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SUVARNABINDU

Suvarnabindurakshobhya sarvavaagheeswareswara(Vishnusahasranaamam)

Dr Suvarna Nalapat

Om Adividushaaya Kapilaaya nama:

Aiswaryagnaanavairagyadharmaroopavibhaswathe Rudraaya vishnavekaaya nama adisareerine Asheshasamkhyayogaarthapravakthaamithadheer rishi:

Dharmameghaanwitha:saantho jayathu sree Pathanjali:

This is my journey into the worlds of Vyaasa,Pathanjali and VachaspathiMisra .The journey into the world of Yoga and samkhya.The journey for a traveler has three stages. 1.The beginning of the journey or preparation for it 2.The saadhana or the actual journey 3.The sidha state or end of journey at the desired goal. The first is only bhaava or sankalpa of the goal and the devising of methods to reach there.The second is the actual journey with all its rasa experiences.And the third is fulfillment of the sankalpa ,the stage of ultimate bliss of prema .This preparatory chapter of study and analysis of yoga and its history is a welcome for the readers who are ready to take the journey

The first Rishi to do exposition of Samkhya and Yoga is said to be Sage Kapila.Therefore the Yogadrishti is synonymously called a Kapilaksha.When Acharya Panchasikha say”Aadividwan Nirmaanachitham adhistaaya Kaarunyaad paramarshiraasuraye jignaasamaanaaya thanthram provacha”,the word thanthra means samkhya and the method to know it ,the yoga .Nirmaanachitha originates out of yogasamadhi.To achieve Samadhi one has to do yama and the other prescribed anushtaana.Therefore when he says Nirmaanachitha,all these are mentioned .Kapila includes yogavidya in the Anweekshiki.Both yoga and samkhya are eternal since the thanmathra of the elements in samkhya is known with pragna of yoga.In Mahabharatha santhiparva these two are said as one and as two.The knowledge achievable by athamagnaana is samkhya and the sadhana for it as yoga.Thus they are interdependent and hence oneness is demonstrated.Devala also has said this as explained in Mokshakaanda.Bhagavad Geetha also says “Ekam samkhyam cha yogam cha ya :pasyathi sa pasyathi”.(Geetha 5.5)The only way to obtain adhyathmavidya(samkhyam)is yoga.The gnaana of Yagnavalkya is samkhya .Samkhya is the advaitha of the seen and the seer with the knowledge of it.

Athma is pure chitha.Chith which is nirguna by the kriya of birth(janma)become saguna.About the creation of this mahat panchasikha says “Anumaathra Aathma”.Everything that speaks of chith and achith are theoretical and subtle and known

only in samadhi state .This subtle knowledge or abstract knowledge is samkhya and samkhya is the same as Athmavidya. What is the importance and use of samkhya and yoga?With that all the sorrows and miseries (including the root cause of misery,desires)are destroyed forever.Both sorrow and its cause are destroyed only by knowledge about them.If we don’t know the cause of sorrow we cannot destroy sorrow.Therefore,the enquiry(anweekshiki )of sorrow and its cause is the method of controlling sorrows.The personal experience of sadhana coupled with the knowledge aquired from scriptures remove all doubts.Therefore santhiparva says (316/2)Naasthi samkhyasamam gnaanam naasthi yogasamam balam.It is knowledge and power or sakthi to ward off all sorrows and disorders.The samkhyayogasasthra has chathurvyuha(four groups).Vyaasabhaashyam says “Yathaa chikitsaasasthram chathurvyuham”Just like the medical science this also has four parts.

Samsaara

Samsaarahethu

Moksha

Mokshopaaya

The yogaanga are the mokshopaaya.They are performed for the sake of ultimate gnaana and moksha.It is not for theory but for practice in life.There is a world which is to be understood,a person who understands it,and a process of cognition or understanding in every science or art or philosophy .These are called the graahya,the graahaka and the grahana .The yoga power makes us understand these levels of energy are the same in the ultimate experience.The oneness of the graahaka(the saadhaka)with the grahya(the known)and the knowledge or the cognition or consciousness makes an advaitha during Samadhi state.This knowledge and experience of oneness is samkhya or ultimate knowledge.And the method to attain this is yoga.Thus moksha and mokshopaaya are one

for the saadhaka.

.The first yogaacharya was Hiranyagarbha .For the world this was

codified by sage Kapila,which is called the samkhya .Whenever this knowledge system is about to be lost ,it is revealed to a person who is pure and intelligent and thus the dharma is rejuvenated and kept alive and anaadi.Therefore Pathanjaliyoga is not a new creation but a revival of an old system of ancient knowledge.

Pramaana of samkhya

Pratyaksham anumaanam cha thatha cha vividhaagamam(Manu 12.15)These are the pramaana for the samkhya also.Pratyaksha is direct perception with the sense organs.The extended technical direct perceptions(like microscope ,telescope etc)are also sensory perceptions and hence come under Loukikapratyaksha of samkhya.The perception through Dhyaana is a mental perception.Samkhya includes this as (dhyaanajapratyaksha)direct perception.Medicine,astronomy and other sciences are

coming under direct perceptions for the samkhya

Naadi experiences of the kundalini

are dhyaanajaprathyaksha ,later collaborated by dissections etc.The first scientists speak of their experiences and experiments and the successors experiment with them and use them as reference material for building upof the science over generations.Thus the

The

opinions of earlier people(ancestors)as sruthi become pramaana after several generations of testing and experience.The earth(prithwi)with its aapas(water)and the different objects ,living and nonliving is accountable to our direct sense perceptions.But the other elements vaayu,agni,and akaasa are not so easily understood.To know them ordinary sense experiences are not enough.Logic and argumentative processes of enquiry and more concentrated efforts were done to understand them.There is nothing illogical in yoga and samkhya because of this procedure.The questions of the Samkhya like “can something be created out of nothing ?”has been used by Marx,Hegel,and Virchow ,the

father of cellular pathology to develop their philosophies and sciences over the years.It is from such detailed questioning and logical analysis that the second pramaana of anumaana is accepted and it is not mere guesswork.Thought and analysis by logical thought is sometimes reliable than direct perception of the sense organs without applying the thought processes as anyone of us have experienced at least once in our lifetime.The absolute essence of everything as truth is thus logically grasped through analysis and anumaana derived from that.The question of God/or Brahma is thus a prathyaksha of not the physical senses but of analytical and experienced thought perception called anumaana.It determines a common general sakthi or power present in everything .But it cannot determine this power in a special thing alone,or in a special individual alone.For this a different type of prathyaksha is needed and this is called Arshadrishtipratyaksha. This is the Samadhi experience.Agama(references from ancient scientists),anumana,dhyaanapratyaksha and the rasa experience of the Samadhi thus makes the different and higher states of experiences and pramaana of the samkhya. Pratyaksha or saakshatkaara is experience.It is pertaining to gnaana of the visesha type (not a general one).Only in samadhipragna one gets this viseshagnaanam.Not in dhaarana or dhyaana.This yogajagnaana experience of the ultimate type is characterized by visions and hearings of sabda of specific nature.The sabda is not the gross sabda we hear with our gross sense organs of hearing.It is the subtle sounds .It is the word beyond the words of the world.The first formed sabda in akaasa .The aakaasa has only sabda ,and no other qualities and is the most subtle of the five elements in Indian philosophy.The subtle sound waves invisible and inaudible to gross human ears is heard in Samadhi through the power of the vaayu or air ,which carry the waves to us.Therefore,the praana and apaana of the yogi is well controlled to receive these vibratory waves when they come in Samadhi.The praanaayaama of the yogi is only a preparatory stage for the reception of the subtle messages in Samadhi state.Since the enrgy waves travel as light and sound as soon as the sound waves are received by the biological kundalini fields ,the darsana or lighteninglike visions also happen.The visualization of sound or music is a simultaneous occurring in yoga and in our nervous energy field.Therefore the yogi becomes a darsaka(one who is a seer)as well as a srotheeya(one who creates sruthi)and is called a manthradrashta(seer of a manthra).The modern technological knowledge has actually proved the consistency of these claims of the ancient Indian seers

.

The prameya of samkhyavidya

The drashta(seer-one who perceives)and the drisya(the perceived) are needed for any

knowledge system.The drishya is from different emotional percepts derived and modified and hence is considered as a changing phenomenon.Such a changing and multitudinous universe is grasped by the consciousness of Hiranyagarbha,the first seer of it.as a whole .This anthakarana of the first seer has thriguna ,and hence is akin to prakrithi.The thriguna of the anthakarana of the first seer and the thriguna of the universe are cognized as a single whole only through concentration and sadhana .The many is seen and comprehended as the one for the first time ,means the anthakarana of Hiranyagarbha is able to understand the oneness of the universe and his/her position in it .Then he/she classifies the prakrithi which he has understood as one into prakrithi,vikrithi,prakrithivikrithi in vyaktha and avyaktha states ,for teaching about it to others.Before the comprehension of oneness the classification into different category was not there(taxonomy of living and nonliving )though they had existed.Therefore we say that knowledge originated in the anthakarana of a seer.But we must remember that it is the seer who has understood the oneness of entire creation who is classifying it as different categories for easy understanding and for teaching purposes to the disciples depending upon their grasping power and interests.Due to this the disciple can choose the prameya of his interest ,but the pramaana and the methods applied are the same.The seer,the seen vary with time and space but the research tools and methods being the same ,the science of samkhya is changeless.

Main principles of samkhyayogavidya

1.Samsaara is sorrow.It has contradictions,different guna and its combinations in different proportions and different sanskaara due to these producing changes forever and generates heat (thaapa)and dukha(sorrow)in varying proportions.Even in heaven there is sorrow but different from that on earth.Even swarga has an end.The disciple should find out a method to get over all such sorrows and destructions.

2.Perception and cognizance of sorrow,gnaana,swarupa and its knowledge,kaivalya experience-These give total destruction of sorrow and its cause.

3.For chithavrithinirodha one must have yoga.With yogabalam alone one gets aiswarya and vibhoothi and ultimate gnaana.Only these give kaivalya.

4.Samsaara is anaadi.The human beings (jeevathma)bound to samsaara also is anaadi.From a tiniest worm to the most venerable Hiranyagarbha are different forms of jeeva which are one with purusha in pralaya and they come and go repeatedly in a cyclical manner in timespace.

5.Avidya of the jeeva also is anaadi.This means the one which is beyond timespace is thought of as bound to time and space.The difference of drishya and drashta itself is the symbol of this avidya.This difference is gone only in Samadhi and then only one can get out of the avidya.

6.Karma is anaadi.Avidya is anaadi.Therefore the janmaparampara also must be anaadi.Only to a purusha who is krithaaartha by Samadhi the difference between seer and seen and gnana of it become one.For an akritharathapurusha the difference between seer and seen always exists(duality exists).Therefore everyone should aspire to remove the duality from oneself by resorting to the ashtanga of yoga.

7.Purusha is Jagathsarjaka or creator.For each Brahmanda there are different creators or brahmapurusha as jagathsarjaka.There are asamkhyam brahmanda and asamkhyam creators for each one of them.The sruthi calls him as Hiranyagarbha.He has nirmaanachitha and nirmaanachitha is vidyaamoola.He does not have klesakarmavipaaka or desires ,since he is all the time involved in creativity.Once the universe is created ,the human beings as aksharapurusha,having avidya ,through Samadhi has to become one with Hiranyagarbha by yogabalam.(Here Aksharapurusha is Kapila ,while Hiranyagarbha is the universal creator ).The vidya of Hiranyagarbha and his creativity becomes the quality of the sarvagna aksharapurusha jeevathma by Samadhi experience.Just like asamkhyam Hiranyagarbha for different universes,there are asamkhyam aksharapurusha for different times and spaces and they come whenever there is a need to uplift the dharma(dharmasamsthaapana).

8.The paramapurusha is chidroopa(form of energy) and beyond all aiswarya.Sruthi calls it Aksharaath paratha:para:He is achinthya(can not be thought)amana(without a mind)aprana(with no praana)avyapadeshya(cannot be advised or taught)alakshana(without any signs)and is beyond all knowledge and human intelligence and words.His akhanda Oneness is beyond desa and kaala.It is not prakrithi or vikrithi

9.Jadaprakrithi is eka,thrigunaathmika and without desakaala.She is the reason for the grahya,grahaka and grahana .Prakrithi with sthithi(position)and gathi(movement)is always varthamaana(present action).The anthakarana is prakrithi with these guna.But it becomes due to its concentration on aiswarya(Iswara)and dharma,able to cross the time and space.

10 When

the effect is in its avyaktharoopa it is called upaadaana kaarana(cause).Prakrithi

is this .When effect is changing ,the cause is not changing.The changeless cause cannot be asath.For sath(truth)there is no destruction.Chith or energy is this sath (truth)which never changes (aparinaami).

Yogaswaroopa is Kaivalya.There are two types of yogasammadhi .Sampragnaatha and asampragnaatha.Sampragnaatha is the pereption of thathwa as graahaka,graahya and grahana.Saswatha chithalaya(eternal merging of chitha)as kaivalya occurs only in asampragnaathasamadhi.Just as in medical practice,due to thaamasaguna increase,the healing can be delayed,in yogic practice also there may be delays in attainment of the effects.Only a perfect sushtu(pure sathwik)gets the full effects of the Samadhi.In the yogasaarasamgraha of Bhikshu,the Samadhibheda in Paathanjalayoga is to distinguish sushtu from nonsushtu.

Yoga is either gnaanayoga or kriyaayoga.Kriyaayoga is practice of external

Iswarapranidhaana to get fixity and sthairya.Gnaanayoga is Nididhyaasana and is internal process.The difference is in sadhanamarga only.The expected result is the same .And the different methods are devised so that it suits all types of individuals.Bhakthiyoga with Iswarapranidhaana is part of yoga .And it gives kaivalya after intense practice.Santhiparva also says this.At present the bhakthimarga and gnaanamarga appears to be at two different poles.But ,in ancient times it was not.And if bhakthi is practiced in its true sense it is not different from gnaana is certified by all scriptures .Since yogasasthra is saadhanaapradhaana ,the principle of karma is explained in detail in yoga.In Iswarapranidhaana,the thinking of the swaroopa of Iswara is the main theme.This is not external but internal saadhana.The experimentation of nature of God by logical analysis is not seen any other religions /philosophy other than Indian .There is only acceptance of it as taught by the book or the authority of the religious head in them.(church).But in samkhya ,each individual applies the analytical sadhana of finding out nature of God through Iswarapranidhana of Yoga .Each comes up with a different interpretation but it does not contradict the original scientific law formulated.The interpretation of Budha,Mahaveera,Sankara,Madhwa etc are to be understood in this way. Every one of them use the samkhya and yoga and experiment with God /sorrow and cause of sorrow to destroy sorrow of samsaara.

The vigneya(to be known)is kaivalya alone.In that state alone there is equalization of the thriguna.Only such a person is called a sidha.The sidha and Ayurveda medical treatment is based on the thriguna and on samkhya and yoga.The musical healing of India also is based on this .Kaivalya alone is the end of births and deaths which is called moksha.This is the only aim of the yogin.And of all the sadhakaas.Arshagnaana is the root of all mokshadarsana.Thad idam arshagnaanaprakarane sidhadarsanaprakarane cha proktham is the word of the commentator of the yoga.Whether in Utharameemamsa ,poorvameemamsa ,or in saiva,vaishnava or budhist ,jainist traditions the yoga tradition is accepted and it is the most ancient naaga tradition of the land.All scinces and arts of the land has accepted the yogic tradition.Vaiseshika also has yogavichaara.Upanishad,Brahmasoothra and Geetha(Prasthaanathraya )uphold samkhya and yoga traditions .Yogavidya is not avaidiki.It had been practiced before the IVC Harappan period from the evidence of terracotta figures and figurines from that period.Both ekagratha(concentration)and praanaayama(control of breath)are vedic.Without ekagratha no knowledge is possible.Bhagavad Geetha says Sradhaavaan labhathe gnaanam.Only in Samadhi one gets ultimate gnaanam.Mahad etc are known only in Samadhi.Therefore ,one cant say that mahad is avaidika and Samadhi is vaidika.(sareerakabhashyam 2.1.2).Meemamsa or enquiry is based on sradha and dhyana and Samadhi .Even the karmakanda has to be thought out and analysed internally before accepting it.And it is not against veda or advaitha.The external karma or yagna are to be understood as the lecture demonstration of the old teachers to the disciples.They are the teaching methods devised by the ancients to make the knowledge systems outlive them through generations of disciples

Jaimini is respected for his poorvameemamsa and is a saamagaayaka.He is

mahaayogeeswareswara according to Vishnupuranam.(4.4.48).The poorvameemamsa being the enquiry of a samavedin and a yogin cannot be nonvedic.sabdasasthra is part of vedic knowledge .In books on Siksha,(a vedanga)the greatness of Omkara is explained.Naaradeeyasiksha (12)says the importance of control of senses,peaceful countenance,lack of fear through yogavidya to get perfect control of sounds and their pronounciation(literature and music).The geethakriyaabalam (the power of the act of the geetha or song /music)gives chithasthairya (fixity of chitha)to disciples(Yagnavalkyasmrithi 3/112).The pronounciation of gaana ,is rooted in yogavidya and is given in the siksha of vedanga.For kalpa,niruktha,vyakarana,jyothisha and ayurveda also yoga and samkhya are needed to give them scientific explanation.Bhagavad Geetha in its entirety is a samkhya and yoga exposition.Both nirguna and saguna are the same energy.The universe(prakrithy),the mass with movement(panda with gathi)and its cause ,the energy or God,as it is called are one .But they seem to be different to those who cannot understand the oneness in Samadhi.This knowledge is expounded by Sankara in 8 th century.He is not against samkhya or yoga,but against the wrong interpretations of it by several people before him.The modern concept of E= Mc2 is to be understood from Sankarabhashya as Brahma =prakrithi X its gathi 2. Only with a concentrated mind an Einstein or a Sankara can reach this understanding.Ordinary people cannot reach that so easily.They have to resort to much easier methods .Bhakthiyoga and karmayoga according to the Geetha are such methods.they are not inferior methods but methods suited to different people based on their tendencies and personalities.The ishtadevathaanishta (concentration of a personal God whom you love)in Bhakthimarga is the Iswarapranidhaana of yogasasthra.The ishtadevatha can be a saguneswara like Vishnu,siva,or devi or Christ,or any other form ,or it could be nature,a tree,earth,sky,music,other arts or sciences etc.Each of these are ishtadevatha on which on can do Iswarapranidhana,concentrated dharana,dhyana,and internal manana or analysis to know its true nature.Or it could be a human Guru like Vyasa, or Tyagaraja or any other Guru,past or present.This scientific Outlook gives one a comprehensive understanding of nature and its laws and the biological energy as part of it and thus an advaitha of existence.In sareerakabhashya Sankara said ,(2.2.1)mathabheda(difference in opinion)is only a process in the classification by different enquirers.To understand this one needs purity of intelligence.Wisdom is not attainable by all .Lack of wisdom is seen as the bedhabudhi (Maaya)of mine and yours which creates samsaara and sorrows by the learned.Majority of human beings have this .Only a few attain wisdom.If one of the teachers(world teachers)show lack of wisdom ,it just shows the lack of their ability to comprehend truth.And even if the teacher has comprehended truth,the lack of comprehension of it by the disciples can lead to problems.All these things are taken into account by the yoga to determine the quality of a true teacher.Due to the anuraaga (love)of people in different types of methodology four types of yoga are recognized.These are Manthrayoga,Layayoga,Rajayoga and Hathayoga.These are only differences due to practice in yoganga.In the same way one has to understand,saiva,vaishnava,saktha,veerasaiva,pasupatha,pratyabhignaa, ,pancharathra etc In the present state of affairs with multiplicity of practices and beliefs only one in a lakh of people can grasp the advaitha or oneness of existence and

kaivalya.It does not mean that it does not exist.Ayrveda,bharathavidya and music are all derived based on the samkhya and yoga.So is the astronomy and astrology and mathematics of our land.

Krishnadwaipaayana Saamaveda saakhaa Gurusishyaparampara

1.Vyasa

2.Jaimini and Lomaharshana

3.Jaimini disciple Sukarma and Lomaharshana son and disciple Soothan

4.sukarma;s disciple Poushijji

5.Kuthumi

6.Parasara

7 After parasara is Pathanjali (vayupurana 6.1 and Brahmandapurana 1/35)There must

have been a contemporary of pathanjali ,and son of this Parasara as krishnadwaipayana the second .Then there is 7 generations between the first vyasa and the second vyasa.And the Mahabharatha war has happened 7 generations before pathanjali or even before that.

The parampara given above is Vyasa’s Acharyaparampara.This is not in chronological timescale.The Lokaparampara of vyasa is in chronological timeframe.It is like this.

1 Parasara +Sathyavathy

2.Vyasa +his 4 wives Sukan,Dritharashtran,Pandu and Vidura

3.Kourava and Pandava

4.Abhimanyu

5.Pareekshith

6Janamejaya

Vyasa was the grandfather of the great Pandavas and was alive when the deluge of Dwaraka took place(BC 3104).Three generations after the Pandava king Yudhishtira,was born King Janamejaya.And in his sacrifice of the serpents came the great Asthika,a learned Naga and Brahmin ,nephew of Vasuki to stop the massacre of his race.He was a younger contemporary of Janamejaya. And the Pathanjali of the 7 th Acharyaparampara of Vyasa .This is the reason why Pathanjali is shown as half naaga and half human.Asthika belongs to Vyasaparampara of yoga and saamaveda and Bhagavath Sampradaaya and is the ancient Pathanjali.(The 7 th generation of Krishnadwaipayanavyasa disciple parampara. And hence called Vyasa after the school to which he belongs.)If we understand this,the Pathanjalavyasabhashya is very ancient and a reinterpretation of what vyasa had done with Hiranyagarbha yogasasthra.

But according to Sreeramasankarar(pp 35)Jaimini had a friend called Kritha,who was

disciple of Hiranyagarbha,and a king belonging to the sooryavansa,and Hiranyanabha was the classmate of Poushijji .And therefore Pathanjali is older than the Mahabharatha period and probably the original Vyasa himself.In Mahabharatha the name of Pathanjali does not appear.But Mahabharatha says that Vasishta memorized the Hiranyagarbayogasasthra(santhi 3.8/45)Santhiparva uses the method of analyzing God by shadvinsathathwa,which is a method of Hiranyagarbayoga.Anusasanaparva and Aswamedhaparva also speaks of yoga .Lingapurana,vayupurana,Markandeyapurana ,Vishnupurana,sivapurana,bhagavathapurana speaks of yoga .Saiva,Vaishnava,Ganapathya,and Saktheya accept yoga alike as a method to attain the oneness of Godhead.Nyayavarthika ,Vyakarana(like Laghumanjusha),Bhaskararaya’s Lalithasahasranaamabhashya,dharmasasthra and smrithis ,and even kavyateeka to establish a point quotes yogasoothra showing the wide popularity of the yoga and acceptability to all alike.Boudha and Jaina scriptures have quoted profusely from the yogasoothra.The Maithryadisadhana of yogasoothra was renamed as Brahmavihara by the Budhist lore.But even this term is not entirely original.Because the term Brahma is ancient.And Vihara is used by the ancient panchasikha(older than Budha)and the term is a combination of these two words.(Ye chai the Maithryaadayo dhyaayinaam vihaaraa:.Yogabhashyam 4.10)A sort of fusion word.The fact that the art of yoga existed before BC 500 (Budha’s period)is now evident from the figures and figurines excavated from IVC Harappan sites.And early Harappan period corresponds to the time of deluge (BC 3104).Budha ,instead of Pranidhaana uses the word Anusmrithi.(to remember

again)The synonym is Prathi Abigna

dhyaana of it and this is what Iswarapranidhaana is in bhakthi traditions .Santhiparva uses the word Budha .Its meaning being a Parikarmi for purification of chitha.(santhi 28.32)In Aswalayanasrouthasoothra also a parikarmi is mentioned.Santhiparva says that such a person is great among the twolegged(men) and hence calls him Dwipadaamvara.Therefore the term Budha is an accepted term from Arshasampradaaya

and not against it.Parikarmi is needed in a healing art(Ayurveda)for a physician/surgeon to practice healing.The Budha is a parikarmi sent by God to earth,for removing the impurities of the earth,so that God’s healing art can work .Thus the term is more or less equivalent to a prophet.

To

remember something forever is the constant

To start with the aspirant is known as a sramana and a Jina who has conquered the

senses

Budha.These are only steps in the progress of one’s yogacharya(practice of yoga).

With

revelation and nirvana experience the sramana is known as a Boudha or

Yogasoothra is made of soothra.These are very short syllogisms which express profound truth in a nutshell and without much ado so that only the most needed things are imparted

to the aspirant to reduce his/her confusion and doubts

appeared on yogasoothra .some of them are listed below.

Several

commentaries have

1 Bhavaganesha’s Deepika

2.Bhojaraja’s Bhojavrithi

3 Ananthadevapanditha’s Chandrika

4.Sadasivendrasaraswathi’s Yogasudhakaram 5Narayanatheertha’s Yogachandrika

6

Yasovijaya’s yogasoothravrithy

7.Udayasankara’s yogasoothravrithy

8 Umapathy’s yogasoothravrithy.

9.Ganeshadeekshitha’s Pathanjalavrithy

10.Gnanananda’s Yogasoothravrithy

11.Narayanabhikshu’sYogasoothraGoodaarthadyothika

12 Bhavadevaka’s Pathanjaleeyaabhinavabhashya

13.Bhavadevaka’s yogasoothravrithi Tippani

14.Mahadeva’s yogasoothravrithi 15.Ramanuja’s yogasoothrabhashya

16.Vrindavanasukla’s yogasoothravrithy

17 Sivasankara’s yogavrithy

18.Sadasiva’s Pathanjalasoothravrithy 19.Sreedharanandayati’s Pathanjalarahasyaprakaasam 20.BaladevaMishra’s Yogapradeepika 21.Swami Narayan’s Kiranapradeepika 22.Swami Hariprasad’s yogasoothravaidikasoothravrithy

23.Kshemanandadekshitha’s Navayogakallola alias Nyayaratnaakara

24 GuruNityachaitanya Yati’s Yogaparichaya

25.Vivekanandaswami’s Rajayoga 26.Swami Satyanandasaraswathi’s four chapters of freedom 27.Harikrishnadasa Goyanka’s Pathanjalayogadarsanam

28.Thathwa vaisaaradi of Vachaspathimisra 29.Vyasabhashya of yogasoothra

The list is too exhaustive . What I can see from this long list is that all the commentators are males over the centuries and a woman has not attempted to do a commentary of this most important scriptural authority on spiritual,intellectual,mental and physical health which is so important for a mother who looks after the young ones and wants them to grow up as healthy world citizens.I,as a woman of the present century is doing a commentary of the Vyasabhashya and its Bhashya by Vachaspathimisra .

Vyasabhashya

This is the first Yogabhashya available and is also the first Samkhyapravachanabhashya.The Vyasabhashya is known by these two names .Vachaspathimisra in his commentary to Vyasabhashya says “Vedavyasena bhashithabhashye” making it clear that it is a moolakrithi of Vedavyasa himself.Vignaanabhikshu also has said”Vedavyasamuneendra Budhiswanitha”(The voice of the intellect of the Vedavyas muni).During the deluge of BC 3104 Krishna was past 120 years.Arjuna was his age ,slightly younger.And Vedavyas being the great grandfather of Arjuna,the creation of Vyasabhashya is prior to Krishna,and prior to Mahabharatha war.The view that Vyasabhashya is created during the Budhist period has no bearing from archeological evidence of the IVC /Harappan and Mehrgarh periods.Moreover Panchasikha mentions Vyasa in his book so that Vyasa could not be after

Budha.Panchasikha was an Acharya who lived during the reign of Janadeva Janaka and at that time Sidharthagouthama was not born. What is the meaning of Vyaasa in Vyaasabhashya ? We find this word used in Jyamithy(Measurement of the Jya –sine and cosine)or geographical calculations .It is having mathematical connotations giving a idea to the word itself.Vyaa ,as used in Vyaakarana,Vyaapana,Vyaasa is to spread everywhere.To spread out ,and to measure the extend of that spread out universe. One can measure the timespace with the swanitha(soundwaves)as all of us know in the modern age.One can also measure the intelligence of a person with his/her words and its spread and depth .That is what vignaanabhikshu said Vyasamuneendra Budhiswanitha.Even now ,after several years and centuries and millennia of existence the words still attract and influence the learned people .The swara of Vyasa has transcended spacetime boundaries and is now boundary of a boundary .Boundary of a boundary is zero.And it is represented as a big 0 as symbol.This figure is the discovery of Indian mathematician and the vyasa or boundary of it is a calculable thing if it is of Prakrithi and incalculable when it transcends prakrithi and becomes the avyaktha ,Brahma.It is the poornam of the santhimanthra of the Upanishads.Vya is for expansion and sa is for contraction(sankocha)The expanding and contracting universes are represented by this word and its symbol ,the zero.The fact that Pathanjalasoothra style is very ancient and not that of the Budhist period had been noted by several critics.The soothravakya is used in Brahmasoothra and in Yogasoothra is a similarity of Badarayana’s style of writing.Though there are several disciples in vyasaparampara no one is called a vyasa after Krishnadwaipaayanavyasa.But all the adepts practicing Adhyathmavidya gets a darsana of Vyasa(As Sankara in 8 th century)It is after a Vyasadarsana in Vyas Guha ,Sankara meets his Guru Govindapaadar.The moolavyassoothra is Hiranyagarbhasoothra and Pathanjali has taken the soothras and reconstructed the soothra for teaching his disciples is a view of Vachaspathimisra,the oldest known commentator .According to him ,what we now know as Pathanjalayogasoothra is Vyasayogasoothra itself.Therefore he does his commentary on Vyasabhashya of yogasoothra.

Suvarnasapthasathi is the oldest available samkhyakaarika of Iswarakrishnakaalidaasa (Kavi Kallidasa)and this ancient treatise is nowhere quoted in Vyasabhashya showing the antiquity of vyasabhashya.There is no Mngalaacharana in Vyasabhashya.This also shows it to be very ancient.The first sloka of the bhashyaTherefore it must be a prakshipthasloka after Vachaspathimisra’s period. is not quoted by either vachaspathi or by the vivaranateeka.There had been several teeka to yogabhashya ,the oldest being that of vachaspathimisra.the others are given below.

1.Thathwavaisaarathi of Vachaspathimisra 2.Adisankara’s commentary 3.Yogavarthika of Vignaanabhikshu

4.Bhikshuvyaakhyaasameksha

5.Swami Hariharaananda’s Bhaswathi

Vachaspathimisra

His books:1.Thathwavaisaaradi

2.Thathwakoumudi

3.Nyayasoochini

4.Bhaamathi

5.Nyayakanika

6.Thaathparyateeka

7.Nyayavarthikathathparyateeka

8.Thathwabindu

9.Thathwasameeksha

10.Brahmasidhi.

Vachaspathimisra though known as a Budhist writer seems to be a devotee of Shiva since he is seen to bow before many of his books to Shiva.(In Thatwavaisaradhi to Vrishakethu,in Bhamathy and Nyayakanika to Bhavan,in Thathparyateeka to Pinaakapaani )And while commenting on Vyasabhashya he is all praise for Vishnu ,and thus the label of one or the other does not fit in to him,and he certainly was not a fanatic of either Budha,Vishnu or Shiva.According to Gopinatha kaviraja elsewhere Vachaspathi pay his respect and obeisance to Vishnu,Ganapathy and to Thilakaswami(?).Vachaspati was contemporary of Nriga of Chowhan dynasty in AD 10 th century.Nriga is identified as Dharmapaala ,the king of MagadhaGoudadesa and the founder of Vikramasila by some. Vachaspathi himself has recorded that he was born in Vasuangavasuvatsara.The number being 898 in Vikrama era and 841 in Christian calendar.He was a householder.His wife was Bhamathi ,and that name was given to his sareerakabhashyateeka in her honour.Laghumanjusha quotes Vachaspathi several times and Vignaanabhikshu without mentioning the name of Vachaspathi ,tries to break vachaspathi’s observations and conclusions.The later sampradaayaas of Vainaasika,Praavaaduka,vignaanavaadi ,naasthika have quoted vachaspathi profusely to prove their points and that must be the reason why Vachaspathi was classified as a budhist Nasthika writer.But his Mangalaslokas bear testimony to his devotion to a personal Godhead.

Yogasoothrabhashya of Sankara

This is a treatise mentioned by Sreramasankarabhattacharya and is not yet obtainable in print.The author is considered to be the author of the the prasthaanathrayabhashya.Others say that the sankarabhashya is a bhashya of vachaspathibhashya.But this cannot happen since Sankara lived before Vachaspathi ,at least two centuries before.

Vignaanabhikshu

The other works of Vignaanabhikshu

1.Yogavarthika

2.Smkhyashadadhyayi bhashya

3.Brahmasoothravignaanamrithabhashya

4.Samkhyasarasamgraha

5.yogasarasamgraha

6.upadesaratnamala

7.Geethabhashyam(The last two are not available)

Lived in 14 th century AD.

Bhaswathi of swami Hariharananda is a comparatively new book .Hariharananda was born on 4.12 .1869 and expired on 19.4.1947.He is considered as the avathar of Rudra in a cave,who took human form and lived in Vihara(Bihar)in the city of Madhupura,but was originally a native of Bangadesa(Bengal)

The commentary I am doing is based on the Vyasabhashya and Thathwavaisaradi of Vachaspathimisra.The moola as given by Panditha Sreeramasankarabhattacharya ,released by Bharathheyavidyaprakasan ,Varanasi (1966) is used for this commentary and explanations.

Paathanjalayogasoothra,an analysis

Vyasa has expounded yoga both in Bhagavathapuraana and in Mahabharatha.Vyaso yogavidaam vara(Mok dha pu 12.26.4)and Vyaso vedavidaam vara(MB 15.38.19)shows Vyasa was an adept both in veda and yoga.When Bheeshma is asked”Which is the yoga you follow?”the answer is the Krishnasthavaraaja (12.47)which is the dhyana of Krishna.Mahabharatha says thapa and yoga are one and the same in different occasions.The austerity to achieve gnaana or adhyathmavidya(samkhya)is the practice of yoga.(Vasishta to Janaka in Mok Dha pu 12.291.296)It is a method for achiving moksha and vidya.The 25 thathwa of samkhya are explained in santhiparva by vyasa.In jaapakopaakhyaana Bheeshma explains the japa related to yagnasanskaara during vedic times.Jaapaka (one who chants the names/manthra)is equivalent to yogin,according to Bheeshma.Both samkya and yoga are not having a naasthikaswabhaava.Many people like John Brockington(Yoga in Mahabharatha .ch 1.pp15.Yoga,the Indian tradition .2003 Ed Ian Whicher and David Carpenter)thinks that these are different and that samkhya is naasthika and yoga is aasthika .This is a misconcept .But he himself says that Varshneyaadhyathma is a ancient samkhya method and it is asthika like the yoga.In Varshneya,when the disciple asks the Guru “From where did we come?”the Guru answers”From Vasudeva ,everything originated,and in him everything dwells and in him everything merges”and Vishnu is the Purushothama in this.The Iswarapranidhaana or devoted chanting and singing the names and thinking about its attributes and meanings is part of samkhya knowledge and yoga.Bhagavad Geetha tells this.After the Kurukshethra war,Krishna advices Yogasasthra in Anugeetha.How to do analysis on a subject/or object with concentration ,(dhyaana)in a solitary quiet place and acquire the perfect knowledge about it is given in detail in that chapter .Mahabharatha mentions yoga and yogins 900 times and of this 300 times in santhiparva alone.

Pravakshyami yogasasthram anuthamam(anugeetha) Vidhim cha yogasya Thapasaa sidhim anwischa yogasidhim cha Bharatha(Aranyaparva) and that devas were

victorious due to their Yogaiswaryena (aiswarya of yoga) as Sounaka advices Yudhishtira.After that we find Yudhishtira performing Tapas,yoga,and control of Praana and then do japa of the 108 names of surya with meanings of them in his mind (Thapa:asthaaya dharmena ,Thapa:adhishtaath uthamam;yogam asthaaya;pranaayamena thasthivaan etc).Kavi usanas is called Yogasidho Mahamuni.King Kuvalayaswa by his yoga(Yogeeyogena)cooled the agni in the bones of asura Dundhu.When Devendra tried to molest the body of his Gurupathni Ruchi (wife of Devasarma)the disciple entered her body with yogabala(yogenaanupravisyena Gurupathnyaa kalebaram)prevented Indra from doing such a crime.Bharadwaja entered the body of Prathardana to conquer the successors of Veethihavya and Prathardana is able to do it as a child of 13 years.This feat of entering another body (Parakayapravesha )of sankaracharya in 8 th century is a legend. Vyasa tells his son not to use the sidhi of the yoga,yet he uses the sidhi of akaasagamana against his father’s advice .The ekagrachitha(concentrated mind)of a yogin is needed for the best warrior ,as Drona tells Arjuna.In Sanathsujaatheeya ,purusha is the aim.Purusha means a yogin,Bhagavan and is sanaathana(eternal).(Yoginastham prapasyanthi Bhagavantham sanaathanam).The conversation between Brahmana and Vyadha gives samkhyagnaana and its practical aspects.The savyasachithwa of making the mind concentrated in both day and night ,and moderate food habits,purity of soul allows one to see ones own athma which is light energy according to Vyasa.And during the death of Drona,he kept his bow and arrow down and sat in yoga(Yogam asthaaya)and raised to heavens as a ray of light and Vyasa says everyone could see two lights in sky as if there was a second sun .During the swargarohana of Krishna also Vyasa describes the ascend of the Athma as Jyothirbhootha.Bhoorisravas is called yogayuktha and Drona as Yukthayoga by Vyasa.Vidura by yogasakthi entered Yudhishtira’s body as a burning light and Yudhishtira felt a new power within.In Mokshadharma yoga and samkhya are one and the same.Sarvagnapurusha is the 26 th thathwa.yama,niyama,aasana,ethical life,control of senses,control of breath,concentrated dhyaana,swadhyaya,daana,truth,dharma,patience,purity ,avoiding the dosha like kaama,lobha,krodha,mada,bhaya and aalasya are all mentioned in Mahabharatha and in Bhagavatha.Grains ,vegetables,fruits and roots as food,abstinence of food for one month per year,Yoga in the first and last yaama of the night(sandhya)and if possible in three sandhyaas,are advocated for healthy life.A mountain or hilltop,a chaitya,a cave,a forest , underneath a tree,or a lonely quiet house are best suited for concentrated meditation according to Vyasa.Aasana and praanayama are mentioned only twice in santhiparva.In yogadhyaya,Bheeshma telles Yudhishtira that there are four types of Dhyanayoga and describes the stages of Samadhi.In sukaanuprasna which describes vedarahasya and yogadarsana,the seven dhaarana are mentioned.It is said that the tapas of a yogin is more difficult than walking over the edge of a sword(an upanishadic simili)and one who crosses over (Yogaiswaryam athikraantho)has been liberated .Yoga is Samadhi according to Sandilya.It is sradha and praanaayama combined as dhyaana according to Vasishta.The Hiranyagarbhayoga of ancient times is very much older than vyasa(prior to BC 3104 )and Vyasa has done a bhashya to this ancient text and the soothra of this text are now known as Pathanjalayogasoothra according to vachaspathimisra,therefore stands proven .

