean the cotton and make it a continuous sheet with uniform predetermined weight per unit length. It is wound on a lap rod for feeding to the carding. OUTPUT: Lap weight = 23 kgs (including lap rod) Length = 49m MACHINE: 2. Department: CARDING Process flow chart:
INPUT: Blow Room lap PROCESS: During carding process the blow room lap is opened, cleaned and neps are removed, fibers made parallel & individualized, required amount of waste is extracted and assembled in the form of sliver with a uniform predetermined weight per unit length and collected in a can in a coiled form for feeding to sliver lap machines. OUTPUT: Card Sliver MACHINE:
3. Department: SLIVER LAP Process flow chart:
INPUT: Card Sliver PROCESS: During the process of sliver lap, a definite no. of card slivers are doubled, drafted and wound as a sheet of lap with uniform weight per unit length on a spool for feeding to ribbon lap machine. OUTPUT: Sliver Lap MACHINE:
4. Department: RIBBON LAP Process flow chart:
INPUT: Sliver Lap PROCESS: During ribbon lap process a definite no. of sliver lap machine laps are doubled, drafted and wound as a sheet of lap with uniform weight per unit length on to a spool for feeding to comber machine. OUTPUT: Ribbon Lap MACHINE:
5. Department: COMBER Process flow chart:
INPUT: Ribbon Lap
PROCESS: The object of cotton combing is to remove short fibers, minute impurities, neps & fibers made parallel & assembled in form of the sliver. No. of such slivers are drafted and stored in cans in the form of sliver. The sliver has definite weight per unit length & collected in a can in coiled form for feeding draw frames. OUTPUT: Comber Sliver MACHINE: 6. Department: DRAWING Process flow chart:
SCANNING ROLLER ROLLER
INPUT: Comber Sliver PROCESS: The purpose of drawing process is to double a definite no. of slivers & drawn them together to make the sliver more even & parallelize the fibers. The sliver is stored in cans or coiled form for feeding to simplex machines. Auto leveling on weight per meter is tacking place while passing through the machine. OUTPUT: Drawing Sliver MACHINE:
Process flow chart:
INPUT: Drawing Sliver
PROCESS: The object of simplex or speed frame process is to attenuate the finisher draw frame sliver into a finer strand, twist and wind it on a plastic tube suitable for feeding to ring spinning machines. OUTPUT: single/double yarn MACHINE: 8. Department: AUTOCONER WINDING Process flow chart:
EYC (With (OR) without
INPUT: Single/Double yarn
PROCESS: In the autoconer winding process yarn from ring spinning/doubling etc. in cop form fed and converted into a cone package of definite weight per unit length during this winding process. The objectionable faults in the yarn are removed by electronic yarn checker (EYC). The cut ends are joined by a splicer & taken onto cones as a continuous length of yarn. The yarn may be waxed, if required, during this process. OUTPUT: Yarn in cone form MACHINE:
GTN IND. Ltd would achieve the highest level of customer satisfaction by their stated & perceived requirements, maintaining consistency & timely delivery.
GTN Endeavours continual upgradation of product quality & technology supported by R&D efforts in a cost-effective manner.
To meet the changing global demands & stay ahead in competition. GTN would adapt/innovate methods in its manufacturing activity.
GTN would inculcate a sense of quality awareness at all levels by using appropriate training and motivation techniques.
GTN would aim at preserving the environment conditions by adapting eco-friendly measures in its manufacturing & other activities.
PURCHASING PROCESS: 1. Selecting the suppliers depending upon the ability to supply the product with organization requirements. 2. It also includes criteria for selection, evaluation, re-evaluation. 3. Records of supplier evaluation, rating & the necessary follow up action.
PURCHASING INFORMAYION: Org have documented information to describe product to be purchased include require for approval, required for qualification of personnel, where necessary & other related information. The documentation also specifies the need for ensuring adequacy of specified purchasing information before placing order with the supplier.
Verification of PURCHASED PRODUCT: The organization has documented the methods for verification of incoming products. The type and level of verification may vary depending upon the effect of the purchased product on sequent product realization or the final product. In case the organization required to perform verification at the supplier’s premises, the necessary verification arrangements are previously agreed upon including the methods of product release.
