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ANTHONY JAN CABATIC PATRICK CHRISTIAN CABRERA MA. NELIA GLORIA CAMILLE PEREZ DECERIE ROBLEDO
SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, ARTS AND SCIENCES LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
BACHELOR OF ARTS (Mass Communication) MARCH 2012
INTRODUCTION Football had been introduced in the Philippines in 1907 (Casares, 2010), but it only was considered a significant sport in 2010. According to Futbol Pilipinas (www.futbolpilipinas.com), the Philippine Men's National Football Team is the national football team of the Philippines and represents the country in international football. The Philippine Football Federation (PFF) handles the team and act as the governing body of football in the Philippines. Football has become a dominant sport in the Philippines, and is a favorite in the provinces of Iloilo, Negros Occidental and Mindanao Island and in some parts of Luzon and Visayas. Recent developments, however, have opened new avenues for the game within the country and in the International level. With more young and skilled players joining the team like Borromeo, Christopher Greatwich, Emelio Calindong and others, chances of fighting the opponents and putting up a strong defense has become brighter. With the Philippine National Football Team at least qualifying for ASEAN Football Championship, 2007, the chances of a good future for football in Philippine is ensured. An important counterpart of the game basketball in Philippines is football. Basketball may be a famous game for Filipinos but this popular sport also enjoys the loyalty of the people. The game has already achieved popularity among the common mass and after it was introduced in the country by the British Sailors from Hong Kong in the early 1900’s, it has been a foreigner’s game played mostly by the rich. Football may not
3 have achieved a largely high position but it is a game deemed worthy to be played and enjoyed. Two football superstars helped popularized football in the Philippines - the Younghusbands. Siblings James and Phil are reinforcement members of the Philippine Azkals that competes in different international leagues representing the country. The Younghusband siblings together with the Philippine Football Team, better known as the Azkals established popularity in sports and show business. Capturing the eyes of the media, the Azkals guest in various television shows and appeared in newspapers. They made a very big impact in Philippine sports as they star in television, radio and print media. The Philippine Football Team is famous because of their success in terms of sports and even in media. They appear in newspaper, television and in magazines. They even have their own facebook fan page and website. As a trend in advertisement, advertisers use the Philippine Football Team as endorsers of their products and services due to their popularity and public demand. The public is well aware that the Azkals are known and popular but the researchers want to know how popular they are. Advertisement, news and other information are placed in different types of print media also known as the tri-media which also includes print media. It is one of the oldest and basic forms of mass communication. It includes newspapers, weeklies, magazines, monthlies and other forms of printed journals. Print media generally refers to newspapers.
4 Significance of the Study This research tackles about the presence of the Azkals and football in the Philippines as seen in media, newspaper in particular. This seeks to establish if the news organizations allocation of resources for Azkals is justified. This research about the anatomy of Azkals’ popularity in Philippine print media is also a significant endeavor in advertising especially in print media, education, sports and show business. Advertising The people behind print advertising, with the help of this research will improve their marketing and advertising approach upon knowing the taste of the public and their perception towards popularity. Education The research will serve as reference to future researchers with topics related to popularity, sports, media, communication or triangulation. Sports and Showbiz With the help of this research, people in the sports and show business industry can analyze the anatomy of popularity in print, if possible, with television and radio and hopefully would help them with the approach to reach the heist of their career. This study will also be beneficial to the students and instructors in Mass Communication most specially in print media when they employ effective learning in their classroom setting particularly in different concepts related to the use of
5 effective disseminating of information. By understanding the needs of the students and benefits of quality education, these instructors and students are assured of a competitive advantage. Moreover, this research will provide recommendations on how to evaluate the popularity in print media.
Statement of the Problem Recognized locally and abroad, the Philippine National Football Team or Azkals made a huge impact on various types of media. Filipinos exert support to the team composed of natural Filipino citizens and foreign reinforcements like the Younghusbands. Regarding this, the researchers conducted this research to know if print media uses Azkals’ popularity for sales or does Azkals’ uses print media publicity for popularity. Furthermore, the researchers would also like to know the anatomy behind the Azkal’s fame in Philippine print media.
Objective of the Study General Objective: This research aims to investigate the anatomy of Azkal’s popularity in Philippine print media. The primary objective of this study is beyond the goals of advertising.
Specific Objectives: The researchers also aim to: • concretely establish Azkals’ popularity in newspapers in terms of column inches allocation; • determine the level of popularity of Azkals among the target readers of broadsheets in Batangas; • describe respondents perception of Azkals as media personalities; • determine if there is consistency among presence of Azkal in newspaper pages, level of popularity among target readers, and the readers perception of Azkals.