Yoga was present in Vedic times according to Yagnavalkyajanakasamvaada.(Vedeshu

Chaashtagunitham yogam ahurmaneeshina:).The vedic yoga is Hiranyagarbhayoga.Vyasa says there was a great yogini called Sulabha ,a contemporary of King Janaka of Mithila.She was a bhikshuki of the samkhyayoga Guruparampara.She took the form of a beautiful maiden and met Janaka ,and tested whether his mind is really free from sansaara by binding him to her yogic power.I think this is a very important point.During the time of King Janaka ,apart from Gargi and Maithreyi another woman was also a great yogini and gnaani.And that is Sulabha .Some texts name her as Sulabhamaithryi showing she is Maithreyi herself.It is surprising that after such great yogini traditions ,in the modern periods we are not seeing any yogini or interpretators of yogasasthra for several millennia

KRIYAYOGA AS ABHYAAS

When we do an action(kriya)repeatedly ,this repetition is called an abhyaas and this is to perfect the action.The more you repeat the same action you become more adept in it and your performance will be perefected.So Abhyas is an educative process.The word is often used as Vidyabhyaas(Vidya+abhyas)as synonym for education in India.When someone repeats a action for days,months,years and the society repeats it for several years the kriya becomes an Achaara or charya.(The lifestyle as dinacharya or rithucharya)of a people.

In the case of kriyayoga,the effect of the yogacharya or yogabhyasa is seen only when it is perfected by constant and rigourous practice by an individual.Samadhipaada says both abhyasa and vairagya are needed to attain Samadhi.Then in the sadhanapada the three limbs of kriyayoga are mentioned as Thapa,swadhyaya and Iswarapranidhaana.Tapas gives vairagya.Swadhyaya and Iswarapranidhaana gives abhyaasa and keeps mind in a peaceful state .The repetition of this abhyasa of quietitude of mind,creates a samskaara (culture)and determines the quality of our mental and intellectual life.A human being should perfect the inner life by constant abhyasa of Swadhyaya and Iswarapranidhana(in common words the gnaanayoga and bhakthiyoga to purify mind and make it quiet).When your inner life is perfected and mind is quiet and concentrated,naturally your actions also become perfected.Therefore yoga is not only for the sanyasin but also for a householder,for every individual.The yoga abhyaas is to make the Uthithachitha(sansarin/householder)into a samahithachitha(yogin)so that his/her actions will be for the lokakalyana(welfare of the entire world)and not restricted to ones own selfish motives.How important this is for a welfare state has to be thought about by all the world citizens.

Bhakthiyoga is the Ishtadevathanishta(concentration on a loved form and name of a Godhead)and by swadhyaya of that ishtadevatha one becomes close to that devatha.By this concentration or Iswarapranidhana ,one can attain Samadhi easily.The swadhyaya of the ishtadevatha includes manthra and its japa.Thus the nirmanachitha(creative mind)of the yogi is made of manthra,thapa,and samadhi state .The different kriyaas of the yogin are classified as Krishna,sukla,krishnasukla,and suklakrishna and neither Krishna nor

sukla.Those who have tapas,swadhyaya and dhyana can do suklakriya .It is dependent on inner action and need not have any external factors for achievement .It is a kriya or action which is purely internal and thereby ,it does not harm anyone at all. Tapas is one among the five niyama.And is one of the ways to achieve sidhi.It is a method to obtain purity of outer and inner self.The karmavaasana(tendencies)and klesa(sorrows)are destroyed by constant tapas.Thus one gets unobstructed chithaprasaada .The tapas is the dwandasahana(suffering the opposites )according to Vyaasa.Mind becomes equanimous in pleasure and pain,and loss and gain and sansara and nirvana.the vrata like abstinence from food and other physical pleasures is to perfect the tapas and purify senses.Only in a purified mind one can see the light of self.Abhyasa is based on tapas,brahmacharya,vidya and sradha according to Vyasa.These give us vairagya .The yajamana who takes a yagnadeeksha is practicing tapas.The paathivratya,Ekapatneevratha etc of a householder are vrathaas equivalent to ishtadevathaanishta.The practice of meditation on a human Guru as one with God,and then identifying oneself with love and service of that human Guru is a vrata of a shishya(disciple).It is the same type of vrata a woman /man practices with a loved man/woman.Or a mother practice with a child(as Yesoda did).It is important that when we practice it on individuals like this,the selfish motives should not creep in and we should be like a yogin doing service of Lord,without expecting anything in return(Nishkaamakarma of Geetha).

What is swadhyaaya? Vyasabhashya says it is Japa of Omkaara(pranava)and adhyayana.It is one among the five niyama of yoga.Dharmasasthra says “Pavithraani japeth(Do japa on the pavithra –the pure)and Vyasa’s manthrajapa is equal to that.Adhyayana is a process in which one thinks again and again and analyses(manana)so that it is fixed in mind.In this way,internally and by loud japa ,the mental idea and the pronounciation with swara and sruthi purity is established by these two processes.This practice of mental and pronounciatory japa is to fix the eternal memory of it in our intellect.(Nityasmarana).Nityasmarana by tapas and swadhyaya are the day to day activity of every child and adult whether sanyasin or householder,whether woman or man and hence it is a form of constant and continueing adult education.Every commentator of a ancient great text is doing swadhyaya and keeping up the nityasmarana of it in generations of readers and enquirers to come.Swa means own.Adhyayam is learning or education.Swadhyayam is therefore selflearning or selfeducating.One who does swadhyaya of Veda with Brahmacharya becomes vedamaya.(veda itself )because according to yoga what one meditates that he/she becomes.Veda reveals its light in his/her mind and makes it bright forever.And it is there as smrithi forever due to practice.If all the people of a nation become swadhyayaniratha(always do selflearning)the entire nation becomes vidyaswaroopa(the form of vidya or education).The swadhyaya is Brahmayagna in Panchamahayagna which everyone should undertake in India.Therefore this was the best educative policy the ancients had introduced to make every brain active and every intellect bright forever.In Rgveda purusha/Prajapathi/Brahma is

Hiranyagarbha.In Hiranyagarbha yoga,by doing athmayagna or Brahmayagna(swadhyaya)one becomes Brahmamaya,Manthramaya,Chandomaya and

thus Jyothishmathi is produced (which is the bright enlightened mind).This enlightened citizenship is obtained by Brahmanishta and swadhyayam.In this upaasana of Vidya the first step is japa of omkaara(pranava)and japa of the three vyahrithi of Gayathri.Boudhayanadharmasoothra says a householder even after accepting sanyasa has to continue the japa of the manthra which he started during his Agnihothra.The learner keeps silence all the time except the time of swadhyaya.The tree of veda is fixed in Om or pranava.It is the essence of the veda.And one gets Brahmagnaana by chanting om under the tree of veda.(Boudayana).The process is to record the language of the veda in the brain forever and to become veda (gnaana)itself by the process of meditation on it.The process of swadhyaya thus makes the known,the knower and the process of knowledge as One (Advaitha).Yogacharya is this kriyaamarga .Mahabharata calls it Thapa:swadhyaaya and swadhyaayatapa:as a single word.And proclaims that swadhyaya is the paramatapas(ultimate tapas).In Boudhayanadharmasoothra and Vasishtadharmasoothra swadhyaya and praanaayaama are to be done with pavithra in hand,and with pronounciation of vyahrithi and pranava.Thus,japa,swadhyaya and sandhya are parts of yogacharya which one cannot neglect .In the Bhagavad Geetha also japayagna is given a high place.(B G 10.25)According to Vasishtadharmasoothra(26.9)and Manu(2.85)”Japayagna gives ten times more power than animal power.Swadhyayam is better than outer yagnaas.Mounajapa(silent japa)is hundred times better than outer yagna.The internal japa is a thousand times better.”In forests(Aranyaka)only silent and internal swadhyaya is done.But in villages and janapadas swadhyaya is done aloud so that all can hear .The swadhyaya gives knowledge which has to be given to others .Therefore these village swadhyas were more of a teaching type (adhyapana)rather than a selflearning has to be understood.For wisdom and vidya one needs sradha and yoga.Yoga is dharmalakshana.(symbol of dharma)Ethics is based on yoga and its practice .Therefore the people should be instructed to be always involved in practice of yoga is the educative principle of such discourses.

In yogasoothra the answer to thhe question why one should do swadhyaya is for ishtadevathaasamprayoga .(For becoming one with one’s ishtadevatha and getting Moksha is the ultimate aim.).The chithasudhi(purity of consciousness),the niyama and swadhyaya and the transcendental visions and sounds due to their constant practice and the effect of Iswarapranidhaana (moksha)are to be experienced by each ,not to be taught but the adepts gives a taste of it by their experience sharing .Vyasabhashya calls the visions of the samadhi as swaoopadarsana.The darsana or vision of the ishtadevatha(God)is a vision of light energy of ones own consciousness .Vishnupurana also says this.The obstacles for this visualization of light or enlightenment are various diseases,laziness,doubts,carelessness,madness,lack of virakthi(attachment to worldly pleasures)and the nonfixity in the positions already obtained.These are called Chithavikshepa.If these are present sorrows,impure mind,shaking organs,and disordered breathing etc will be there.And one cannot concentrate on the same subject/object due to these defects.Pranidhaana is the fixity of purpose to reach the goal.Vyasa use this term three times in Mahabharatha(3.387.19;5.47.11;5.101.21)The Iswarapranidhaana is the process of fixity of purpose with which one meditates on the absolute power to achieve oneness with it ,and one is allowed to choose a loved form according to one’s liking so

that the process of Samadhi is quick and easy .It is because of this there is no fanaticism in Indian spiritual traditions.

When one practices yogacharya for a very long period ,one becomes even beyond that charya and is liberated soul.Yogasoothra considers the human mind being formed by five different vrithi (repeated actions).

1.Pramaana (valid cognition)

2.Viparyaya(false knowledge)

3.vikalpa(conceptualization)

4.nidra (sleep and dream)

5.smrithy(memory)

If the mind is like a clear mirror only the truth can be seen perfectly reflected in it.Yogamarga is the process of removing the dirt accumulated by tendencies and actions so that it is kept clean for such reflection of truth.Vyasabhashya says mind has two directions –one is to goodness and God and the other is to badness and Desires of worldly objects .One leads to kaivalya and the other to samsaara.Vairagya carry the flow to nirvana by drying up the flow to samsaara.Abhyasa opens up the flow to the nirvana.Thus both vairagya and abhyasa combined takes one to the goal of liberation. What are the criteria for vairagya according to Vyasa? For him it is not just the lack of love for worldly things as that of the apatheia of the stoics.It should have the following signs

1.Those to be sacrificed has to be totally absent 2.Those to be achieved for liberation should be totally present 3Mind should have complete and perfect control to achieve these two states 4.Mind should have the quality of impassibility(anaabhoga) 5.Through meditation ,power for attaining total lack of desire for women,foods,drinks,desires for power and position and heaven should be achieved. 6.Should experience the videha and prakrithilaya states 7.Even if one is in the householder stage one should be able to perform its duties perfectly without feeling any attachments by remembering the shortcomings of samsaara

Vachaspathimisra gives four stages to Vairagya

1.Yathamaanasamgna(consciousness of endeavour)

2.Vyathirekasamgna(consciousnessof discrimination)

3.Ekendriyasamgna(consciousness of a single sense)

4.vaseekaarasamgna(consciousness of mastery)

Practice of Brahmacharya is to get out of desire for women.Upavaasa (not taking food)is to get out of desires for different varieties of food and drinks.Swadhyaya of Nitya and Anitya gives protection from desires of mine,yours,pleasure and pain and the dualities of existence.Mahabharatha uses the term vairagya ten times.The highest stage of vairagya is vaseekaarasmgna .yogins call it kaivalya and Budha called it Nirvaana . Vyasa says yoga is to make mind quiet and concentrated(Prasaanthavaahitha) This sadhana is absolutely essential for moksha.Praanaayama is only the beginning of yoga.Not the end or aim of it.Nor is the different aasanaas the end or aim of yoga.They are just the beginning stages .But unfortunately the modern yoga schools(at least some of them)have misunderstood yoga as the breath control and the positions(aasana)alone.Dhyana with a alambana (which is loved by the person doing the dhyana)is the next and important stage and it is here the Iswarapranidhana part comes in.Iswarapranidhaana is also called Ekathwa Abhyaasa(practice of the One alone for concentration).For this Gurudhyaana is the best .But in the endstage even that form or attachment to one person is gone in the perfect Samadhi state.The cultivation of a new samskaara of knowledge ,after removing the past tendencies is called Bhavanaabhyaasa(Practice by imagination)Ishtadevathanishta has such dhyana practices.The manjarisadhana of the Radhakrishna sects is an example.The dhyana of sangheethadevatha ,of raagadevatha etc are also ishtadevathanishta.This spiritual and educational psychology of yoga is utilized both by the gnaanamarga and bhakthimarga adepts of India .The modern psychological concept of displacing negative tendencies with positive tendencies is seen in the yoga psychology practices.The hinsabeeja(seed of violence)is replaced by seed of ahimsa(nonviolence)and asanthi(lack of peace)by santhi(peace)and dukha(sorrow)by ananthasukha(eternal bliss)by yoga psychology which is essential for all human beings globally and this is the real message of yoga of ancient India.The positive imaginations and the new sanskaara created out of it by our pragna is called Pragnaakrithasanskaara by Vyasa.

Indian philosophy has some practical sanskaaras for the purification of the body ,for the purification of the mind and intellect.These later became the dinacharya and rithucharya(way of daily life)and are actually part of kriyaayoga prescribed by the yogasoothra.This shows how much the yoga had penetrated into the lifestyle of the people.The daily baths,the sandhya three times a day,are for body and mind purification.The upanayana and vivaha are for bodily and mental purification and understanding of the life of a celibate and a householder respectively.Thus even the four ashramaas are part of the kriyaayoga devised by yogasasthra.Sansara has more opportunities for constant desires and the sorrows derived from them and leads to asradha or lack of concentration.Therefore,the householder is the one who should take more care to do yoga and practice sradha.Yogadharma is called the shishtachara (the doings of the good people)and those who neglect it and indulge in the worldly pleasures,desires and violence etc are called dushtaachaarins.(those who follow the path of the bad ).In a era when shishtachara was dwindling ,Budha tried to resuurect it .And that is why Budha is

respected.Not as a new religion,but as a new impetus to the old dharma of yoga.This understanding was the reason why it was accepted by south east Asia,Tibet and China and in Japan and Sreelanka and in South India.The philosophy of India is advaitha and the practical advaitha is in the rigourous practice and understanding of the kriyayoga of the yogasoothra.It is not a mere lipservice of love and compassion,but true love and compassion as a lifestyle ,natural and for the betterment of the individual as well as the entire world.Without knowing this ,we will not be understanding the soul of India .

Purusha and prakrithi

Prakrithi is moving,changing panda or mass with gathi(momentum).Brahma is movementless,nonchanging energy state without a definite form but existing in all forms. Brahma=Prakrithi Aham =Brahma Therefore Aham =Prakrithy The equation thus becomes Aham=Brahman=Prakrithy

The contradictions of dualities of the cosmic and bioenergy fields are thus overcome by a yogin in Samadhi state.The seemingly contradictory TWO become co-ordinates and noncontradictory.This aesthetics of art and science is practically experienced only through a quiet mind which concentrates without any disturbance whatsoever and this process is practiced by the yogakriya.

The flow of sorrow of worldly life is a prathiprasava(counterflow or inverse movement) when the differences in the proportions of guna are removed and the balance of guna is

regained in both samkhya and yoga

or to the root cause .That is the thought travels from the present ,into the known past first(history)and to the unknown prehistoric past and to the beginning of the universes .Only this inverse flow of thought gives a glimpse of theories of the beginnings of the universe.This is also a inverse flow from Mrityu(death and birth)to amritha(eternal

existence of the truth).From the thriguna of prakrithi one is transcending it and going back to the thrigunasamya(balanced)and the thrigunaatheetha(beyond the three guna)states.When thought does this ,the sorrows of this worldly life becomes not sorrows.The mind can view them dispassionately .Without pleasure or sorrow in them.Without attachment to them.

is a flow towards the beginning stage

Prathiprasava

Avidya(ignorance)is the samyoga(union)between purusha(the seer)and the prakrithi(the seen .Including the chitha and the thriguna of the seer).When this avidya is removed by the prathiprasava,Purusha see the self as Eka,as light of wisdom ,and this is kaivalya.The seen is only the vibhoothy of the seer.It is not different from the seer.Just like the song is the singers vibhoothi,the art is the artists vibhoothi and science is the scientists vibhoothi ,prakrithi is only the vibhoothi of purusha and is not different from him and hence have no separate existence from him/her.This kaivalya experience is when the sathwa is most

pure.(Pathanjali 3.55)In prathiprasava the change in the chitha is very deep.It changes the entire worldview of the seer.The knowledge of sampragnathasamadhi is now matured into the wisdom of the asampragnathasamadhi and no trace of duality exists in such a yogin’s chitha.He is liberated.Still he can see the gunaas .But the avidya in it,the bondages due to it is gone forever.Nothing can move the chitha of the yogin now.He is totally akshobhya .Vishnusahasranaama calls Vishnu as Suvarnabindurakshobhya.The concentrated golden chitha of the yogin is spotlessly clean and totally calm and quiet and see the entire prakrithi as his own vibhoothy within him and not outside and is not bound by it.By vivekakhyaaathi(discriminative discernment),the purusha or the seer and the sathwaguna the seen become one and this wisdom is revealed as if in a clean mirror.The kaivalyaprakrithi is not a obstacle for kaivalya but a co-ordinate for it now.Thus purusha knows his prakrithi as Himself .This thanmayatha(oneness)is comparable to a loving man and woman in union .The simili of Radha and Krishna /Siva and Sakthi in the Bhakthisampradaaya of India and balancing of Yin and Yan in China is of this type. The Ayurveda of India is based on balancingof thriguna-thridosha,and the mathematics of India is based on balancing of sine and cosine and the music of India is based on balancing of the thriguna in the swara or sound waves and its vibrations .This shows there are several methods to achieve the balancing of the thriguna physically,mentally,intellectually ,artistically ,scientifically and philosophically and all these are practically derived from a quiet and concentrated mind following the balancing in yogachitha.

Maxmuller in his translation of the commentary of Bhojaraja’s yoga ,misunderstands this as the separation of purusha from prakrithi.The separation is an analytical method to understand the duality or differences between purusha and prakrithy(the Nitya and Anitya)and the thanmayatha is a synthesis of the two as one (as an ardhanaareeswara)as two perfect co-ordinates in an astrophysical way.Videhamukthy is not destruction of the body ,but doing the dharma without attachment to body or to worldly desires ,in a nishkaama way ,and for the welfare of the entire world(lokakalyana)and not for any selfish motive.Samyoga is a union between two things.Here ,the prakrithi and purusha being one,samyoga does not happen.Ashtangayoga is a process by which the truth “there is only one,no two”is dawned upon the human consciousness which is kept clean for that specific purpose.The multiverses are One in essence.The objects on them,including us ,are one with prakrithi .Since Brahma and prakrithi are one,I am Brahma.This pragna when it is revealed ,enlightens us and is known as Rithambhara in yogasasthra.All the other types of pragna see only partial or relative truths or even untruths only.The separatisms and the hatred to the “other”as identified falsely are only illusions or maaya.The truth is One .The untruth is the duality of existence.

With kaivalya one reaches the state of Samadhi called Dharmamegha.The yogi has reached a state where there is nothing to be expected,nothing to be received,nothing to be sacrificed or gained.The dharmamegha is a state that shows the yogi has reached Paravairagya .(ultimate vairagya).It is a synonym for asampragnaatha Samadhi state.The yogi has a permanent identity shift and measurement here from Prakrithi to Purusha state.He is absolutely free from actions and their fruits,and from the identities of the

worldly life of unions and disunions,and this is a jeevanmuktha state according to Vignaanabhikshu.Pure action is Nishkaamakarma(see Bhagavad Geetha)or selfless action for the welfare of all.It is altruism of the highest order.The signs of love ,compassion for all living things are seen in such individuals.Unless these signs are seen in a yogin ,one cannot say that he/she has attained jeevanmukhthi or the state of dharmamegha. Budha during his ifetime proclaimed that five hundred of his disciples had attained Nibbaana (nirvana)and each of them have established a Brahmavihaara.What is meant by Brahmavihaara? Yogasoothra (1.33)says the four Brahmavihaara are Maithri,Karuna,Muditha and shanthi.In paali language these are called by the Budhists as Metha,Karuna,Muditha and Upekka or Upeksha.We have to go back to the Mahabharatha of Vyasa and the exposition of the Bhagavad Geetha by Sreekrishna to find out the antiquity of this philosophy of yoga.

According to Christopher key Chapple (pp 85 ref Ed Ian Whicher and David carpenter)these 500 arhathaas misunderstood the Rithambara pragna full of energy of truth ,as the nihilism of I do not exist,I am not this,and I have nothing.The chitha of a yogi is like a pure crystal ,clean and bright ,and without any colours of likes and dislikes,without any timespace boundaries and is eternal .This eternal energy state (yogasoothra 1.36)is not emptiness or nihilism but everything,the origin of everything.Why the 500 arhathas misunderstood it while budha had understood it correctly?Simply because yoga is not a mass movement ,but an individual endeavour to be practiced by each and everyone and attainable according to his/or her guna proportion only.It cant be taught .It has to be selflearned by austerity and practice.It is not an organized institutionalized religion .It is a way of seeking truth.A way of self exploration.A lifestyle.When Budha tried to make an organization(a sangha)this misunderstanding was inevitable.

How does a yogi do traveling in the sky or space? By Praanaayaama Jwalana happens.This is because the oxygen (praana) supply increases to body parts and the blood circulation correspondingly increases and gives rakthaprasaada (radiance ).It also gives laghuthoola state(The state of lightness as a cottonwool).According to Yogasoothra these two things are responsible for the flights in sky/space.To fly in space or sky the body should be light and there should be enough oxygen supply are two facts the modern science also agrees.So was the Akasagamana of suka(son of Vyasa)akin to that of the modern people?Was the akasagamana of sage Kardhama (father of kapila)of this type?Was the akaasagamana of raavana in his pushpak the same as that of modern science?In principle it seems to be. In the state of Videha,one does not have the desire for samyoga of prakrithi.The five elements have been conquered.The body and senses controlled .The Pradhaana is conquered which is the same as Nirvichaarasamadhi .Samskaara are conquered .Then comes purity of satwapurusha and kaivalya.In this way ,stage by stage the yogin conquers everything and reaches the final goal.Both Vignaanabhikshu and Vachaspathimisra speaks of Prathibha ,which is the shadow of the chaithanya(chith or light)reflecting on a clean mirror.Prathibha is the shadow of the self of a human being.It is defined as pragna which is Navanavollekhasaalini.( one which creates newer and

newer things forever –the creativity that is eternal).The prathibha of creation of all is considered as the vibhoothi of a sarvagnachitha.And sarvagnachitha is nothing but yogichitha.In 8 th century Sankaracharya was considered as such a sarvagnachitha capable of all vibhoothis of a yogin including parakayapravesha and akaasagamana and being one with own self /prakrithi as Mookambika,the Goddess of learning.yogasoothra(3.3.38)says Bandhakaaranasaithilyaath prachaarasamvedanaascha chithasya parasareeraavesa: Chith can enter all bodies by two reasons.One is the destruction of the cause of bondage to ones own body,and the other is the communication of the chitha through its prachaara (when ones thoughts are communicated to all by proper awareness of it or may be in modern sense a little marketing of the ideas) By the first ,the attachment to the selfish motives and the boundaries thereby created are totally destroyed and the person is doing karma for lokakalyana.By the second,this fact is made known to others by proper awreness classes or by proper marketing so that people willingly come to the person and allow his/her ideas to influence them.Only when the people feel that the person is selfless they willingly allow themselves to be influenced by him/her.The fact that in all the institutions established by Sankara Ashtangayoga is a must shows how much importance Sankara had given to its practice.Sankara had done yoga starting from the Asparsayoga of Goudapaada,his Guru’s Guru and proceeding from there. The Bhashya to Bhagavad Geetha by Sankara includes avidya as a klesha or sorrow just as the yogasoothra does.And in his Brihadaranyaka bhashya and its vaarthika by Sureswara treat yoga in a very important manner.

Chithavrithinirodha in Advaitha. BU Bhashya 1.4.7 Sankara replies to the theory of the opposition that due to the apoorvavidhi (rare rules)Brahmadhyana gives mukthi(liberation).He says like yoga and advaitha,even with the vidhiprathishedha achaara (karma against the prescribed rules)of poorvameemaamsa (Jaimini –disciple of vyasa is creator of poorvameemamsa) one can attain liberation.Sankara says the Athman is everpresent .It is not the fruit or result of anything.Therefore,for its mukthy(liberation)before it,there cant be any rule(apoorvavidhi means rare rules as well as rules which were not there before).The Athma being the first,what rules can exist before that?therefore the results of all karma are temporary only and liberation by karma cannot be called eternal. Opposition:Bythe chithavrithinirodha prescribed in the different thanthraas one gets liberation. Sankara:Athmagnaana means Brahma and Athma are one.This understanding alone is liberation.No thanthra or thanthranthra teaches except this truth.(The chithavrithinirodha is for concentration.It does not give liberation.It can be done even without getting liberation.This is what Sankara implies.One can have chithavrithinirodha in one’s art,science etc or in one’s business but these does not give liberation ).The only sadhana(ananyasadhana)for chithavrithinirodha has to be athmavignaana and its remembrance if one wants to be liberated. The word Athmavignaana thath smrithisanthaana means the wisdom of self,its continued memory for generations (for parampara)as prathyabigna is the only sadhana on which chithavrithinirodha has to be done to attain liberation.Doing chithavrithinirodha for getting other types of knowledge does not give liberation.To attain chithavrithinirodha

one has to do swadhyaaya,manana(self learning and analysis) and for that one should have power of cognition and memory ,and for developing them one should cultivate sradha,dhaarana,and dhyaana and reach Samadhi state.And to prevent the distractions to such enquiry the practice should be done with involvement and daily for several years continuously.And for several generations continuously so that the knowledge is not lost and is perpetuated through generations.One has to show models of sacrifice (tyaga of self)and vairagya to worldly pleasures to become a true teacher to influence generations of true disciples.the swadhyaya of Upanishad and sruthi is not contradictory to yoga teachings but a necessary corollary to it.Sankara accepts swadhyaya as a rule(niyamavidhi)and says there is no apoorvavidhi(rule prior to athma).What does that mean?He simply says that athma is the first /akin or equivalent to Brahma and there is no rule prior to that for attaining it.And also that athmagnaana is not obtained by death,when body is separated from athma.The memory of athma is not attached to a body which is perishable and hence it is not an apoorvasmrithy but a poorvamrithy of previous births and deaths(poorvajanmasmrithy) which are still in the lingasareera not in the gross body.It is more like the archetypal memory of Jung ,in modern psychological parlance.The rules of conduct we follow like swadhyaaya etc are to prevent new tendencies of attachment being formed in the present and they cannot destroy the archetypal memories accumulated in the past.

In B U bhashya (4.4.21) Sankara accepts Vignaayaa pragnaam kurveethaa as the rule for memory of athmagnaana.And quoting Mundaka he says one should meditate on Athma as OM and this is the rule of the yoga.The bhashya also says(2.3.39).Samadhi is taught for for getting athmagnaana.Athma alone is to be seen ,heard,analysed and thought about(Br U 2.4.5).No one can win success over the cycle of birth and deaths without yogadharma and Parisamkhyaagnaana according to Sankara (B U Bh 4.4.2).Dharma means yogadharma which gives protection from death and birth (Bh G Bh 2.39)and yoga is samadhiyoga.Yoga alone can remove all dualities according to him.In Upadesasaahasri(2.3)Sankara teaches Parisamkhyaanadhyaana for disciples who wants liberation from all the past actions. The yogin who negates the world and its objects ,get athmadarsana by bhakthi(devotion)dhyana(meditation)and pranidhaana(thinking and analyzing the Godhead in a saguna form) according to Sankara (Br Soo Bh 3.2.24) Sankara’s Disciple and creator of Vaarthika ,Sureswara maintains that no parisankhyavidhi or rule can remove and control the likes and dislikes (Raagadwesha)completely.For it ,and for athmagnaana vairagya alone is the wayOne has to negate everything that is Anathma to realize Athma.After sacrificing all karma,through dhyaana of Om ,one has to attain Athmagnaana.Only after sacrificing the karmas ,one should take yogabhashya according to Sureswara.But even for sacrifice of Karma,the help of yogabhashya is needed is what Sankara implies.Both Sankara and Sureswara are advising Yogamarga for the mumukshu(one who seeks liberation).With Athmagnaana and its continuous remembrance(pratyabhigna)chithavrithinirodha has to happen naturally.And such an Athmagnaani is the best Yogin according to Sankara .Sureswara certifies that Sankara was the best yogin by his words “Vishno Paadaanugaam yam nikhilabhavanuthaam Sankarovaapayogaath”.From all these evidences quoted I just make it clear that the view of some scholars that Sankara negated

and destroyed the Samkhya, and the yoga systems of the land is baseless.And the theoretical,analytical and logical flaws which entered into these ancient systems through the later writers was what Sankara clarified and rectified to rejuvenate and protect it for posterity as a true Guru ,who wants only Lokakalyana and nothing in return for himself Vidhinishedha(breaking of rule)is only applicable to the karma(actions).Not to gnaana(wisdom)which is eternal.One cannot make a rule and create wisdom.It has to bloom naturally as a prathyabhigna and for that certain qualities are necessary .The karma are to create such qualities.And when we negate the actions for creation of such qualities in human consciousness we knowingly or unknowingly are obstructing prathyabhigna and athmagnaana.The rule and breaking of rule ,which is thus part of the kriyayoga,determines one’s ability for cognition and memory and thereby knowledge acquisition and wisdom.And this is part of kriyaayoga.Kriyayoga is not gnaana but the methods to obtain gnaana .This distinction is not there for a perfect yogin in samadhi for whom the seer,seen and the knowledge and the way to it has merged.But for others the distinctions exist and has to be explained in the most logical and comprehensible way .This exposition of the scriptures is not a selfish karma,but a karma done to help others to cross samsaara and reach the state of wisdom,reached by the yogin and for the lokakalyana,and the most nishkaamakarma which can be identified .

Ashtangayoga in Advaitha

In BhagavadGeetha Bhashya (BH G BH 3.3)Sankara says Gnaanayoga is the direct way to Liberation and Karmayoga is the indirect stage by stage way to it(kramamukthi).Both leads ultimately to gnaana and mukthi.And in the stages of karmayoga to gnaanayoga he describes dhaaranaayoga,dhyaanayoga and samadhiyoga (Bh Gee Bh 6.3) .Here Sankara calls yoga as Dhyanayoga and elsewhere(4.38) he classify Yoga as karmayoga and samadhiyoga.According to him the equanimity of darsana or samyagdarsana gives instant liberation(4.39.5.27.and introduction to Bhashya of 6 th ch) Dhyanayoga is the internal process of samyagdarsana and practice of karma is only an organ or part of the internal dhyaanayoga.Those who have no intellectual acumen to accomplish the internal dhyaanayoga,have to do the external karma or aachaara ,and thereby slowly and steadily purify intellect to get the ability for concentration.Samyagdarsana removes avidya.He says there is no need to toil to get athmagnaana ,because Athma is by itself light of knowledge and is everywhere ,in everyone.then why do the elaborate process of yoga?He says ,people have misunderstood the anathema as Athma for such a long time,and this impurity has to be removed from their chitha ,and it is for that the elaborate yama and niyama are prescribed.In Upadesasahasri (2.3)parisamkhyaanadhyaana part,he teaches the wisdom of differentiating between Athma from Anathma.By this wisdom,one can avoid mistaking the anathema as athma .A sthithapragna (as described by the Bhagavad Geetha)is such a person.The viveka,vairagya,sama,dama,uparathi,thithiksha,sradha,and samaadhaanam or shanthi are qualities of the sthithapragna according to the Geetha.That is,sthithapragna is a yogin.Yama and niyama are to remove the covering of dirt from the mirror of chitha,so that we get a perfect vision of our self according to Sankara and as we all know these

yama and niyama are the first two limbs of yoga In Thaithereeya Upanishad bhashya(1.9)and in Bh Geetha bhashya Sankara again explains the Tapas and swadhyaya of yoga respectively.Bhagavad Geetha(17.14- 16)speaks of three types of tapas of mind,body and words.Soucha,ahimsa,and brahmacharya are predominantly of body’s tapas,Manaprasaada,soumyatha and mouna are of mental tapas,and satya and anudwega are word’s tapas.What does he mean by the tapas of the word by satya and anudwega? He cites as example,that doing swadhyaaya in silence and in quietitude,and speaks only the truth,and then both yoga and kshema happens .(yogakshemam vahamyaham says Krishna in Geetha).Soumyatha is the peaceful countenance and compassion for all in all situations and is obtained by Athmavinigraha or control of the mind .Mouna is total silence of the mind and body and words. Or in other words of all vrithys.In Brihadaranyaka bhashya (4.4.2)he speaks of yogadharma and in Brahmasoothrabhashya(1.3.33)he quotes from yogasoothra on swadhyaaya.Thithereeyabhashya(3.6)says one who wants Brahmagnaana must get peace through tapas.Yoga is the Athma or soul of Vignaanamayakosa and it is called Samadhaana there (Thi.bh 2.4).

When Purusha is saguna ,He is Lord of Prakrithi and has thriguna ,and because of the presence of guna(avidyaguna)he is called the Maaya of Iswara.Therefore ,Maya or saguna as Prakrithi and Nirguna as Brahma are two different states of the same Iswara.Hence both are anaadi and universes are created ,sustained and destroyed in it.Iswara is thus two in oneness.Or like two sides of the same coin.Maya is seen as the many forms and names of the universe.Jeeva is seen as the purusha or the one controlling power or cause of everything.This is the heart of samkhyasidhantha.It is Iswara himself who takes human form and sustain the dharma and culture of the ancients.And all the karma of all the jeevaas are dependent on the laws of nature and hence of Iswara.Liberation and bondage also are dependent on it.Karmayoga is not only nishkaamakarma,but doing all karma as dedication to Iswara(Karmaarpana/as Brahmaarpana).Dedicating every act to God is seen in his soundaryalahari(Japojalpa verse 27).Thus Bhakthy to a personal Iswara links gnaana to karma through the pranidhaana or Iswarapranidhaana of yoga.Both in Yoga and vedantha upaasana of pranava as OM is ultimate for liberation.In Bh Geetha Bhashya Sankara says those who meditate on Om in the last muhoortha of life,remembers Krishna and reaches Paramapadam(8.13).In Yogasoothrabhashya Pranava is Iswaravaachi (1.27.28)The same is said by Sankara in Geethabhashya.(Vaachakaroopa,Abhidhaanabhootha,and Thad arthabhootha are the words used by Sankara)Prasnopanishad also teaches upaasana of Pranava(5.1-2)This is quoted by Sankara both in Geethabhashya (8.12-13)and Brahmasoothrabhashya(1.3.13).He says that for those who have lesser intelligence also this method is useful.They can reach the kramamukthimarga first ,to saguna and nirguna and samyagdarsana later. According to Sankara the entire 8 th chapter of Geetha is to teach Dhaaranaayoga through meditation on OM.Dharana fixes the mind to one object.Samyama is a combined process of dharana,dhyana and Samadhi.So ,to get samyama,one must have practiced these for a long time.Sankara describes in detail the process of fixing the chitha in the heart’s lotus,and raising the praana through the oordwanaadi ,and winning the different

bhoomika stage by stage ,and then fixing it in the center of the forehead in Agna.(Bh Ge Bh 8.10)This is exactly as described in Yogasoothra and bhashya of vyaasa.The devayaana and pithruyaana of the Upanishads and of the Geetha are compared to Kundaliniyoga.Chandogya Upanishad Bhashya (8.6.6.)speaks of the oordwanaadi and 100 other subordinate naadi for the kundalini power.Of these the 100 are having cyclical recurrence while the single upward naadi has no recurrence and is the path to liberation.Sankara in his bhashya says the pranavadhyana and praanayama are to raise praana through the single oordhwanaadi and to get relief from births and deaths.Thus praanaayaama and pratyaaahara are advised as dhaaranaayoga.Sankara also mentions pooraka ,rechaka ,kumbaka(Bh Gee Bh 4.29) and calls Indriyanigraha(or control of senses)as Vaseekaara just like yogasoothra does(2.55).Brahmasoothra bhashya mentions Aasana for dhyana (4.1.7-11)Why one should in a sukhaasana to do dhyaana? In discussion of this point in Bh Gee Bh 6.110Sankara describes Padmaasana position of the yogasoothra.And for him dhyana is the sign of samyagdarsana,and he prescribes a seat of kusa grass on which clothes or barks of trees are spread for aasana .Sankara has quoted a very old sloka from Yogasasthra which is not Pathanjalayoga.It is like this.:-

Yogasaasthre paripaataath……Ardharasavyanjanaannasya thritheeyam udakasya cha

vaayo ssanjaranaartham thu chathurtham avaseshayeth”(Bh Gee Bh 6.16).It could be from Hiranyagarbhayogasaasthra.It says,a person sitting for meditation should follow a laghuaahaara(minimum food) and his stomach should have only half part annam(food)quarter part water and the rest quarter part should be free for movement of vaayu or air.For Sankara Upasamhaara of Indriya from their sensory objects is Pratyaahara(BG B 2.58).Dhyana is gradual upasamhaara from karma(BG B 6.3)and Samkhya is sanyaasa(BG B 3.3).these are different stages in the life of a seeker of truth. Brahmasothrabhashya(2.3.38)discusses the Omkaaradhyana of Mundaka(2.2.6)and Athmagnaana of Brihadaranyaka(2.4.5)and Samadhi of yogasoothra(Br Soo B 2.3.40).In none of these treatises and commentaries Sankara is opposing yoga or Samadhi .Samadhi is for him the way to athmagnaana.What he has been opposing is the false notions that had crept into the system by people who interpreted it with their inferior intellects .He was not the enemy of anyone or any system ,though many thoughtless critics and historians have given him that aura.There is nothing which is detested or disliked in scientific logical advaitha philosophy.What is not logically acceptable has to be removed from science and philosophy by a superior intellect to protect that particular dharma or science for posterity.Sankara did only that with his extremely clear superior intellect which was bright and enlightened with the knowledge /wisdom of Samadhi experience.If it had destroyed any system of knowledge systems it only shows how inferior they were logically to his wisdom and how the people understood their mediocrity when compared to his intellectual superiority. According to the medieval Vaishnavasahajeeyathanthra of Bengal (Johnson M.The body in the mind.The bodily basis of measuring ,imagination and reason.Chicago uty.Uty of Chicago press 1987) for every journey there is a way.For every way there is a plane.Sadhana has a plane but it leads one to a totally different plane .The traveler has to share the experiences of his journey and communicate the ways through which he/she

traversed one plane of existence to another.Sharing of such experiences also is a sadhana for educating the posterity.Vyasa ,Vachaspathi and Pathanjali shared their journey with us through their eternal works.When I write these words ,I do it with a similar sankalpa

or bhaavana

to enrich theexperiences of my successors,nameless formless imaginary readers as successors of posterity ,and stimulate them to explore the realms of sadhana and Samadhi ,to havevisions and sruthis of the most beautiful and compassionate realms of existence.And to bring peace and love to humanity through those darsana and sruthi .