IMPROVEMENT: The organization Endeavour to continually improve the effectiveness of QMS(Quality management system) through the following.
Quality policy & objectives Internal quality audit results Analysis of data Corrective and preventive actions Management reviews Customer feedback reports
CORRECTIVE ACTION: The organization established a procedure to deal with corrective action to eliminate the cause of non-conformity. This “intern alia” include review of non-conformities, determining the cause of non-conformities evaluating the need for action to ensure these do not occur, determining & effectively implementing the actions and recording the actions taken. Actions taken are reviewed for effectiveness.
INTERNAL COMMUNICATION: The organization realizes that internal communication plays a vial role ensuring the smooth & effective functioning of the QMS. The organization ensure that information required to be communicated to persons who need to have then are effectively done. A separate procedure addressing the means for this has been established.
MANAGEMENT REVIEW: The management of the organization conduct management reviews once in every month. The reviews ensure that the system is effectively functioning , is suitable adequate & serves the purpose in view. The review also addresses the opportunities for improvement as may be brought in from different levels/functions. The management review meetings are recorded & actions initiated by concerned persons.
MEASUREMENT ANALYSIS & IMPROVEMENT
PRODUCT CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT OF THE QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT:
The organization employs personnel who are competent judged on the basis of appropriate education, skills & experience in performing affecting product quality.
Competence, Awareness, Training:
Organization provides training to fill the gap in knowledge/skills & evaluate effectiveness of such training. It arranges to induct knowledge across the board to all levels of employees, the importance of their activity & its contribution to enhancement of quality of the product/process. The organization maintains the records of training imparted including imparted skills, experience, competence etc.
Infrastructure & Work Environment:
The organization have assessed and provide necessary infrastructure for working to ensure conformity of product. These include equipment/machinery, work environment, safety requirement as applicable, support services such as transport, communication equipment etc.
Manufacturing process of SINGLE YARN
BLOW ROOM WITH BLENDOMAT
CARDING WITH CHUTE FEED CARDING
PRECOMB MIXING SUPER LAP
SIMPLEX RING SPINNING AUTO CONER
DELIVERY SAFETY MEASURES IN THE INDUSTRY
In GTN industries safety is the major concern in every part of the work .The industry also implemented the safety precautions in every department .
• • • • • •
Providing safety equipment for the workers in different sections for their health safety. In the industry there is a fire preventing alarm and fire preventing water facility is also provided. For every machine a board is attached which guides how to work on the machine, to protect themselves from the hazards. Management also giving awareness to the workers through the fire preventing boards, and writing boards. Every department is provided with a first aid box.
In GTN industries the waste occurred is 28%, utilization is 70%, invisible loss is 2%. In the industry different approaches are defined for treating the waste. The waste collected from different sections like BLOW ROOM, CARDING, COMBING, SIMPLEX, RIBBON LAP, SLIVER LAP etc are contaminated in the wasting section. There are 9 types of waste collected which are as follows 1. Gutter 2. Cylinder Fly 3. SWP(sweeping) waste 4. Dropping no. 5. Hard waste or Yarn waste 6. Comber noil 7. Flat strips 8. Licker in fly 9. Roving ends The collected waste from different sections is packed by using WASTE BALE PACKING MACHINE.
For the utilization of waste there are two types of waste are classified SALABLE Waste USABLE Waste
SALABLE Waste: The waste which is not used for the production is called
SALABLE waste. This waste is sell to the local manufacturers for different purposes. Example: COMBER waste is used for surgical cotton FLAT STRIPS is used for bedding HARD WASTE is used for cleaning purpose, automobile cleaning
USABLE Waste: The waste which is suitable for the production purpose is
called USABLE waste.