Scope and Limitations To answer the stated problems in this study, the researchers will use the triangulation method which involves surveys, interviews and content analysis in which the results are to be verified. The scope of the study is subdivided into the following parts depending on the method used.
7 For surveys and interviews: Random Batangueňos, either female or male, with access to print media from different walks of life, residents of the Batangas Province for five years prior to the interview and/ or survey are the respondents of the research.
Area The area of the conducted survey and interview is within Batangas Province For Content Analysis of Print Media, broadsheet newspapers will be used in the measurement of Azkals related articlesm, photographs and other data of November 1 to 30 issues. Limitations of the study may be due to the availability or life span of newspapers materials related to football and the Azkals; and the Batanguenos newspaper readers.
Operational Framework For the reader’s further understanding to the topic, the following terms are conceptually defined based on the study. Agenda Cutting- simply a name for a variety of ways and instances in which a topic or an actual or potentially significant news ‘story’ finds itself low on a news agenda, or even out of it; in some cases there may be a presence, but of a negative rather than a neutral or perhaps a deservedly positive tone.
8 Agenda-Setting Theory- the news media have a large influence on audiences, in terms of what stories to consider newsworthy and how much prominence and space to give them. Azkals- The Philippines national football team is the national football team of the Philippines and represents the country in international. Column Inch- Unit of measure in a publication by which advertising space is sold. Magazines and newspapers are divided into so many columns wide and so many inches deep (depth = height). A column inch measures 1 inch deep by 1 column wide, whatever the standard width is for the particular publication. Contextual analysis- relating to or determined by or in context; "contextual information". Interview- A mutual sight or view; a meeting face to face; usually, a formal or official meeting for consultation; a conference; as, the secretary had an interview with the President. Media- the means of communication that reach large number of peope, such as television, newspapers and radio. Media economics- embodies economic theoretical and practical economic questions specific to media of all types. Popularity- The state or condition of being liked, admired, or supported by many people. Print Media- The industry associated with the printing and distribution of news through newspapers and magazines.
9 Theoretical Framework- The theoretical framework is a foundation for the parameters, or boundaries, of a study. Once these themes are established, researchers can seek answers to the topical questions they have developed on broad subjects. Public opinion (perception) - the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population. Public opinion can also be defined as the complex collection of opinions of many different people and the sum of all their views. Qualitative Data -Data that approximates or characterizes but does not measure the attributes, characteristics, properties, etc., of a thing or phenomenon. Qualitative data describes whereas quantitative data defines Quantitative Data -describe a type of information that can be counted or expressed numerically. This type of data is often collected in experiments, manipulated and statistically analyzed. Reality- The quality or state of being actual or true. Science- defined above is sometimes called pure science to differentiate it from applied science, which is the application of research to human needs. Society-is a group of people related to each other through persistent relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or virtual territory, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Survey-a general view, examination, or description of someone or something.
10 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The researchers searched libraries and the internet for existing studies related and vital to this research “The Anatomy of Azkals’ Popularity in Philippine Print Media.” and came up with several researches. National Characteristics of Hungarian Celebrity Culture Andrea Viniczai of the University of Pecs studied Hungarian celebrities in his PhD work entitled “National Characteristics of Hungarian Celebrity Culture.” The researchers think that this study of Viniczai can be beneficial to the research in measuring the Azkals’ popularity in Philippine print media as it gave insights regarding the Hungarian celebrity culture, showing several examples on how one can be famous in Hungary. It also discussed about Hungarians Celebrity Consumption which resulted in surveys showing the interest for the stars is related to tabloid reading habits. According to Viniczai, one can reach a popular celebrity status if they have a unique personality, private life in media, look, hard work and talent as shown in the following figure.
Table 1. Components of Popularity Based on Viniczai Table 1 shows the results to Viniczai’s questions focused on Hungarian celebrities in general. 41.6% of the respondent’s deﬁned celebrities as people who are constantly in the media. 71.5% thought that most of the Hungarian stars couldn’t pull through in the international star-world. And who can become a celebrity in Hungary? According to Viniczai’s respondents celebrities have nothing to do with merit, talent or hard work, on the contrary because sixty percent stated that most of the Hungarian stars are those who became stars for no evident reasons. Three-quarters of the 7317 respondents submitted that the most important thing in becoming a star is the constant support of the media. The second most important factor is the look of the celebrities, the third is their unique personality, the fourth is their positive inner values and last of all comes talent.
12 Regarding this, in order for the researchers to verify the level of popularity, the Azkals must establish a unique personality, private life in media, the looks, perseverance and talent. Unique Personality • • • • • They must have interesting characteristics. They must stand out in a crowd. They must provide a distinct point for discussion. No other person or group possess the type of personality they posseess. It must be difficult to look for people who will be like them.