A

hope that by sharing my experiences in my life’s sojourn,I may be able

Vignaanasaarathiryasthu Mana :pragrahavaan nara:

Swodhwana :paramaapnothi Thadh Vishno:paramam padam(Katha Upanishad 1.3.9)

May the entire creation be blessed by that ultimate goal through this journey .

Dr Suvarna Nalapat

Yogasoothrabhashya –suvarnabindu

(With Pathanjali’s aphorisms,Vyaasabhashya and Vachaspathimisra’s Thatwavaisaaradi)

1 SAMADHIPAADAM

64Path :1 .Atha Yogaanusaasanam.

Vyas:-Atha is a mangalavaachi sabda.But it is not only that,but also denotes that the words are from the Guru to the disciple ,after previous teaching and practices as preparatory to this teaching.That is why the Guru utters the words,Now I will teach you the yoga.Anusaasana does not mean commandment or rule.But teaching for learning purposes.It is from a teacher to the students and not from a powerful royal or religious authority ordering to the subjects to be obeyed.Vyaasa says yoga is the chithadharma of aristocratic emperors(saarvabhouma)and its anusaasana can be done only by a Raajarshi,who is ancestor as well as has a right to teach(Adhikaara) it due to his/her practice and experience.The disciple should ask for its exposition and should be qualified to receive it.(In Mahabhaaratha,the Anusaasanaparva shows Bheeshma ,the ancestral Guru advising and instructing Yudhishtira about “Mokshadharma”when he asks for it .It is in this part we find Hiranyagarbayoga and Vishnusahasranaama for

Iswarapranidhaana.) .There are five bhoomika for human mind .they are kshiptham,moodam,vikshiptham,ekagram,and nirudham.Yoga is Samadhi.And a person with that chithadharma(of Samadhi) is called Sarvabhouma or king of kings .Kshiptha is the opposite pole of samadhi.Mooda is mind which has no power of cognizance .Vikshiptha has the cognizance but it mistakes one for another,or in another words give character of one thing to another and this is called adhyaaropa or adhyaasa.Because of this character of vikshepa(throwing )of character or projection of qualities ,it is called vikshiptha.Because of the inadequacies mentioned above,Kshipta,mooda and vikshiptha states of mind are not suitable for yoga.Ekagra mind is capable of concentration and thus can control chitha and is suitable for yoga.In concentrated mind the meaning(artha)is revealed and the sorrows ,desires,and karmas end and this state is the nirudha avastha which leads to sampragnaatha Samadhi.Following vitharka comes vichara,and following vichara comes Aananda and following aananda is asmitha.In this way,stage by stage all the chithavrithi become nirudha ,and that leads to asampragnaathasamadhi.

Vachas:-Salutations to Vrishakethu ,who is the cause of the entire universe.Who is devoid of sorrows,cause of sorrows and karmavipaaka.The great paramayogin with all yogilakshana.Salutations to sage Pathanjali.I am about to comment upon the commentary of Vyasa which is concised,clear and with many meanings . Atha is a sabda which means Jyothi or light or revelation .A Guru can instruct a disciple only if he has scholarship and revelation of the saasthra which he is advicing.Only those with patience,sama,dama,experience in the process /or job and philosophy and curiosity for learning this light is revealed.The gnaanaprakasa or light of knowledge is mentioned in the Brihadaranyaka as “Santhodaantha uparathisthithikshu:samaahitho

bhoothwaathmanye vaathmaanam pasyeth”(B 4.4.23).Guru is the rasaayana for all the questions and doubts of the shishya.Yoga is the right for the saasthra(saasthraadhikaara).Therefore,when one gives instruction of yoga to a suitable disciple,it implies that the teacher is capable of easily teaching all the sciences (sakalasasthraadhikaarathwa)also.A yogin can understand any abstract science and can clear doubt on anything. From sruthi,smrithi ,Ithihaasa and puraana ,it is famous that the cause for Nisreyasa is Samadhi.The word Atha therefore denotes that the shishya has Brahmajignaasa and has asked doubts on it and Guru has given answers to it and after that he is telling the yogamarga or method to attain Brahmagnaana.With Brahmasoothra which begins with the soothra”Athaatho Brahmajignaasaa” Vyasa has quenched the thirst of the shishya (of vitharka and vichara)and now explains how to get the experience of bliss or Aananda in a practical way.Yoga is the practice for this experience.

In the smrithi of Yogi Yagnavalkya we find the words”Hiranyagarbho yogasya vakthaa naanya purathana:” .There is no other person more ancient than Hiranyagarbha ,among the teachers of yoga.Then how did the notion that Pathanjali is the first to teach Yoga come?Soothrakaara have said,by the Guru it was taught(Anusaasana)to disciple.He (Vyasa)has not said the name of the Guru or of the shishya.The anusasana Vyasa did to his disciples was the Hiranyagarbhayoga.Every Guru does that .(Pathanjali also did it

later)Yoga speaks of things not seen by gross eyes,and not done by the hands or feet or other external organs of functions.It is speaking of the most subtle truth.It can be spoken by only a Guru who has perceived the subtlestof the subtle truth .We have to grasp the meanings from the sabda.The words Yoga is Samadhi by Vyasa deserves special mention.

In Dhaathupaatha(4.67)we find Yuja samaadhou.Yoga is samyoga.All the angaas have joined and formed the poorna or whole purusha.That person who has been able to visualize this samyoga of everything as a whole within and without alone is a sarvabhouma.This samyoga of anga and angi is denoted by the word Madhumathi.Madhu or nectar is a symbol here.Samadhi is eternal rasa experience of nectar.It is a state where there is no sorrow and hence called Visoka.A person who attained this mental state is a sarvagna or a sarvabhouma.Their sign of chithavrithinirodha is yoga.And Samadhi is an anga of it.Then why did Vyasa say that yoga is Samadhi?Anga and angi are abheda in Samadhi state.They are not different in that state of consciousness.Yoga is chithavrithinirodha.All knowledge and wisdom are dependent on Athma alone.Therefore chithavrithinirodha is not Athmaniraasa or gnaananiraasa(negation of Athma or knowledge).It is the dharma of chitha.By chitha one has to understand intelligence(budhi) or anthakarana(internal faculty)It is this central(kootastha)eternal(nitya)force of energy(chithisakthi)which is changeless(aparinaami) and known by gnaanasakthi(power of wisdom) transformed to gnaanadharma.(dharma or eyhics of wisdom).This yoga is the chithavrithy of a sarvabhouma.Therefore the chithavrithys called kshiptha,vikshiptha and mooda are totally nirudha(obstructed or absent)in his chithavrithy.Because these are opposed to yoga.

Kshiptha mentality:-The mind of people with predominant rajasic guna .It will be always

involved with the worldly things and pleasures and is very fickle.It is the chitha of a typical samsaari.It is diametrically opposite to the chitha of the yogin.

Mooda:-The chitha here is predominantly of thamoguna.Always lazy and involved in sleep ,it does not take any interest in anything at all.It is always in avidya and in darkness.

Vikshiptha:-Vikshiptha is better than these.Here also there is a dual nature to the mind as in kshiptha.But the duality is not due to attachment to external objects,or due to desire of worldly things as in kshiptha.It is not due to lack of cognizance as in mooda.The defect is that the mind cannot concentrate on the object on which it is meditating.The mind cannot concentrate on what is taught.Therefore,this mind either projects the qualities of one thing on another or has doubts regarding the taught subject forever.Because the defect is something rectifiable after prolonged practice , Vikshiptha mind is superior to Kshiptha.And kshiptha mind is superior to Mooda mind.

Ekagra mind:-This is the mind which is capable of concentration.And this mind is yogapaksha because it can experience Samadhi due to its quality of meditation power.

Nirudha:-When all the other chithavrithy are completely obstructed and the ekagra mind becomes forever fixed in truth ,it is in nirudha state.It is called sanskaaramaathrasesham.(Only the maathra of samskaara remain). The first two are far away from yogapaksha since they cannot attain chithavrithinirodha and thereby Ni:sreyasa.They are called yogasidhinishidham.here Nishidham is not a word imposed by any external authority,but by the very nature of the mind.(It is the reason for not having yogadhikaara for certain types of minds explained in a scientific way rather than a religious order or injunction.The adhikaara for yoga and veda are thus based on psychological and cognitive abilities and is formulated by the best educational psychologists of the ancient world .If it had been misused by the people who came after them or misunderstood by those who came in contact with the doctrines later on,it is because of their vikshiptha state only and can be excused.)

Vikshiptha mind also cannot attain yoga.Because they too lack concentration.Samadhi is possible only with concentration.The doubts and projections of the vikshepa minds makes them always dwindling in dualities .Geetha speaks of them as Samsayaathmaa vinasyathi.The true light(sath,chith,ananda)in which the mind becomes concentrated only can lead one to Samadhi experience .But they go on projecting the false into the truth and are immersed in doubts.If they can get over this habit ,they can travel towards yogapaksha.But ,for them ,to negate the maaya of the aneka ,is not that easy.Once its beeja(seed)had entered the mind,even after removal ,by three or four kshana(seconds)it again germinates and forms a huge tree .Maaya is difficult to cross and conquer . How does a yogi expel the vikshepa(projections and illusions) from his mind?The word used is sarjana for expelling. Sarjana is cutting away or removal of the vikshepa as some diseased parts.(S:-The one who does sarjana is still called a surgeon in modern

medicine!The churgeon in Latin and surgeon in English are from this ancient Sanskrit word).He does this with ekagratha which is sharper than a blade of knife.By this process the braanthi(illusion)that the body is athma is removed and the truth grasped by intellect. (S:-anathma – it is from this word the term Anatomy has originated in modern medicine!) The bright and eternal sathwa guna become fixed and predominant.The cause of sorrow is thamas and rajas and they are subdued and removed.What is heard and learned from scriptures and the Guru ,is then revealed as own experience(swanubhava)in that sathwik chitha.Then avidya is totally destroyed and all doubts cleared.An eye with cataract see two moons and its power of sight is impaired.The dwaitha of such imperfect perceptions are removed and the One truth is revealed in all its glory .It is not divisible into many.(It is the only truth and it is Brahma.Athma is Brahma.Says Vedanthin).

“Sabdo hi prakarsham dyothayan sakshaathkaaram soochayathi.”Sabda(sound)is that which reveals(dhyothana)by its light,and is perceived directly(saakshaathkaaram)in samadhi and is perfect bliss(aananda).

Vidya is here the cutting away of avidya and klesha with its cause ,by yoga.It is not just temporary removal or ksheena of avidya but removal with its rootcause forever .If just

kshaya they can again come up and grow.In the sampragnaathasamadhi and its four limbs of vitharkka,vichara,saananda and saasmitha,the seed is dormant but in asampragnaatha there is not even a trace of the seed of avidya.And when both the stages of sampragnaatha and asampragnaatha are over,the stages like Madhumathi etc begins.The person who has experienced all these stages one by one is the sarvagna or sarvabhouma and he alone is the perfect yogi who can give anusaasana on yoga.

S:-Ch 8 sloka 9 of Geetha ,Krishna says

Kavim puraaanam anusaasithaaram Anoraneeyaam samanusmared ya:

Sarvasya dhaathaaramachinthyaroopam Adityavarnam thamasa:parasthaath

Krishna is that perfect Yogin,the ultimate Guru of Yoga .

Pathan:-Yogaschithavrithi nirodha:

Vyas:-Its lakshana(the lakshana or signs of sarvavrithinirodha)are spoken of in this soothra.Sampragnaatha and asampragnaatha are also chithavrithy. Chitha is thrigunaathmaka.The three guna of chitha are Pragya,pravrithy and sthithiseela.The form of pragya is the sathwa of chitha.With rajas and thamas ,aiswarya are created and attachments and love for vishaya(sensory objects)happen.If tamas alone,adharma,agnaana,avairagya,anaiswarya are created .With these the covering of moha is formed.The covering of moha of tamas is removed with a little bit of rajas ,so

that effort for obtaining dharma,gnaana,vairagya ,and aiswarya begins.When rajas is removed,the sathwapurusha which is the swaroopa remains and with its effect the dhyana of dharmamegha starts by mere anyathaakhyaathi.Beyond that is what the dhyani calls prasamkhyaanam.The chithisakthi which is aparinaamini(changeless),aprathisamkrama(does not migrate from one to another) ,sudha (pure)and anantha(endless) is visible there.Chithisakthi is sathwagunaathmika.Its opposite is called vipareethakhyathi.The chitha which is viraktha in vipareethakhyathi is famous(khyathi)as the nirudhachitha.This state is reached by samskaara.This is nirbheejasamadhi.Both sampragnaatha and asampragnaatha are chithavrithy itself.

Vachas:-The second soothra is introduced.Thasya is a sabda showing that Vyasa is speaking about the lakshana of the two types of yoga already spoken about in the prior soothra.Yoga is a state when all the avastha like pramaana are absent in the chitha(They being nirudha ).But the sathwiki chithavrithi is not obstructed in it.Sampragnaathasamadhi has the lakshana(sign)of avyaapakathwa.(not spreading in everything everywhere).This is because sarvachithavrithinirodha has not happened in sampragnaathasamadhi.The klesakarmavipaaka is not totally removed.The rajasa and thaamasa chithavrithy are obstructed(nirudha)but their bheeja (sed)is not destroyed. What is the meaning of saying that chitha which is Eka has the union of aneka(more than

one )bhoomikaas(planes)like kshiptha etc?Is it possible to obstruct the vrithis of such a chitha?To find answers to such questions ,we have to first analyse the cause(hethu)of this avasthaasambandha(union of such states). Pragya is the seela(habit)of chitha with satwaguna. Pravrithy is the habit of chitha with rajoguna. Sthithi is the habit of chitha with thamoguna. Lakshana (signs)of chitha with praghya(sathwaguna);-prasaada,laaghava and preethi(always blissful,light and happy and healthy) Lakshana of chitha with pravrithy(rajoguna);-karma,thaapa and soka (work,heat and sorrow) Lakshana of chitha with sthithi(thamoguna);-Gourava,aavarana,and dainyatha (heaviness which makes it lie down or sleep all the time ,but attract by the guruthwa too,and covered by a veil of untruth,and hence is not at ease or is not free to move freely.)

In this way,the chitha which is eka since it is made of three guna ,has gunavaishamya or imbalance of the thriguna (due to their varying proportions).And this imbalance and different proportions of combinations leads to pressures between each other in different ways(parasparavimardhavaichithrya)and results in different and varying parinaamaas(changes of form )and appear as many. When chitha is predominantly Thamoguna .It has sthithiseela(inertia),and jadaavastha(inert state)and qualities of pinda(object with mass)like gourava(solidity and weight)covering around as a mandala or field(like vaayu for earth)and disability of movement (dainya)freely are inherent.Because of these it is a Thamograha and its grahanaseela(habit of grahana or cognition)is limited.This chitha is akin to earth.It has several different avasthaas(avaantharaavastha)and several mirrors in which these are

reflected differently ,and due to these reasons it appears as bhedavathy(with separate or different natures and forms and names).Bheda(difference )and its bhaavana(imagination that there is difference)is the nature (swabhaava )of earth.And this nature is shared by kshipthachitha also.The reason is lack of cognitive power .The sathwa which is seen as the form of chitha is called chithasathwa.In such a chitha,pragya or the sathwik functioning increases.Even in this chitha there is rajas and thamas but in insignificant proportions only.Because of their existence the love for sound etc ,of aiswarya exists in different proportions.The animaadi aiswarya are due to predominance of satwaguna and its pranidhaana.When sathwa is covered by rajas,alpalabdhi(achievement is partial.occurs.And poornasidhi (perfect or complete achievement)does not happen.There is interest and effort to achieve sidhi.But the sidhi remains incomplete due to rajas predominance.In this way,the chitha become intensely in love with the sensory objects like sabda ,roopa,etc etc.Vikshipthachitha belongs to this category.It is this loving chitha which becomes the bhakthachitha.If it is completely overshadowed and covered by thamas ,it can become darsayamooda(unable to perceive truth)but if not so it can proceed to state of concentration in its object of love(bhakthi)and become liberated by experiencing oneness.The totally blind chitha with predominant thamas alone is mooda only and it can never perceive truth .

When thamas and its covering become thicker and grosser ,it prevents utsaarana(going

upwards)and pulls towards itself.This is because of its gourava (guruthwa or weight).Therefore,thamas pulls down chitha to adharma .Agnaana(lack of wisdom)viparyayagnaana(knowledge opposite to truth)abhavaprathyayaalambana(dependence on the lack of existence of light)and knowledge of sleep(nidraagnaana)etc are characteristics of thamas which denotes its mooda avastha.The lightest (laaghava)sathwika chitha has qualities diametrically opposite to these.It is pure light and energy in its form,it draws everything upwards(utsaarana)it spreads and expands everywhere freely .The sathwa which emerges(aavirbhootha)after cutting away the coverings of thamas and rajas,is prakaasa(light).It raises one to dharma,gnaana,vairagya and aiswarya.It is not affected by the anaiswarya,the obstructions to the free will,or by tendency to love adharma,like the rajasik and thamasik chitha.

The covering of rajas and thamas is called aavarana(covering)and moha.(desires).The aavarana get decreased by praharsha (happiness)of knowledge of oneness .Then there is only sarvavyapipurusha’s prakaasa or light.And covering is totally lost with that.The work done to get dharma and aiswarya is the function of a little bit of rajas remaining. In a yogin who has reached asampragnaathasamadhi,the chithasathwa is all the time in the middle position(madhyabhoomika)of the light of pragna.There is no thamas or rajas there.There is no moodathwa or pravrithy there.What is there then?Sarvagnathwa,samprasaadathwa and sarvavyaapithwa.(knowledge of everything,bliss ,and expansion everywhere ).There is no seed of karma so that samsaara does not sprout again.Yogi is forever meditating(dhyaanamagna)in an athikraanthabhaava(one who has crossed samsaara state)in the 4 th state of Thureeya ,is fixed in that pragna position (Hence Geetha calls him a sthithapragna).Chitha is now in

its swaroopa. For a yogichitha who has thus ,with practice(abhyasa)and vairagya(nonattachment)matured (putapaaka)and devoid of mala(impurities)of raja and thamas,heated as gold in the intellect,fixed in swaroopa(own true form)and withdrawn all the senses ,with adhikaara for gnaana and nityanityaviveka of cause and effect,which is vivekakhyathi(fame of wisdom),there is nothing more to be done or to be achieved.The chitha is only sathwapurushaanyathaakhyaathimaathra and is dhyaanaleena in dharmamegha.Dharmamegha is a term famous among yogins.Those who meditate call the chitha from the state of Sathwapurushanyathaakhyathi to dharmamegha as Prasamkhyana which is absolute(paramam).There is no difference between dharma and dharmi and chitha is samaanadhikarana or attained oneness of dharmadharmi in dharmamegha.

The cause(hethu)which destroys vivekakhyathi ,and which is the cause for chithisakthi is the nirodhasamadhi.In vivekakhyathi there is sadhutha and asadhutha and these has to be understood.Impurity (asudhi)is in the form of sukha(pleasure)and dukha(pain)and moha(desires).Even for a wise man(viveki)the desire for sukha ends up in dukha.Therefore the desire in the dualities has to be totally abandoned.If there is asudhi inside,chithisakthi will be less.Ability for direct perception(sakshathkaara)will be less.Only when all the forms of impurities of sukha ,dukha and moha are abandoned forever chitha becomes its visudharoopa(most pure form)and is revealed in its

resplendent energy /light form.Whatever is the vishaya(subject or sensory objects)perceived by our sense organs ,all of them have asudhi of duality .Therefore intellect has to be separated from such forms and the chithisakthi which alone is the form of truth should be made into a mirror to see ,the purushachethas identifies itself in pure form.Chithisakthi is prakrithi.Own sakthi of Purusha.in it the purusha concentrates all energy as if in a mirror ,and visualize oneself.This samyoga of sakthi and purusha is an energy dance.Rather a perception of each in the other as a mirror.This chitha fixed in own chithisakthi with ekagratha ,in dhyaana of it forever,is aprathisamkrama.It does not change its focus into any other object.It does not change its course or go away from her in search of another.Chitha without prathisamkrama does not have change (aparinaami).There is no three dharmalakshana described earlier in such a chitha,and no change in kriya or lakshana either.Asamkranthi pertains to the communication of subjects.For a chitha which is changeless, resplendent chithisakthi is sidha(achieved).And budhi is sathwa and bright.But different from chithisakthy.Budhi has vrithibaahulya (different functions)and therefore there are defects.To be perfect that also has to be controlled.With gnaanaprasaadamaathra,and paravairagya even vivekakhyathi can be controlled .Thus in the chitha which is devoid of any type of vrithy(sarvachithavrithynirodha) nirbheeja state occurs.Nirbheeja means seedless.The seed of jathyaayurbhoga(jaathi+birth.Ayurbhoga=enjoyment of life)is the effect of love for karma which is always associated with klesa(sorrows).Multitudes of jeeva in different forms are born and continue the tree of samsaara .Dharmamegha of the yogi is a state in which this beeja of samsaara totally lost .In this way,both sampragnaatha and asampragnaatha types of Samadhi as yoga has to be understood.

Pathan:-3.Thadhaa drashtu:swaroope avasthaanam

Vyas:-What will be the swabhava of purusha who is intellect and consciousness,in such a chitha which is devoid of vishaya .He is perceiving only the swaswaroopa,as chithisakthi or kaivalya forever .In that state the yogichitha is always raised (Uthaanachitha ) The always raised state of the yogin’s chitha into a state of kaivalya is Mentioned

(S:-According to Sankara the chitha is sathathothaayini.I am grateful for Dr Sukumar Azheekode to use this term for my chitha in his preface to my study on Chilappathikaara))

.

Vachas:-Purusha ,who has become one with his own swaroopa which is always experienced ,and without his intelligence interested in any other vishaya ,is by his own nature of intellect and consciousness Light like the sun.(Savithuriva prakaasa:).Swabhaava is own bhaava.The state in which purusha does not move away from that state has vishayaabhaava(absence of vishaya)It is called abhaava in bhaava.In the prakaasa which is swaswabhaava,lack of other vishaya.(or jada).Because of vishayaabhaava,intellect is always purushaathmaka and concentrated in purusha only and therefore called purushaarthavathy(one with purushaartha).Vivekakhyathi is also a vishayabhoga and is included in the purushaartha.Then how one can say that a sidha in

nirudha state is totally in vishayaabhaava?This soothra is to answer that question.Purusha is chaithanyaswaroopa and is nirupaadhika(without any cause or dependence)If a red flower is kept near a prism(sphatika)the colourless sphatika will appear as coloured.It is like this the nirupaadhika purusha appears to have the colours of the sopaadhika prakrithi.Prakrithi is jada.Prakaasa is colourless.When prakaasa enters through a physical object which is part of jadaprakrithi,one can see the spectrum of different colours.This illusionary colours are what we call samsaara or life.Once the light passes through a second prism the colours are lost and it assumes its natural colourless state or swaswaroopa again.Thus,when we obstruct the bhaavana or imagination of different or manyness of samsaara,chitha becomes swaswabhaava and is called nivrutha from the various dependent factors or upaadhi.If the samsaara and its colours are not obstructed by chithavrithinirodha,the colours of the many (due to rajas)will be there and it is seen as sopaadhika with functions of karmabandha(bound by actions).The chitha which is permanently fixed in the swaroopa does not change again ,nor does it raise again(uthaanam)It is aparinaamini.The chitha which is not nirudha ,permanently can again raise(vyuthana)and is parinamini.For the chithi which is kootastha(center)and nitya(eternal)there is no more births.It does not fall(chyavana)from its position.In asampragnaathasamadhi this happens.Whereas in sampragnaathasamadhi ,the chitha is not sadaa yogi(always in yogic state)and there are periods of vyuthana and periods of total samadhi which alternate .This is the only difference between them.

Pathanj:-4.Vrithisarropyamitharathra.

Vyas:-In chitha with vyuthaana ,purusha is having certain balance in chithavrithi.The soothra of Only one darsana,Khyathi alone is darsana .Chitha like an

ayaskaanthamani(magnetic iron )by its mere saannidhya(presence)is useful(upakaari)The purusha who has this vision becomes swami or Yajamana.In his consciousness of chithavrithi the cause for purusha is anaadi.(eternal)

Vachas:-Only for the chitha with vyuthanavrithi(function of arousal)there are different forms like santha(peaceful)dheera(bold)mooda(foolish)etc.For the chitha which became one with purusha by total nirudha,this differences does not occur.The chitha in the example of red flower and sphatika,grasps the difference when the flower is near it and when it is not near it.Thus it grasps both bhedabudhi(difference in intelligence)and abhedabudhi(oneness in intelligence)and the reason for it.Intelligence experiences through its functions of grasping sabda and other vishaya,by its naturalness(praakrithathwa)and by its form of energy(chidroopathwa),and feels that I am mooda,I am santha and I am sorrowful etc.It projects these on to purusha which is naturally having chithavrithinirodha .The faculties with which budhi experiences have the qualities of purusha(purushathwa)These are revealed as purushavrithi(functions of purusha)When the opposites are experienced ,the one who experiences and the experienced are possible with and without vivekhakhyathi.(wisdom).This difference is revealed due to vivekakhyathi(wisdom ).In chitha in every samkrama(entry from one field to another is samkrama)with its own form is known by its own communication of intelligence.For the sathwapurusha the enjoyment or bhoga ,is a very complex process

and is special.Vyasa quotes the soothra of Panchasikha ,Ekam eva darsanam Khyaathireva darsanam.

Ekam eva darsanam:-Darsana or vision is only One. Darsana or vision is experienced in budhi(intelligence)by its naturalness,physical property(jadatha)and it grasps both sensory objects and subjects like wisdom(viveka).Without this process Purusha cannot experience his own swaroopa of energy.Both the internal and external darsana are ultimately visions of the same type by Intelligence.

(S:-This is a profound truth raised ,since the nervous energy or bioenergy functioning is the same in both cases)

Khyaathireva darsanam:-Khyathi is a vrithi of dharma like udaya and vyaya and in common parlance of origin and expenditure or death.This birth and death or origin and loss ,and rising and setting are loukikavrithi (functions of the world)And these are also the vrithi of the eka as mentioned above. (S:-The aloukiki and

lokiki ,cosmic and bioenergy are the same and there is only one light /darsana /energy which is seen in different forms by the intelligence due to its characteristics and abilities is a very ancient discovery of Indian scientists and Vachaspathi Misra is repeating this

idea of Vyasa

for everything perceived by our senses,and each have different functions as well.Because of these different functions their gathi or movement also differs from each other.But the common law is that the panda or mass with its size and weight determines its guruthwa

,before Einstein was on the scene of science.There is a beginning and end

and laghuthwa and by these the gathi also is determined but all these are due to the ultimate energy of Brahma ,says the ancients and this is not disproved so far by modern science,but has been proved partially.When ancients say that prakrithi with its form and changing functions and panda and gathi is the same as Brahma in its saguna aspect,the equation is the same as energy =m x c2.The only difference in balancing the equation is that one is done in Sanskrit and another in English. The words udaya and vyaya are used in Indian astronomy for gain and loss /for raising and setting /for birth and death )

The swabhaava of purusha is chaithanya or oorja(energy)This oorjasakthi is avyaktha(not perceived)for sense organs.But is perceived by subtle anumaana (sookshmaanumaanaprathyaksha).Therefore common people cannot easily see or perceive it easily and fix concentration on it for meditation.If the mind is already fixed in avidya and in jada(inert)forms of the seen world,the process of meditation on energy that is unseen and subtle becomes more and more difficult.To become the yajamaana of this prapancha and to have swamibhaava one has to know it.To know it one has to associate with several forms of avidya (different types of knowledge systems pertaining to the universe).Only the one who do yaj(sacrifice)can become yajmaana.The one who knows this universe,and without attached to it,sacrifice it is the swami of it or yajmaana and Purusha is swami of Prakrithi because of this.The chitha of yajmaana becomes swam(own)and therefore he is swami.He who sacrifice the world ,knowing it wisely thus

becomes the swami of his prakrithi and is the purusha.Purusha and prakrithi become one only when purusha after knowing prakrithi sacrifice it.(without attachment or kaama)Not when he keeps everything for himself.The one who selfishly keeps riches and power has not become qualified to be a yajmaana or swami of prakrithi.The association of Purusha with his sahadharmini prakrithi is thus not one of kaama .The chitha meditates to do upakaara (help)to the entire world so that “ I need ,I need(enlightenment)”is only regarding the upakaara,and only in such a chitha the eesitha (eesithwa)is revealed as light or enlightenment.That means only in a unselfish compassionate heart the Godliness and enlightenment happen.At the same time that chitha have no dualities like upakaara,apakaara ,or any tendency to divide the bhoga(enjoyments)between me and you(since it is indivisible and one only.)or a desire for more or for a change .The difference is only because of the saanidhya(saannidhyamaathra)and the association also is saannidhyamaathra,No other association or difference from purusha and prakrithi in this context.that is why the imagery of Ayaskaanthamanikalpa is used. There is purushasaannidhya in chitha.It is the sign of chitha.And purusha has no desakaalabheda(time-space differences)or anekathwa(manyness).The power of enjoyment(bhokthrusakthi) of chitha is power of enjoyment of purusha.It is this power which is seen as ayaskanthamanikalpa just by its presence.That is,the enjoyment is by the change in form as sabda etc . and the bhoga are the vrithy of the chitha having sabdaadiroopa.There is no difference between the dharma and the chaithanya (energy)of chitha.Because of vrithisaaroopya(similarity of function)both are to be understood as purusha .The chithadharma of a person and his chithachaithanya and that jeevathma as vyashtipurusha are thus the same .A chitha who has become one with cosmic purusha ,without samyoga to worldly objects ,gives away the parts or whole of the aiswarya as alms to the needy and shares everything with others.And with this giving away of part or

everything he still remains poorna and changeless .This type of chithachaithanya is amaithuna,asamyoga,aparinaamini,thyaagaswaroopa,and upakaaraprada and these are the lakshana (signs)with which to understand such individuals.

Bhoga is associated with own swami.Which of such bhoga is caused by vidya and which by avidya?How is the causeless Purusha originated?For this the quotation”Karma are done like swapna by avidya”is given.In such chithavrithibodha ,projecting dheera,santha and mooda and such divisions or separatisms are enjoyed by the avidya like swapna (dream enjoyments)only.Samyoga happens when a man and woman wishes to see the face of a child or progeny and therefore it is a function which for sprouting of the seed of aasha(wish or desire).Similarly samsaarabheeja is also due to samyoga.The tendencies of avidya are reasons for samsaara and samyoga.Because of the association with avidya we find the anekathwa(manyness)in chithavrithy.

Pathan:-5.Vrithaya:panchathayya:klishta aklishta:

Thaa:punarnirodhavyaa bahuthwe sathichithasya:

Vyas:-There are five types of vrithi ,klishta and aklishta.They are cause of klesha(sorrows).The kleshavrithy are produced from the ksethra(temples)of

karmaasaya(dwellings of karma or actions)Aklishta are khyathivishaya(their subject is khyathi or fame)and are opposite to gunaadhikaara.(right by quality of the three guna).Aklishta are those fallen from the path of klishtapravaaha(flow of klishta)When klishta are cut(chidra)aklishta occur.When aklishta are cut(chidra)klishta also happen.The cyclical repetition of these vrithi(functions)which are jaatheeya(born)are called samskaaravrithy. In this way the vrithisamskaarachakra goes on revolving endlessly .Only when chitha is permanently fixed in Athmakalpa and total laya in Athma happens,end of the samsaarachakra happens.

Vacha:-The Purusha is explained.Unless one knows the vrithy,one cannot control it.In one in thousand purushayus (janma)only such a state happens and it is not a common thing.Then how can several men and women are expected to get chithavrithinirodha ? To clear that doubt,this soothra which explains the swaroopa is introduced.There are several functions(vrithys)to be obstructed in the chitha.They are divided into klishta and aklishta with five subcategories in each.The five are the limbs of the one.Each limb into five vrithi and those vrithys are grasped by chithabheda like maithri etc.Thus the Ekavachana(singular) become bahuvachana(pleural).The five vrithi classification is for all vrithys whether chaithra or maithra.That means the Jaathi of chitha is always Ekavachana(One .single)Chitha is One.The classification is for use in different functions.(division of labour).When one obstructs the klishta functions by paravairagya only the aklishtavrithis are born. Vrithy are the hethu(cause)for klesha like asmitha.Vrithi is the cause for all actions.Klesha is caused by the vrithy of rajas and thamas used for the purushaartha. Therefore actions and functions themselves are cause for sorrows.They are thus sorrows.To remove the klesha ,or difficulties and sorrows,the society of organs of karma

become functional .The karmaasaya become kshethra (dwelling places)for removal of klesha or sorrows.Depending upon pramaana and according to ones own likings and capabilities of cognition,suitable organs of karma (karmaasaya)makes dharma and adharma in that kshethrabhoomi(land of temples).For this it creates many klishtavrithis (difficult functions or actions to achieve removal of sorrow).

Aklishta is khyaathivishaya.Khyaathi is the tranquil quiet flow of prajnaaprasaada(bliss of pragna)in the sathwa intellect.For this,the vishayi has only one vishaya ,and that is sathwapurushaviveka alone.From the beginning of karya(effect)through the right of the gunaas ,the rights of charithra(history) proceeds and this rights of guna is opposite to the endstage or vivekakhyathi.In the last vivekakhyahi there is no guna or the rights of the guna.Only in the beginning ,it is needed for the traveler .In aklishta ,vrithy are only pramaanaas.It is devoid of likes and dislikes(raagadweshamuktha)and perceives only the praanabrith(ruler of praana)in everything by Janmadarsana(perception by birth). What is meant by fall from the flow of klishta?In a janma which had opportunities for advice from an Acharya,for learning aagama and anumaana ,and for practice ,by abhyasa(practice)and vairagya ,Klishta undergoes a chidra.Klishta is made discontinuous. Thus one becomes fallen from the flow of klishta and enters the aklishta flow.That is ,gets liberation from the flow of samsaara and enters the flow of liberation.Even if one lives in saalagraama,among the company of one hundred kiraatha and their complex

lifestyles,that soul will not be affected by that lifestyle and it will never become a kiraatha after this .If one falls from aklishtavrithy to flow of samsaara the opposite is the experience.

By the maturing of samskara ,human beings can change over from klishta to aklishta flow stage by stage.By jaatheeyaka,there are two jaathi,one is klishta and the other is aklishta only.These are the two samskaara(cultural) jaathi .The samskrithichakra repeats with these two jaathi .And this repletion is obstructed in Samadhi and perfect chithalaya happens.This is called pralaya.This is the true form of chitha(chithaswaroopa).All other forms are imaginary only(kalpitharoopa).The five are for meaning and not for sabda.And is not to be taken literally.

Pathan:-6 .Pramaana viparyaya:vikalpa nidraasmrithaya:

7.Pratyakshaanumaanaagamaa:pramaanaani.

Vyas:-The vrithys as klishta and aklishta are five each.Pramaana,viparyaya ,vikalpa,nidra ,and smrithi are the five vrithy.Pratyaksha ,anumaana and aagama are the pramaana. Pratyaksha canbe taken as Indriyapratyaksha .The direct perception of the Indriya through their pranaalika(naadi or nervous system) the paraaga(the pollen)of their external objects and grasping of their general and specific meaning .(Perception of external sensory world by sense organs through nervous system and their understanding and analysis by the respective brain centers).The fruit of this isavasishta(balance).Why? Because it is the pourusheya(subjective)chithavrithibodha(consciousness of functions of an individual chitha which is subjective due to various reasons).In each individuals

budhi(intellect)the communication and understanding will be different due to several modifying factors.

S:-Anumaana is a vrithy which is functioning in the anumeya of similar class(thulyajaathi)and differences in dissimilar classes(bhinnajaathi)and because of this anuvrithy and vyaavrithy in similar and dissimilar classes respectively ,and their association and comparison ,giving a general avadhaarana (understanding )of them.for example,the gathi(movement)of desantharaprapthi(in travel to another place or space),the position of moon,stars ,chaithrarithu(season of chaithra)etc can be done with anumaana by scientists(saasthrakaara).Even without crossing the Vindhya ,one can measure the rithu,the eclipses of moon and sun visualized there etc can be known. This is also possible by sruthi or aagama.By following the words of experienced scientists of posterity and comparing them with our own and other’s experience ,depending upon our and their consciousness and its samkranthi ,and advised by knowledge of the sabda and transferred by vrithy of sabda and their artha by generations of teachers to posterity is called aagama or sruthi.For this a second meaning is not needed either for the advisor or for the seer.What is said by the original seer is seen and said by several generations of experimenters and thus it becomes accepted by all for millennia of experience of millions of people without opposition is called sruthi or aagama.It is the reference material for all scientists of the present from the past experience of scientists

tested by generations irrespective of spacetime.

Vachas:-To determine whether something is true or not it should undergo the test of five vrithy.These are given .The five vrithy are advised depending upon the vigraha of vachana(division of the sentence or saying).Therefore in dwandasamaasa ,the yoga of itharethara (one and another)will come.Like saying dukha which is anitya and asuchi,and sukha that is nitya and suchi for avidya and vidya. In direct perception by senses the vibrama (false knowledge)like dingmoha and alaathachakra etc can occur depending upon the understanding of the individual.Therefore to negate such wrong perceptions and establish truth the five vrithy are resorted to by scientists to test any statement . All the five have to be applied and only after that the truth can be established without any doubt.Aagama is the science tested in this way by ancient scientists and taken as reference by the present scientists when there is difference of opinion or doubt among themselves to establish a point.

General signs for division of functions of pramaana:-Pratyaksha ,anumaana and aagama are pramaana.Prama is the consciousness of a particular individual about something and hence is a pourusheya function.It is thus relative.The karana (functional organ)of prama is called pramaana.The individual determines whether what he thinks,says is truth by the pramaana.All pramaana have two divisions each ,nyuna(negative)and adhika(positive)The ultimate cause of all the negative and positive pramaana is the goal of the individual to establish a point.For this one begins his enquiry first from the sensory perceptions.And the consciousness grows through anumaana and finally by the references or aagama all the doubts are cleared.