Electronic Wrap Reel
Reels up to 10 yarn skeins Number of revolutions can be preselected from 1 to 200 by the operator through keyboard with LED display The reel starts gently and smoothly to increase normal speed under microprocessor control, before reaching the preselected measuring length, it slows down and approach the end of the measurement slowly and stops at accurate position, which ensures uniform winding without any stretch
• • •
Stainless steel reel for accurate length measurement and better stability Separate yarn stand is provided to accommodate 10 cops It is designed for adjustable pre-tension mechanism facilitates tension as per ASTM standard to suit individual yarn through common selector. This advanced pretension mechanism ensures uniform tension throughout winding
E1.5/10C 1.5 YARDS
E1.5Y/20C 1.5 YARDS
E1M/10C 1 METRE
E1M/20C 1 METRE
Reel circumference No. of skein yarns
MRKT office SGM (M) DGM(M) DM(M)
SR.GM( RM&SP) P)P OFF (RM)
DMM Civil Supervisor JR.off store DM(P)-RD Foreman
SR.SUP DM (OA) M (PRD)
DM (P) AME
TKP Electrician STENO MT.Personnel RECPT
FIBER TESTING: USTER HVI SPECTRUM:
• • • In this instrument except Trash and Neps all the parameters are checked. For the measure of micronaire study 10gm sample is collected for the testing. The USTER HVI SPECTRUM provides with the required information of Standard measurements of fiber length, uniformity, strength, micronaire, color and trash to assist in selecting the right cotton for end product • Growers, ginners, traders and spinners specify, evaluate and select cotton according to the quality standards of USTER HVI – the only accepted standard worldwide. • The USTER HVI SPECTRUM is the only HVI instrument that is Equipped with a patented moisture probe. Knowing the moisture Content of the cotton at the time of testing. • The USTER BALE MANAGER is software provides information about the cotton quality, allows customization for the bale selection process, and stores historic information on laydowns that have already been consumed.
YARN Testing: USTER TENSORAPID:
The USTER TENSORAPID gives all the known measured values in tensile testing and offers improved analysis of the yarn quality. The results determine the tested yarn’s suitability for knitting or weaving.
The software package with USTER TENSORAPID calculate the following additional characteristics: • Elasticity-tension behavior of yarns • Yield point definition by either strength or stretch • Retardation and relaxation tests
A range of specially designed clamps and accessories guarantees optimal, reliable and reproducible testing of yarns, hanks, slivers and also fabric strips.
The clamps can be arranged horizontally or vertically, depending on the material being tested. With a horizontal clamping position, the danger of clamp breaks with critical yarns can be avoided, since a considerable percentage of the stress will be absorbed by the frictional surface.
Electronic Twist Tester:
Electronic Twist Tester is used to test single yarn and double yarn. Specimen length adjustable from 0 to 20 inch or 0 to 50 cms.
Provision to test S and Z twist Results are displayed in TPI and TPM. Minimum number of control switches for complete use It is used to test heavy yarns and Multi twisted yarns Scale provided to measure elongation of test results Automatic counter start/stop using optical sensor Pre-tension weight available up to 250 grams Suitable for both Microprocessor Twist Tester and Electronic Twist Tester
• • • • •
QUALITY ASURANCE Department
In the quality assurance department testing of the fibers, hanks, and yarns is done for the end product quality .It includes three stages they are, 1. Incoming inspection 2. Process control inspection 3. Final inspection 1. INCOMING INSPECTION : Incoming inspection includes the raw materials, stores, materials, i.e. incoming goods are inspected thoroughly so, that no faults can’t be occurred in the product with the raw material or with machine etc. 2. PROCESS CONTROL: DEM Process approach is used in the GTN industries
DEM cycle approach
3. FINAL INSPECTION: Final inspection include the testing of hank ,fiber and yarn .every processing element like carding ,combing, simplex etc.is undergoes into checking whether it is acquired quality according to the specification . Fibers, hanks, yarns are tested by using different Instruments. The results of the testing instruments used by GTN industries are accepted by worldwide. Environment for Q&A Dept.: 650– RH (relative humidity) - -2 250 - TEMP - ±2 In the quality assurance department the parameters of yarn checked Are as follows • • • • • • • COUNT STRENGTH CSP (Count Strength product) ELONGATION CMT ( classimate faults in yarn) CV (count variation) IMPERFECTION I. Thin Places 2. Thick places 3. Neps
There are three types tests taken in the Q&A Dept Fiber testing Yarn testing
USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM:
• By using USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM We can check cleared and uncleared yarn, providing perfect classification of thick and thin places, as well as checking infrequently occurring yarn defects and, recently, foreign fibers in the yarn. • • • • • Classifying foreign fibers into 27 classes according to the FOREIGNCLASS classification system which is recognized worldwide. USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM allows the distinction to be made between organic and non-organic foreign matter Defining customized classes allows targeted monitoring of individual faults in the desired size, for thick and thin places as well as for foreign fibers. Determining infrequently occurring yarn faults in 23 classes of thick and 4 classes of thin places. USTER STATISTICS Compare measuring results with the international quality benchmarks directly on the screen.