Good Looks • • • • Azkals are good looking men. Azkals are effective endorses for fashionable products. People always take a look at their pictures, posters, billboards. People buy products they endorse because of their appereance.
Hard Work • • Azkals give their best during competition. They practice because of dedication.
13 • Talent • • • • They are excellent in the field of football. They are champion materials. The way they play is fascinating. Other people can also do what they do in football. They practice hard.
Life in Media • • • • • Azkals deserve media attention they got People are interested in their personal lives. People talk about their personal lives. People listen, watch, or read news about their personal lives. They behave properly under the spotlight.
14 One of mass communications’ purposes is to inform the public about current and past events. Mass communication as defined in “Mass Media, Mass Culture” is the process whereby professional communicators use technological devices to share messages over great distance to influence large audiences. Within this process of communication, the media practitioners take control of the information which can be in form of print, radio and television. The media then uses gate keeping and agenda setting to “control access to news, information, and entertainment” (Wilson 14). Gate keeping is a series of checkpoints wherein the news has undergo before it public consumption. This process enables media practitioners to decide if news or any form of media is ready for publication. Agenda setting, on the other hand, as defined in “Mass Media, Mass Culture” is the process whereby the mass media determine what the public think and worry about. Walter Lippmann, a journalist first observed this function, in the 1920’s. Lippmann then pointed out that the media dominates over the creation of pictures in the public’s head; he believed that the public reacts not to actual events but to the pictures in their head. Therefore, this agenda setting process is used to remodel occurring events in the environment into a simpler model. Several researches have followed this concept of Lippman like Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw. McCombs and Shaw have best described the agenda setting function in their book Emergence of American Political Issues. In this book the authors point out that there is “abundantly collected evidence that editors and broadcasters play an important part as they go through their day to day tasks in deciding and publicizing news” (Littlejohn, nd).
15 “…This impact of the mass media- the ability to affect cognitive change among among individuals, to structure their thinking- has been labelled the agenda-setting function of mass communication. Here may lay the most important effect of mass communication, its ability to mentally order and organize our world for us. In short, the mass media may not be successful in telling us what to think, but they are stunningly successful in telling us what to think about…” (McCombs & Shaw, 5) There are two levels of agenda setting as mentioned in the Theories of Communication; the first level enacts the common subjects that are most important, and the second level decides what parts of the subject are important.
1n 1972, David Weaver joined McCombs and Shaw in a project were they panel studied the 1976 U.S. presidential election. Within their project the three researchers studied the attributes of the agenda, the description of presidential candidates in the news and the agenda attributes in voters’ descriptions of the candidates (McCombs). Throughout McCombs and Shaw’s study, the researchers found out that there was a relationship between the media agenda and the public agenda. These studies are for the purpose of looking at the media issues and determining whether these issues are important.
Figure 1. Media Tenor Applied Agenda Setting Research Figure 3 shows the application of an Agenda Setting Research wherein “reality” is defined as part of the environment with politics, economy, science and society and with agenda cutting; this reality is controlled by the media. It also shows that “reality “with agenda setting has a direct impact on the “media reality” which gives the public their own perception of reality. Other factors may also affect agenda setting and these may be due to the combination of gatekeepers, editors and managers, and external influences. These external influences may be from non- media sources, and the elite. These factors affect the agenda setting process to an extent that depending to what power each factor may have it will eventually influence the media agenda. For an instance, “if the media has close relationship with the elite society, that class will probably affect the media agenda and the public agenda in turn” (Littlejohn, 321).
Agenda setting theory as stated above has gave the media power to establish control over the publication and emphasis of information accessible to the public. This concept of agenda setting is explained as “the idea of issue salience as a media effect is intriguing and important” (LittleJohn,nd). In conclusion, the agenda setting theory of Maxwell
McCombs and Donald Shaw is used for many purposes to establish the media agenda and to retrieve the opinion of the public.
Conceptual Framework In this particular study, phenomenon can be explained using the diagram below.
Figure 2. Conceptualized framework for Azkals’ popularity Based on earlier discussed theory, the events in the lives of Azkals have at least three directions: to be represented in media, to be directly observed by others, and kept hidden from public or media.
18 In this case, the researchers shall observe the representation of Azkals in media, using newspapers as means. It shall then be established if there is relationship between perception of Filipinos and what is shown to them in media. It is through this that it can be determined if the representation in media is justified.