Indriyapratyaksha(perceptions by sense organs):-

The projected meanings are negated.In that subject,in the external objects ,the perception of gnaanaroopa(form of wisdom) is negated.The form of wisdom is within the chitha.In that one can see the association with the external objects of knowledge.The sense organs as bees takes the paraaga(pollen)of these objects through the pranaalika or the naadi (nervous connections).Some people say that this is only a general meaning and others say that this is a special meaning.It is saamanyavishesha or both.Why?because Athma is Ekaantha and therefore saamanya and vishesha are one for it.Those who are in favour of the vishesha theory maintain that the direct perception and the knowledge following it can be tested and separated by anumana and aagama subsequently stage by stage.Just as the general (samanya) which is reflected in the pratyaksha ,vishesha also is possible to be separated out (pratyupasarjaneebhootha)and the meaning has to be understood like that.All these are for the single aim of ultimate saakshathkaara.Therefore these are the methods for the ultimate wisdom and not wisdom itself. Thus a fruit is there for such actions.And the nishkaamakarma is negated by that

S:-.(Fruit is formed when a bee take paraaga from flower.But that fruit is not for the sake of the bee and is for others.This must be the reason why Vyasa used the word paraaga ).

The fruit is the chithavrithibodha which is pourusheya for an individual jeevathma.Then how this individualized consciousness become the vrithy inherent in chitha? What is its fruit? In the function (kriya)of seeing the khadira (Acacia catechu also called gaayathri in some ayurveda books .),the kriya of parasu(instrument for cutting wood),cheda(cutting act)or palaasa(a different tree and its identification )are not there.Similarly in a consciousness of direct perception of a purusha nothing else remains except the experience of seeing .In the form of energy which is within the action of intellect ,there is no other action or effect except the sakshaathkaara(direct perception)of that form.The energy associated with intellect and the functions associated with intellect are energy only and both the pramaana and the fruit of it are equally (samaanaadhikarana)energy .No other thing exists other than energy .And explanation like this can be communicable to each individual even though their experiences and opinions on the same object may vary.The act of cognition does not vary.

After the direct perception ,saasthrabudhi (intellect of science )originates.Thisscientific intellect is having the signs of pravrithi(repeating actions),and because of perception of interconnectedness which can unite ones observational fruits(data)with the anumaana of the ancient seers(aagama)without contradictions or differences .We recognize that anumaana and anumeya and pratyaksha existed before the aagamaas also .The aagama is the pratykashaanumaana of those before us .Only in a chitha which has the temper of jignaasa(yearning to know)as a vishishtadharma(special and great dharma)anumeya and anumaana are seen as equal jaathi.In the sadhyadharmasaamanya(general dharma of sadhya or possibilities)they have equal meaning(samaanaartha).All contradictions(vairudhya)are negated by the dharma of saadhana.And saadhana,saaadhya

and sidhi become one.(abheda).There is no bhinnajaathi(different class )swapaksha(my view)and parapaksha(other’s view)or virudhabhaava(contradictions).There exists a very extraordinary(asaadhaarana) oneness or ekanthikathwa.(The ekanthikabhakthi of Bhagavatha and the Advaitha of the vedanthin is the same).The linga(sign)of sambandha(union)is its sambadhyatha(ability to unite).For the Eka there is no association because for it there is no second.In this way,the meaning of sambandha(association)of senses with their subjects have to be understood.By the cognition of the general(saamaanyaavadhaaranam) the dwanda(duality)of the objects of perception will be removed.Because of lack of cognition of association of the special(vishesha),the general(saamaanya) is the anumaana,which is dependent on the communication of the association(sambandhasamvedana) and this cognition of sambhandha(sambhandagraha)is easily visible.For example.Vindhya has no gathiseela(movement).Gathinivruthy or absence of gathi is here liberation from desantharaprapthi(going to another place).But we are aware that without going to another place on earth one can calculate the gathi of the moon,stars,chaithrarithu etc.Therefore anumaana is considered as evidence of truth.The aagama being the scientific experiences and visions of the ancients are accepted as references in science.These scientists are called Aaptha.Aapthi is the association with philosophical wisdom,compassion and the efficiency of karana(functions /profession)and therefore have these qualities within them.Their anumaana therefore has both knowledge (wisdom and professional knowledge)as well as experience(anubhava).And in sruthi ,due

to its antiquity we do not know the name of the first rishi who formulated the reference science.The original gnaana is so ancient.But it is not unscientific.When a person hear an apthavaakya ,if the same type of gnaana is originated in his chitha similar to that of the original scientist,his gnaanasurya(sun of knowledge)moves from his own mandala(field)of consciousness and enters the mandala of the consciousness of the ancient ancestor(this is called samkranthi in parlance with the movement of sun from one zodiacal sign to another)and becomes one with that

consciousness(Thanmayeebhaava)

the individual is thus removed and the subjective become objective knowledge .This growth of pragna by comparison with the words of reference of the ancient teachers is termed Pragnaapthi .(acquisition of a better pragna). If one cognizes the aagama with concentration,the cognizer,the teacher and the cognized become one.The multiplicity as in the case of ten daadima,six poopa etc are not there.In aagama we see that those who desire swarga(heaven)worship chaithra .Therefore ,it is not a new science.In the dharma of chith(light)or energy,praised by Manu and others and in the Vedas which is accepted by all alike ,the pragnaapthi of the Eka(one) is the chithavrithy of the sarvagna(the all-knower).Smrithi accepts sruthi.But all the injunctions of the smrithi need not be acceptable to sruthi.

The

dosha(mistakes)due to the likes and dislikes of

Pathanj:-8.Viparyayo mithyaagnaanamathadroopaprathishtam.

Vyas:-How does it become pramaana?If one says that he had seen two moons it will be against the pramaana of the ancient scientists and naturally the defects of the seers vision has to be examined(double vision).Avidya has five parva.They are avidya itself,asmitha,raagadwesha,abhinivesa,and klesa.These themselves are called

thamas,moha,mahaamoha,thaamisra and andhathaamisra.All these are formed due to chithamala(impurities of chitha)

Vachas:-Viparyaya is mithyaagnaana and not true knowledge.The proof for the viparyaya is the evidence to show that it is false .All knowledge which is not based on the form of light of knowledge ,are false knowledge.The example taken is the one moon for the earth.This is a truth experimented and ascertained by generations of astronomers by observations and experiments and experience and proofs.And accepted as apthavaakya.Therefore if someone says that he has seen two moons it is a statement to be verified and proven to be false or true.Every new discovery or statement has to be tested in this way.Even if it is a scholar his statement has to be verified,proven or disproven on the basis of pramaana.Once proven to be false it is apramaana and mithyaagnaana.It is possible that a previous gnaana can be proven to be mithyagnaana (viparyaya or false knowledge)in a subsequent period.But even then this proof is based on the old knowledge .Gnaana develops and grows through ages by depending upon each other(anyonyaapeksha).And proven with pramaana and accepted only after that.Without these just imagining a new thing as a new discovery just like two moons for earth is taken here as example. (S:-This is to point out the claim of discovery of the jainist

monks that there are two suns and two moons for earth.Varahamihira also has mentioned this claim of the jain monks and disputed it in Panchasidhanthikathanthra.).

The contradictory false knowledge is thus discarded by distinguishing its pramaana and apramaana .In the subject of meaning of elements(bhoothaarthavishaya)pramaana and apramaana are thus important.It is because of the negation ,the viparyaya which is apramaana is included in the categorization of pramaana.One of the pramaana to know a pramaana is apramaana.The avidya is a general name under which there are five names one of it being avidya itself. There are eight sidhi starting from anima for yogins.In them yogins develop moha categorized as asreya and susreya and of different types.These moha are avyaktha,mahad,ahankaara,panchathanmathra,astaswara,athma,budhi,avidya,thamas,and these are poorvajanya (originated previously)and grouped as asmitha in a general name(saamaanyasamgna).Raaga is mahaamoha which gives liberation from the ten vishaya like seen,heard,sabda etc (drashta,aanusravika,sabda)and fix the desire only in the Athma .The animaadisidhi with drishta,aanusravika ,sabda etc can be a obstruction to aathmasidhi in yoga .This is removed by Raaga .Krodha is thaamisra.The abhinivesa which during kalpaanthapralaya become just a thraasa(vibration)is the andhathaamisra. There are 8 types of Thamas,ten types of moha,eighteen types of the mahaamoha thaamisra,and finally the andhathaamaisra are described in Saamkhyakaarika(48).

Pathan:-9.Sabdagnaanaanupaathy vasthusoonyo vikalpa:

Vyas:-Vikalpa is a pramaana.We see people associating the knowledge of sabda(sound)to emptiness of vasthu(vasthusoonyatha).Not only that,when we say chaithanya is purushaswaroopa,chithi is purusha.With nothing else we can explain it.The vrithy is in

its vyapadesa(explanation or advice). How? Like Gouri for Chaithra.(Yathaa chaithrasya Goureethi).Since no dharma of any object is there for purusha ,it is nishkriya.By the word gathi ,the avastha of gathinivrithi (lack of gathi)also has to be understood.Just as in the case of an arrow.Even when we say the dharma of origin(uthpathidharma)to purusha ,we are speaking of the lack of uthpathidharma(lack of origin).That is the dharma before the origin of universe.We are not projecting the dharma of birth or death to purusha.By cognizing this dharma which is vikalpitha,the vyavahaara of asthi(sath.Exists) has to be understood.

Vachas:-Here meaning of sabdagnaana is not aagamapraamaanya.In aagamapraamaanya there is no vikalpa.The meaning has to be understood from the nirvasthukathwa or a state where there is no object .(before the origin of universes).When there is no object ,pramaana also is not there.What pramaana can exist when there is no universe and no human consciousness? Projecting bheda(difference)in abheda(without difference –the eka).Then project abheda in the bheda.And in a vasthu(object)the abhaava of both bheda and abheda.And the aabhaasa of it is vikalpa.This cannot be a pramaana.By a example which is famous for the scientists ,the abheda of the object and the adjective has to be seen.All cows are not white.Therefore saying that the cow in chaithra as white is a special adjective.The

whiteness and the chaithra are here generally identified as One.

S:-In Chaithra season,in the vasanthanavaraathra,there is a MangalaGoureevratha in India.After this the new samvatsara(year)starts in the subcontinent.The Gouri here is to indicate the Chithrapornami(full moon of chaithra)and the Goureepooja.(The whiteness is not only of a cow.)The beginning of the cyclical wheel of time as vishuvath is after this event in india.That is why it is called famous scientifically .(Every one knows it and its relation to agriculture and monsoon and the spring season and new year).

Vachas:The dharma of prapancha like the earth and other spheres are parispanda,chalana,bramana etc.But we know purushadharma is nishkriyathwa and nischalathwa.In saamkheeya the vasthudharma of abhaava is the adjective of purusha.It is abhaava of gathiseela(inertia).Unless we know the laws of the gathi of the spheres we cannot understand what lack or abhaava of gathi is.After knowing gathi well,one has to say that it is not there in this(negation)and by that abhaava cognize the absolute truth as purusha .In this way understand the lack of association of bhaava and abhaava.After quoting this scientific example,another example which is very common and loukika is quoted.The example of arrow.(Thishtathi baana ithi)The movement of an arrow when it is in use,and the lack of movement or inertia when it is not being used .The purusha before ,and the purusha after creation is represented here.

S:-The first is timelessness,and the second is gathi and beginning of time.(Comparable to arrows of time of Stephen Hawking of the new century!1).Once prapancha is created the wheel of time(kaalachakra)is in state of gathi and in function.Before that the lack of gathi and timelessness has to be imagined by the scientist from knowledge of time.The purusha before uthpathi (before creation of universes)has

no gathi or movement while prapancha after creation has gathi .To understand these the examples of beginning of the year,beginning of universes and common example of arrow are shown.(Before Vachaspathi lived Sankaraacharya.He has described this in Chandogya Upanishad bhashya as Dikkaalagathiphalasoonyam hi paramaarthasath .The absolute truth has no spacetime,no gathi,no effect or phala,and it is mistaken as empty by people of lesser intelligence as shoonya or empty though it is full of energy and is not empty.The poorna of the santhimanthra of Upanishads explain this as the symbol of zero.And sidhanthasiromani of Bhaskaracharya calls it Khahara and describes its characters as that of anantha,achyutha.These descriptions from various sources and the antiquity of the symbol of zero as discovery of Indian scientists has to be viewed in the proper perspective to understand the depth of such scientific knowledge. )

Pathan:-10.Abhaavapratyayaalambanaavrithirnidraa

Vyas:-In the awakened jaagrad state we are analyzing the pratyayavisesha .But what about sleep? After a good sleep a person awakens and says :I have slept soundly.My mind is rested.My pragna is clear. But how did he say that and how did he know that in sleep?How can a mind become sorrowful after seing a bad dream?How one is disturbed by certain dreams?How does a

person in sushupthi without even dreams,feel that he felt the body heavy and thoughts disturbed and lazy ?Just like the conscious jagrad person gets the knowledge of experience with analysis of facts and concludes ,how could a person in these situations makes conclusions,have experiences of emotions and objects and how does the mind remembers them even after awakening?That is,even in sleep ,when you are not even conscious of the body or of your individuality ,there is an Aham(I)within us,experiencing even in the absence of pratyaya(objects)and visesha(the consciousness analyzing with willpower).The Samadhi has to be understood as such a chithavrithy in which we can obstruct all pratyaya and still experience truth.To compare the experience of sleep and that of Samadhi one can use sleep(nidra)swapna(dreams)sushupthi(dreamless state)as pramaana.

Vachas:-The word vrithy is allowed for adhikaara(right)Pramaana,viparyaya,vikalpa ,and smrithy(memory)have vrithithwa and therefore the experimenters by their learning and memory gets the right or qualification to experiment with them.These are special rules(visheshavidhi)But nidra(sleep)is a vrithy(function)which is common to all people and everyone understands it and can experiment with it.The vrithy of jagrad and swapna are absent when budhisatwa is covered by thamas.And sushupthi(dreamless sleep)is the state which depends only on the thamoguna.Sathwa and rajas are under the power of thamas and intellect is thamomayi at that time.And purusha in sushupthi is called anthasamgna(internal name).This state of sushupthi is compared to the chithanirodha and kaivalya of Samadhi so that everyone can understand the experience.In awakened(jagrad)state analysis ,conclusions and their memory constitute the special pratyaya.The pragna is satwa.In Samadhi when we have kaivalyadarsana,its memory later on is given by memory of that experience.When the suptha after deep sleep gets up and say that I slept soundly and my chitha is blissful,rested and happy and enlightened ,this

also is due to memory by the sathwapragna in him.Therefore this is comparable . Suppose rajas is predominant and not sathwa,in intellect ,he will remember that he had been sorrowful,and the mind is disturbed and lacks interest in actions.And in case it is thamas which is predominant in the personality,he will be feeling as mooda(ignorant),claantha(tired)and alasa(lazy).The difference in hethu(cause)the effect is different.

The consciousness of a awakened person is dependent on the experience of it during the time of sleep/Samadhi and its memory and the memory is dependent on his predominant personality trait of guna.The pramaana are the functions of vyuthaanachitha.And in samadhichitha(as in sushupthi)they do not exist and they are opposite of Samadhi state.That is why the ekagratha of nidra and Samadhi are comparable.Even in thaamasic nidra there is ekagratha.The ekagratha of nidra is sabeeja(with seeds of karma)Samadhi is the ekagratha of satwaguna.The nirbeejasamadhi is opposite to the sabeejasamadhi of sleep.The sabeejasamadhi of a thaamasika and of raajasika can be compared to the ekagratha of sushupthi.

Pathan:-11.Anubhoothavishayaa sampramosha:smrithi

Vyas:-Whichever pratyaya is remembered by chitha,that is experienced by it.In subjects grasped by intellect chitha have an uparathi(special liking)’When the grahya(cognized)and grahana(process of cognizance)both are enlightening the chitha that jaatheeya samskaara originate or begin to form.From the samskaara are formed the memory or permanent smrithy of cognized and cognizance .Budhi(intelligence)has the shape or form of grahana(cognizance)Smrithy(memory)has form of grahya(cognized).Cognition and its memory gives knowledge .One can remember as two or as its abhaava(absence )also.We remember the bhaava and abhaava forms in sleep and jaagrad .Memories are generated by experience of pramaana,viparyaya,vikalpa,as well as memory of sleep experiences without any of these pramaana.All vrithy are of pain,pleasure and desires.And these are called klesa.Following sukha come raaga and following dukha come dwesha.By these dualities desires are formed.Al these vrithys have to be obstructed.By nirodha(obstruction)Samadhi,either sampragnaatha or asampragnaatha happen.

Vachas:-It is experience which becomes memory.When aananda(bliss)is experienced in the experience ,by pramaanaas ,that also become samsrithy.Gnaana is samskaara only.Its cause when revealed in athmavishaya,and when it is cognized more and more,bliss also increases.This is because Athma and the gnaanasamskaara are both having aananda(bliss)In dhaathupaada (9.61)Mrishastheye is seen.Pramosha is a word originated from that.Smrithi will not cross the limits of past experiences.Because it is the memory of earlier experiences.Because of differences in profession and karma special memories are generated.If one become expert in cognizing a special subject or science special experiences are generated in that field.Thus the memories in it become enlightened prathibha.When memory works in special fields of interest like art,sciences etc with analytic faculties,the expertise in cognizance and the love (uparathi)in the grahya (known

)subject increase and these two types of memory generation occur and becomes part of our consciousness.In fact it is swaroopa reflecting and getting enlightened entering both grahya and grahana.Anjana acquire form by its own vyanjaka swabhaava(expressive behaviour) and this means the form of truth is its own cause.Effect expressing or revealing its real form is the cause is what is called vyanjaka.The intellect remembers its true cause is the athma and thus grasps or cognizes the oneness of it with Athma.This process is called grahana(cognition).Grahana is the cause .Intellect has a prior cause which can be cognized through the process of its grahana.It and the image(chaaya)which is a vikala are one due to the predominant gunabhaava.The cognized form must be a preexisting one.The form of grahya(cognized)before the cognition,and its different vrithy are meant.Smrithi or memory is the perceived by the different vrithy.It is very difficult to obstruct all memories.Samadhi is a state where one sits with no action,no movement and no memory ,and it is difficult in a prapancha which is by nature having several vrithy,movement,and gathi and memories of pasts.

S:-The term grahana in Sanskrit also means an eclipse.And chaya is the shadow created By a dark planet ,the earth on a bright body .The vikalpitha shadow of a sphere ,and how its global shape is cognized by the shadow,and the intellect and its cognizant power in this process,and the mention of the first cause of gnaana before all the spheres and its

cognizance ,and its memory in a people for generations and the implications of scientific acumen of such people have to be thought of here.The astronomy which cognizes the prapanchagathi or the unverse and the consciousness which by making the intellect quiet ,tries to get beyond timespace and memories are to be understood as a practical experiment of cognition of that state prior to formation of universes when only the energy as Brahma existed.

Pathan:-12.Abhyaasavairaagyaabhyaam thannirodha:

What is the method to obstruct the chithavrithy that lead to klesha? Vairagya and abhyaasa. The chitha is like a river having two flows.One is Kalyana(auspicious)and the other is papa(inauspicious).The flow which through wisdom enters kaivalya is called Kalyaanavaahini.The one which through lack of wisdom(aviveka) enters samsaara is called paapavaahini.By vairagya one can solidify the flow to samsaara.By abhyaasa of vivekadarsana forever,the flow to kaivalya has to be strengthened .By these two methods simultaneously done one can achieve chithavrithinirodha.

Vachas:-For the obstruction of chithavrithy two ways are given.Abhyaasa and vairaagya.The chitha as a river ends in ocean where all its vikalpa are destroyed .The river ends in the oceanand becomes one with it.Instead of words like Kaivalyapraagbhaara,samsarapraagbhaara,kaivalyasaagara,samsaarasaagara ,used in Vyasbhaashya,here the words are Praagbhaara:prabhandha: The course of a river is towards a lower plane .It is nimnagathi(flows down)This flow is nimnathaa gambheeratha ,and agaathatha (the deep and the great down plane) .For vyasa both kaivalya and samsaara are praagbhara and nimna.The difference is in their direction and both are oceans with greatness and depth .One is to viveka and kaivalya.The

kalyaanavaahini.The other is to aviveka and samsaara and is paapavaahini.

Pathan:-13.Thathra sthithou yathno abhyaasa:

Vyas:-When all the chithavrithy are silenced by obstruction,it becomes prasaanthavaahini (flow quietly and in tranquility)and this is sthithi.For this one should have prayathna,veerya,utsaaha etc .(one should take effort to achieve this state,for that one should have energy ,as well as a willpower )These are saadhana for the achievement of the goal, as well as for continueing the anushtaana (efforts)for it,and continued abhyaasa(practice).

Vachas:-The lakshana(signs)of abhyaasa ,its swaroopa and prayojana (uses)are said.Abhyaasa or practice is the effort to achieve sthithi in Samadhi.Sthithi is the ekagratha(onepointed concentration)in sathwika vrithy,which is pure and prasaanthavaahini ,while all the rajasic and thamasic vrithy cease.All efforts taken to achieve this is called abhyaasa.For taking the effort one should have veerya(energy)and utsaaha(willpower adesire to achieve).Prayathna is saadhana to achieve sthithi in samadhi.All the external and internal rules(yama and niyama)belong to sadhana. Sadhana is the effort taken by the saadhaka or individual.It is not the phala or the effect

.It is not the aim or goal either.The effort taken by a person to reach the goal and to achieve the fruits of that aim are together called sadhana.

Pathan:-14 Sathu dheerghakaala nairantharya sathkaaraasevitho dridabhoomi:

Vyasa:-For a very long period and without stop ,one has to do tapas,and Brahmacharya with vidya and sradha .Then one becomes fixed in that avastha.This avastha of fixity is called dridabhoomi .Once a person reach dridabhoomi ,the karmasamskaara will not arise

Vachas:-To reach the plane of dridabhoomi where karmasamskaara will not arise,one has to do practice with involvement ,concentration for a prolonged period.With such practice one can achieve three riches simultaneously.

1.Dridaavastha called dridabhoomy 2.the state of existence where no more karmavaasana arise and bind 3.Sthithiroopa or ekagrasathwikavrithy .

If we see these qualities in any individual understand that ,that person has done abhyaasa for a prolonged period.

Pathan:-15 Drishtaanusravikavishayavithrushnasya vaseekaarasamgnaa vairaagyam.

Vyas:-The desires in women,food and drinks,in riches and other seen luxuries,the desires in heaven,videhalaya,prakrithilaya etc which are heard luxuries are lost by such individuals.Chitha finds out dosha(imperfections)in the use of both divya and loukika practices .Then ,vaseekaara ,which is without any bhoga due to prasamkhyaana ,and

without any heya or upaadeya happens.Vaseekaara is a name given to vairagya.

Vachas:-Lack of desire occur in all objects whether living or nonliving.Aiswarya brings power .Because the acquisition of women,riches,cattle,and foods and drinks and their enjoyment makes one the owner of these ,and thus power is exerted on these .Ownership of aiswarya is same as aadhipathya and power.Anusrava is veda.Whatever is related to that is aanusravika.To reach heaven people do sacrifices according to injunction in the veda.This desire as well as desire to become videha or prakrithilaya are also lost.The state of lack of raaga or dwesha ,with no desire whatsoever is vairaagya.The person has no desire for enjoyment of any type of luxury.Thus the chitha lacks heyopaadeya and is abhogaathmika.Vaseekaara is a name to denote intelligence with no dualities of raaga and dwesha or desire in them .

When one thinks about the vishaya with enveloped thaapathraya(three sorrows) the chitha finds its imperfections and naturally looses desire in them.Only in this way vairagya is obtained.The bala or power of such vairagya is prasamkhyana.The prasamkhyana has four stages according to aagama and vaseekaara is the fourth stage .The four stages in order are yathamaana,vyathireka,ekendriya and vaseekaara.Raaga etc are called kashaaya and they function as chithavrithy(function of chitha)through sense

organs in the subjects of each sense organ .To control the functions of dualities like raaga ,when the chitha starts the effort for the first time,that beginning stage is called yathamaana.Vyathireka is the stage when what has begun have matured and digested and separated and cognized by the chitha.The nitya and anitya are cognized separately in this stage after careful analysis .When maturity is thus achieved,the sense organs become inactive in their usual binding with external things and become ekendriya(one organ)in the mind internally as just an outsukya(curiosity)of knowledge .In this way as curiosity and nivrithyroopa ,the intellect which is devoid of interest in enjoyment of either loukika or divya things is the fourth stage called vaseekaara.In this way stage by stage the chitha becomes developed and fixed in the fourth stage of vairagya called vaseekaara.

Pathan:-16.Thathparam purushakhyaathergunavaithrushnyam.

Vyas:-When one gets vairagya in seen and heard things ,through practice of vision of purusha ,purity of chitha is attained.By the wisdom of intellect ,he lacks desire both in vyaktha and avyaktha .Vairagya is that state.Beyond vairagya only its gnaanaprasaada (bliss of gnaana)exists.The awakening of this gnaanaprasaada is called pratyudayakhyathi.(Prathi=again,every .Udaya=awakening)

Vachas:-Vairagya in apara and para ,and after that lack of desire even in purushakhyathiguna.The paravairagya is the opposite caue for paravairagya.Only the person reaches it become viraktha.A person aiming at vision of purusha,by constant practice and acharyopadesa ,aagama and anumaana reaches Samadhi and visualize purusha.The interest in purusha is obtained by poorvapunya(good deeds of previous janma)and by the control of rajas and thamas,and concentration in sathwa ,the wisdom of difference between nitya and anitya are searched only for the goal of darsana of

purusha.Then he becomes fixed in dharmamegha state.Sathwapurusha is viraktha even in the prakrithi with its thriguna.That vairagya is adwaya(single)Earlier the vairagya was intermingled with particles of rajas and thamas in a satwasamudra.That is prakrithilaya.Samkhyakaarika(45)says Vairaagyaath prakrithilaya about this.That means between two opposites there is a gnaanaprasaada, above them and beyond.The prasaadamaathra is cognized here.Chithasathwa is by nature prasaada.The rajas and thamas add impurity to it.And in the endstage there is no more of impurities and only prasaada without the duality occur.Here prasaada is no more to be sought but already obtained.Jeeva is muktha and vidwaan .Even the bhaava of samsaara is lost and sidhathwa have become the bhaava.How?The avidya and klesha are totally destroyed.No more of gathi or samkrama or dualities to be overcome exists.This is kaivalya.Dharmaadharma have ended.Janthu(English equivalent is animal ) means one with jaathu or jaathi ( birth ) For everything that is born ,a jaathi(a class) into a particular varga(classification into morphological types) is there.There is an end to it just as it has a beginning.For a person who has kaivalya the birth and death have ceased and therefore he is beyond jaathi.The causes of samsaara are klesha and klesha have their cause in karmaasaya.All these are destroyed forever.Thus the dharmamegha state is reached.That anthakarana in totally obstructed chithavrithy ,with no duality and fixed in gnaana alone with gnaanaprasaada as its only bhaava there is no

jaathi(caste),vargabheda(anthropological or morphological claasification /class),or birth and death.There is nothing but endless wisdom in that.This advaitha is known as kaivalya.It is an internal state ,not external.Dharmamegha is paravairagya.

( S:There is nothing contradictory in vedantha,in advaitha,yoga,samkhya,or in bhakthiyoga when we scrutinize these statements.)

Pathan:-17 Vitharkavichaaraanandaasmithaaroopaanugamaathsampragnaatha:

Vyas:-The enjoyment is gross when it is dependent on Vitharka(argumentative ),and subtle or sookshma when dependent on vichaara(thoughts).Annanda is the bliss .Asmitha is the samvith and is ekathmika(one only).These are the first four(chathushtaya)and following these four the Samadhi are called savitharka,savichaara,saananda and saasmitha.There is no argument or vitharka in savichaara.There is no thoughts in saananda and none of these three are there in saasmitha.

Vachas:-First come sampragnaatha and then asampragnaathasamadhi.The four names mentioned savitharka,savichara,saananda and sasmitha belongs to sampragnaathasamadhi.Vitharka or argument opens up(vivruna)the chitha .That type of enjoyment due to argument is about gross things and hence is gross enjoyment only.Yogi wants to enjoy the subtle or sookshma.For that he has first to analyse,meditate on the known gross universe and then proceed to the subtle.To know the subtle Iswara,one has to first meditate on its gross form with four hands(chathurbhuja)which is this world of five elements.In subtle enjoyment there is only internal dependence within chitha and there is no gross enjoyment of the external objects.The cause of the gross universe which are the sookshma panchabhoothathanmatra is the basis of the vichaara .Only with that

one can visualize both grahyavishaya(the subjects which are known to senses)as well as grahanavishaya(the subjects which pertain to the cognition ).Therefore the aabhoga(enjoyment )is different from savithrka which concerns only the gross external world.By the gross sense organs ,depending upon the gross objects ,the chitha have enjoyment or aabhoga and with this aabhoga,aananda is created.By the nature of light(enlightenment)the sense organs of ahamkaara etc which are sathwapradhaana are generated.The bliss of sathwaguna is more than that enjoyed by other gunaa.The cognized bliss and vishaya in this type of Samadhi is sampragnaatha.Sampragnaatha is Eka and is samvithgrahana.It cognizes the One samvith as truth .From this sathwik indriya,asmitha is generated which is subtle in form .When the interest of the intellect is fixed only in that,intellect has only that thraasa(vibration)and intellect also becomes samvith and eka.By this intellect that is subtle,the truth to be known which is subtle is cognized subtly and within (antharbhava).Therefore sampragnaathasamadhi is not different from these four Samadhi,but they are stages in sampragnatha.Effect or karya always happen after the kaarana or cause.If there is no caue for a subtle cause,that subtle cause has to be considered the cause for everything.Because of the asmitha(oneness)of gross and subtle organs ,the chathushtaya are happening one after the other.Therefore all the gross are effects and the subtlest is the cause.The Samadhi which is ekaroopa is sampragnaatha .After this come asampragnaatha.

Pathan:-18 Viraamapratyayaabhyaasapoorvam samskaarashesho anya:

Vyas:-When all the vrithy ends chithavrithinirodha happen.This is asampragnaathasamadhi.The onlywayto it is paravairagya.No practice (abhyaasa)or dependence(aalambana)is sadhana for it.Since it is viraamapratyaya (end)it is nirvasthuka(without any object)and without dependence on anything.If there is a dependence it will not be eka and will not be asampragnaatha.With previous abhyaasa,chitha becomes niraalamba(without dependence )and nirbheeja(without seed)and abhaava(without bhaava)and this is asampragnaathasamadhi.

Vachas:-Asampragnaaatha is reached after sampragnatha in order.The first part of the soothra staes the way to achieve it.The last part is the swaroopa of the Samadhi state.The middle part is the expression or uncovering of all vrithy.Viraama is absence of all vrithy .Its reason is the abhyaasa (practice) and anushtaana(actions)done before.These were said already.After that there is no cause or dependence for vairagya.That itself is cause.There is no other cause.Effect or karya is saroopa(with form)and kaarana(cause)is viroopa(without form)Paravairagya has no form.It is the cause for both Samadhi with dependence and Samadhi without dependence(saalamba and niraalamba)In it there is only gnaanaprasaada(bliss of wisdom)This has to be understood with yukthi (analytical power of intellect).In dharmamegha Samadhi,the sathwik budhi(intellect)alone is generated.Because of its athikrama in various vishaya ,one can visualize anantham (endless)vishaya and their boundaries. The chitha of a yogi visualize these and then sacrifice all of them and without dependence on any of them gets fixity in own swaroopa,and become pure samskaaramaathra and reach the state of cause (kaaranasaaroopya)in Samadhi.The

actions and vrithis which were aalambana (his helps or dependents)are all lost and in their abhaava ,has become nirbheeja.This is called nirbheejasamadhi.This state has no cause and no seed of klesha and therefore nowhere to go or to change .It cannot have samkranthi(movement from one field to another)and is nishkraantha(movementless and fixed).

Pathan:-19.Bhavapratyayo videhaprakrithilayaanaam.

Vyas:-There are two types of pratyaya .I Upaaya 2.Bhava.Upaaayapratyaya happens to yogins.Bhavapratyaya to videhalaya and prakrithilaya.Videha are deva without deha or body.They enjoy kaivalya with their chitha with the use of their own samskaara alone.Like karmavipaaka for humans there are swasamskaaravipaaka for devaas.This is jaatheeyaka(born out of their jaathi or origin ).For Devajaathi it is Aathivaahaka .Similarly prakrithilaya with their rightful chitha merge with prakrithi and enjoy kaivalya .Due to the reason of rights the chitha happens again(punaraavarthy)in them .

Vachas:-The two types of nirodhasamadhi are upaayapratyaya and bhavapratyaya.Upaaya are sradha etc.With sradha etc,the senses with elements,their emotions,nature and the feeling that “This is I “which is created by the

ahamkaarapanchathanmaathra as projection of Athma in Anathma etc are totally obstructed by the yogins. The obstructed pratyaya are called Bhavapratyaya.In the midst of them ,by abhyaaasa ,yogins are liberated.For videhaprakrithilaya this complete liberation is not there.They are still having bhavapratyaya.

The bhavapratyaya of deva /videha:-They attain the “other”which is different from the elements and the body as their Athma,and by its upaasana ,with the anthakarana(internal faculties)full of sadvaasana(good tendencies)after death(pindapaathaanantharam-after the panda or mass with movement is fallen)they merge with the elements and the indriya(senses)and as minds with only remaining samskaara ,become shaadkousikasareerarahitha.(there is no body with the six kousika).With chitha having own samskaara alone,they attain kaivalya.The lack of any vrithy,the saaroopya with kaivalya ,and the remaining samskaara as the adhikaara(right for kaivalya ) give them vairoopya(formless state).This is useful only for samskaara.that is their chithavrithy is samskaaramaathra.Therefore the videha who has attained that boundary,with the secret character inherent in their birth (jaatheeyaka),can cross it as well as reenter the samsaara at their own will.Therefore th evideha as divine deva are called the praana or the vaayu with secretive nature.For ten Manuanthara a transcendental thinker can exist in this state,and in the physical world they have hundred full ayus.(life expectancy).

Bhavaprtyaya of prakrithilaya:-

Knowing avyaktha,mahad,and ahamkaarapanchathanmaathra as Athmathwa ,by upaasana on them and tendencies inherent in them the people who after fall of this body merge with the Avyaktha etc .They have the right and the satisfaction of attaining vivekakhyaathi and they too enjoy kaivalya with this right.For them there is no rebirth

whereas the videhalaya have rebirth.But since there is equality with the prakrithi they too have a timespan after which they have to come back .During the rainy season they assume the state of mrid(soil)and take the body of a frog.Then from the fall of the rain again feel the experience of a body .Therefore in Vaayupuraana it is said” There are a thousand abhimaani (ego).By intellect ,he exists as tens and ten thousands ,without jwara(fever).Avyakthachinthaka exist for hundred thousand .But once we attain the purusha which is nirguna ,this limit of timespan is not there(kaalasamkhya).For purusha alone there is no timespace limits and no rebirths forever.

Pathan:-20.Sradhaaveeryasmrthisamaadhipragnaapoorvaka ithareshaam.

Vyas:-By upaayapratyaya one becomes a yogin.The chethas which has sradha is always samprasaada.The samprasaadachitha of a yogin is called the birth of Kalyaani .(auspicious birth).For the person who wants to attain viveka (wisdom)the veerya (energy)for it is born out of their sradha(concentration).This energy(veerya)is seen as the form of smrithi(memory).By the smrithi ,chitha becomes devoid of sorrows and samaadhistha.In a samaahithachitha like this wisdom is dawned.Only with this one can attain knowledge of the truth.By the abhyaasa and vairagya for achieving this,asampragnaathasamadhi is attained.

Vachas:-The order of the upaaya for the yogin to attain Samadhi is said.Even to understand about the body and its organs the thinkers on that subject(doctors,anatomists etc)should have sradha (concentration).The chethas with sradha alone will be blissful or samprasaada.Definition of chethas is the mind which has generated an interest in a said subject through aagama,anumaana and the aachaaryopadesha (advice from the Guru).By the interest a love or special liking for that subject,a desire that I should learn this ,and sradha happens.

The misunderstanding that prasaada is the interest and the rasa of people who have Projected Athma onto the sense organs and their enjoyment is only due to ignorance.The people with auspicious births(kalyaani janma)are by birth ,people who have no such tendencies and have already traversed half of yogamaarga .They ,due to their kalyaanajanma ,their interests,love,willpower and concentration are being focused on the transcendental Athmavishaya ,become yogins .In such sradhadaana and seekers of wisdom,veerya(energy)is generated.Their smrithi(memory)is born out of their energy.It is the continuous and sorrowless dhyaana or meditation itself.In yogaanga dhyaana and samaadhi occur.The yama and niyama and other nishta are done daily for a prolonged period with sradha ,and smrithi is converted to an ekaagradhyaana and with chithavrithinirodha Samadhi is enjoyed.Only for the people rich in all yogaanga ,the Samadhi experience of a samaahithachitha is obtained.By pragna aananda and viveka are generated.Samadhi is first sampragnaatha and then asampragnaatha in order.This Samadhi alone is the cause of kaivalya.The anyathaakhyaathi of sathwapurusha in an already obstructed (nirudha)chitha,by all effects,causes and actions generate satisfaction(charitharthya)and adhikaara(right).

Pathan:-21 Theevrasamvegaanaamaasanna:

22.Mridumadhyamdhimaathratyaathatho api visesha:

Vyas:-They become the three upaaya called Theevra,Madhyama and adhimaathra for the Navayogins.The thrividha (three types)of upaaya are also called the samvega.

Mridoopaaya=Mridusamvega Madhyopaaya=Madhyasamvega Adhimathropaaya=Adhimaathrasamvega –like that.

How the Madhya is ,so will be the theevra.By the theevravega(high velocity)the adhimaathropaaya speeds up the attainment of Samadhi.Samadhi attainment means experience or fruits of Samadhi itself.For mridhu and Madhya due to their combinations there are mixed types of vega also which are special.Mridutheevra,Madhyatheevra Adhimathratheevra etc are the special(visesha).The mridutheevrasamvega creates madhyatheevra .Madhyatheevrasamvega created adhivegatheevra etc.the theevrasamvega foretells the nearing result of samaadhi and its fruits.

Vachas:-By sradha etc Vegha,and by Vegha etc Samadhi and its effects.

By which is the chithsidhi(attainment of chith or energy state)visualized?In which chith is the sidhi permanent? What is the permanent sidhi? And what is the kshiprachitha? Answers to these questions.The upaaya like sradha depends upon the previous samskaara (of previous births) of mridu ,Madhya and adhimaathra and also by adrishta (unseen /luck).According to this samvega ,vairaagya and the attainment of Samadhi happens.If there is theevrasamvega Samadhi happens quickly.All other explanations as given by Vyasa.

S:-The terms,theevra,Madhya and mridu are also pertaining to sound wave vibrations and music of India being equal to Naadabrahman,which is the yogins goal of attainment.

Pathan:-23.Iswarapranidhaanaadwa:

Vyas:-To obtain the Samadhi which is nearby,a quick upaaya is resorted to by yogins.This is Iswarapranidhaana.Pranidhaana is Bhakthivisesha.By this Iswara is attracted and gives quick results.By the mere hearing of the naama(name)by the attraction and blessings quick attainment of Samadhi is possible.Another quicker method than Iswarapranidhaana for samadhilaabha is not yet known.