BALANCES&WEIGHING SCALES: Brand: AFCOSET
• • • • • Afcoset balances are peerless in accuracy and reliability. Selectable weighing modes Kg, counting or percentage. Large and easy read out display mounted on tall column Outstanding Accuracy up to 1/10000 displayed count resolution. Optional RS232 allows connection to computer.
• • • • •
In the packaging section cones which are wounded on auto coner are taken for packaging. Every cone will be checked under UV lamp, if any fault found it is removed again rewounded. Faults include oil marks, waste attached, and mixing of different counts in the yarn. 12 cones are packaged in one box. Cones are first packed with polybag and next in the gunny bag and put in the company logo box. Every box consists of following information ORDER NO. , COMPANY, COUNT, LOT NO. , COUNTRY ORDER NO.: It is order no of the buyer given by the company GTN. COMPANY: To the company whom they are manufacturing for COUNT: Count of the cone LOT NO.: It is lot no. in which the yarn is manufactured COUNTRY: where the company is exporting to
1.ELECTRICAL Machine voltage Main contactor I/O
Auxiliary contactor I/O Computer input I/O Motor input amps 2. OIL FUNCTION NOZZLES Oil level oiler Cylinder bed Dial set QAP Drive set Take up set 3. HEAT Motor Cylinder/Dial cam box 4. AIR Air pressure Air moisture 5. Tightness Cylinder/dial cam box screws Cylinder cam box holder screws Cams screws 6. CLEANING POINT Machine Panel board Panel exhaust fan Inverter cooling fan Oil tube& nozzles Cylinder &dial cam box Take-up roller MPF storage feeder 7.OIL&GREASE
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*Preventive Maintenance for KNITTING MACHINES
Maintenance of knitting machinery:
The machine breakdown is 0.06% in the GTN in industries. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE helps for less breakdown of machinery For the newly purchased machine 3-4 years there is no maintenance problem Only older machines undergoes for the maintenance activity MAINTENANCE DEPT. takes care of the maintenance of machinery, it purchases all the material required for the machinery. MAINTENANCE DEPT. prepared for frequent and emergency breakdown of machinery. Layout of KNITTING Section:
FLAT KNITTING MACHINES
FLAT KNITTING Machine
MINI JACQUARD SINGLE JERSEY SINGLE JERSEY AUTO STRIPER
Properties of cotton fiber: 1. Length 2. Uniformity 3. Fineness 4. Strength 5. Elongation 6. Maturity 1.Length
Below 0.99 0.99 – 1.10 1.11 – 1.26 Above 1.26 Short Medium Long Extra long
Below 77 77 - 79 80 - 82 83 - 85 Above 85 Very low Low Average High Very high
Fiber FINENESS Fineness(millitex) Below 135 135 - 175 175 - 200 200 - 230 Above 230 Description Very fine Fine Average Coarse Very coarse
4. Strength Fiber STRENGTH 20 and below 21 - 25 26 - 29 30 - 32 32 and above
Very weak Weak Base Strong Very strong
Below 5.0 5.0 – 5.8 5.9 – 6.7 6.8 – 7.6 Above 7.6 6. Maturity Fiber MATURITY Maturity Ration Below 0.7 0.7 – 0.8 0.8 – 1.0 Above 1.0 Very low Low Average High Very high
Description Uncommon Immature Mature Very mature
Defects in COTTON Fiber: 1. Micronaire 2. Immature cotton 3. Short fiber 4. color 1. MICRONAIRE: A numerical value that describes relative fiber fineness and is derived from the micronaire method test which measures the resistance of the fiber to a flow of air forced through it. Micronaire must be controlled to prevent other defects like, Barre, Warp streaks, Filling Bands, Strength variation, Efficiency loss. Micronaire must be controlled With in a laydown
Between laydowns , <0.2 Micronaire
<0.1% change in mix to mix Avg
2. Immature cotton:
Cotton is by nature….. A raw material with many variations. Maturity is one of those variable Properties.