METHODOLOGY In order to reach the intended objectives of the study, the researchers used more than one method for gathering data and solving problems related to the topic of football in the print media. This method is known as the methodological triangulation. The triangulation method according to Martyn Denscombe’s Third edition of “The Good Research Guide” is the explicit focus of the link between approaches. It “emphasizes the need to explain why the alternative approaches are beneficial and how alternatives are brought together “(Denscombe). Triangulation is also a powerful technique that facilitates validation of data through cross verification from more than two sources. In particular, it refers to the application and combination of several research methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon. The method can employ both quantitative and qualitative studies, through validation and inquiries designed to understand and explain the behavior and events with their variables and consequences related to the study (Denscombe).
19 In this social study, the researchers used three methods under methodological triangulation. As for this case, to satisfy the objectives of the study; content analysis (p.7), surveys (p.10) and interviews (p.12) , is done for a methodological triangulation which can be validated to understand the popularity of Azkals in Philippine print media. CONTENT ANALYSIS Content analysis or textual analysis is another method in social science for studying the content of printed medium of communication. Babbie (2010) defined print media as a form of communication such as books, websites, paintings and laws. But in this case, the content analysis will only be applicable for the newspaper published in November 2011. Contained articles, photographs, news or advertisements related to the Azkals is bound to the study of authorship, authenticity and meaning that will answer six questions addressed in accordance to Dr. Klaus Krippendorff, author of the books: Content analysis: An introduction to Its Methodology and The Content Analysis Reader. The points to be considered for content analysis are the data pertaining to subject, definition of subject themselves, the pool from which data are derived, context of analysis, limitations, and targets of such inferences Table 2 Summary of Procedure for Content Analysis using Kippendorf’s Framework CONSIDERATIONS Subject Allotment Definition Population SPECIFICS Azkals in news, features, and advertisements Positive? Negative? Neutral? Philippine Daily Inquirer, Manila Bulletin
20 and Philippine Star First half of March 2012 (leading to competition and issue with daughter of Boundaries Target Audience former president are main topics) Limited to the three papers, only 15 days to considered Newspaper readers
The researchers shall initially gather newspapers from first half of March 2012, when Azkals were involved in a major competition and had some issues with daughter of a former president. Then, they will measure the proportion of column inches allotted each day for Azkals in each paper and compare it to those for other sports. These data will also be classified depending on their characteristics whether it contains good, neutral or bad publication. Scandals and rumors will fall under the category of bad publicity; game results and updates will be considered as neutral publicity and; praises will be dubbed as good publicity. Advertisements shall be considered “positive”. The researchers use keen observation skill in the content analysis method for collecting justified data in newspapers in relation to the kind of information desired and other practical factors that may be valuable to this research about the Philippine Football Team or Azkals. The Azkals related articles, photographs, and other related advertisement, under print media are measured through column inches. A column inch is a unit of space one column wide by one inch high.
21 Figure1 shows the size of a newspaper with the colored portion representing one column inch.
Figure 3. One newspaper column inch
On the six column page above, the total available column inches would equal the number of inches high x the number of columns. The newspaper grids are 127½ in column inches which is equivalent 21 ¼ inches with six columns. Measuring Ad Dimensions Using Column Inches Figure 2 shows a formula that the researchers use to determine the Ad Dimensions of Azkals related articles. Here are some possible variations for a 60 col. inch ad.
Figure 4. Illustration of the Format for a Column Inch Ad A 60 column inch can be configured in several formats. Three columns can occupy 20 inches of ad height while a four column has a 15 inches ad height, a five column has a 12 inches ad height and a 6 column has a 10 inches ad height. Col. Inches divided by number of columns = Ad height in inches The researchers will compare the space allotment for Azkals versus other articles for sports/sports personalities, photographs and data in the sports section. The result will be valuable in determining the consistency of Azkals’ presence in newspaper pages, if there is. The researchers will also ascertain if a larger part of the space is “positive,” “negative,’ or “neutral” for the subject. SURVEY There will be a self-made questionnaire to be administered to 100 Batangueno respondents purposively selected randomly. They must read newspapers regularly. For this,
23 faculty, staff and students of LPU are deemed suitable. There shall be 10 faculty members, 10 staffs, and 80 students to comprise the body of respondents. The survey questions are divided into two parts, first is the profiling where they are asked to complete a questionnaire development test or survey forms with their profiles containing their names, address, gender, age and work. Further, information on the frequency and time allotted for reading newspapers will be asked. After profiling, part two of the questionnaire Azkals related questions administer where the respondents shade the circle that appropriately describe them. The data to be collected shall be taken to the university’s Statistics Office for appropriate treatment and guided analysis INTERVIEW Interview of 20 individuals shall be conducted. Among them, there shall be five (5) each of media practitioners, working professionals, students, and football fans. Their profile shall be noted prior to the interview proper. Questions based on the parameters set by Viniczai shall be asked. Means for recording such as sound recording, skype and/or video shall be used whenever necessary. The responses shall be transcribed then analysed and checked if any pattern can be found. Data gathered in the interview went over several processes for the better conclusion vital to the study. It is after the interview that the data is transcribed to be ready for analysis wherein it is decided on the purpose if the nature and methods of analysis are appropriate. Then it is verified to ascertain the validity or truthfulness of the interview findings for the study based on scientific criteria.