Vachas:-For removal of all doubts the new sabda Iswarapranidhaana is used .Pranidhaana is the bhakthivisesha in which by mind,words and deeds(manasaa vaachaa karmanaa)everything(sarvam) is dedicated(samarppana)to Iswara(God).By this process one is always attracted,blessed and faced and visualized by Iswara.

S:-A process of experiencing the presence of Iswara in everything,everywhere,always within and without forever.the state of centralization of chitha only on Iswara

(Eka)without function or desire in any other object and always God-centralised .Thus bhakthi is a terminal state of a yogichitha about to attain Samadhi and is not contradictory to gnaana .This is mentioned in Naradabhakthisoothra as well as in Bhagavad Geetha.

Pathan:-24.Kleshakarmavipaakaasayairaparaamrishta:purushavisesha Iswara:

Vyas:-What is the name Iswara stands for apart from the Pradhaanapurusha ? The answer for that.Klesha are full of avidya.Karma are either kusala or akusala.The result of them is called vipaaka.Aasaya are the vaasana or tendencies which are according to the guna of the karmavipaaka.In a human being /jeevaathma whatever is thus characterized ,he enjoys or experiences their effects or fruits.For success and failure the cause is the present purusha only .The Iswara is a purushavisesha which is beyond all these klesha,karma,vipaaka,aasaya etc and cannot be explained by them.So it is different from the jeevaathma of the present(varthamaanapurusha).In the past history of the universe there were several great people who had broken all the three bondages and reached kaivalya.Iswara has no association with past,present or future and is beyond time.It is just like a muktha in whose pragna ,the thousands of births of the past are revealed,so is with Iswara.For a prakrithilaya the bondages of crores of janma can again happen.Iswara is

sadaayogi and sada muktha(always a liberated yogin).By sathwa and the upaadaanakaarana is Iswara attaining eternal uthkarsha,or is He without a cause?The nimitha (cause)is saasthra(science).Then what is the cause or nimitha of science?Prakrishtasathwa is the cause of science.By the uthkarsha(development)of saasthra(science)in the sathwa (truth as purity)of Iswara,there is an anaadisambhanda(eternal association )with varthamaana(present)and it is timeless.That is why Iswara is said to be sadaamuktha.Iswra is beyond kaaladesha(timespace)and hence called kaaladesavinirmuktha.The aiswarya(riches)of Iswara is therefore without any equal or comparison.There is no aiswarya which can surpass that of Iswara.The name Iswara is given because of the highest attainable aiswarya state.The Iswarapranidhaana with dedication of all actions,thoughts and words is to such an Iswara ,and not to any jeevaathma or any varthamaanapurusha(present living human being).

Vachas:_The viswa (universe) is having both chethana and achethana.Iswara is chethana which is pradhaana(important).It is more important than all important emotions or vikaara.It is the center of all important vikaara and because of its kendrasthithi ,its attraction is achethanathwa.

S:-I would like to demonstrate these words with a diagram which actually demonstrates the scientific nature of the argument ,as Vyasa pointed out that Iswara has science as its cause.Draw three squares one within the other .The central one is achethana or an immobile fixed center of inertia .All others are revolving around it as chethana.(with gathi.The moving worlds around a central energy spot).Then around that comes the outer square of fixed stars again in inertia achethana state .So both the outer starry mandala and the central mandala of energy appear as achethana while the really achethana worlds appear as chethana to the observer.)

The most important chethana is oorja or energy but being its lack of interest in the moving samsaara it is fixed in its position.By the lack or abhaava of asmitha etc how one can attract it and how one can meditate on it and know it, is a difficulty faced.

Vachas:-It is said that Iswra is a purushvisesha which is not defined by klesa,karma vipaakaa or aasaya.The klesa like avidya slaps us with different types of sorrows and makes us experience klesha.These are absent both in the yogin and in Iswara.There are kusala and akusala(efficient and inefficient)in dharma and adharma.By karma,living beings in different Jaathi have their aayurbhoga(enjoyment of lifespan)and this is vipaaka and it is jaatheeyaka(related to birth) to each being.The tendencies will be according to the guna of the vipaaka and hence they too are jaatheeyaka to different types of animals,birds,humans etc.If born in the jaathi of karabha,the suitable living styles and enjoyments for that jaathi alone is possible.If born in manushyajaathi(human jaathi)the life styles and enjoyments will be suitable to that jaathi.These types of differences of karma,vipaaka and klesha ,tendencies and intelligence for each type of lifestyle etc are all absent in Iswarapurusha.By these lakshana one has to analyse the yogins of the present time and determine whether they are true yogins or not.Among all the yogins who lived and are living and will come ,the foremost and the first (prathama)the one who is sarvakaalavarthy(living in the three kaala alike)and without timespace divisions

omnipresent and omniscient is the Iswarapurusha.He is the central and first model and cause for all the yogins and is hence a savisheshapurusha(a special purusha).savisheshapada(the word savishesha)has to be seen as the changeless truth which is movementless and existing in all times and space and cognized in nityakaivalya attainment.

Prakrithilaya have relation to prakrithi.For the deva who are the dikpaala(protectors of directions)who enjoy divine bhoga,there is relation with the directions like east ,west,south and north.None of these bondages are there for Iswara.Those who merged in prakrithi with samskrithachitha remembers crores of relations of the past in their pragna ,and know the crores of relations yet to happen to them.The knowledge of the poorvaaparakodi(crores of past and future)allows them to negate both and thus a thrikaalagnaani gets mukthy(liberation).Only one who has mukthy from all is called an Iswara.It is the gnaanakriyaasakthy(power of gnaanakriya or process of wisdom)that is seen as riches or Aiswarya of Iswara.

How is that ? The power of chith(chithsakthy)which is aparinaamini(changeless)becomes gnaanakriya(process of wisdom)in a chitha without rajas and thamas and which is purely dependent on sathwaguna.By this development of sathwachitha and its constant presence,the vidya is generated and with that the swaswaamibhaava in the eternally liberated Iswara .This swaswaamibhaava(my swami)is the expression of sathwa.It is with this sakthi ,the janthu (born )which is surrounded by the three thaapa(heats)in the ocean of samsaara ,is helped to come out of it by the upadesa of gnaana by Iswara.Only if there is extraordinary efficiency for gnaanopadesa within ,one can do this.Without the presence of pure sathwachitha there is no power of gnaana and its upadesa and the udhaarana of the three worlds from klesha .the Aiswarya of Iswara is in his

gnaanasakthi.Therefore ,the Iswaranaama(name of Iswara)is obtained only by gnaanakriyaasakthy which gives sarvaiswarya(all aiswarya).This interdependence is eternal.The term Iswara thus denotes the eternal beginningless,endless,poorna(perfect)sathwa in its thathwa and it is to this Iswara Pranidhaana is done.By the pranidhaana of this Iswara ,the jeevaathma of the present yogin(varthamanapurusha)has to attain oneness with that pradhaanachithasathwa(important energy and truth).This oneness or Thaadaathmya (merging to become one)and equality is compared to a person who in the Chaithra rithu ,on Aswathy star ,dawn,emerges from sleep and remembers that it is me.In the suptha (sleeping)with pranidhaana ,due to that pranidhaanasamskaara awakens the memory of Aham.Similarly,Iswara is awakened in a person with Iswarapranidhaana. Because of the beginninglessness,in Iswarapranidhaana and sathwa upadaana,there is interdependence which is eternal and they function as two co-ordinates.The literal meaning of the sentence is the chithasathwa of Iswra during the mahaapralaya(great deluge)is equivalent with prakrithi.But,even in that state its chithisakthy which is pradhaana ,no avidya like ignorance ,lack of memory can be seen.Even in merging with prakrithi its gnaanaiswarya(the richness of gnaana power)does not decrease or disappear.After pralaya,in yugaadi(next yuga beginning)He wakes up with the consciousness that “this is Me.I am Iswara and have this gnaana and this aiswrya” etc.(Soyam eedrisa Iswarasya

Aswathika uthkarsha).He again awakens as Aswathika. Whether Iswara is with or without Nimitha ?Whether Iswara is with or without Pramaana? These questions are answered with the statement the nimitha for it is saasthra(science).Saasthra includes sruthi,smrithi,ithihaasa and puraana. What is the nimitha for saasthra? The saasthra which has the testimony of prathyaksha ,anumaana etc is the reflection of Iswara’s sathwa power.Without sathwa no chithprathyaksha(direct perception by energy)or anumaana is possible.Therefor ,,saasthra is the direct origin of Iswara is applicable to yukthi(analytical reasoning).Only with powerful sakthi of sathwa the richness or aiswarya of gnaanasakthi is expressed.Even for those who practice ayurveda and manthrasasthra,their efficiency in profession,and the wealth and aiswarya accumulated from profession is the symbol of their knowledge or gnaanasakthy.Different types of oushadhi(medicines)their combinations,actions,different manthra ,their varna,the thousands of methods to do udhaarana of those varna,-all these are expressive of gnanasakthi in them.In human life,for numerous worldly evidences and vyavahaara it is gnaaanasakthy which gives power,efficiency,and differences in ability and acquisition of fame and riches.By these the sandhaana and the santhaanaparampara which is not cut off even in mahaapralaya continue as beginningless and endless.In all these in the bhaava of Iswara there is abhaava of pramaana.All these show the jagath is not different from the pradhaanavikaara.We find similar and dissimilar changes in the world.Like curd from milk and guda(sugar)from ikshurasa(juice of sugarcane).Before dissimilar parinaama we find similar parinaaama.The change from pradhaana to mahad ,ahankaara are dissimilar parinaama.Before that similar change must have taken place.In similar parinaama is the saamyaavastha or balancing (equalization)We find that in mahaapralaya.How we gets balancing due to manthra and ayurveda uses,similarly be discarding differences like rajas,thamas etc,intellect become awakened(prakarsha)in sathwa alone and is revealed as pure energy in its own nature(swaprakrithi) well balanced

.In sathwa of that state rajas and thamas does not originate.There is no vibrama(illusions)bramana(revolutions)or vipralambha(separation)in it.It is from such chitha which is balanced and with equanimity,that saaasthra originate.Perfect gnaana alone is Iswara.Its expression(prakaasana)is saasthra.Saasthra makes us conscious of development .And makes us discard everything(thyaaga or sacrifice) contrary to development.Eternal association of the said and the communicated(the uttered and the understood) generates awakening of consciousness(Bodhana).The budhisathwa functions with joy in Iswara and the expression of it called Saasthra also is functioning within Iswara.(Vachya and vaachaka in Iswara).One who knows that saasthra or science is the expression of Iswarabudhisathwa(true intellect of Iswara)is the eternally liberated one.By signs saasthra is within the eternally liberated Iswara.Therefore even after several generations and several purushaanthara the gnaana of saasthra will not be lost.It will be born again and again in the generations of human beings separated in space and time.In this wonderful liberation,science is equivalent to the beginningless Iswara and beginningless Prakrithi.The negative and positive (noonathwa and anoonathwa)are not that of science or Iswara.The prapancha originated by the process of aalingana(embrace)of the two(dwanda)with different dharma.Because of this dual swabhaava ,we think there is difference.Actually there is nothing controversial in Iswara.That gnaana which is eka,without a dwandwa,(duality)and which is

pradhaana(important)is the central one to all the yogichitha and is the one which destroys all doubts and swaprakaasa(self revelation)and nitya(eternal).this eternal Iswara ,in different times and places,different yogins by their paryayaayoga rediscovers again and again.then,they by their imagination thinks that this light that is revealed is my prasamgha(swaprasamgha) or my invention .This process is what is called as saasthra(science).

S:-The definition of science by Vachaspathimisra is interesting because that is what still we see in modern science.It is nothing but a rediscovery of eternal truth ,by generations of people,and given a label in each era by the people who rediscovered it.The truth does not change.Only the new discoverers and the names they give to truth change,and the language too.

Pathan:-25 Thathra nirathisayam sarvagnabheejam

Vyas:-That which originated from athhethakaala(past times)and which is generated in all kaala or times,as aparticular group with alpa and bahuthwa(decrease and increase)and doubled by the cognition of transcendeantal knowledge and hence which cannot be surpassed ,is the sarvagna ,which sprouted from the sarvagnabheeja(seed of sarvagna)and developed.Therefore sarvagnabheeja has attainment of an optimum satge through its extraordinary nature and its measures.The one who reached this stage (kaashtaapraapthy)is the sarvagna.This sarvagna is known as the purushavisesha.In the withdrawal of the general units,the anumaana become efficient in visesha(special).The special love in aagama is generated and an enquiry into this is undertaken by only such people.Sarvagna is a samgna(name )which denotes this special character.This becomes both a blessing to the individual(aathmaanugraha)as well to all

elements(bhoothaaanugrahaprayojana).By upadesa of gnaanadharma purusha saves samsaarins from kalpapralaya and mahaapralaya.this is the same way as Bhagavaan Paramarshi ,who made the Adividya in his nirmaanachitha(chitha with creativity) based on kaarunya(compassion) advised to Aasuri so that he developed an interest and curiosity in it.

Vacha:-Science cognizes Pramaana by Kriya(actions)and gnaanasakthy(power of knowledge).It is with gnaanasakthi ,it recognizes anumaana as a pramaana.How ? By comparison of the thamas(darkness)that cover the light of intellect(budhisathwa) the special complexes that originated and came from the past,which are different from the transcendental of the present and their cognizance ,the knowledge that the cause for the adjectives of few and several of them ,is the sarvagnabheejam –With the cognizance of the past ,the future and the best possibles are also cognized.The levels of cognizance as less and more is due to our karma(action).The sarvagnathwa is increasing day by day,is nishkraantha,wonderful and is the only prameya (subject)which is worth said.What is its pramaana?The sarvagnathwa has a kashtaapraapthy(an optimum level) and this sadhya (possible-achievable) is said.The kaashta(limit)is not surpassed by any other(nirathisaya and wonderful).The limit or avadhi is limitless is the special measurement said here and that is the reason for the nirathisaya nature.The athisaya(wonder)is that it is unsurpassed

athisaya(wonder).Because of this it has no limits or cause.(hethu).Like kuvalaya(lotus)aamalaka,and bilwa seeds have their greatness contained within their seeds ,in Athma ,the measure(parimaanam)is seen with limitless expansion(vyaapthi).In a very small seed its garima(greatness),organs(avayava) etc are not seen.Yet we know that they are contained in it.Though they are unseen due to their parimaana ,they can become vyaktha and seen ,is a knowledge by anumaana .Similarly in a paramaanu resides with all the end organs the vibhu(Lord)with all its different objects and universes actions and greatness and increasing pride(ego)is contained.Gnaana(knowledge) till it ends with there is nothing more to be known is contained in sarvagnabheeja.The eka,dwi and many as the wonderful prapancha,and its extreme kaastha ,the nirathisayapurusha are both within it.In that paramakaashta ,several Theerthnkara,Budhaas,arhatha,rishis

right from sage Kapila have reached

were not who lived on earth,but only our anumaana.But we can also understand them as scientific enquirers who developed a special interest in gnaana.We need not sacrifice

what our budhi(intellect)have loved from our aagama ,even if it is aagamaabhaasa.Whatever is the reason,we should not move away from the path of enquiry of truth,even by the temporary and nirathmaka(no athman) and pramaanaless advices which may erupt in the path .Understand the sruthi,smrithy,ithihaasa and

We

can if we want say that these sarvagnapurusha

puraana and the aagama with our intellect as those for our abhudaya and nishreyasa.They are aagama because they came(aagachanthy)for our benefit.In them a special interest as

samgnaa

Aadipada(first word)the six anga(shadanga)are said in separation.Thus in Vaayupuraana

for learning is needed. By samgna is meant a name like Shiva,Iswara etc .By

,Sarvagnathaa tripthiranaadibodha:swathanthrathaa nitymalupthasakthi:

Ananthasakthischa vibhorvidhignaa:Shadaahurangaani Maheswarasya:( 12 .33)and Gnaanam vairagyam aiswaryam thapa:sathyam kshmaa dhrithi:

Srishtithwamaathmasambodhohyadhishtaathrithwameva cha

Avyayaani dasaithaani nityam thishtathi sankare (10.65-66)

Are seen giving six and ten anga for Iswara. Bhagwaan is ever satisfied and rich in vairagya which is wonderful.He is most compassionate (paramakaarunika)and without selfish motives in all times.For the sajjana he is seen as sukha or bliss.But for the jeeva who are having dukha of different types that sukha is not seen.This has only one reason and that is our karma.In kriyaaasakthi no one can excel Iswara who made this jagath with efficiency(Jagathkriyaasamartha)In Iswarakarma there is no selfishness and that is the reason for the bliss or sukha.In the karma of ordinary human beings the selfish motives as the impurity of agnaana(ignorance)is included and that is the reason for sorrow.The prayojana ,or use of Iswara is the anugraha(blessing) for all elements and for praani(beings with praana)Chitha which is satisfied(charithaartha)singles itself from all cause and effect in the form of sabda etc and their upabhoga(use)and vivekakhyaathi.This chitha of a jeevathmapurusha becomes the kevalapurusha.It is for this the paramakaarunika(most compassionate) advise vivekakhyaathi( wisdom)as upaaya (way).In the chitha of a charithaartha jeeva,Iswara resides as compassion withoutdualities as sahaaya(help)for punyaapunya(for our punya and apunya).It is with upadesha(advice)of gnaanadharma ,the vivekakhyathi is said as the way.Gnaanadharma is gnaana and dharma.Their upadesa

gives them.And by the gnaanadharma ,vivekakhyathi is obtained and it becomes matured during the kalpapralaya period.When one day of Brahma ends ,the diamond Jagath(vajrajagath)called Sathyaloka sets.In the Mahapralaya ,in the nidhana of Brahma the causes of samsaara and the samsaari with all their signs are also merged.the own karma and their maturity makes them alive again as people with life and death and births .The purusha who got kaivalya also are reborn and this is called Avathaara.they Are taking birth ,due to compassion just for the one karma of gnaana upadesha(advise of gnaana).The avathaara of sidha like Kapila happens in this way.Panchasikha has spoken of Kapila as Aadividwaan.That means the Aadimuktha.It is not pertaining to the swasanthaanaguruvishayaka.(not pertaining to own children or own shishya of a Guru).It pertains to the AdiyukthaparamaGuru (ParamaGuru being Iswara).Kapila is the Guru of all since he is the First muktha ,vidwan and the Aadiguru of all muktha and all Guus and vidwans.The gnaana of Kapila was due to blessings of Maheswara,according to sruthi.The rishi Kapila was the first Avathaara of Vishnu .Hiranyagarbha is swayambhoo(selfborn).The samkhyayoga was attained by Hiranyagarbha in the veda.Therefore Vishnu is Hiranyagarbha and Kapila was his first incarnation.And Iswara is Swaayambhuva (mother’s father of Kapila) .

Pathan:26 Poorveshaam api Guru:kalenaanavachedanaath

Vyas:-That Guru had existed from time immemorial without divided by time(kaala).From the time of sarga(origin) of universe the sidha exists.The presence of the sidhaguru Vishnu is which has surpassed the origin and end of universes.

Vachas:-Bhagavaan is before Brahma and more special.Man learns about time(kaala)by dividing it into millennia and centuries and smaller units for the sake of learning

purposes.Without such divisions human beings who live less than 120 years cannot grasp,teach and give knowledge to their successors .The division is for that.In reality such division(chedana)is not there in time(kaala),The gathi of the prakarsha (bliss)is its praapthi(achievement).Therefore for the thing which reaches the paramakaashta of kaala there is no chalana or gathi.From the aagamasaasthra one has to cognize this.Without that ,there is no other way to cognize the anantha(endless),anaadi(beginningless) Guruswaroopa of Iswara.

(S:-In Bhagavad Geetha the AnnadiGuruswaroopa and its gnaanavibhoothi are said in this meaning.From the kaalavidhaanasaasthra or astronomy the yoga enters sabdasaasthra.)

Pathan:-27.thasya vaachaka pranava:

Vyas:-His(Iswara’s )Vaachaka is Pranava.Like light to a lamp,the vaachaka pranava is within the vaachya Iswara .In vaachya(the said)the vaachaka(the sentence)is coexistent.The sanketha(abode)is within Iswara.Prapancha is within Iswara.Son is within father.In all the repetitions of sarga(origin of universe)this relationship is always the same.The relation of the said and the sentence is always along with the action of the

sanketha .Because of this eternal relation aagamis know the eternal sambandha(relation)of sabda with artha(sound and its meaning).

Vachas:-How is the Pranidhaana of Iswara visualized? Its vaachaka is pranava.The said is Iswara .The vaachaka or sentence which says about it and expressing it for communication with others is the pranava. In the vaachakathwa of a particular subject/object everything that is said about it ,including the opinions and criticisms of others are included.The association of sabda and artha ,in its natural context ,expressed as Pasyanthi(seen)is not different from the Athman.This is the opinion(Matham) Asthi. The opinion of Naasthi ,sabda in the context is differentiated from the artha and from the Athma.(Those who believe in oneness is asthika and those believe in many are naasthika).But when one says that there is no organ called ghata(pot)in a lamp(pradeepa)should also agree that even if there are a thousand lamps ,the pot is absent(naasthi)in all of them.The vaachakathwa is referring to a context only(sanketha)and by analysis(vimarsana)one has to think over and cognize . Sabda is capable of naming all the forms with meanings.(nomenclature and morphological classification).The meaning of all forms due to natural association is eternally situated in Iswara.It is revealed as light in the context of Iswara,and is the law.The vaachaka cannot be separated as the context of Iswara and not in the context of Iswara(Iswarasanketha and asanketha).Sanketha or context is Iswara itself.During the pralaya,the sabda of pradhaana aquire its pradhaanabhaava itself and as sakthi(power)merged .This in the order of Mahad etc originate ,and thus the vachaka is created and as vaachakasakthy in the Maheswarasanketha merges,and by the vinashtasakthy(balance power) is created the sun etc.This repeats in every origin of universe in every kalpa.The pradhaana has balanced existence with the sakthi even when the universes are formed.The sabda also is having the balanced existence .In the new

creation also it is formed along with sakthi ,and during rains,takes the form of soil ,and new seeds,and fertilized by the waters of the clouds sprouts again.The kriya(action)which creates the sanketha(context)again and again,cyclically according to the past association ,is called Bhagavadkriya.This kriya is also called Iswarasakthi.By this type of similar cyclical changes for generations one has to cognize the eternity of association of sabda and artha (word and meaning).If kootastha is eternal,should there not be lack of punaraagama (coming again)?For this question aagama gives answer.In all the sarga ,the same context was sustained ,with the same love and interest ,and with the same isathaa like this and it still continues to be so and will continue forever like that.Therefore Iswarasanketha or context is eternal .For it past,present and future does not exist.Therefore,the separation into Iswarasanketha and asanketha is not possible.

Pathan;-28 Thajjapasthadarthabhaavanam.

Vyas:-To know the vachya and the vaachaka ,yogin repeat them (japa) and does the bhaavana (imagines) of its artha(meaning).Pranava is thus repeated(Japa)with its meaning being thought about.Pranava is the name of Iswara.So,with repetition of pranava,yogin thinks about the Iswara (bhaavanam).In this process they make their chitha ekaagra(concentrated).With yoga ,swadhyaaya,and with swadhyaaya

theevravega(udyega),and by these revelation of Paramaathman (V P 6.6.2)is obtained.

Vach:-About the vaachaka of Iswarapranidhana japa and arthabhaavana are said.Both these are included in Iswarapranidhaana.Bhaavanam is for fixation of the thought again and again in the chitha.How is that possible? Only by ekaagratha(concentration).When chitha enjoys only in the Eka (one)as Bhagwan with one pointed concentration ,the artha is revealed and fixed forever in the chitha.The yogin ,like a singer who remembers all the gaatha and sings them from their hearts ,remembers Iswara in his heart(hridistha)and does not think or say anything else .The samadhi in Iswara and the results are thus obtained by the blessings of Iswara.

Pathan:-29 Thatha:pratyagchethanaadhigamo apyntharaayaabhaavascha.

Vyas:-How does this happen? When pranava,which is the swaroopa of Iswara ,alone shines in our chethana,and that alone becomes our internal state,all the diseases(vyaadhi)of our chitha are permanently ended.Then,we have our swaroopadarsana as Iswaraswaroopa itself,and thus Iswarapranidhaana gives Iswarathaadaathmya (Aham Brahmasmi).The Iswarapurusha ,pure,blissful,and kevala with no births and deaths,revealed in intellect as our own self and as self of all.

Vachas:-Since one see purusha in everyone’s chethana,as that revealed in oneself,with the light of that vidya the darkness of opposites are completely removed.There is nothing but Iswara,who is eternally sathwik and rich in attributes and thus dualities removed and advaitha experienced.The avidya is thus removed by swaropagnaana.In the chitha of such a person there is nothing except the advaitha of gnaana.The obstruction to cognize swaroopa was the negation of dharma,projected by avidya .Those negations are

negated.When one negation is negated a dhana (+)happens.Thus by Iswarapranidhaana ,the revealed light of Iswara in own heart is seen in every jeeva,and the knowledge that there nothing which is different from the self is dawned .(Sarvam Khalwidam Brahma.Isaavaasyam idam sarvam).Everything is self,everything is Iswara.Thus the gnaani becomes kootastha,sudha,nitya,without births and deaths,always blissful,kevala with no dualities .For such a person no mor eupasarga happens .Upasarga means the life expectancy said for each of the jaathi .I am human,I am bird,I am animal ,I am prapancha etc are jaathibheda.These are lost for the gnaani.Because of constant visualization of I am Iswara and everything is Iswara ,all separatisms are ended and only then this advaitha state happens.In this state there is nothing more that he wants to know or there is no “other “ into which he can change over.There is no need ,or desire or necessity for such thoughts or trials or efforts .The chitha has become equivalent to that of Iswara,and in it constant thought of One truth,its visualization,experience and its use are all merged as ONE science (Ekasasthrabhyaasa).The gnaana(knowledge)the gnaathaa(the knower)and the gneya(the known)have become merged a sone.The wisdom of Iswara,knowledge of prapancha and the self as knower is same.For such an advaithin,no more actions become cause for bondage.

Pathan:-30 Vyaadhisthyaanasamsayapramaadaalasyaavirathi-

Branthidarsanaalambabhoomikathwaanavasthithasthithy

Chithavikshepaasthe antharaayaa:

Vyas:- From which antharanga ,which chithavikshepa are totally removed?From the antharanga of yogin,the chithavikshepa called navayogamala (nine impurities for yoga)which are yogaprathipaksha(opposed to yoga)are removed.The nine are given in this soothra.These have to be controlled and removed by chithavrithinirodha .Only then the chitha become a yogichitha.

S:-1.Vyadhi or diseases.It is imbalance of dhaathu,rasa,karana (Dhaathurasakaranavaishamya)Dhaathu are elements,and rasa are hormones and polypeptides and karana are the different organ systems(.The imbalance of minerals and elements,of hormones and of different organ functions lead to disease .The prevention and treatment of the diseases is aayurveda.)

2.Sthyaanam .This is the lack of function of the chitha(akarmanyatha) (which is coming under the mental retardation ,autism category )

3.Samsaya(doubt).The state of mind in which one cannot decide which is which .When this is there nityaanityavasthuviveka is not possible.

4.Pramaada:-The inability to do bhaavana on the saadhana of samaadhi .

5.Aalasya .(laziness)when the body and chitha acquire Guruthwa (heavy ) lack of

movement . (S:-Heaviness of body makes one unable to move from place to place whereas heaviness of chitha either by pride or by knowledge makes chitha unable to move from the present position upwards.The guruthwa of chitha of a guru is not moving up because there is an optimum level for knowledge and there is no more to move up.)

6.Avirathy:-The state of mind when one gets love for worldly things and lack of love in Iswara

.

7.Braanthidarsana:-Viparyayagnaana

8Alabdabhoomikathwa.The Samadhi state is not attained even after efforts taken for it

9:-Anavasthithatwam.Even if Samadhi is obtained,chitha is not fixed in it .Chitha is

fickle and this prevents fixation in Samadhi.

Vachas:- Dhaathu for functions of the body,takes the form of vaatha,pitha and

kapha.Their imbalance is dhaathuvaishamya(Imbalance of air,salts and minerals and water )Rasa is the result of what we eat and drink because it is these which are converted to rasa.their imbalance is rasavaishamya(hormonal imbalance).Karana are indriya and sense organs .Vaishamya means there is either less or more of something resulting in an imbalance .By imbalance vyaadhi (disease )is created. (S:This principle of ayurveda is being scientifically proven by modern medicine .The water ,salt,hormonal and immunological and metabolic imbalances creating disease is being explored only recently by scientists.) When the organs become inactive due to these various imbalances,the lack of functioning of the organs and of the body happens.And this akarmanya state makes one anarha or without adhikaara(right)for yoga .(because of the disbility ,not because of exclusion by any other individual or sect.)

S:-Doubts regarding the knowledge of the many through sense organs:-There are a crore different types of knowledge aquired by us through sense organs every day.touch ,lack of touch experience,form,lack of form,colours,hearing ,smell ,taste and others are belonging to this category of knowledge.This is due to the difference in the function of the different organs .When the sense organ is not fully efficient it is either functionless or only partially functioning and giving imperfect knowledge.It is because of these differences in the abilities of our sense organs in varying proportions in varying individuals ,the different opinions ,different doubts and different beliefs etc happen and there are several opposites created in the world.This separatists themselves are creating the doubts.The doubts are due to this imperfect knowledge of varying proportions in different individuals.

Vacha:-In an organ which is akarana(functionless)and abhaavana(which does not

think of)there is no prayathna(effort to know).And the power to know is less or absent .When there is no effort for thinking or knowledge ,the chitha becomes slave to pramaada and has no ability for yoga or for perfect knowledge.The guruthwa of the body is due to kapha etc.The guruthwa of the chitha is due to thamas etc.When body and chitha become heavy ,they become lazy and functionless.When kapha and thamas increase ,the body and mind become more and more weighted,and more and more immobile and thus sthaavara ,and with Guruthwa(force of attraction)and falls towards the earth and worldly things.Thus there is increase in love for worldly pleasures and lack of love for Iswara and this state results in avirathi.

The samadhibhomika are Madhumathi etc.To reach them the opposite type of gnaana (viparyaya) is obstruction.Love for worldly things is obstruction to attain Brahma.Even if the experience is reached the lack of fixity in it happens.Without all these a chitha has to proceed and reach the highest attainable level.In such a paramayogachitha which reached its goal,these nine impurities does not exist.

Pathan:-31.Dukhadourmanasyaamgamejayathwaaswaasapraswaasaavikshepasahabhoova:

Vyas:-there are three types of sorrows.Adhyathmika,Adhibouthika and Adhidaivika.Only

that praani who has destroyed all these three has been liberated from sorrow.Dourmanasya is the kshoba (anger or irritation or pressures)generated in the mind when one does not get what one wanted or strived for.One has to conquer this.Indriyanigraha (Angame jayathwa) or conquering of senses is the conquering of all vibrations due to the sorrows and angers happening to our sense organs and mind . Swaasa is the conquering of the air or vaayu which is taken in as praana(inspiration )and praswaasa is the expulsion(expiration) of it from koshta (lungs) .The chitha having vikshepa is the vikshiptha.It is different from the samaahithachitha in sorrows,conquering of senses,in dourmanasya ,control of breath etc.In vikshiptha there is no conquer of these.In samaahithachitha all these are well controlled and conquered.

(S:-When one succeeds in conquering these he is named as Jina ,the conqueror).

Vachas:-Sorrow is the sahabhoomi(companion plane)of vikshipthachitha.By kaama(desire)mind and by vyaadhi(diseases)body experiences adhyathmika sorrows.From vyadhi is born the adhibouthika sorrow.From the troublesome graham (grahapeeda)adhidaivika sorrow arises.These creates opposite pains for living things.Therefore one has to learn about them,understand them and try to control them and destroy them. (S:-The science of sareeravignaaneeya,manovignaaneeya which comprise anatomy and psychology ,dhaathuvignaaneeya which is knowledge of elements and minerals equivalent to physics and chemistry,aayrveda or medical knowledge ,jyothisha or astronomy and prapanchavignaaneeya which is astrophysics and kaalavignaaneeya equivalent to knowledge of time are thus devised by the yogins to learn,know and prevent and destroy the effects of various calamities and the sorrows caused by them).

In living things the breathing is an uncontrolled function happening without their knowledge.In a yogin it is controlled and following a law and is according to his own wish and knowledge.For an anga of yoga called rechaka,the intake of uncontrolled swaasa is contradictory.And for another anga called kumbaka ,uncontrolled expulsion of air from lungs is contradictory.Thus by controlling what is happening ,by perfect control as well as knowledge yogin controls all the senses and all the worlds.

Pathan:-32.Thath prathishedhaarthamekathathwaabhyaasa:

Vyas:-the vikshepa are obstructions to Samadhi.therefore they have to be obstructed .For it continuous abhyaasa is needed.It is for obstructing the strong vikshepa,the method of ekaagratha(concentration)of Iswarapranidhaana ,which is practice of ekathathwa (one principle alone) based on Iswara alone is advised.Chitha is always searching for different meanings in different pratyaya and is therefore said to be kshanika(due to its temporary interest in things).It is not ekagra (concentrated)but vikshiptha in different things for short periods.The process of turning it from these multiple interests and concentrating it on One is Samadhi .Only by ekagratha,chitha can cognize everything(sarva).For a vikshipthachitha this is impossible.without fixity in the object or subject of study with concentration no one can get mastery over it.The lack of adhikaara(right)for vikshipthachitha for Samadhi is due its lack of interest except for a temporary period in

any thing.The chitha which got fixity in Samadhi,on the other hand cognizes both eka and aneka (one and many)by its ekagratha itself.It grasps the swaroopa and swabhaava.By balancing purusha and prakrithi in the experience of Athman,both the one and the many is revealed in the concentrated samaahithachitha alike.Both sparsa and asparsa,drisya and adrisya,vyaktha and avyaktha reside equally in the self of the yogichitha.This is seen and experienced always by that chitha.The wisdom of “I am eka”and I am not separate from prapancha or Iswara has made his thoughts abhinna and there is no past ,present or future in it.The body is not seen as a limited thing bonded to spacetime and the present but as a vehicle for Athma beyond spacetime and bondage.In the chaya(shadow or mirror of own experience,the Light of knowledge of oneness with brahma is reflected and he has no doubt about his own experience .Yet he searches for proofs from other people’s experiences ,from scriptures and by constant thinking and experimentation gets all proofs/evidences so that he can communicate the experience to others with evidence and pramaana.In the same way,by the power of own experience and the proofs thereof,he rejects the opposite views by analysis .In samadhi ,the experience of Eka,and when out of Samadhi times,as the analyzing and thinking mind cognizing own experience in light of others experiences and proofs ,so that one can reject or accept what one thinks is logical,the continuous swadhyaaya and research ,as Aneka ,and this state of own mind in eternal saamya(balance)with purushaprakrithy is seen by yogin every day every moment.He is analyzing his own chitha .He is experiencing his own chitha.By the practice of Ekatha (oneness)the chitha knows the aneka(multiples)as eka and this experience of cognition of eka in aneka is not heresay but own experience(swaanubhava).The chitha fixed in this swadhya become permanently in dhyaana state.

Vachas:-Why one should obstruct ?The reason for obstruction is that they are

Prathipaksha(opposites)to Samadhi .By Iswarapranidhaana and its practice ,because of its simultaneous nature,vairagya also is to be understood.By Iswarapranidhana and vairagya,chitha become ekagra and all chithavrithy are obstructed(chithavrithinirodha).There is no law that after practice vairagya or after vairagya ,practice.Both are simultaneous.The Eka(one)thathwa is Iswara on which the chitha concentrates.The vainaasikaas due to their Kshnikavaada(theory of temporary nature of chitha)said there is no(naasthi)chitha which is perfectly ekaagra(concentrated).If we go by their theorythere is only vikshipthachitha .In that case no one has ever attained ekagratha,dhyana or Samadhi .And there is no yoga as a science.This is not acceptable. (S:-Note that this is the same reason why Sankara also argued against Vainaasika and Naasthika .But the historians consider Sankara as antiBudhist Hindu ,and Vaachaspathi as antiHindu Budhist/Jainist monk .The lack of understanding of these historians is due to the lack of reading of both the texts with ekagratha).

Vachas:-During Samadhi experienced as Ekasmin(One)and out of Samadhi experienced as anekasmin(Aneka) the same principle in the same chitha,generate a state of yugapad(simultaneous )and this iswarathwa is the sakthy which has no equal ,which has

no end or beginning but at the same it seems to be having an end and a beginning and have limits .this feature is responsible for the vikshiptha mind to think that it is temporary or kshanika .The reason for forgetfulness of experience and the lack of cognizance of a object once cognized are also due to this sakthi.Since they divide bhaava as kshana ,past ,now and future exist in them as bhaavabheda.Therefore the chitha cannot remember what happened before and what happened just now.therefore the chitha cannot concentrate on anything though interested in several things .this leads to anavasthitha state.Because of vikshiptha chitha is unable to achieve ekagratha.In this way the destruction of chitha(vainasika)happens .The kshanika chitha cannot get yoga experience because of lack of ekagratha.But the santhaana(generations)of chitha happen as a flow (flow of consciousness)due to lack of kshanikatha of flow and is continuous.(Nairantharya).This is the quality and dharma of prakaasa(light).Chitha is prakaasaroopa(form of light)and therefore it has the continuous flow nature of light .(S:- Just like a star’s light flows continuously from it but people on earth see it temporarily only due to the distance,the impurity in the interval as air,or another object etc ,the temporariness is a lack of perfect understanding).The pure truth as flow of light which is not enveloped or covered ,reaches us in smallest possible amsa(part) through several impurities and what we see here is all made of that small part of light only.the chitha should not be vikshiptha in these aneka which is only part of that one truth,and should be ekagra in the light which is eka and eternal .The people who took effort to do this had given us testimony that this is possible.Therefore ekagratha also is chithadharma (not vikshiptha alone)and it has nityatha(not temporary but eternal nature)as its character.Now we will understand why some people say that it is temporary and not a continuous flow,and others say that it is eternal flow of light .This yugapad statements are indicative of the chithadharma of the person concerned only,not of the truth or Iswara

which is sath,chith,ananda(truth,light,bliss).All the different opinions are due to the different levels of vikshipthachitha.When the perfect ekagratha is achieved in paramarthasatha,all vikshepa ends.The true gnaana is in the ability for ekagratha. (S:-Bhagavad Geetha says Sradhaavaan labhathe gnaanam). In this way the eka as samaahithachitha and aneka as vikshipthachitha is elaborately described .How do we forget in Chaithra the sasthra and jobs done in Maithra ,?that alone is the importance of kshanikatha(temporariness)of vainasika.When we are in Chaithra utsava we don’t remember what we did in Maithra star.But we had experience of it.Simply because we do not think about it at the particular time ,there is no indication that it is kshanika.When we do special sraadha,vaiswaanara,ishti etc with our relatives,our parents and children we get the fruits of them in that particular time.The sweetness of mangoes we experience only in a certain season due to the law of the sun and the seasons.But these we experience as a continuous process throughout lifetime,though only once an year.Hence the temporary or kshanika nature coexist with its eternal nature as generations of our people have experience it continuously(nairantharya) . But in samsdhi the continuity of experience is not through others or through our children.It is a special gnaana which is obtained by individual ekagratha .The one who enjoys and the one who remembers is the same person.If the generations(santhana)or

children do not perform effort to attain ekagratha they may not experience it.Therefore the difference of the generations and of persons is in their kriya (karma).The parampara (continuity)is not through sons but through the agnibhaava(energy state)of the maanava(shishya/disciple).The association is not as cause and effect as in father and son.They are two individuals living as sahabhoomi or two individuals living in different bhoomi either with the same view or opposite view influencing and enlightening the thought processes of the other.They influence each other.Therefore they are co- ordinates.Like a stone rubbing against another brings out fire ,the two individuals having opposite views can ignite a spark of knowledge.For Vyasa and the other ancient sages ,due to fixation of chitha in true satha ,no difference as my son,your son can occur.Therefore all disciples are treated alike as own children by such Avathaarapurusha. They don’t have difference between gomaya and paayasa.Gomaya is also paayasa.The combination of five gavya is paayasa and therefore it also is gomaya.The yogin has no difference between gain and loss ,dos and do nots.No pains or pleasures,no karma or bondage to karma.The chitha is always lightened and is without any shadow or obstruction to flow of eternal light ,and he enjoys only the light of that knowledge.He eats and drinks only that light .There is no bhoga of external worldly things inthat chitha .the difference of chithi ,and chitha is not there.Chitha is always concentrated in the swaroopa of light,in the swabhaava of light,with continuous smarana of it with continuous enjoyment of it and they are thus sadaa(always)yogayuktha . Such a gnaani alone enjoys absolute bliss and are in nityasamadhi.They have memory of births ,deaths,dawn and twilights ,and their experiences and memory of several such janma,but they are not dependent or bound to them and with the knowledge that “Iam the Athma which remembers” ,they are forever in bliss.The grahana(cognition)smarana(remembrance or memory)roopakaaranabheda(the differences

and reasons for the differences in form)the direct and indirect combinations of similar and opposite forms and their effects and their Pratyabhigna(memory of all),the chitha experience and is concentrated only on” I am Eka” .the seen and the seer has become one in chitha .Therefore the experience of ones own oneness with the eternally liberated Iswara ,the ultimate cause for all is there.It is by the power of experience that we see oneness or separateness in prapancha.Even with a kanika(particle)of nyaaya(logic)a person with ekagratha can understand the etrnal oneness .Therefore ,the view of kshanikatha also ,with the nyaaayakanika, can be compared with the Brahmathatwa for its understanding.