Effects of Immature fibers: Tend to reduce yarn strength. Increase ends down. Increase imperfections in yarn. Cause reduced or variations in dye uptake.
3. Short Fiber:
Cotton Color Affected By:
• • Rainfall Temperature
• • • •
Insects Fungi Staining from soil, weeds, grass Storage conditions
Defects of YARN: There are two types of yarn defects are defined they are as follows
Frequently Occurring Faults
Randomly Occurring Faults
1. Frequently occurring faults • • Thin Places Thick Places Neps Long Thin Long Thick
2. Randomly occurring Faults
Test Um(%) CVm no. (%) 1. 2. 3. Mean Value CVb(%) 0.95% +/-
Thin places (-30%)
Thick Places (-40%)
Thin places (-50%)
T e st n o.
Thi n pla ce s (60 %)
Thi ck Pla ces (+3 5% )
Thi ck Pla ces (+5 0% )
Thi ck Pla ces (+7 0% )
Thic k Plac es (+10 0%)
Nep s (+14 0%)
Nep s (+20 0%)
Nep s (+28 0%)
Nep Rel. Count s (%) (+40 0%)
1. 2. 3. Mean Value CVb(%) 0.95% +/-
USTER TENSORAPID Testing chart:
Time to Br. (S) Test1 Rep Test2 Test3 1. 2. Mean 3. Value Mean S +/St. dev CV% %CV +/Q95% Min. value Max.Value
Elongation(%) Rkm (kgf*Nm) Mean size(mm)
B-Work (cN.cm) Neps/gram
Sample Nep Cnt size(g) Overall Results
USTER HVI SPECTRUM:
Bale ID SCI Grade Mic Mat Len Amt Unf SFI Str Elg Moist Rd +b C CNT Grade
MEAN: STD DEV: % CV: Total no. of samples
USTER CLASSIMAT QUANTUM:
USTER AFIS: • Analyzing and tracking the frequency, number, and size of neps from one processing stage to another is a vital quality control tool for optimizing
USTER AFIS provides valuable information on how certain cottons Will react to the different processing stages.
The AFIS Maturity module was developed to measure values and the distribution of fiber maturity and fineness
Improved reliability and efficiency of machinery settings Reduced maintenance costs
Neps:Analyzing and tracking the frequency, number, and size of neps from one processing stage to another is a vital quality control tool for optimizing spinning conditions Measurements include: • Neps • Seed coat fragments Length and maturity: Length and short fiber content: Fiber length information is necessary for a spinning mill to operate
efficiently and to consistently produce a quality product. Critical processes that create and control the quality of cotton sliver must be monitored and controlled on a regular basis. Measurements include: • Percent of short fiber content by number and by weight (>.50 inches/ 12.7mm) • Length by number and by weight • Coefficient of variation of fiber length by number and by weight • Upper quartile length by weight • 5.0% length Maturity: The AFIS Maturity module was developed to measure values and the distribution of fiber maturity and fineness. Immature fibers in raw material are the major cause of white specks and barré in dyed and finished fabric. Measurements include: • Fineness (millitex) • Immature fiber content% • Maturity ratio Trash and dust: Cottons from different growth areas exhibit various amounts and sizes of trash particles and require different degrees of cleaning in given growth areas. USTER AFIS-T provides valuable information on how certain cottons will react to the different processing stages. Measurements include: • Distribution of the size of trash and dust particles (histograms) • Number of dust and trash particles per gram • Percent content of foreign
matter (dust and trash)
Quality benefits · Reduced or eliminated fabric barré · Reduced short fiber content · Reduced neps and seed coat fragments · Improved reliability and efficiency of machinery settings · Reduced maintenance costs