24 In order to validate the results of methodological triangulation, the researchers utilize several reasons for Azkals’ popularity which is measured through parameters of unique personality, private media life, great charisma, perseverance and talent. The researchers also came up with the perception on how to measure Azkals’ personality which can be verified using the interview and survey questionnaire results.
REFERENCES AGRAWAL & KAMAKURA(1995).The Economic Worth of Celebrity Endorsers: An Event Study Analysis retrieved from the World Wide Web 21 march 2012 on http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1252119? uid=3738824&uid=2&uid=4&sid=55926283463 CASARES, JB. (August 2010) retrieved March 20, 2012 from the World Wide Web on http://www.pilipino-express.com/history-a-culture/special-features-history-aculture/925-a-bit-of-football-and-history FUTBOL PILIPINAS, (N.D.).Retrieved January 2012 on the World Wide Web on http://futbolpilipinas.com/ HAPLER, DONNA LEE, (May 2011). Neil Postman’s Missing Critique: A Media Ecology Analysis of Early Radio, 1920 – 1935. Retrieved March 10, 2012 from the World Wide Web on http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/. MOWHEN & BROWN (1981).ON EXPLAINING AND PREDICTING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CELEBRITY ENDRORSERS retrieved from the World Wide Web 21 march 2012 on http://www.acrwebsite.org/volumes/display.asp? id=9899&print=1 SPOKANE FALLS COMMUNITY COLLEGE, (n.d.). Retrieved February 16, 2012 from the World Wide Web on http://graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu/tutorials.
26 TAYLOR ( 2012).Guaging th Mental Health Content of the Mass Media retrieved from the World Wide Web 21 march 2012 on http://jmq.sagepub.com/content/34/2/191.abstract THURMOND, VERONICA, (n.d). The Point of Triangulation. Retrieved 14 March, 2012 on the World Wide Web on http://ruralhealth.utas.edu.au/gr/ VINICZAI, ANDREA, (n.d.). National Characteristics of Hungarian Celebrity Culture. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on http://iipc.utu.fi/reconsidered/Viniczai WAHLBERG & SJOBERG(April 2011).Risk perception and the media retrieved from the World Wide Web 21 march 2012 on http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/136698700376699
27 Appendix A This is the questionnaire for the survey.
Occupation:_____________ Address: ________________________________ PART I : Tick the appropriate answer. How many times do you read newspapers? o Daily o Once a Week o Twice a Week o Thrice a Week o Weekly o Monthly o Yearly o Others, please specify .___________ How much time do you spend reading? o Five minutes o Ten minutes o Thirty minutes o One hour o Others, please specify .______________
28 How do you consume your newspapers? (Answers can be more than one) I look at: o Photographs o Advertisements o News o Games (Crosswords, Suduko, WordHunt) o Others, please specify. _______________ I read: o News o Feature Articles o Sports o Showbiz o Cartoons o Others, please specify._________________
29 PART II Direction. Shade the circle that best describe your perception towards the Azkals.
Completely Agree They are interesting characters. They stand out in the crowd. They provide a distinct point of discussion. None other person or group have their type of personality. It is difficult to look for people who will be comparable with them. Azkals are good looking men. Azkals are effective endorsers for fashionable products. People always take a look at their pictures/posters or billboards. People buy products they endorse because of their appearance. Azkals give their best during competition. They achieve recognition because of dedication. They practice hard. They are excellent in the field of football. They are champion materials. The way they play is fascinating. Other can also do what they do in football. Azkals deserve media attention they get. I am interested in their personal lives.
30 People talk about their personal lives. People listen, watch or read news about their personal lives. They behave properly under media spotlight.
Appendix B Guide Questions for the interview.
Do you consider Azkals popular? Why or why not? Do you think they are unique or have unique personalities? Why or why not?
31 Do you think they look good? Why or why not? Do you think they work hard? Why or why not? Do you think they are talented? Why or why not? Do you read, listen and/or watch news related to the personal lives of Azkals members? Why or why not?
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