Pathan:-33 Maithreekarunaamudithopekshaanaam

Sukhadukhapunyaapunyavishyaanaam

Bhaavanaathaschithaprakaasanam

Vyas:- To get chithaprasaada(bliss of chitha) one should have the bhhavana(imagination or emotion)of maithri(friendship),karuna(compassion)muditha(happiness)and

upeksha(avoidance)and lack of attachment to all dualities

creation and enjoyment when they are happy .Karuna is compassion to all

Maithri

is friendship to all

creation.Muditha is the happiness one feels whenone see good people and in their company.The upeksha is avoidance of bad people and their company and lack of interest in them.The lack of interest in dualities of any kind whether sin or not sin,whether pleasure or pain is also mentioned.With the bhaavana like this sukladharma is originated.With this chithaprasada happen.And by chithaprasada the ekagra and blissful state (sthithipada)is achieved.

Vachas:-The mind which is aparikarmi (not helpful)having asooya (envy)etc is not suitable for Samadhi.Assoya(envy)is enemy to Samadhi and chithaprasaada.Therefor .such disqualifications have to be removed first.The methods to remove them are being said.The chitha where maithri(friendship)karuna(compassion)etc arise is parikarmi and in it chithaprasaada arise.That chitha has friendship and compassion to all beings.There is no hatred or anger against anyone .This is the reason for the happiness of the chitha.When we develop compassion for all and their pain becomes ours ,we become devoid of hatred or anger against any one.Only when we are thinking of illluck to others and we are envious of their happiness ,we become angry to them and hate them.Compassion and maithri takes away these negative qualities.When we enjoy in the enjoyment of all creation and have compassion in the pain of all,where is the place for envy and hatred?Muditha is the feeling of happiness when we see good people.Even this discrimination is lost when chitha progress .When we show disinterest and avoid the company of the bad people we are in a midposition.That also is lost during when the chitha progress .All the opposites are gone and chitha devoid of rajas and thamas become sathwik and the sukladharma awakened in chitha.The richness of sathwa makes us naturally blissful.The chitha ,thus become prasaada .Through ekagratha,the blissful chitha reaches sthithipada.Thus through Maithri etc chitha reach a position which is devoid of

untruth and is full of truth and light and bliss.

Pathan:-Prachrdhana vidyaaranaabhyaam vaa praanasya:

Vyas:-In the koshta,by action of nose and mouth mind become prachardhana.Vidyaarana is the praanaayaamaa.By these two , mind attains sthithi.

Vacha:-The methods for sthithi is said.By the sabda”vaa”not only the two mentioned in this soothra ,but all the said and also the internal(thought)bhaavana are included. (both thoughts and words).These originate simultaneously.(called sahasamuchaya).A person’s thoughts are expressed by his words.This expression or disclosure is called prachardhana.Within the body cavity(koshta) air touching the different positions within the mouth and nasal passage by that effort produces the word (vaak or vaani).This word which is according to science(saasthravihitha) is made pure and great by the effort of the mind by human beings.The origin of word is in rechaka.The air that is breathed out is kept stationary outside for a fixed period is Praanaayaama.The praana is made into yaama This is not achievable even by great effort .But we can ,by reducing the weight of air(laghookritha)by prachardana and vidyaarana,make our body also weightless.Thus the gross body also gets the sthithipada of the sookshma and laghu mind.In this way,the mind and body become one.The thought,word and action become one.

Pathan:- 35 .Vishayavathi vaa pravrithiruthpannaamanasa:

Sthithinibandhani:

Vyas:-By the end of the nose we grasp the action of gandhasamvith or smells.The end of the toungue is rasasamvith and understands taste or rasa.The middle of toungue is sparsasamvith.The jihuaamoola where the toungue starts is sabdasamvith.Thus each position has the function of a definite type and it is repeatedly done by each part and thus the position or sthithi of chitha related to the position of function is demarcated .In samadhipragna the doubtlessly clear consciousness shows them as the five dwaarins (those who keep the gateways-of gandha,sparsa,roopa,rasa,and sabda.).The word formed from the mouth to the nose are related to these five positions and their dwaara and their cognition(or chitha related to brain position ).This is compared to the lightrays of the sun,moon,graham,mani (jewel)and pradeepa(lamp) producing pravrithy(functions) .Both chitha and the pravrithy are vishayavathy. S:(It is worth noting that the functions of sabda or soundwaves and lightrays is compared and the anatomical positions of sense organs and biological energy being equivalent to cosmic energy and inorganic energy is pointed out .). By the proficiency in each of the sciences and by advice of acharya (previous scientist –teacher) chitha by its own cognizes the meanings and become sadbhootha(element of sad or truth).It is just like the knowledge of elements and their meanings gives desagnaana(the knowledge of space or places –geography and space measures ).When the cognized by own karana(senses)become by comparative study and the subtle

meanings through analysis of saasthra of the past teachers and own effort ,fixed and then intellect is originated from that chitha. (S:-The knowledge of directions,of space and time is dependent on knowledge of the five elements .The similarity of this spacetime knowledge to that of knowledge of sound waves and sound energy is again compared here.This is the way of making the gross knowledge subtle by comparison and interdisciplinary approach.The statement that intellect is derived from a chitha which is engaged in such subtle analysis is also noteworthy).

The advice of previous acharya and the anumaana of science are for the testing of our own sense experiences and fixing the truth in them .This is the experimental model for any science for saviseshapratyaksha or special observational visions. (S:At present we call this reference and observation,data collection and comparison ) Once we know the meaning of what our ancestral scientists said by this special type of scientific observational pratyaksha ,we can carefully classify(apavargeekarana)everything(sarvam)with care and with subtlety(sookshma).It is this function which is called the parikarma of chitha.A mind or helper which does this is parikarmi .

Vyas:-Among orderless functions by the naming of their vaseekaarasamgna ,chitha is born.Then it become efficient to grasp meanings of that particular subject in which it is involved.(In which subject is one interested and learned that subject is perceived in chitha with efficiency).In that sradha(concentration),veerya(energy),smrithy(memory)and Samadhi happen effortlessly.

Vachas:-The methods for sthithi . The actions are generated inmind through the vishaya .Therefore mind’s sthithi is always bound to external vishaya.When yogi fixes his his sradha on the end of nose,he gets all the perceptions of all the fragrances or gandha.(Earth is gandhavathy.Therefore by this he grasps entire prithwi with its panchabhootha.).In this way concentarating on each of the gates the yogin conquers and understands each of the sense organs ,its functions and its vishaya.(When one is proficient in sabda or sound ,he is controlling all these dwaaraas and becoming the controller of all elements and all universes).How we do the repetition in Bhaavrithy(Bha or kshethra is the universe with the zodiacal signs of 12),only with several years of practice and repetition of sthithi,we get proficient and this is verifiable both from aagama and from own experience.This is so in attainment of kaivalya also.It is not possible to observe such functions with very little time and experience.The sthithinibandhana in the subject of Iswara and vivekakhyathi(wisdom)also is in the same manner.To get samadhipragna the chitha has to be fixed in Iswara without any distraction or wandering to any other object without any doubt and continuously.For the sidha of aagama ,the knowledge comes to them(aagama is that which comes ) or to their internal space ,and they are not going after them .The vrithy or functions depend upon Iswarachitha and Iswarachitha do not depend upon them or desire for them.they create aagama from their own sarvagna chitha by their own visions and with meanings.The

yogasidhi is due to sradha.By advice the general perception of meaning occurs and with sradha and dhyaana the chitha knows the rest .This is yogasidhi.

Pathan:-36. Visokaa vaa jyothishmathi.

Vyas:-In mind, bound to sthithi(position) and by repetitive behaviour ,pravrithy (actions)are begun.Waht is cognized in the heart’s lotus is the budhisamvith or true intellect.The aakaasakalpa which is bhaaswara (bha is the lightfield of zodiac and swara is sabda the guna of aakaasa and hence this word shows the form of aakaasa) is the budhisathwa (the element of intellect ).The efficincy in its position or sthithi is a function which comes as gnaanaroopa(form of wisdom)through the light rays of sun,moon,graham ,jewels,and lamps.The chitha made one with asmitha ,become similar to a waveless ocean(mahaasindhu) quiet ,endless,and deep .If a little bit of thinking is done on athma ,(by anuvidya)as “Asmeethi”,this sampragnaatha gives the ability to reach this state.This vidya which is adwayi(without a second and which is adwaitha)visoka(without sorrow)and vishayavathy(with external vishaya knowledge)and asmithaamaathra(only asmitha remaining) is the function called Jyothishmathi(The enlightened mind).In such a chitha the gnaana of light and sound in subtle form is awakened.

Vachas:-Visoka means vigathasoka or which has no sorrow.Jyothi is light .jyothishmathi is the mind in which the truth of light energy alone is revealed as pure intellect so that the chitha has become light /energy itself.It is the enlightened mind .The hridayapundareeka or hearts lotus is between middle of body(naabhi)and the beginning of throat ,and is seen as a lotus bud,which is kept facing downwards ,with eight dala(petals).By rechaka and praanaayaama yogin makes it urdhwamukha(turn upwards) and do dhyana and dhaarana in it.In the middle of this is the sabda :a: whichis the solar mandala.It is the jagrad sthaana.Above it is the “u”kaara or chandramandala ,the lunar mandala which is swapna sthaana.And above it is “ma”kaara ,the mandala of agni or energy ,which is sushupthisthaana.And above this is the Paramavyoma ,the Brahmanaada which is the sthaana of thureeya.The sthaana of thureeya is only an ardhamaathra(half a

maathra) for the yogins

karnika is termed the Brahmanaadi by them.On its apex is the functioning sushumnaanaadi which famous as the Brahmi is crisscrossing in all the mandala or fields of surya ,Chandra,agni,and thureeya.The yogin do dhaarana of chitha in it and gets the enlightenment.Whichever form of intellect one gets that is visualized as the budhisathwa.We visualize the aakaasakalpa in it as spreading everywhere,in all fields. The sunlight taken by the graham(organ)is taking the form of that which is understood by that graham(organ).Thus the different forms happens to the same light energy with only one form.The forms are thus kalpitha (constructs)by the sense organs and it is not the truth.Mind is the preference of the sense organs and their intellect.It is not the Mahathathwa.The mahath is the energy which is felt as the one in the sushumna ,as jyothiroopa,and through several and multitudes of janma and it is having sarvavyaapithwa(spreads and expansile everywhere both inside and outside body and universes).The mahathathwa is prakaasa itself.In asmitha mind see this oneness as light

The

urdhwanaadi which is urdhwagathi and in the center of the

energy.In the end of asmitha,the swaroopa is visualized a sjyothi.The waves are the rajas and thamas.They end.The ocean of light is seen as a mahaasindhu which is waveless ,endless ,quiet ,in the form of perfect sathwa ,an ocean og energy .It is not a vision of different lights,but a vision of ekajyothish.When such an experience is attained,the person accepts it through own experience and then finds proof for it from aagama and old teachers.This process alone is the remaining life.Nothing else matters for a person who has experienced this mahaasindhu within.This is what Panchasikha has said.If one can control the manyness which is very difficult to control,at least a little bit ,say the measure of an atom(anu)he can expect to proceed further step by step as athamachintha(thought about athman)anuvidya and anuchintha ,and asmitha.Thus asmithaamaathra which is jyothishmathi ,and the jyothishmathi of different light rays are unified as one in that chitha(the unification of different energies as modern science is attempting to).What was misunderstood as many and as two ,is really one.The ocean with impurities of rajas and thamas is with waves,the jyothishmathi of aneka energy and the sathwa energy alone as asmithamathra is the waveless ocean of advaitha.The difference is only one of difference in rajas and thamas (nearness to the shore of vishaya and its impurities) and their absence.The expression of the two types of jyothishmathi is thus cognized by the sidha.

S:-The presence of the Mahasindhu as ocean of light and sound energy ,described by Panchasikha is quite interesting to me as an individual since it represents a recurring

childhood dream I had been seeing from age 8 onwards.

Pathan:- 37 Veetharaagavishayam vaa chitham.

Vyas:- The chitha of a yogin has attained the state of veetharaaga( no raaga or special attachment)to vishaya (external objects)and hence they do not create any colour even if they are placed nearby.

Vachas:-The chitha of yogins like KrishnaDwaipaayana Vyaasa has no dependence on any objects and are free from attachment of any kind and hence called veetharaaga.

Pathan:-38.Swapnanidraagnaanaalambanam vaa.

Vyas:-Even in swapnagnaana and in nidraagnaana , the chitha of yogin has no dependence and it is fixed in sthithipada even in those states.

Vachas:-In dream states one travels through forests or temple complexes etc through the mind’s visions.The chitha of yogin see lunar mandala and travels there with elements which are beautiful as soft lotus petals,and as aristocratic jewels of chandrakaanatha,wearing fragrant jasmine blossoms and worshipping the idols of Maheswara with them,and prabudha(of great intellect)and blissful .It is only in the thoughts of such elements and the forms of such blissful existence the yogin’s chitha enjoys ,even in swapna.Such a chitha has attained sthithipada even in sleep and dream states.Even in sleep their chitha is not thaamasik ,but saathwiki.Such enlightened intellects have only bliss even in swapna,and not a trace of sorrow in them.Their mind is

ekaagra in the Hitha naadi .In this way the yogins who are knowers of Brahma visualize Brahma in sleep,and enjoy the memory of it forever.This visualization happens only in the oneness of Gnnana,gneya and the gnaathaa(knowledge,known and the knower).

Pathan:-39.Yathaabhimathadhyaanaadyaa.

Vyas:-One can select the dhyaanavishaya or dhyaanaroopa according to one’s liking and interest.Then to get concentration on it and to get fixed on it and become one with it is easier.

Vachas:-Whatever form is meditated upon ,one gets thanmayatha(oneness)of that form.(If we meditate on sorrow or a form having intense pain and suffering the pain and suffering will increase )

Pathan:-40.Paramaanuparamamahathwaantho asya vasekaara:

Vyas:-If we fix our meditation on the subtlest of the subatomic particle(paramaanu)we get sthithipada in it.If we meditate on the large scale universe we get sthithipada in it.If we go on changing from one to another ,the many crores of forms will reduce our ekagratha(concentration)and becomes obstacles.That is why yogins are asked to meditate

on one single ishtavishaya or ishtadevatha .for perfect control called poornavaseekaara this method is essential.Concentrate on your ishtadevatha or ishtavishaya and fix chitha on it for long periods of time without diversions ,and by constant practice of this ,get sidhi with dependence on parikarma.(S:-In this way Iswarapranidhaana is bhakthi on an ishtadevatha and meditation on it for getting ekagratha and fixity of chitha and is the best method for attaining sthithipada. In Bhaagavatha Vyaas advised the meditation of Vishnu for attaining sthithipada and Vishnu is the sthithideva ,the sustainer of universes.).

Vachas:-What we should do to attain and sustain thithipada in Athman? Only a yogichitha can do vaseekaara of everything from Paramaanu(the most subtle)to the

paramamahathwaantha(the most great and gross).The vaseekaarapadaartha(An object that has the power of attraction)will always be Pindeekritha(One with pinda or mass).The subtlest paramaanu is the pinda with least mass,and the gross universe is the pinda with most mass.(In modern science language the quantum universe and the relativistic large

scale universes)

state of chitha he knows and cognizes both.They are attracted and taken in(aavaahana) to

the chitha of yogin and internalized.Both the subtle and gross attraction of the small paramaanu and the great universes thus are seen in the chitha of yogin and gnaani thus attracts everyone,small and great.(This state is the oneness of gnaana,gnaani and the gneya)

Both

are attracted by the chitha of the yogin and in his concentrated

Pathan:-41 Ksheenavritherabhijaathasyevamanegruheethrugrahanagraahyeshu

thathsthathadanjanathaa samaapathy:

Vyas:-The ending of all other vrithy is called ksheenavrithy.The chitha with

ksheenavrithy is abhijaatha .This is explained with an example.As jewel or sphatika(crystal).Crystal is pure and colourless.Whichever object is kept near it,it assumes the colour of that object due to its shadow only.But it does not change colourless state.In this way,whichever subject or object is placed near a yogin’s chitha,the chitha cognizes it perfectly well andthat is how yogin gets knowledge of everything .The person coming near ,or a science or art coming near is known by the chitha of the yogin thouroughly ,but the chitha does not change from its original state of raagarahitha.It does not get the roopa or bhaava of the subject .It just reflects the shadow and knows all.When the subtle elements are near,it takes the subtle elements and look like it is subtle element and when gross things come look like that.When the viswaroopa is brought near such chitha(the form of the universes)it assumes the form of viswaroopa .The dependence in cognition(grahana)is only the shadow and after cognition (grahanaantham)the shadow is removed and the original form is again shown.Therefore only by grahana(cognition /and eclipse-two meanings)we visualize the swaroopa of the sense(indriya) of chitha which is prakaasaroopa(the form of light).If the object known is purusha,it is the aalambana(dependent)and it becomes coloured by purusha and is seen as purusha.If it is a mukthapurusha ,chitha becomes mukthapurushaswaroopa.The cognizance of all in this way,like an aristocratic(abhijaatha)crystal,by the state (sthithi)of the cognized,cogniser and the cognition ,as one by the gnaaniis called samaapathy(equalization ).

Vachas:-In a chitha with attainment of sthithi we can see vaseekaara.In such a pure chitha,what vishaya in which form becomes sampragnaatha? To this question the soothra gives answer.With abhyaasa(practice)and vairaagya the vrithys of rajas and thamas become weakened(ksheena)and later they are totally destroyed.Then only the sathwa of the chitha remain with its form of light and swabhaava of continuous flow of light energy.In such a chitha how does the knowledge of the prapancha with rajas and thamas remain?How does they originate and visualize in it?The example of crystal is then given. The upaadhi is the red flower. The shadow of its red colour is the uparakthachaaya.(reflection ) When the uparakthachaya of the upaadhi falls on the pure clear crystal,the reflection is seen by the onlookers and they think that the colour is there in the crystal.The vishayagnaana ,(knowledge of all subjects)and of all forms(roopa )in yogin’s chitha is only this reflection.The grahyavasthu(the red flower here,which is the known)has colour and form and only its shadow is there in the graahakachitha(the chitha of cogniser) .This is called grahana or cognition.(Note that the word grahana for eclipse is the word used here.On a new moon day when the shadow of moon falls on sun,the observers on earth can see it .This is akin to what is described here.This is not accidental but intentional.The use of the same word graham,grahana,and grahya in astronomy and cognition of yogachitha is noteworthy).

The known,knowledge and the knower are separated for understanding and analysis and experimentation for human mind.Actually they are one energy only.The anthakarana(internal faculty)which is related to athman has the form of sunlight or gneya(to be known).The earth and the moon (the body –mind complex)is the knower or

gnaathaa.The process of grahana is the cognition of swaroopa.(S:-The term graham thus means the objects which help in the cognition of the process ,and ara the sense organs and the planets which are both nine in number .If graham is that which helps cognition,vigraha or an idol is that gives help in a special way –viseshena graham) The limitation of cognition of athma is not due to the form of athma.But the limitation of the mind-body complex.The yoga is a method to remove these limitations.The uparaaga of grahya is studied by the human mind after dividing it into its sookshma(subtle)and sthoola(gross)aspects .All the different universes ara actually chethana alone (energy).The objects distinguished as cow,pot ,earth etc is also chethana only in different forms.These sthoolapinda are all in truth subtle(sookshma)prakaasa(energy of light)only.One can find out this logically in vitharka and vichaara Samadhi.The state of indriyasthithi in grahana also is like that.All the graham(indriya ) sitting together in the same griha or kshethra ,gets the grahana or cognition of truth.Not alone.Therefore all the sense organs are bound to mind as a complex . (S:-In astronomy the mind is the moon ,and all graham in the solar system being sense organs attached to the thinking mind on earth ).

Grahana is dependent upon what is being cognized.If we depend upon the red colour ,it is red.If blue it is blue that is known.Similarly if we wants to know bliss we get bliss .And if sorrow ,we get knowledge of sorrow.If aananda and asmitha,we know them.If we wants

to know astronomy ,we know that.If we wants to know music we know that,if medicine ,that.In this way any subject that is brought to the yogin’s attention(near)is known to the chitha by its ekagratha and this cognition is effortless.And even after grahana ,they remain the nityamuktha state itself.The mukthapurusha like Suka and Prahlaada have spoken about Samadhi knowledge in this way. S:(According to modern mathematicians ,a person who gives concentrated study for 3000 hours in a subject gets competence in that subject and if 10000 hours are devoted to any subject ,one can get real expertise in that.This is according to Graham Lawer.If we apply this ,according to him,one year ,one month ,21 days,and 16 hours are needed for getting expertise in a subject.And reducing the hours taken for other activities essential for life like day to day functions including sleep,he gives three years to become an expert in one subject.This is an approximate calculation only.A child who starts to learn from five years ,by 65 years of age can master at least 20 to 21 subjects in this calculation. The yogic chitha achieves more than that.Because the concentration power is more and interest in worldly things are not existent the rate of cognition is more .)

Vachas:-Another simili used is that of anjanasalaaka which increases the visual power of Human eye.The removal of impurities of rajas and thamas ,and the perfection of chithasathwa ,by dhaarana and dhyaana and its maturity so that there is fixity of pragna in oneness of known,knower and knowledge is this type of function.And this is called sampragnaathasamadhi.The order of meaning and the order of learning(paada)of the known,knower and knowledge has no contradiction and which should be used first is not a matter of controversy since all are one.But in the bhasya ,the first is given as the subtle paramaanu because of the wonderful and respectable scientific intellect of the

bhashyakaara and is very beautiful too.

Pathan:-47 Thathra sabdaarthagnaanavikalpai:samkeernaa savitharkaa samaapathy:

Vyas:-The sabda Gouri can be divided into ,Gouri the meaning and Gouri the gnaana or knowledge .This division is for easy grahana(cognition).Vibhakthy or division is for easy cognition.Dharma path(Dharmapantha) is divided into the three dharma of sabda,artha,and gnaana though they are actually one.In the pragna of yogi in Samadhi all the three are one and this complex samapathy is called savitharka.

Vachas:-Samapathy is explained in general (saamaanya).This itself becomes four types as savitharka,savichara,saananda and saasmitha. Savitharka is in the middl position of samaapathy.How? Savitharka is the visualization of the complexes formed by the mixtures of kalpa and vikalpa of each of sabda,artha and gnaana ,occupying a middle position of these complexes.The different sabda which are formed from the sabda Gouri,the different artha for each of these different sabdaas,and by the functions of these different meanings and sounds the different opinions created by the previous scientists ,and occupying a midposition of all these ,knowing and seeing all these different theories and opinions,and vibhakthy and groups ,seeing the most acceptable sabdaarthagnaana for the current (present)is savitharkasamadhi.(S:-In a way it implies linguistic analysis of all

sabda with meanings used by past generations and interpretation for the present and future).The first requirement is that the division is for easy understanding and there is no actual division.This is not so easy.While learning about prakaasa(energy)which is eka,we divide it into different (aneka)as pindeekrithaprapanchavasthu(worldly objects with mass)but know that theyare different forms of the one energy.Prakasa cannot be divided(avibhajya).To differentiate as anuaya and vyathireka is the sabdadharma.To differentiate as jada and moortha is arthadharma.To differentiate as prakaasamurthy(form of energy)and its lack and combinations(viraha and samyoga)is gnaanadharma.These are the three vibhakthipanthaa(paths of division) said for sabda,artha and gnaana.According to swaroopa is the path of awakening and upward journey for each.The goal and the path are one.The three different educational paths depend upon the interest and ability of the learner.This samapathy is expressed with the example of Gouri /cow .

Pathan:-43.Smrithyparisudhow swaroopasoonyevaarthamaathra nirbhaasaa nirvitharkkaa.

Vyas:- In nirvitharka the perceived is the para.It is pure and has no sabdasankethasmrithy(remembrance of relations to sabda) or the herad and deducted knowledges and their differences of opinions (vikalpa)and is fixed in samadhipragna as swaroopa .It is the bheeja(seed )of all heard and deducted.Therefore it is before all the heard and deducted and hence devoid of all those.It has no vitharka due to this reason.The yogi visualize this with pramaana which are not complex(asamkeerna).The lakshana of nirvitharkka is it is pure from smrithy,and without any swaroopa and revealed by artha alone.It has no sabdasanketha ,no heard or deducted different opinions of gnaana ,and no memory of such vikalpa ,and hence is pure and uparaktha only in the grahyaswaroopa(the swaroopa of the grahya or the known)which has sacrificed the

cognition(grahana)of own pragna as “my pragna”,and has become one with the grahya as its padaartha and swaroopa .Its upakrama(beginning)is in the ekabudhi (oneness of intellect).It is the advaitha intellect which see athma ,as anuprachaya or groups of atoms of cows to pot and all the universes,all the subtle elements and gross worlds ,dharma and positions (samsthaana) as One.even the avyaktha(unseen)and the imagined exist in that athmabhootha.In previous dharma,it also might have had agnaana (ignorance)of swavyanjakathwa( revelations of self as different ) like udaya in kapaala,and thirobhaava (rise and setting.Kapaala is a Sanskrit word used for both the skull and for the horizon ).It is because of the one mahath which is touched by even the anu of an anu(atom of an atom) and its eternity of function ,the function of each of the organs is carried out.The prachayavisesha(special groupings)which are avasthuka(not seen objects)are the sookshmakaarana(subtle cause)for all objects and had been in existence forever before all objects.Such a subtle reason or kaarana is fixed in avikalpa,and is different from false knowledge of the seen objects (by sense organs)and difficult to achieve and this true gnaana is comprehended as different from mithyaagnaana ,and without tharka(arguments)in nirvitharka Samadhi and this is samyaggnaana due to lack of vishaya.(vishayaabhaava is samyaggnaana ).It is not touched by sense organs.The gnaana which is not touched,seen,kissed,enjoyed ,tasted,or smelt ,the gnaana before all vishaya and the sense organs were created ,is this organless gnaana.It is from this ,the mahad and other divisible,and other objects with avayava(organs)were created.It is this gnaana

before creation of all universes which is the subject of nirvitharkka Samadhi.

Vachas:-What is nirvitharkasamadhi?This is thought about in this soothra.The purity is the lakshana here.The memory of the previously heard sabdasanketha,the functions of aagama and anumaana have created the sankethachaya when the word Gouri is heard in the savitharka.In that there is adhyasa of one on the other in athma.Its chaaga(the groups of reshmi or a mandala of lightrays )becomes the gnaanavikalpa by deduction.It is thus the savitharkapragna is generated.The sabda,artha,sruthy and anumaana are sacrificed with their rootcause,and in the samadhipragna which is devoid(soonya)of them pragna become fixed without discontinuity of any vikalpa or any argument ,it is pure and called nirvitharka. Because of absence of gandha and other sense experiences ,paramapratyaksha is seen in yogichitha in this stage.The direct pratyaksha of the ultimate(para)is without dependence on the vishaya and the sense organs.The cognition ,exposition,and advice of para is not with the sense organs or its dependence but by pure pragna.There is no dependence on paraanubhava(other people’s experiences)or aagama(past scientists views or quotations)or by deductions without experience(anumaana).All these are present only in savitharka.Savitharka has several vikalpa ,arguments ,sruthi and anumaana and is complex.Its seed or cause is nirvitharka ,which is devoid of all these and from which all sruthi and anumaana were created. The knowledge of smoke is the cause for knowledge of fire. Therefore it is agnivishayaka .Whichever knowledge is the cause of another gnaana ,that gnaana is called the gnaanavishayaka of the particular gnaana.the nirvitharka is pure of all smrithy or memories.It has no memory of previous sabda,heard,deducted and the different vikalpa opinions .The only smrithy it has is the sabdasanketha .the sabdasanketha is pranava.It is this sabdasankethasmrithy alone which is the cause for purity.This purity becomes the

cause for the gnaanasmrithy like sruthi.The functional instrument of anumaanasabda is anumeyavaachaka.With Eka,the lack of interest in vishaya is negated.Intellect begins as eka,and that is the beginning of intellect.It is not from the groups of paramaanu ,or groups of many jeevaathma and hence these are not the subject of the nirvitharkasamadhi.The efficiency of the chitha which reaches nirvitharkka,is the ability to reveal and cognize the most subtle sookshmaprapancha and the most gross sthoolaprapancha as equal and one cognizable subject.The sookshma and the sthoola are the same prathibhaasadharma in it.All are enrgy only.The cognizable sthoola differences like saakya,pahlava etc are naasathya (not rue)and these manyness is not an obstacle to the oneness.The two atoms(dwanuka) and their combinations becoming cow,pot etc are also the same in essence and visualized as one only without separateness.The gross universes and objects are all groupings of anu(atoms)and the anuprachaya are what makes the difference in form and their change from one to another form.These are all our own nature which has no other existence than self.In this way the self and its swaroopa is known.The observer ,the observed and the house of enjoyment or observation are not different in the subtle form.The differene of pot,picture,etc is in the gross form and the name we gave it.In oneness all are paramaanu only.The gross difference gives the dharma and dharmi bhaava.In the subtle state there is only dharmi .The use Bhoothasookshmanaam is indicative of difference in energy by shashtiprayoga.In athmabhootha even that difference is not there.In the effect which is seen world and in the experience of it as

internal and unseen worlds or in the lakshana of them there is no difference at all.Because of absence of another cause the moolakaarana(the ultimate kaarana or cause)is swayamprabha or revealed by its own light.It is swavyanjaka or able to expresss itself without any other cause.This process of lighting ones own eye is shown by the simili of anjana .For this dharma which is athmabhootha,is there a dharmanthara or is it nitya?Dharmaanthara means rise and set in kapaala (origin and end of knowledge in human brain,sunrise and sunset in horizon,and birth and death in human life etc).For everything with organs we find these.Even for a paramaanu we find a vyaavritharoopa(revolving form). Paramaanubhyo vyaavritham roopam aadarsayathi. In paramaanu the function of adhyaaya also exists.Its dharma with dhaaranaalakshana as madhu ,udaka etc also is in paramaanu.In the subtle paramaanu exists the kevala dharma of experience as well as the common functional dharma(vyavahaara)simultaneously.By the two dharma together (law of experience and of revolution)the journey of all the universes happen. (S:-Here the law of universe and the law of the human cognition which grasps this law are both mentioned).

The existence of asath or untruth is because of the knowledge and experience of the sense organs .Body-mind complex and the sense organs attached to it are influnced by imperfections of rajas and thamas and the separateness and differences perceived is due to this imperfections.they are limited.The sathwa alone is opposite to this and is truth and unlimited and expanding into everything,existing in everything.the sense organs with attachment and limitations can never attain this gnaana.Sathwa is organless,expansile and exists everywhere .It is not limited to one place as the things with organs.When a thing is limited by a place or region(regional)it has covered,uncovered,red,nonred,movable,immovable and other such opposite dharma.All

these opposite dharma are due to bondage to desa or space.For the truth which is beyond spacetime this is not there.Stone,soil,paaduka(shoe)etc,or north,south etc ,or past ,present ,future etc are not seen in the eka which is beyond spacetime.The revolution differences(vyaavrithybheda)is because of the difference in sthoola and sookshma forms.When they become one the vyaavrithiseela(the function of revolution)ends.The change in form created .Unless we understand the paramasookshmathathwa this will not be cognized.Even though the paramaanu of the smell,touch,taste,etc are (anthara)different,they are niranthara too (continuous) and should be cognized as a continuum .When they are understood as ekapratyaya or ekadhana called just paramaanu ,all the mithyaavikalpa are gone.By looking at the origin of parampara(generations)also vikalpa does not exist.There is truth only in that which is organless,sathwaprakaasa,and sarvavyaapi .It has to be learned as avikalpa,as direct perception of experience subtly and without kaama(desire) and this is possible only for a yogic mind.The athma which is truth cannot be touched by any other thing which is anathma.Vyahritha is accepted as the internal experience of vijaatheeyaparamaanu.It is avasthuka and nirvikalpavishaya and in form of sookshmaparamaanu .The sookshma is the kaarana or cause .There is no other sookshmakaarana than th eavikalpa.All the sthoola or gross with limitations and form and name are only mithyaagnaana and onlythe sookshma is the sathyagnaana.According to this the gross world is mithya.The cause of it or the sookshma is satya.In athma both

these and their gnaana are revealed .Like Aditya ,the Athman reveals all by its own light and energy.

Gnaana occur even in the absence of vishaya(external objects).It is not based on things like agochara(unseen)gross,with organs or not,or nirvikalpa ,but on the cognizing power and ability of expression and communication,that one can measure the gnaana of a

being.The yoga is the increasing of the cognition power of chitha.The cognition power of

a yogin is several times more than that of an ordinary human being because of its

ekagratha.Because of this the vikalpa of differences,controversies,separatisms ,changes in forms of different varieties,or mithyaagnaana do not even touch it.Yet as a clear and pure crystal,all these characteristics of the world is known by the yogichitha just by reflection of their shadows.

Pathan:-44.Ethayaiva savichaaranirvichaara cha sookshmavishayaa vyaakhyaathaa.

Vyas:-Savichaara is the samaapathi in those which are not separated by timespace ,cause and their experiences,and which is expressed by the bhoothasookshma .The special dharma which has bhoothasookshma for its base and which is cognized by ekabudhi we find this samadhipragna.The dharma which is born in shanthi(peace) and seen as continuous in everything with equal ratio as sarvadharma,we call nirvichaara.By own swaroopa,the pragna cognize that bhoothasookshma itself is that swaroopa .Then the pragna looses the swaroopabheda from all others and shines just as artha (meaning ).Only then it is nirvichaara.In mahad or gross things as savitharka and nirvitharka and in subtle things as savichara and nirvichara the samadhipragna is generated.In the nirvitharka ,the loss of vikalpa happens by savichara and nirvichara.

Vachas:-For explaining subtle subjects savichara and nirvichara Samadhi are needed.For

a gross thing which has a vyaktha(seen) form we find desa or space .It consists of

sides,limits or paridhi,a kshethra ,kshethraphala,length,bredth and height etc .These limitations or paridhi are measurable.For objects with desaparidi we find a kaalaparidhi also .These are the origin or birth,existence or sthithi and destruction or death.These gives the past ,presence and future to all gross things.The spacetime limits are there for all gross things.Nimitha is the origin of the five thanmaathra .For example,for the thanmaaathra of prithwy(earth) the main nimitha is gandha or smell.For the jalaparamaanu (water)the important thanmathra is rasa .In that there is no smell thanmathra.In the thaijasaparamanu(fire)there is no gandha and rasa and the main thanmathra is roopa.In vaayaveeyaparamaanu(air)the main thanmathra is sparsa and only sparsa and sabda are there.In the naabhasa or aakaasaparamaanu only sabdathanmathra is seen.These thanmathra are the nimitha for bhoothasookshmaanu.In this way,the experience of spacetime and nimitha exists in all gross things.In all experiences these originate name and adjectives and the separatist intellect.The similarity between savitharka and savichara is that .In parthivaparamanu ther are all the five thanmathra and thus it destroys the ekabudhi .And creates bhedabudhi in objects.It is the grosses of the bhoothaparamanu.The present time,the objects ,the places or regions etc all are limits created by this .There is a context,a memory,relations to aagama ,anumaana,vikalpa etc are all linked to the earth paramaaanu.Though we do not see paramaaanu in the gross

thing we have to use our anumaana etc to reveal them .this complexity is said in the savitharka earlier.In savichara ,the bhedabhavana of separate feeling is removed and ekabudhi is awakened and the pragna is dependent only on bhoothasookshma and not on gross.therefore the manyness caused by the gross is absent. Now we will consider the nirvichara. When we say that sarvathwa is existent in all always as varna(colours)like blue and yellow,the sarvathwa has to be sarvavibhakthikam(dividing all)in the seen as well as in time,in nimitha and anubhava(experience).In the beginning itself the term saantham is used at the gate(dwara)of the dharma.Saantha is beyond the present and the future and is a dharma which is timeless.It is not divided by time.Then in such a dharma which is undivided ,how does the paramaanu that is divided become bound? The paramaanu by the association with Kathama,and as that relationship,due to ratio of dharma is bound to all dharma. (S:-It is interesting to note that the modern term Quantum ,is derived from the Sanskrit word Kathama from which originated a latin word of similar pronounciation.). This means the differences in energy which we notice(the chidbheda)are only the dharma of paramaanu (Chidbhedo dharmaanaam paramaanubhya:) The knowledge in each subject originate by each of its swaroops.That is the functioning style of pragna which has cognizion of vasthuthanthra (the method of the object and its cognition).The swaroopa of pragna is chid or chinmaathra which means the unit of pragna is chid or energy only.And in all objects the parammanudharma(function of subatomic particle) exists as chidbheda(difference in energy).This vasthuswaroopa(form of objects) is analysed by pragna which is of the same nature(energy)and makes it useful.The pragna which is chinmathra(the bioenergy) by a single unit of it can cognize

any object ,or vishaya and their combinations and the different forms and the ratio of dharma(energy) with its unit of energy even without any vichara.And also with vichara. (S:-By these two means the human consciousness with its energy unit ,has the cognition power to know any subject or object which is nothing but energy in different ratio.the neurological bioenergy and cosmic ebergy and the different types of natural forces being the energy alone is mentioned in this unique way by a very ancient scientist ).

Pathan:-45 Sookshmavipayathwam cha lingaparyavasaanam.

Vyas:-The sookshmavishaya in the paramaanu of earth is gandhathanmathra.In jhala it is rasa,in thejasa it is roopa and in vayaveeya it is sparsa and in aakaasa it is sabda alone.This is called ahamkara which is lingamaathra.When the sookshmavishaya is just a lakshana it is called lingamaathra.Beyond that there cannot be another sookshma.Is not purusha subtle than that? True.The subtlety which is subtler than lakshana or linga is only that of purusha.But the anwaya of linga does not become purusha .Anwaya of linga is only a hethu(cause).Therefore in pradhaana ,a sookshma which is nirathisaya(unsurpassed) is existent.

Vachas:-Why does samapathy end with the cognition of bhoothasookshma? It does not end.The sookshmavishayathwa ends in lakshana or linga and not in bhoothasookshma.From paramaanu of earth upto paramaanu of the nabhas upwards ,in each of them in their bhoothasookshma samaapathy ,its unit or thanmathra is said.Mahathathwa is lingamathra.In that pradhaana merge.Pradhaana is alinga.Has no lakshana.That alinga merges with linga.Therefore there is no end of linga but end of alinga is said.Purusha also is without lakshana.Therefore he too should be lingarahitha.Therefore it must be the subtlest .The answer is yes.Though by upaadaana

the subtlest alinga is purusha, by purusharthanimitha mahad and ahankara are formed and purusha is their kaarana or hethu.But for something which is alinga how can one say the lakshana of subtlety?By linga.Truth or satya is cause .Not upaadaana.How pradhana changes in mahad etc ,in that manner purusha does not change.Purusha has a linga or lakshana that is aparinaami.Pradhana and purusha has a difference in lakshana or linga and that is pradhana is parinaami and purusha aparinaami.The parinaami linga merges with the aparinaami linga .Both are alinga and sookshma.Therefore the linga soukshmya is given to parinaami as pradhaana as its nirathisayadharma and aparinaami linga to

purusha.

(S:-There is nothing controversial or contradictory in this if we look at it like this

.

Prithwi

5 Thanmathra –linga the pradhaanathanmathralakshana –gandha

Jhala

4 thanmathra –linga the pradhaanathanmaathraalakshana –rasa

Thejas

3 thanmathra-linga the pradhanathanmathralakshana –roopa

Vayu

2 thanmathra –linga the pradhanathanmathralakshana –sparsa

Aakasa

1 thanmathra-linga its only lakshana –sabda (.This is Brahmalinga )

Here ends the bhoothasookshma cognition .But the cognition of linga or lakshana has not

ended.

The next subtle than aakaasa –the pradhaana –linga soukshmyam.It is parinaami.

The next subtle is purusha -

)

Its linga is aparinaami .And it is the hethu or kaarana of all

Pathan:-46.Thaa eva sabeejasamadhi:

Vyas:-After the four types of Samadhi ,the Samadhi which is the seed of the external vasthu(bahirvasthubheeja).This is called sabeejasamsdhi.How the savitharka and nirvitharka for gross,and savichara and nirvichara for sookshma ,there are sabheeja and nirbheeja for this type.

Vachas:-Just like the four types of sampragnaathasamadhi,desribed,sabheejasamadhi is explained.We will find later on that the bhinnakrama(difference in the order )of akaara cause sabheeja.When hundred subjects are cognized the hundred and oneth is considered as sabheejasamadhi.Even if the cognizer and the cognized due to the disordered perceptions ,and the vikalpa and avikalpa differences happen to loose or unable to grasp the truth,sabheejatha by its presence which is never prevented by any force ,makes it possible for the lost wisdom to come up again as if from a seed after a hundred years of hibernation.After a hundred janma,after a hundred years,after a hundred vishaya the lost knowledge again resurrect from the beeja as the eight sidha or astasidha.In this way ,from a yogin after several years the Samadhi sprouts again .

Pathan:-47 .Nirvichaaravaisaaradye adhyaathmaprasaada:

Vyas:-Vaisaaradya is the process by which the the impurities of rajas and thamas are removed and the uncovered sathwa flow continuously without obstructions.This vaisaradya happens in nirvichaarasamadhi.The gnaana of bhoothaartha ,clearly and in order are revealed in the chitha and by this flow of knowledge or vaisaradya ,adhyathmaprasada is generated.In santhiparva(17/20)this is expressed as, Pragnaaprassadamaaruhya asochya:sochathojanaan Bhoomishtaaniva sailastha:sarvaan pragno anupasyathi.

Vachas:-After cognizing a hundred subjects ,the yogin stops thinking about them (nirvichara)and by the brightpragna gets adhyathmaprasada.Here all the hundred vishya are seen as vaisaradya but as impurity.Even the scholarship is impurity and a covering for the pure athma.The one who knows this,after being a scholar in several subjects sacrifices

all those sidhi and without thinking about them get fixity in his swabhaava which is light itself.When one is fxed in the light of athma,one gets chithaprasada.Both in bhoothavishaya and athmavishaya there is chithaprasaada.When explained in order it was said as first bhoothavishaya aand then athmavishaya.But the order can be the other way round also.The gaatha of paramarshi is here quoted for that.The yogin who see athmagnaana as above everything else,crosses the three sorrows,and is asochya(sorrowless)and visualizes the sorrows of others with compassion .

Pathan:-48.Rithambharaa thathra pragnaa:

Vyas:-The pragna of such a yogin is called rithambhara.For it there is nothing more to be gained or asked.It lives in truth alone.There is no viparyasagnaana bondage in it.Therefore,to get the pragna which is said by aagama,anumaana and dhyaanaabhyaasarasa (all the three methods)which is the greatest yoga is achieved. Aagamenaanumaanena dhyaanaabhyaasarasena cha Thridhaa prakalpayan pragnaa labhathe yogam uthamam.

Vachas:-The rithambhara is famous among yogins .By the aagama which are acceptable to veda sravana or sruthi is meant.By anumaana ,manana is meant.And by dhyaana ,chintha is mentioned.that is by hearing,by deduction and by thoughts and meditation

.These three are to be repeatedly done and this is the greatest punya anushtaana ever possible for a human being.This is respected by all yogins .And these three together is known as nididhyaasana in yogic language.With these three the yogin graduaaly aquires rithambhara.

Pathan:-49.Sruthaanumaanapragnaabhyaam anyavishayaa viseshaarthathwaath.

Vyas:The pragna which has sruthi and anumaana(hearing and deduction) by its special meanings extends to different subjects.Srutham is the knowledge in aagama.It is only general knowledge.With that alone,one cannot aquire special gnaa.Why? For special(visesha)the sanketha(context)is sabda(sound).The context of aagama is sabda.One cannot get the special knowledge of sabda from aagama due to this reason.The anumaana or deduction is employed for this.The deduction is as follows.How much is achieved ,that much is gathy:and how much is not achieved that much is no gathi.(Yathra prapthi thathra gathy:yathra na prapthy thathra na gathy.So for the deduction or anumaana the same method used in ganitha or mathematics and astronomy is employed by Vyasa).By anumaana ,one can know the general concepts .Both sruthi and anumaana are general subjects and are not special subjects. One cannot cognize very subtle and unseen things with sensory perceptions alone.Only samadhipragna can cognize the presence of special,and apramaana(without any pramaana)and abhaava(without any expressions) objects.These very special things ,whether of purusha or of bhoothasookshma,are revealed only in samadhipragna.That is,there is a special pragna which is differet from the general pragna designated as sruthaanumaanapragna.And it is this special pragna which reveals what is not revealed to the sense organs .

Vachas:-The acquisition of a birth,with a pragna which can cognize aagama and anumaana,shows that the the subject of aagama and anumaana is nirvichaara.No one can generate this gnaana by the other subject experiences or by the samskaaraas of this birth.Therefore,it is nirvichara ,as rithambara,which thinks of aagama and anumaana and creates them.The sruthi,anumaana and the thoughts are generated from the nirvichara.Because the budhisathwa itself is the swabhaava of light.That alone is capable of seeing and cognizing meanings of all.When thamas covers it,rajas removes it.Rajas is awakened to remove thamas.By abhyasa and vairagya the impurities both rajas and thamas removed and the wonderful vaisaaradya is awakened.(If such a vaisaaradya is seen in a person,understand that his/her chitha is sathwasudha and rithambhara).There is no limit for the endless prakaasa(light).In that pragna the gnaana never sets.From that pragna arise general subjects like aagama,anumaana,etc.It is not the other way round.By aagama one cannot create a special pragna.But with a special pragna one can create aagama.The special pragna which moves forward (abhichaara)by its experience of bliss ,creates or becomes “sabda” by that adwaya aanandagathy(blissful movement) .That sabda becomes the sruthi.With the visesha(special)the association of the said(vachya)and the sentence(vachaka)are formed.It is not from the meaning of the sentence the sabda is created and then from sabda ,pragna is created.In anumaana also,in the birth which is dependent on association of linga and alinga ,gathi is thus created from pragna.From that gathi is created anumaana.By the change in position of each sabda,the vyapyavyaapaka

(the media through which it spreads,and the thing which spreads) is created.To cognize that change in position,and to create that resides in pragna.For a general deduction ,the capacity to generate this special pragna,does not exist.The special pragna called rithambhara cannot be created by no general subjects which are perceived by the ordinary senses which depends on several factors for perception.The external objects which are associated wih the elements,and with sense organs also cannot create it.Sense organs cannot create pragna.But pragna can create the senses

There are people who hold the view that there is no visesha which is unseen by aagama and anumaana and that for such visesha there is no pramaana or evidence.The reason why there is no other pramaana for the most subtle truth is because ,that itself is the pramaana for it.There is no other cause for it except itself.That itself is pramaana and prameya and all others are different from it in this respect.The evidences of the other objects which are sensory ,cannot function there.The worldly pragna is destroyed in Samadhi.There is no argument or contradictions there.The paramaanu and the Athman are both visesha in their own rights and their objectivity is interchanged(vyaavartha).This is how by the mutual vivartha they both become praathiswikaviseshasaalai(S:The two co-ordinate systems which translates mutually and remain in inertia).In this way the rithambhara pragna is revealed by its own light.From that kavya,alamkara,anumana,aagama,khandana,mundane and everything is generated .Because it is a pragna which is prathibha with eternal creativity(navanavollekhasaalini pragnaa prathibhaa).To think of a special,to create it,to enjoy and analyse it,and to remove all doubts ,and to find out logic for it,and to attract even a far off object towards it is possible for the sathwaprakaasa which is seen in the chitha as Ritham.The pragna which is full of such Ritham is called Rithambhara .That means a prathibha which can cognize and create anything.This is a ability which is

janmasidha( which one gets by birth). It is with this pragna we cognize,and become creators and scholars and world teachers.

Pathan:-50 Thajja:samskaaro anyasamskaaraprathibandhi.

Vyas:-The pragna of a yogin creates new samskaraas forever.The samsakaaras thus created by pragna are not obstructions to other samskaara.The samskaaraas of samadhipragna does not affect the samskaara of the vyuthaanachitha.They are created for rejuvenation of the vyuthaanasamskaaraas.They are concerned with obstruction of the pratyaya only.The new ideologies and civilizations and cultures are all the creation of samadhipragna.The samskaara will be according to the pragna which created it.Why the the chitha with samskaara does not exert power ?Chitha becomes great by the destruction of klesa and avidya in it and it in that chitha samskaara are created.Chitha is a person’s private affair and therefore is secretive.(swantham kaaryam is swakaaryam)It is therefore a rahasya.Khyathi (fame)is only at the endstage of one’s chithacheshtitha( functions of chitha).Yogin’s chitha has no right for anything but this vivekakhyathi.(Even that is obtained later on by the chithapravrithy,and the yogin does not have desire for it).Therefore Yogin has no desire for power and he/she does not exert power/adhikaara.

Vachas:-If we do abhyasa as prescribed ,we get sampragnaathasamadhi.The

vyuthaanasamskaara are anaadi(beginningless)and because of their denseness ,the samadhipragna may face some obstacles.Therefore in the first stage of savitharka,the pragna is like the prakaasaparamaanu from a lamp which is kept in the middle of a room

which has strong winds.Yet its samskaaraas does not obstruct the other samskaaraas. In Nirvicharasamadhi,the vyuthanasamskara does not move the prakaasaparamaanu of the lamp of pragna.The intellect being anavasthitha(no fixed position)due to the different ratios of the bhootha,revolves naturally.When this change in position and revolutions also stops,and the sthithi or sthithapada is achieved,the varthamaana(present)of the samskaarabudhichakra(wheel of samskaara of the intellect) is cognized and only then we understand the true nature of the light.(It is not sun,but earth,etc are revolving)Now the sthithapragna is the lamplight which is quiet and not touched bywinds and the vyuthaanasamskaara are (the loukikapragna )the graham which depends upon it and revolves around it .(Even if there are thousands of them,it does not change the source of

light,the athma)

Nirupadravabhoothaatha swabhaavasya viparyayai Na bhaadho anaadimathwe api budhesthathwakshpaapatha:

When samadhipragna arise,the vyuthanasamskaara and its winds are controlled by themselves .Srishti is from samadhipragna.The samskaara within the chitha generated by Samadhi are permanently within it influencing and stimulatng it forever for new creations.The chitha has two effects.

Therefore

it is said:

1.The upabhoga of sabda

2.Vivekakhyaathi

The first functions along with klesakarma.Pragnaaprabhava destroys all of these .Then only vivekakhyathi remains.It is ,for the yogin,not a cause for rights of enjoyments or bhoga.Swakaarya is not a word for bhoga .It is secret but it is not bhogalakshana.It is a secret which makes one disinterested in bhoga.Even in bhoga,the chitha of a yogin does not waver or move.He enjoys or experience only vivekakhyathi.That alone is the only bhoga of a yogin.When it is born,there exists no klesa,no rights of bhoga other than vivekakhyathi and no more desires for other bhoga.

Pathan:-Thasyaapi nirodhe sarvanirodhaannirbheeja:Samadhi:

Vyas:-When that also is obstructed,by the sarvanirodha yogin gets nirbheejasamadhi.Even the samskaara of pragna are opposite to nirbheeja.Even they are to be removed.By the experience of the stage by stage nirodha of the different samskaaras of the chitha ,the asthitwa of these samskaaraas are anumeya for chitha.When all the vyuthanasamskara are absent,and as a part of kaivalya,chitha with samskaara is fixed in own prakrithi as prakrithilaya.The chitha here is not opponent to power,and is not cause for that sthithi either.Therefore,as a part of kaivalya they have power (adhikaara)also.From this,chitha arise to get fixity in purusha alone and then only becomes sudha,muktha ,kevala.

Thus ends srimad vyaasabhashya and Sripathanjala samkhyapravachana first paada called Samadhipaada.

Vachas:- The use of pragnaasamskaara is bhogaaadhikaaraprasanthi.(end of all rights or powers of enjoyments).How? Since chitha creates pragnasamskara by pragnaapravaaha(flow of pragna)the effects like power etc are not existent in it.For a flow of light why should there be power over any other thing? Why should it depend upon such things ?The lack of asthithwa of adhikara etc in chitha is because chith is a continuous flow of light energy and its source as well. Nirbheejasamadhi is that in which everything is obstructed.Even samskaara generated by pragna is not there .The chitha has become kevalapragna (absolute pragna)without even its samskaara.Samskaarapragna creates everything.When this is obstructed,due to lack of cause,nothing is created in that chitha.Hence the chitha become nirbheeja.In it not even samadhipragna exists.Due to paravairagya only the kevalapragna as paripanthi to the samskaara of samadhipragna exists.The gnaana due to vairagya is sad (good and true).It is the chid(energy)which is pragnaamaathra(unit of pragna alone).In it the jagrad,swapna,seen ,meanings ,and memories are sacrificed. Only paravairagya can do this.The samskaara derived from this niroda is pragnaasamskaara ,and not the vignaana etc.The pragnaasamskaara which is there by birth,is due to prolonged periods of continuous good acts and paravairagya .

What is the pramaana for sadbhava of the nirodhasamskaara? It is experienced .That experience is the evidence.It is being remembered and being deducted later on from its effects which also is evidence. In the sarvavrithynirodha ,yogin has no memory.Then

how can we say this? Nirodhasthithi means the state of nirodha of the chitha.In the order of Time,we experience the half of a muhoortha as yaama,and yaama as ahorathra.In the same way,as we experience muhoortha as merged within a ardhayaama,the yogin experiences the nirodha .Because of the eternity and fixity of the order,the kshana of paravairagya as part of several vairagyakshanaprachaya(groups of such kshana )and derived from them, creating Isatha(Isithwa) and the sthaayi(sthira or fixed)samskaaraprachaya ,all are visualized .How can one divide or separate or cut such a eternal flow of pragnaasamskaaraprachaya? (Like the flow of time).How can a nirodhasamskaara be formed? By anucheda we mean cuuting the vyuthanasamskaara with power.Then ampragnaathasamadhi is generated.In this vyuthanasamskaara become merged in the nirudhasamskaara of the sampragnaathasamadhi.In nirudhasamskaara even that nirodhasamskaara is merged.Chitha become anadhikaara(with no rights or power)and is pure satya or truth only.Chitha creates purushartha.By the word saadhikaara(with power)the upabhoga of sabda,vivekakhyathi and purushartha are included.(Adhikaara for all these).For videhaprakrithilaya chitha is saadhikaara.In sampragnaatha there is upabhoga of sabda.In nirudhasamskaara only vivekakhyathi exists.Therefore right is only for that. The goal,the advice,the signs,and meanings ,the vrithilakshana ,and different methods for yoga are described in this first paada.Thus ends the Thathwavaisaaradi ,first section Samadhipaada on yogasoothrabhashya commentary.

SADHANAAPAADAM

Pathan:- 1 . Thapa:swadhyyayeswarapranidhaanaani kriyaayoga:

Vyas:-Yoga with samaahithachitha is the one to be achieved.How can one change the vyuthithachitha as yogayuktha?For that kriyaayoga is described.Yogasidhi is not achieved by all those who strive for it.The impurities of the endless karma and klesa and their tendencies are different and many and present in every object and these have to be burned with internal heat(thapa).Only then the chitha become prasaada and blissful forever without any dependence on external things.Swadhyaaya is the repeated japa of pranava which is pavithra(the one saves from pavi or impurity) and the learning of mokshasaasthra(science of liberation).Iswarapranidhaana is the dedication of all deeds in paramaguru and sacrifice of its effects whatsoever.

Vachas:- In the first paada the methods,the different types and the effects of yoga were said and it was also said that only with abhyaasa and vairagya one attains Samadhi.Here the orderly functions done for this is explained.And these are for the worldly minded vyuthithachitha,to get purity of sathwa.Only a pure sathwa gets vairagya and abhyaasa . Samahitha is one without vikshiptha.Vyuthaanachitha is one with vikshiptha.Hence these are for controlling a vikshiptha mind.These rules are called kriyaayoga.It is the beginning of yogasaadhana.In Vishnupuraana ,Khandikyakesidwajasamvaada (6.7.33) we find “Yogayuk prathamam yogi yunjamaano abhidheeyathe”.Tapas,swadhyaaya and Iswarapranidhaana are the first functions ,a person who wants to be a yogin should do.By thapas chitha is purified .The waves of rajas and thamas are quietened by thapas.The impurities of dualities are burned by the heat of thapas. The dhaathuvaishamya(imbalance of elements) of dense and eternal klesa has to be destroyed by thapas.Thus the chitha gets dhaathusaamya(equalization or balance of elements)and pure and healthy.Thapas is to remove all dhathuvaishamya and to make chitha pure sathwa and niraamaya(without aamaya or disease).

We can see in Pranavaadaya and purushasooktha Rudramandala Brahmana etc ,that the ancient vaidikarishis were Brahmaparaayana(fixed in Brahma).Swadhyaaya is Brahmayagna.The paramaguru is Bhagawan,Iswara.Iswarapranidhaana is the dedication of everything in Brahma(Brahmaarpana) with the feeling that I am sacrificing everything,both kaama and akaama,subha and asubha in you and does everything for you,and by you.”The thoughts,words and deeds are thus dedicated in Brahma.The good and bad are all in Brahma.This is what is said in Bhagavad Geetha as

Karmanye vaaadhikaarasthe Maa bhaleshu kadaachana Maa karmaphalahethurbhoor Mathesangosthwakarmani.(B G 2-47)

Pathan:-2. Samaadhibhaavanaartha:klesathanookaranaarthascha:

Vyas:-Why is the kriyayoga done? Our physical body is the personification of klesa.We

have to burn the klesa with the fire of prasmkhyaana.Prasava(birth)can occur only from bheeja(seed)Therefore the klesabheeja has to be burned.Only then the state that ,another body is not taken(lack of next janma)happens.And that is moksha.Anyathaakhyaathi alone is not not touched by klesa.When births end in the subtle pragna,all adhikaara ceases and Samadhi is fixed.

Vachas:-The use of Kriyayoga is introduced.It is kriyaayoga itself which become karma and the klesa derived from them and makes rebirths of the body.Because of this knowledge,which is called Prasamkhyaana,one has to achieve the state of birthlessness.By kriyaayoga ,the making of the body alone has to be achieved,without attachment to klesa.Prasamkhyaana is for this.Only when even the bheeja(seed)is burned one gets nirbheejasamadhi.Therefore in the end even the prasamkhyaana which has the dharmithwa of origin(prasava)has to be sacrificed.The adhikaara or right of power of vidya is also sacrificed and all attachments have to be lost.The power of avidya with vidya,and that of vidya by the desireless state even inthat is burned.Even desire for vidya is ultimately enemy to sathwapurusha which is khyaathi alone.(anyathaakhyaathi).To burn klesha are the vairagya and abhyasa.Sookshmapragna is the anyathaakhyaathi of sathwapurusha alone.The subject of the sookshma (subtle)is always transcendental and beyond the sense organs.The sookshmapragna merges with transcendental and is reborn only from transcendental.It has nothing except the khyathi(fame)of anaadi(beginningless).It is the guna which starts the effect (kaarya)Purushan is not kaarya but kaarana for all(cause)It is not the effect of anything.Therefore it has no form of klesa which is that of the prapancha.This is directly perceived in Nirbheejasamadhi.

Pathan:- 3 Avidyaasmithaa raagadweshaabhinivesou:panchaklesha:

Vyas:-Which are the klesha? Klesha are the five Viparyaya.They become gunaadhikaaraka by their syandamaana ,and become drida and thus parinaama happens.These make cause and effect and their flow.Their interdependence and cooperation become thanthrrebhootha and make karmavipaaka ,and removes them.

S:(Syanda is the movement or flow or vibration.Maana is its measurement.Syandamana is the measurement of vibration or frequency.By the different frequencies are created the three gunaas sathwa ,rajas,and thamas and they become solidified and fixed and get evolved or changed (parinaama) and it is thus from the cause ,effect is formed.After that the flow of a series of causes and effects happen and by their union ,co-operation and interdependence the new actions are formed and destroyed and the seen prapancha of “many”is formed.This is the theory of evolution of prapancha in Indian philosophy and science.It is interesting to note that this is described as Thanthreebhootha or like elements of a string .The sound waves emenating from a string instrument .The ancient theory of string universe.)

Vachas:-The five klesha are the five viparyaya ,Avidya,asmitha,raaga,dwesha and Abhinivesha.

In avidya itself there are two types of viparyaya.In asmitha there are three viparyaya- avidya,its upaadaanam and its avinaabhaavavarthy.Therefore when it is said Avidya etc,the subdivisions of asmitha also are included in it.These are the causes for klesha and samsaara.When we do a karma for several days the guna in it become more and more fixed and( drida ) powerful.Thus the efficiency in it also increases.Therefore the syandamaana is the repeated movement and repeated action which becomes by practice or repletion strong and fixed and therefore measurable and predictable.In this way from the avyaktha(unseen)the mahad,from it Ahamkaara and from it the flow of the cause and effects of the universe as waves continue to be awakened forever.Thus the cause stimulates and the effect stimulates the cause and work in harmony to make,sustain and destroy universe.Karmavipaaka is the sign of jaathy aayurbhoga or the lifespan of a born thing(whether a living or nonliving thing or a universe or star or graham).They are born,sustained and merged in the root cause Purusha alone.But purusha has no other cause.All the others are cause and effects interdependent and cooperating with each other for their sustainance and formation and merging.From karma klesha is born.From klesha again karma is born.This interdependence is seen for all actions and sorrows(efforts or klesha) in the world.

Pathan:-Avidyaakshethram uthareshaam prasupthathanu vichinnodaaranaam.

Vyas:-The avidyaakshethra(temple of ignorance)is the prasavabhoomi(the earth of origin).The northern side is occupied by the four vikalpa like asmitha etc,making the suptha(sleep)state divided(vichinna).What is the prasupthy (sleep)? The first in the chethas is the seed state which is dependent only on sakthi(power) or energy.The bhaava depending upon it alone is called Sammukheebhaava(that which faces sakthi).Prasamkhyana destroys the klesabheeja and is dependent on sammukheebhootha.Then how does the burned seed sprout again?The dead body has no klesha and it is ksheenaklesa and therefore the state of the dead soul is the burned seed state and is only a fifth klesha state(panchameeklesha).Only a temporary loss of klesha is there and it can sprout again.Therefore even the state of a dead person is a state of sleep of the consciousness .The sushupthi in which no more of seeds of klesha sprouts is only Samadhi.The bodyness is said with a simili of opposite bhaaavana.Klesha is body.How do we make it divided as small small pieces?During the time of raaga we do not see krodha in our consciousness.During raaga we do not do the action of krodha.During the Chaithra season we have rathi (union)with women .And in other seasons ,there is virathi (disunion)in women .In Chaithra anuraaga is the achieved action or vrithy.In other seasons it is Bhavishyadvrithi .(Vrithy expected to be done in next chaithra or future)This is how the consciousness splits the kleshathanu.In it the klesha is never surpassed but controlled for a certain period only.And there is samkramana from one type of klesha to another and repetition of it forever.This is what is happening in prasupthathanu also (sleeping body).When we are asleep we do not feel klesha.When we are awake the previous klesha are repeated.(This is compared to rebirths).But satya is not divided like this.In it there is no divisions or separateness.How much we can get away from the opposite bhaavana ,that much would be our swaroopa revealed by own revelation and by the Guru’s upadesha.How did the klesha make so many different avidya forms?All is

because of avidya only.By avidya the the klesha of the effect are attained .When they are lost ,avidya also become lost.

Vachas:-Avidya is the root of klesha.On the northern part of the temple of avidya is the great and divided Prasupthathanu(the soul of the dead ).What is prasupthi? When this is asked with sadbhaava(truth)as opinion,and when pramaana do not exist(na pramaanam asthi)where we have no actions or meanings or wealth,the answer is Chethas.(energy alone).For a dead soul there is no name,meaning,action or worldly wealth of any kind.The klesha is merged as in videha and prakrithilaya.there is seed state in it.Just like a drop of curd from milk,a drop of or maathra(unit)of its energy is capable of making it reborn in different forms.Therefore videhaprakrithilaya are in separation from those with vivekakhyathi.The klesha are asleep till the end of the sleep alone in them.The moment the timelimit of that sleep is over,they are reborn and repeatthe cycles.Each klesha again face the respective vishaya(sammukheebhaava).They have fixed by a unit of sakthi alone.their origin also is by that sakthi.The sakthi with the state of seed is called katyasakthi and in it there is no vivekakhyathi,except that the klesha are temporarily asleep.The dead soul (charamadeha)then changes from one body to another(dehaanthara).The new deha will be dependend upon the klesha of the earlier body and its prasamkhyaana.Videha has to take new body since the seed is not lost.But due to the doubled strength of yoga,even if those kleshaas face the vishaya ,they will not be awakened as in ordinary people .They will remain dormant as if in sleep.This is because by prasamkhyaana agni(fire)they have burned the klesha and only the kleshabeeja remain in them. The anushtaana of kriyaayoga is as opposite to klesha to end the existence of the body Samyaggnaana is abheda or advaitha and its opposite is avidya or bhedadarsana.In between these two ,is the abhinivesha which is in the intellect related to raaga and dwesha.In this way a division (vicheda)is seen.By cutting the service of vishaya one by one,and we can do aacharana and this kriyaayoga is the opposite of that .To reduce the weaknesses repeat vaajeekarana.Similarly to reduce klesha repeat kriyaayoga. The vijaatheeya(different jaathi)is krodha .To decrease krodha ,raaga has to be repeated.Similarly to reduce avidya vidya has to be repeated .

S:(One can see the educational system and its practice and its ultimate aim in these words.To make the people healthy,physically ,mentally and intellectually and spiritually ,all the methods possible were thought about in minute detail and their basic philosophy taught to all and this type of education had its own good effects on the people .)

In great purusha klesha is less.In yogin who is prasuptha toklesha there is no klesha .The ordinary people are immersed in klesha of the different vishaya through different sense organs and yogin is having the opposite vrithy of being asleep to all such vishaya.The meaning of burning the klesha is ,the end of all separatisms in one’s mind,a perfect advaitha state.Avidya is klesha and vidya is destruction of it.Avidya is thinking of many as separate.Vidya is thinking only of eka(one)and is advaitha.The division is for easy understanding and learning.If we understands this the separatist feelings will be gone.And all klesha disappear.The ONE is everywhere in everything and when this is

cognized clearly(sphuta)aarohana(upward movement)and avarohana(downward movement)become sugama(easy).To condense,

Prasupthaasthathwaleenaanaam Thanuavasthaaschayoginaam Vischinnodaararoopaascha Klesaa vishayasamginaam For the videha and prakrithilaya who are merged in the thathwa –Prasupthaavastha For the yogins the body state is only for namesake.They are Aathmaroopins whose athma is in the form of the thathwa.For the vischinnaroopa or great people ,the bheda(separatism)is cut with the thoughts on abheda(oneness) and they are scholars.And klesha is only for those who are attached to the vishaya through sense organs.

Pathan:- 5 Anityaasuchidu:khaanathmasu

Nityasuchisukhaathmakhyaathiravidyaa

Vyas:-The swaroopa of Avidya is explained. Anitya(that which is temporary),asuchi(the impure ),and dukha (sorrow) The opposites of these three,Nitya(eternal),suchi(pure),sukha(happiness). The projection of nitya in anitya and vice versa is nityakhyaathi.For example,the earth is fixed,and the moon is fixed and the stars are eternal ,the day and night are amritha(without end)etc . Suchikhyaathi is projection of purity in the most impure thing.The meditation on bheejasthaana ,nisyanda,nidhana and thinking that purity of body by soucha alone is suchi are given as examples.Seeing the middle of a virgin,saying that “The new chandralekha is beautiful”is considered as ni:srutha.(Roopaka alankaara ).”Hey,Woman with blue lotus-like eyes,By your eyes ,the living world is healed”.This is the viparyaasa of suchi in asuchi ,by projection of what is not due credit to such a very mundane thing.This is nidhana.Giving punyapratyaya to apunya,giving arthapratyaya to anartha are all equivalent to this. Similarly projecting sukha in dukha is sukhakhyathi.Every wise manknows that the changing ,gunavrithivirodha creating thaapa (heat)is sorrow.And to think this samsaara as sukha is sukhakhyathi.Projection of athma in anathema ,chethana in external instruments,and the body in the chethana are all examples of this.To think that the external body which is the instrument of purusha(athma)and is anathma as athma is called Anaathmanyaathmakhyaathi.Avyaktha in vyaktha,happiness in what is to be condoled,and and sorrow in what is to be enjoyed ,etc and in this way projection of the opposite in everything is adhyaasa and is called avidya.Avidya has four paada(chathushpadi).The klesha which is the root of avidya,the samthaaana,the karmaasaya,and the karmavipaaka are the four paada.What is the pramaana and apramaana of avidya? Sapathna is the opposite bhaava of aamithra,mithraabhaava and naamithramaathra.Just as we understand this ,we have to understand all desa ,which is the opposite of aagoshpada,nagoshpadamaathra and goshpadaabhaava.The opposite of avidya is vidya.(Pathni is wife.Sapathni is other wives of the same person.Goshpadam is

a small space created by a cow’s hoof .All friendships and house,region etc has to be understood like this. Aamithra=with friends /wives Aagoshpada=within the own house/desa/region. Mithraabhaava=without friends,goshpadaabhaava=without own house /desa .naamithramaathra=friend /wife even if present , just as namesake. Naagoshpadamaathra=House and desa just as namesakes)

Vachas:-Anitya is the effect and not the cause and is an adjective for the user.To meditate on panchabhootha which are anitya,without knowing their temporary nature ,as eternal is avidya.So too the upaasana of the dhoomaadhimaarga.Those who meditate on lunar,solar and stellar loka thinking that they are eternal reach them but they are anityalokaas.Similarly thinking that day ,and aapas are amritha,the devaas drink them as amritha.Even in aamnaaya we see “Apaama somam amrithaa abhooma”(Rk 8.48.3)This nityakhyaathi in anithya is avidya.The body is impure.The origin is from the pelvis of the mother which is the center of urine and feaces.The seed is from the rethas which is the blood of the father.The growth is from what we eat and drink.Several impure things like sweat ,urine,blood etc are flowing through it continuously.(Ni:syanda) Even the most pure body of a srothreeya(vaidika/Guru) is in this sense impure.If one touches it one has to take a bath.When we touch another body ,to make our body pure,we have to do the technique of a bath.(for purification).When the body itself is impure ,just by water and sand how can we purify the body just by an outer bath?By nature body is impure.It is given a bath ,and some fragrant things applied to cover the bad smells and then the angaraaga(the colours on the organs)of the women are allowed on it.Thus makes it again impure.What else is this except avidya?

Haava are foreplays in sringaara with women.The description of a woman’s body which is impure ,as moon etc due to the slightest resemblance to it ,and projecting purity on it is avidya.Himsa(killing)is apunya(sin) and this is projected as punya (good action)and killing of animals is done for sacrifices.The wealth is something which creates many sorrows in the process of acquisition and in defence of it,and therefore is anartha(dangerous) and it is called artha (the Sanskrit word for wealth).Similarly anaathma is interpreted mistakenly as aathma.Therefore Panchasikha said about the wise men like this.(What Vyasa said in his bhashya is a quote from Panchasikha).All seen articles like sons,wives,cows etc (living things)and beds,chairs,food,jewels etc(nonliving)are considered as nitya by only the unwise(mooda)and meditated upon.A wise man will never think so. The four positions are called chathushpada of avidya.There are several subjects like dingmoha,aalaathachakra etc in Avidya(Both are astronomical).Then why only four paada are said ? Because the root of the seed of samsaara are these four.In apoorvapadaarthaprathaanasamaasa (grammatically )a chathushpada can be something with four feet (Vachaspathi says a makshika which is wrong since makshika has 6 legs and is shadpada.Hence I translate it like this) .If utharapadaarthapradhaana ,it could be a king with his army of four limbs.If anyapadaarthapradaana it can be a space for the fourlegged creatures(Here again Vachaspathi saya Makshikaadesa).If former word is important(poorvapadartha)vidya ,and if the latter word is important(utharapadaartha)the cause of klesa as fate are specially indicated.The seed of klesha is its paripanthi.The main

quality should be destruction of it ,not growing it.Therefore all vidya which increase klesa should be avidya.Klesabheeja is not the absence of vidya.The vasthubhaava is the truth)sathathwa)of vasthu .What negates vidya is avidya,and therefore avidya is the absence of vidya. Intellect could be great with vidya.But it could also be the opposite of vidya(avidya)and having viparyayagnaana.(opposite knowledge).The cognition alone is not vidya as misunderstood by the common people ,because of this reason.The division into the poorva and utharapada and the opposite meanings given to it a process of learning.For example ,the enemy is divided as naamithra (not friend)and mithramaathra(namesake friend) and its aftereffects.The wife though considered a friend ,need not be a friend when it is a sapathni(another wife who can act as an enemy due to selfish reasons).Agoshpada is not abhaaava or absence of goshpada ,and is not namesake goshpada either.In a vast space ,the opposites of goshpada,the absence of goshpada and something other than goshpada are situated alike.Similarly in a wife opposite of a friend(enemy)lack or absence of a friend and the namesake friend also are situated .A wise man understands this peculiarity of samsaara.

Pathan:- 6 Drigdarsanasakthyodekaathmathevaasmithaa.

Vyas:-Because of the ability of purusha to see,and his intellect to see and the oneness of these two,asmitha is said.The efficiency of a seer could be divided ,complex or undivided and simple.On the basis of this capacity one enjoys truth or untruth .Depending on that one gets or do not get kaivalya.There is a chance that the intellect by its analytical powers could divide from it ,the form and character and vidya of the undivided purusha as separate from it,and even misunderstand the divisions created by own analysis as the athmabudhi.

Vachas:-Avidya is further explained.Asmitha is effect.It has raaga etc .It is also the oneness of the efficiency of the observer and the observation.Drik( seer’s eye),drisya(the seen or observed)and the darsana(the perception of sight)are the different aspects of the same power(sakthy) and thisknowledge as the oneness of athma,anathema and athmaanaathma)is asmitha and even that is coming under avidya.The sakthigrahana(cognition of power)of intellect here,is the observation of association between the seer and the seen.For exposition of the soothra,the power of purusha is said.Purusha is the abheda(no difference-oneness)of seer and seen.Or enjoyer and enjoyed.The power of enjoyer is in purusha.The power of to be enjoyed is in the intellect.These are said to be different or divided as two.This is of great complexity.Purusha has dharma of aparinaama.Budhi is parinaami.This is the complexity.But actually there is no difference .If we misunderstand intellect as purusha there will be klesa .If we see anwaya ,it will be vyathireka.The quotation from Panchasikha is given for evidence.This is proof by earlier reference. The swaroopa is purity The seela is disinterest Vidya is light(chaithanya or energy) Intellect is impure,not disinterested,and jada(opposite of energy)in avidya.From a thamas

or darkness which is generated by moha (desires)only thamas is generated and not chaithanya.From avidya ,only avidya is generated ,not vidya.

Pathan:- 7.Sukhaanusayee raaga:

Vyasa:-The abhigna(memory)of bliss or sukha experienced previously creates the desire to experience it again .Thus we do the same rites or actions which produced sukha or bliss.This love for actions which bring about bliss is called Raaga.

Vachas:-After talking about asmitha which is happening after the lack of raaga etc ,why is the term raaga again brought in?Because raaga is following bliss.Hereit is said following bliss ,not the memory of bliss.In the abhigna(people of wisdom)it is the memory of bliss ,but bliss itself that produce raaga.The memory that I have experienced this bliss before also exists in him/her.In the bliss which he/she is experiencing always the memory of past experience is not necessary for raaga since it is in the present as well.The dependence on past memory is only when it is not experienced now,in the present.But,the sadhana which was responsible for the bliss is always remembered and done forever ,and therefore the sadhana and the raaga on it happen with this.That is even the sadhana of a yogi for bliss becomes a dependent action on memory of its effect and thus is called a raaga.(This is thus different from the raaga in the worldly things)

Pathan 8.Du:khansayi dwesha:

Vyas:-Similarly with the memory of past sorrow,those actions leading to sorrow are hated and avoided.

Vachas:-The meaning has to be understood just as for the previous soothra.

Pathan:-9 Swarasavaahi vidushopi thathaaroodo abhinivesa:

Vyas:-Every living thing is desirous of life.Each wants to be eternal and don’t want to end the life.This desire is called Athmaasi(desire for the eternal Athman).Praani(one with life) desires to live forever on earth.By the experience of past lives each knows that this is possible.The reason for the love for the samsaara though it is strenuous and with sorrows is explained by this.Even a newborn baby who is expected to have no previous experience of death is afraid of death,as we see from our experience.The reason is the newborn has the memory of death of previous births.This is seen in mooda(ignorant)and the vidusha(wise)alike.The experience of past lives and past sorrow of death experience are vaasana and it is alike in both learned and ignorant.

Vachas:-Abhinivesa is common to all living things.They live with a prayer for eternity on earth and are always Athmaasi.The living things have the dharma of death.The memory of it and the fear of it exists.The people who say that there is no previous births and deaths since they have not had direct experience of it ,(nasthika)are afraid of death .Even without prior experience of it ,they are knowers of the fear and sorrow of death and thus

the lack of previous direct experience or memory of it must be existing in them too.Otherwise why should they experience something which has no existence ? The desire to be attached to the body and senses and mind and intellect and its numerous sorrows and pains and cling on to life is because we know that the pain of the death is more severe than this.And that knowledge is from previous experience of it .Therefore the living things considers the sorrows of life as swarasavaahi.(The flow of own rasa ) The flow which by itself(swa)is rasa will not come back to its original place(punaraaganthuka).The newborn thinks the new life which is really sorrowful and low as the true chaithanya .This may seem as anaganthukahethu (cause for eternity).But by pratyaksha(direct experience)aagama (references)and anumana(deduction)in each new birth the memory of death and its pain and fear of it exists and it is because of this ,that the new child mistakenly thinks that the new life is chaithanya. The newborn has not seen death before .Yet he/she is afraid of a deadly object and as soon as he/she spots it starts trembling and crying from fear.How did that child know that this object can be a cause of death or danger for him/her ? This explains the past births and deaths.Because of past experience of sorrow and death the child is afraid of it.the things which is not seen or heard in this birth creating fear in a newborn is nothing but the past memory of deaths.It is related to poorvajanma and not to samskaarajanya. In a mooda(ignorant)the vibration of light is slowest .(mandathama).In vidwan sometimes we find the scholarship evening childhood before obtaining proper education.After a crores of births and deaths,people are born with such knowledge as kaivalyaroopa .He/she is wise even without the dependence of aagama ,anumaana or Guru.Even that athma knows the experience of maranathraasa(fear of death)and therefore this experience is deep in the archetypal memoryof human beings.The fear of death which should be destroyed completely by vidya ,if it again happens in a wise person,the only explanation is that it had not been destroyed completely .Why ? Because this vaasana is samaana(equal).The vidwan(scholar)is not a yogi who reached sampragnaathasamadhi.In yogin it is not there.In scholar it is there.In ignorant also it is there.So,in this respect ,the ignorant and the scholar are alike and are different from the yogin.

Pathan:-10.The prathiprasavaheyaa:sookshmaa:

Vyas:- The five klesha as sookshma and without prathiprasava( second origin or sprouting again)as burned seed merge within the Yogins chethana and set there(end )forever.

Vachas:-The sorrows(heya)in a prasupthathanu(sleeping body)were earlier said to be four in kleshalakshana.Then how did the soothrakaara now say a fifth klesha as a sookshma or subtle one ? Only thet which can be seen by human effort is advised by him earlier.The sookshma which is not seen with human effort is now said as a fifth one.For the effect of rebirth the asmitha as cause is said.

Pathan:- 11 Dhyaanaheyaath thadvrithaya:

Vyas:-The kleshas when repeated again and again become gross,and by kriyayoga they

assume shape or a body/form.By the truthful prasamkhyana or dhyaana we can destroy them and make them subtle and like burned seeds.This is like first removing the gross impurities in a cloth with water and then by applying special methods removing the subtle imurities also.By a little bit of opposition(prathipaksha) remove gross impurity and then by great opposition remove the subtle klesha impurities.

Vachas:-By klesha is the body of kriyayoga formed.The kriya or action are the purushaprayathna(effort of the purusha /human beings )and the labour or adwaana.In these klesha are seen as seeds.We have to cut such relationships.In the soothra klesha are said to be its vrithy.Not only heya ,but dhyana also is a vrithy .The cause of rebirth made by the body of the kriyayoga ,as the effect,and a form is the gross.There are endless which are not seen by purushaprayathna or by prasamkhyana and these are the subtle.We have to first make them manifest(see)and then burn (destroy).The cleaning of a cloth is here given as example.By cleaning in water the gross impurity removed.Then treatment with kshaara(alkali)removes subtle impurities.It is not in the gross or subtle where the comparison lies.But in the effort.The rebirth for the impurity of the cloth and the heya can happen if it is removed by the first method alone.But if we remove with greater and better efforts it will not happen.Therefore here ,prasamkhyana is only small effort or cleaning with water while dhyaana is greater effort or cleaning with alkali.Dhyana is mahathwa and prasamkhyana is alpathwa in this sense.

Pathan:-12 Karmaasayo drishtaadrishta janmavedaneeya:

Vyas:-From the actions of good and bad,are born emotions of desire,anger,likes,dislikes and the like.These become the known in the present and the future .By the theevrasamvega(high frequency )manthra,thapas,etc to reach Samadhi and get away from them,usually we worship the devatha,Iswara,Rishi,Guru and other great persons.This is to make the good actions to become matured.Even for the bad people having fear and sorrows due to severe klesha,just by the faith in such the past good deeds become mature .Similarly by doing insult or inflicting injry to such great persons the maturity of the sins also happens.Nandiswara and Kumara changed from Manushya to Deva in evolution.Nahusha became the Indra of deva and then became a serpent .In hell there is no actions which are seen by the present janma.For those who have become free from all klesha the unseen klesha and its karma also does not exist.

Vachas:-The klesha as the lifespan of the particular jaathi(birth)makes creates sorrows.Klesha are the karmaasaya.They are avidya etc.The cause of klesha or karmasaya is seen and unseen .Only if root cause is destroyed the effect is destroyed.For the householder the daily routines,the dharma,adharma,the works done for fulfillment of kaama(desires)the actions for attaining heaven(sacrifices)etc are there forever .By desire they exploit the wealth of others.By desire they do adharma and violence.They mistake it as their dharma.Sometimes due to anger adharma or dharma is created. The story of Dhruva illustrates how a child,due to the anger created out of the insult from his father,attained high status by the effort of his karmaasaya.Similarly there are several stories in which due to anger people did adharma also including killing of a Brahmin.

The two types Drishta and adrishtajanma .The effects experienced in this present birth itself is drishtajanmasamvedaneeya.The examples of Nandi and Kumara to illustrate these.The word “naaraka”stands for people who reachedvarious types of hells like Kumbeepaaaka,due to various bad actions.They do not have karmaasya for drishtajanmavedaneeya.For those who took human body this is possible by thousands of years of evolution(parinaama).The adrishta and drishta are divided depending upon the theevra or manda samvega(high or low frequencies)

Pathan:-13 Sathimoole thadwipaako jaathyaayurbhoga:

Vyas:-When the karma become mature in the good people ,the klesha become less and less.Even if the seed of paddy is covered by bran and heavy outer coat,it can come out and sprout.The covering does not prevent it from sprouting.But the same seed when boiled lack the capacity to sprout.The karmaasaya covered by klesha is able to sprout again ,but that which has been burned will not.Now think about the karmaasayavipaaka.It is of three kinds.

1.Jaathi

2.aayus

3.Bhogha.

One karma is the cause for one janma.And sometimes one experience of a karma is covered for several thousands of years and then manifested. The last is first thought about and analysed.Several karma effects can be experienced by several janma or several karma effects can be experienced in one janma.Why is it so?One karma is the reason for one janma is not always true.The accrued effects of endless actions and their balance experiences are given in an orderless way (in a different order or karma)to give some solace to human beings.Sometimes this may lead to problems also.How does one karma become cause for several janma?Because one by one the effects of each action can be given.Why several karma does not become cause for several janma?The several janma can happen yugapad(simultaneously)Kramena (in order)is the said(vachya) .The different karmas ,both sin and good ,manifest as one and in a coma(sammorchana)which is equivalent to death(coma /near death experience) is experienced by one janma alone.The ayus(lifespan)which is given after that (labdhaayushkam)is a new janma (new birth).Whatever bhoga remains in the ayus(lifespan) that balance is made to experience by that period.In this way ,in karmaasaya the cause of the birth,lifespan and enjoyment are known as the three vipaaka.The three as one is called karmaasaya.The drishtajanma (this birth )experiences as the one vipaaka is from the beginning itself dwivipaaka(two vipaaka)simultaneously ,the birth and the lifespan.For Nandeeswara and Nahusha,it is also the beginning of yogayurhethu(The beginning of birth is also the cause for the beginning of lifespan of the yoga).Because of the nivrithy(liberation)from klesha ,the vaasana or tendencies become dormant for several thousand years as if in a coma state and the chitha become one with all the janma of all the creatures and with one janma itself the several past vaasana are made to experience .Therefore it is said that the karmaasaya is one.All the vaasana which are causes for all samskaarasmrithi(memory of

all civilizations/culture)from the beginning of Aswini etc,are merged and at the same time experienced in the same birth.

The karmasaya which has become one,is a combined one with both order and disorder(niyatha and aniyatha).The order of the drishtajanma and the disorder of the adrishtajanma exist in that.How?There are three gathi(movements)for the adrishta aniyathavipaaka.(thrayeegathi). 1.Vinasa or destruction for the avipaaka 2.Avaapagamana for the main actions 3.permanently facing avasthaana for the niyatha,vipaka and pradhaana karma.

The first is like the end of krishnakarma or night when suklakarma or day begins.About it this is said:’In action these two should be known.For the paapaka there is only one raasi(ekaraasi or one field).It is taken away(apahritha)by the good deeds.By its desire(ichasakthy) the kavi(seers)know that good deeds should be done here.” About avaapagamana of the main actions it is said:-For a kusala who does a little bit of samkara ,with parihaara for each,and with avamarsha for each,no downfall or apakarsha happens.Kusala means the asthi or truth and one who is truthful and proficient in truth.From that a fall(avaapam) means a little bit of change in position from heaven itself ,and not a fall out of heaven.”(That is from a higher realm of heaven into a lower realm.Not from heaven to earth.).

What is chiram avasthaanam? The adrishtajanma experiences are samaana(equal)to the niyathavipaakapradhana karma(orderly action of the pradhana karma described).The cause of their abhivyakthi(manifestation)is death.For a person who thinks about and analyses whether the adrishtajanma aniyatha(disorderly)karmavipaaka is avaapa (a fall) or an abhimukha(facing )and who meditates on it for a long time,the nimitha happen which are samaana(equivalent)to the manifestation of it.These are facing the vipaaka.For the vipaaka there is depth and difficulty in cognition than the things we can grasp with time and space and nimitha.(prediction of future is more complex and difficult than analysis of past and explanation of this birth’s difficulties from it).By this the yogin gets chirasthithi(fixity)in thrikaalagnaana(knowledge of the three times as one)which are equivalent and facing each other .The order,disorder(niyatha aniyatha )and the drishta and adrishta vipaaka face each other and seen by yogin as one only.

Vachas:-The first thought is that if we permanently do oneness of karma ,we can see several janma in one janma itself.The second thought is if we do the several karma in fixed way,in the one janma itself we can see several janma.In this way four vikalpa are generated.

First vikalpa:-One karma alone is not the reason for one janma.How? For beginningless periods ,countless janamas have accumulated countless actions and their effects and those which has not been enjoyed so far exist as balance ,and these can happen either in order or in an orderless way giving either solace or difficulties to the experiencer.When there is karmakshaya,the karma become less and less .When there are several karma just

like our uncontrolled breathing we have no control or knowledge of it and we do not even see it happening .Therefore everyone should do good deeds to get out of klesha by ourselves .

Second vikalpa:This is negated.The question is how one janma become the cause for several janma?The several single actions in several janma which have been in balance are there .Because of the lack of time to experience them (lifespan is less)it is becoming a balance for next janma.The lack of effects of karma is also its lack of doing(ananushtaana).The karma of a single janma ,its effects in same order,etc does not happen .Therefore the karma of several janmas also will not be available in that way.Therefore the lack of time for experience and lack of time for performance of good acts are the reason for the balance karma.

Third vikalpa:-Negated.Several karma does not become cause for several janma.Several janma as yugapad(simultaneous)happen in a yogin.The karmasahasra(1000 karma)as yugapad(simultaneous)janamasahasra(1000 births) as a law,the balance time is also the law of the order of the effect.But we are not seeing this simultaneity for the janma.Therefore the Eka(oneness)as the first view should be wrong.In this way,negating three opinions what remains is that several karma is the cause of one janma .This is fixed.The difference between two janma is the Madhya(middle or center).The two janma are considered as two praaya(ages).

First janma(praaya or age)---Madhya ----Second janma(praaya or age). This Madhya is the life after death (Bardo in Tibetan Budhism).It is vichithra(wonderful)with pleasures,pains ,bliss and sorrows and different gifts of our actions.In this state the pradhaana or Athmasakthi is highly awakened and is in complete dedication to it in total service(Dasya).Yet,without delay it takes a new janma ,sacrificing that state.The real death is this new birth from its swaroopa.Therefore,to manifest and start its own effect,facing and lead by the one,into two,as if in a coma state ,the athma experiences karma and effects as if in an ekalolibhaava( with the same bhava in both)and in one janma itself several janma are known.(The near death experiences are like this).After this,doing the same karma as before,they live and come back to life with the same old order.This is a new janma for them to enjoy the effects of balance karma.An opportunity for a new life experience.When it happens in this body itself(as near death experience)we see it .(but when it is in another new body after death we don’t see it).The karmaasaya is thrivipaaka with janma,ayus and bhoga .The three are one.Eko bhava eka bhava:In this the past time (Ashtadhyayi 2.1.46)etc is not the samaasa.The thing that has become One(ekabhavika)is the meaning.Eka is one.Bhava is becoming and samsaara or life.The bhava or samsaara is the continuously experienced in one janma in a bhavana(house).The one who comes into a bhavana,to experience bhava ,is the bhavika.The newborn is such a bhavika.In him all the three vipaaka are conjoined as one .For Nandeeswara due to his theevrasamvega ,the experience of human life was only for eight years .Within which he experienced an entire human janma.For Nahusha due to his good deeds the loka of Indra was obtained.But due to the curse of Agastya the ayus became just a cause for bhoga (bhogi is a serpent).How the ekabhavika karmaasaya is,the

vasana for klesha,the bhoga and ayus will be like that.In human birth,in animal(thiryag)birth etc ,the corresponding ayus(lifespan)bhoga(enjoyments)andklesha(sorrows)for each of these jaathi(janma)is obtained.In a sammoorchana state (coma)it is ekaloleebhaava.The athma knows the samskaara which is vaasanaaswaroopa and separated as dharma and adharma even at this stge ,but knows nothing else.

Outsargika(the beginning or creation or a new birth)is ekabhavikathwa.How is it creating the different bhoomika or planes? In yasthu asaavithi by the sabda thu,the vaasana are divided .In the known orderly vipaaka of the drishtajanma we don’t see ekabhavikathwa or the adrishtajanma.Why there is disorder(aniyatha)in the bhootha or elements? The hethu(cause )is:-

1.Their gathi or movement is eka(one)

2.It is the main(pradhaana)gathi(movement)

3.It is niyatha.(orderly) following a definite law.

In the ekagathi of sacrifice(sanyasa)karma,there are sukla(white)Krishna(dark)suklakrishna (white and dark)and krishnasukla(dark and white).Sukla is positive and Krishna is negative.Suklasukla is also positive and krishnakrishna by negation of negation is again positive.By tapas and swadhyaya the suklakarma originate.It destroys the Krishna.The sabala (several colours) or varna is Krishnabhaaga and understand this by manana(thinking and analysis).Only when there is shadow of darkness in the white light we find the seven colours.In pure sukla we don’t find varna.Therefore Bhagawan quotes amnaaya in this way.If we repeat Krishna twice(Krishna Krishna)it does not destroy sukla but it becomes sukla by negation of negation(a mathematical truth).Two Krishna is one sukla.In paapaka ,the association of paapakathwa is called pumsa or (purusha+sambandha –the first two letters of these words make pumsa).The papakathwa is destroyed and they are made into ekaraasi (one field) and the sin is made into a good deed.(In bhavana,the male and female are made eka and a samsaara which is papa is made punya by negation of Krishna with Krishna )Thus for a society by the people in it ,punya(good)deeds become possible. The third suklakarmaasaya is name of the sadhya which makes the sadhana without any difficulty(peeda) possible. Krishnaan Krishna (Krishnaa is female with prolonged pronounciation of the last letter .Krishna as short vowel in the end is male) is thus not suklavirodhi(opposition to sukla or white karma.the other meaning is not averse to the act of intercourse involving semen.It is they who increase the karma of Ekagathi or the dharma of sanyasins).The karmaasaya in the earth is never destroyed by them.They according to their desire(icha)by chaandasathwa(the chandas ,poesy,music,rhythmic prosody)reac the athma (athamanepadam).By the awakening of suklakarma the sorrows of the janma are destroyed.This is not due to swadhyaaya.The cause and effect of swadhyaya ,the way in which swadhyaya is done,the ability for swadhyaya for a person etc are needed for swadhyaya and therefore swadhyaya is dependent on several

factors.these can originate from swadhyaya is true.But ,if not originated they themselves can lead to hell also.The lack of origin also is in the lack of avidhaana or lack of karma.

The second or Pradhaanagathi is then divided(after dividing the first Eka into different types and saying that both negative and positive are positive and therefore one only). The pradhaanakarma like Jyothishtoma has in their injunctions the killing of animals. This makes apagamana or fall from position.Because it is himsa(violence)and in the main vidhaana it is said “na himsyaath sarvabhoothaaani”(santhi 278/5).Violence should be totally abandoned.Therefore doing it for sacrifice is anartha (dangerous).It will create another karma and from it another klesha.The use of a pradhanakarma is to fix the own effects of karma as seedstate alone.In that case doing such things which creates new seeds and new karma is not correct.Panchasikha has said:”Swalpa:samkaro jyothishtomaadi janmana:pradhaanaapoorvasya pasuhimsaadi janmanaanarthahethunaapoorvena sa parihaara:”Killing animal is dangerous.The effect of its association has to be removed by another karma(prayaschitha /parihara)Prayaschitha gives rise to another new karma.Therefore those wise people who are experts (kusala)with accumulated good deeds ,and who know the depths of the sukhasudha(nectar of bliss)avoid such atoms of sorrow as fire of new karma.They cross such karma.They do not have any fall from their position.Their punya is endless and that is why they are experts in bliss.Kusala is endless punya.They are the fixed ones in pradhanakarma from aadi(beginning)upto Dakshina.They have fixity of purpose that they will not fall from position even by the smallest of the sin even in pradhanakarma.Even that small fall is considered great by them and they will never do animal killing.For an ordinary person it will be considerd just a small fall from a higher position in heaven to another position in heaven itself .And therefore only a swalpasankara.But for a wise person even that is a great fall.It is considered as a yogabrasht or apagamana by them.They don’t want that to happen to them.The relativity of positions of below and up for different type of people is thus said.

Now the third gathi is divided. Bali or sakthy is the freedom to do the pradhanakarma according to own wish,and the ability of one’s icha,gnana and kriyasakthy.By bali ,both the orderliness(niyathavipaaka)and the anavakaasathwa(lack of rights)are created.With weakness(durbalathwa) the rights(saavakaasathwa)and aniyathavipaka(disordered vipaaka)are created.The real fixity of position or Avasthaana is in the bheejabhaavamaathra(unit of seed state).It is there the freedom of liberation exists.In this reside the eka karmaasaya mentioned in the first gathi.Therefore the permanent avasthaana is that alone.But it is so subtle that it is not seen by naked eye.But its unmanifest nature is not against the seen prapancha(tree)or its movements(gathi)These two are noncontradictory.The opinion of jaathi is ekavachana(One)because Athma is ekavachana.It has no gathi or movement and is liberated from all movement.Only when it is liberated from movement ,it can grasp its own state(swagathimukthaavastha) ,cognize and see the truth.(Not when it is revolving around and moving here and there).

Pathan:-14.The hlaadaparithaapaphalaa:punyaapunyahethuthwaath

Vyas:-In our birth and lifespan there are effects of bliss which are cause for punya and

also effects of sorrow which are cause for pain and sin.During the time of experience of vishayasukha ,sorrow and during the times of sorrow vishayasukha are contradictory and the cause of klesha is karma is said by the yogins.

Vachas:-Vipaaka are the roots of karma.What is the root of vipaaka?Because of punya and apunya the pleasure and sorrows have to be experienced.The bhogyatha(enjoyment)is the effect of bhoga by just the bhogakarma.We find the pleasure of the jaathi(the janma)and the sorrows and pleasures due to different karma in the world.We experience them too.Even after that everyone avoids good deeds and the sukha which they give.Why is this?the answer is that ,thousands of aagama and scholarship is not useful for this and this happens according to individual’s own powers of cognition etc.Bliss and sorrow are not the absence of the other.Sorrow is not the absence of pleasure and vice versa.By accepting pleasure there is no necessity that one has avoided sorrow.Because of their different causes and different forms.

Pathan:-15.Parinaamathaapasamskaaradukhair gunavrithivirodhaacha

Du:khameva sarvam vivekina:

Vyas:-How did we get that? By the parinaamatha(the change or evolution). All these being the dependents of the living and nonliving are following their raaga and are experiences of sukha or bliss.Whatever is opposite to happiness and cause sorrow are desires and anger.(see Bhashya 2.4)By an action of killing nothing is created which is of use and of happiness to the elements.The vishayasukha(happiness from the worldly things)is also avidya.But the bliss in them are enjoyable and gives satisfaction and peace to the senses and therefore are derived from raaga.And they are not causing violence to any elements.Anger,desires and violence give sorrow and lack of peace only.The senses are not satisfied with how much practice they do in bhoga.Because with practice of bhoga the raaga in them increases.The senses become more and more efficient in raaga.The practice of bhoga gives happiness .Therefore even if afraid of bhogasukha,like the poison of a scorpion,because of desire for happiness ,man become immersed again and again in that and become immersed in the great ocean of samsaara.Thus by the evolution and change sukha itself becomes the opposite vrithy of dukha.This opposite state is called klichraadi by the wise yogins.

Why is the heat of sorrow ? the experience of heat is in all living and nonliving things dependent upon anger.Therefore it makes the organs of action follow and originate in dosha.The mind,words and deeds of all vibrates or moves praying for happiness and pleasure.But what is done with a prayer for blessing ,become forgetful of dharma and adharma when someone else gets blessings.In that karmaasaya which depends on greed and envy are generated heat and sorrow.In this way pleasure of someone becomes pain of some one else.This is the pain of samskaara.By this karma are generated again and again. This flow of sorrow is beginningless.Only yogins swim against its direction of flow and wins over it.A scholar is like akshipaathra.A net within that pot if touched ,by that

simple touch makes us feel pain all over the body.In this way the sorrows are understood as akshipaathra only by yogins.The others try to avoid sorrows generated by their own karma one by one .Whatever is sacrificed thus is born again by the power of its beginningless and endless nature within chitha.By the time the ego arises saying that I have won over this,it will rise in the same ratio or may be more.They will make us experience the three heats due to the fear of external objects.The yogin who see the beginningless flow of sorrow engulfing athma and the bhoothagraama(groups of elements) knows that the samyagdarsana alone can save him depends only on that. All wise men know that sorrow is only the opposite of gunavrithy.In the function of the pragna the intelligence etc as the thread of blessing of series(santhaana),the thriguna with santha,ghora and mooda forms are originated.Then the gunavritha starts moving .This is called the kshipraparinaamichitha(the chitha which evolves and changes fastly).The form and function are opposite but in general these two wonders function together.The guna are dependent on each other and become everything in everywhere in every form.These are the visesha(special)formed out of the samanya(general) guna.The wise know them all as sorrow.The avidya is the original seed of this great group of sorrows.The only method to make avidya disappear is the samyagdarsana.

Vachas:-The sorrow which is experienced by all living things during the experience of vishayasukha is experienced in the opposite way by the yogin.How ?It is explained by the soothra.The samskaara and sorrows are the changed or evolved form of heat(thaapa).Due to the change or evolution of sukha into dukha ,vishayasukha is sorrow for all.They do not experience the sukha that is said above due to raaga.By the vishayasukha no one is ever satisfied.Raaga is the cause for function.Punya,apunya and fall ,rise etc are due to functions.All of them are from raaga.Those who enjoy the pleasures become attached to them.By their separatist feelings they create anger,hatred and sorrow.To avoid them the people who enjoy pleasures have no means at all.They are creating the very opposites of what they are enjoying and attached to.Therefore they are not liberated from sorrows or hatred etc.During the enjoyment of raaga the dwesha is not seen in them ,but it does not mean they have won over it.Even in the separatist state (vichinna)there are klesha.From them in words,deeds and thoughts one can see punya and punya being generated.The creation of raaga etc is imagined to be their responsibility and with wishful thinking creates special words (vaachanikathwa)to express these.”Saabhilaashascha samkalpo vaachyaarthaanaathirichyathe”.The body which is the karmaasya is created.There is no end to creation of this body.It is beginningless and endless.Therefore the dharmasaasthra say “Panchasoonaa grihasthasya”(Manu 8.68) The householders are the cupids with the five flower arrows.

The yogins who have thought about the vishayasukha,thouroughly and exhaustively ,and who has known the Athman say that vishayasukha is the avidya which creates the opposite experience of sorrow.(It is not vishsyasukha but du:kha).They see four types of viparyaasa signs for avidya.

1.Aapaathamathra:-By the intellect which is compassionate (ardra)

2.Aapaatha:-The mixture of honey and poison which is experienced by everyone.This is

sorrow and it should be sacrificed.Bhagavaan said(Bhagavatha 18.38) that vishayasukha is the pleasure of kings which due to association with senses appears as nectar in the beginning and later become evolved into poison.By enjoyment of it man never gets satisfaction.It only increases the desire for it even in a mind which prays for avoidance of it.Even with internal enjoyment of it desires do not end.The desires end,and the sense organs become peaceful and not interested anymore insense objects and pleasure is only an imagination ,if one goes on enjoying and practicing vishayasukha.Therefore yogins call it as vyathireka(opposite)The loulya(attachment and involvement )of sense organs has to be removed by certain prayoga(means).Satya(truth)gives endless happiness and loss of desires.The desire is due to practice of bhoga.Yoga practice is opposite to that and gives destruction of desires.Kaama will not be lost by kaama(desires are not removed by desires).

Na jaathu kaama :kaamaanam upabhogena saamyathi

Havishaa krishnavarlmeya bhooya evaabhivardhathe(MB Adi .85.12).

It becomes too redhot with constant practice(Atheevarohitha).In the world this parinaama of sorrow and heat is very famous.Prapancha is in fact the thaapadu:khaparinaama.(The evolution of heat energy into the sorrows ).They are the same.Heat=sorrow

The experience of sukha leads to samskaara.In which there is memory of happiness we develop raaga towards it.Mind,words and deeds keep up this memory forever.Thus vaasana or tendencies become fixed.By the samskaara the memory of the sukha and dukha functions in raaga and dwesha and creates karmavipaaka.To stop the flow of sorrows it is difficult even for yogins.So what to say about others?They go on immersed in the heat of the thriparva.The three parva of heat are adhibouthika,adhidaivika and adhyathmika.They are one (ekathwa).Chithavrithy is avidya.By the vikaara of intellect and senses the chithavrithy is not destroyed.Ahmkaaara and the feeling of “mama”(mine)and its ratio increases it.The parithraana(protection)is only with samyagdarsana.(See Bhagavad geetha .It is with samyagdarsana the Lord does parithraana of the yogins or saadhu)

What we see as natural sorrow is the changed form of samskaara and its heat which in turn is evolved from the pleasures of senses.By pragna it is opposite of gunavrithy.Guna is the evolved or changed form of pragna as functions,state or position ,form and intellect.The form of enjoyment of sukha ,due to interdependence of the three guna(sathwa,rajas and thamas)are saantham(sukham)Ghoram(du:kham)and moodam(vishaada).The pratyayaparinaama of this kind become fixed (sthira).The gunavritha is fast moving.Therefore the chitha is said to be kshipraparinaami.(fast changing/evolving)Thus the eka becomes become many with opposite characters. They are opposite in their form and vrithi. Forms are of eight types.Vrithy are bhaava and dharma.They are sukhaaadi.They are dharma and therefore must be opposite to adharma.Gnaana,vairagya,aiswarya and sukha

are opposite of adharma.Whatever has form is anitya(temporary).therefore any vrithy associated with roopa or form also should be anitya.With the gunapraadhaanya which is generally more important the scholars decided that the prapancha has its swabhaava in sorrow.Sorrow is swabhaava of prapancha.The sorrow is the heya of pragna.Its cause has to be destroyed internally ,not externally.Unless we know the cause we cannot destroy it.What is the root cause?The seed of sorrow.All saasthra are functioning for the blessing of all human beings just for this purpose.In this all scinces(sarvasaasthra)are alike or equivalent in their functioning.In the condensed creation of the organs there are four vyuha.

Heya or du:kha which is samsaara The cause of samsaara is Avidya The mokshaswaroopa as samyoga of prakrithy and purusha Mokshopaaya or Haanopaaya as swaroopacheda

By the awakening of pure wisdom,all klesha with vaasna are cut off.This cutting of (cheda)is not done by the seer(drashta) or the chidathma cutting himself .It is visualization of the the bondage of klesha as different from oneself by ones own wisdom.The ending of mamatha(mineness)from it.This seen universe is only a series of mandra(slow)and theevra(fast) vibrations and the vaasanagathi of these vibrations are the fickle pleasures and pains of samsaara.I am the seer of this changing universe and am changeless and therefore I have the power to control this changing world within.By own icha(swecha)he gets the visualization of the sakthy(power)in oneself to cut away the bondage and becomes yathamaana(swami)of oneself.Once this truth is known ,the wise man becomes motionless like a lamp which is not moved by winds,like a waveless ocean,quiet and vibrationless and merged in oneself.The samsarin enjoys different types of vishayasukha.The yogin realizes that they are not the real happiness.The fourth purushartha ,moksha is getting away from all such worldly pleasures.Hethuvaada says if the swaroopa is the upaadeya (effect)it should have an upaadaana(cause).If even the upaadaana itself is temporary and is an effect of something else,that will be opposite to the definition of moksha .Moksha is eternity.Even the pure santhaanaparampara(generations of children)are not eternal.Santhaana(or generations)whether by birth(genes)or by vignaana(teacher-disciple)it has no eternity.Santhaani and santhaana are different.Santhaani is that person who first started a generation.Or the one who continues it.Santhaana is the next generation which continues it forever.He is not the one who started the series.The series of the human race has been eternal from the very first day it started though individual families have ended.This is called saaswathavaada.(Theory of eternity).In the analysis of purushartha we find both hethvada and saswathavaada.But none of these are moksha.Moksha is only theswaroopaavasthaana.Fixity in ones own form.Or Athma.That is samyagdarsana.(It is beyond the series of sons and disciples).

Pathan:-16.Heyam du:kham anaagatham

Vyas:-To enjoy the past sorrows one become aathivaahitha.This does not function in the

heyapaksha.The present is in its own moment(ksana)enjoyed and in that kshana there is no experience of heyatha according to this opinion.Therefore the future sorrows are just like an akshipathra for a yogin.The others does not know it at all.they see only the sorrow of the present.Yogisee the sorrow of the three times alike.

Vachas:-Saasthra has four vyha.Heya is the sorrow to come in future.It is beyond present.The sorrow of the past is separated and known by yogin alone.Ordinary people see only the sorrows of present.They know only what they experience at the moment.They cannot know their past and not their future sorrows either.Therfore heya is known only by the wise who foretell it.

Pathan:- 17.Drashtu drishyayo:samyogo heyahethu:

Vyas:-What is the hethu(cause)for heya(the sorrows to come)?The union (samyoga)between the drashta(seer)and the drisya(seen)is the cause for heya.Seer is the Purusha who knows all in the intellect.Seen is all the dharma which is in his intellect.The Purusha is like an ayaskantha jewel and the seen reflecting in it becomes or seems to be Swam(own).Whatever comes to one’s presence is enlightened,revealed ,reflected and known by the seer and this is then fixed in the intellect as swam(own).Purusha is swami and yathamaana.What we know as our own swaroopa(form)and by our own free effort is called Swathanthra(own method)and what we know from the experience,action etc of others is called parathanthra(other’s method).These seer-seen relations and meanings created are beginningless and they conjoin each other(samyoga)and produce heya and sorrows.If we avoid the cause of samyoga cant we get away from sorrows?But how?Can the destruction of sorrow be the end of sorrow?Can the burning of the thorn be considered as healing the feet injured by thorn?It is not destruction of thorn,but protection of the feet which has to be done.By destruction pain and sorrow and separatisms increase.It is the function of the three guna which become imbalanced that create the sorrows.For a person who do tapas(thaapaka)the sathwa has to be heated by rajas.How?Thapas is a kriya because it is a function done or work done.In the sathwakarma thapas is a function which is changeless(aparinamini)and nishkriya(without any function)for a kshethragna(knower of the field).The seen may be the same.But the seer who is heated by that is functioning according to his own guna proportions.So,it is not the sight,but the imbalance of the seer that changes the response .(This is an essential difference between principles of allopathy and ayurveda.In ayurveda the thriguna balancing to increase the protective or immune response is given importance.It does not kill the external factors as enemies to be killed.In allopathy the bacteria,viruses and fungi are killed by drugs while in ayurveda they are just co-inhabitants on earth and no attempt is taken to kill them)

Vachas:-The cause of liberation from heya is explained.The union of seer and the seen is the cause for sorrow.Seer is the own form(swaroopa).Just like chaithanya or chithi(light/energy)and its chaayaapathi(shadow)intellect and its cognition can be seen.Usually to the shadows reflected in it,purusha does not take any interest or care.The

different sights,sounds,etc are taken just as the sights only by intellect,and not as the reflected cognitive power within intellect .The sights are changed forms of external things like sounds etc which through the sensory channels(Indriyapranaalika)reached the intellect.Therefore even the sabda etc are in their dharma seen or deishya only.Through intellect only Purusha can change them from one to another.(One sakthi or power –sabda or sound as form or roopa –the transformation of one type of energy into another)only through the intellect or budhi.It cannot be seen with naked eyes.The sound etc are made into sight by intellect by its association with senses.Therefore drishya(seen)is made enriched by the seer(drashta /his intellect)and this enriched sight is the drishta.(what we see) not the external sight alone.

The universe is its first paada or quarter.The intellect with associated chithi(energy)by the internal purity the image of the energy(chithibimba)is cognized in it,and as energy itself enjoy the sabda etc .Only with the intellect we enjoy the world.Thus the seer is the swami.Similarly ,the intellect is thought of as mine(mama) or swam(own).Thus the prapancha as image within the pure intellect of purusha is becoming his swam .The experience makes the yatha.Anubhava is experience.Experience of bliss leads to functions which gives the same experience .Thus the actions or yagna done by the swami (yathamaana)is to enjoy the bhoga again and again.How is the selfluminent intellect becoming a subject of experience?Anyaswaroopena.As if it is a form of another thing.As if it is a image in another jadavasthu( without light/life) How much is available for whom alone can be experienced.Because human beings are not very much interested to the intellect as they are to the vishayasukha,they do not know it .Swathanthra is own thanthra which is freedom.Parathanthra is the method of another and is not free.Purushathanthra is parathanthra since it cannot function without the image of prakrithi. The association between seen and seer whether it is natural or due to some nimitha,never decreases.There is no vyaya( expenditure)of this at any times.(This is the modern law of conservation of energy).Because of the eternal nature of the two which join,and their natural union to cut away(cheda)their relation is impossible.That is how the samsaara has become eternal.In the naimithika association,we can dissociate them and get away from the samsaara.Such a person can live without samsarga (union)and get out of samsaara. Therefore, it is said:

Pumaan akarthaayeshaam thu theshaam api gunai:kriyaa

Katham aadou bhavethathra karmathaavannavidyathe

Mithyaagnaanam na thathraasthi raagadweshaadayo api vaa

Manovrithirhi sarveshaam na chothpannam manasthadhaa

The eternal union of seer and seen is the cause of heya.This natural association is not there in the naimithika association.It is like a seed which sprouts with rains as said earlier(1/19).The union here is due to avidya alone.The cause of the avastha of union is the reason for purushartha.And it is within the capacity of the purushartha.Panchasikha

said it is this union and the union of budhi(intelligence)which are the cause of sorrow.Therefore avoidance of these are the best methods for escape from sorrow forever.If we don’t sacrifice them we will have to suffer sorrow.This is famous.For example the paadathraana(protection of feet)is mentioned. When two guna unite heat(thaapa)is generated.Since there is thaapa(heat)for the guna ,heat is produced when two of them unite.When two things unite ,each one is dependent on the other for the generation of heat and for the reaction.In the thapya(heat production)both have equal function.Asthapyatha(no heat generation)cannot be said as the function of purusha.(Because purusha is energy itself).Purusha is aparinaami(changeless).The absence of this when two things unite makes it different from the function of purusha.In the thapa(heat)from the extent of the (vyaaptha)thapya(the heated)one can also cognize its nivrithy(absence or avoidance).When there is no jwalana(kindling),there is no dhooma(smoke)either.In this way one can measure in the thaapaka(people who do thapas).The thpya and thaapaka bhaava is in the guna.(Thapya is the thing which is heated.Thaapaka is the one which heated it or kindled it).Sathwa is thapya just as the feet in its softness.Rajas by its high frequency is thaapaka.Sathwa is doing thapa.Not the purusha.The thapa is by thapakriya or function of thapa .Purush ais neither the function of thapa ,and is not being heated also.The sathwa is heated by the fast vibratory activity of rajas within the seer.In the seen objects,sathwa is thapyamaana and in a purusha with that form we find the power of thapas.It is the nature of such sathwik chethas to develop anuthaapa(compassion)in other seen things. (S:Note that the principles of chemical reaction and of energy transformation are mentioned here).

Pathan:-18.Prakaasakriyaasthithiseelam bhoothendriyaathmakam

Bhoghaapavargaartham dryshyam

Vyasa:-The swaroopa of the seen is explained.The nature of sathwa is light,and that of rajas is kriya or function and of thamas is its sthithi or fixity of position.These guna by their different associations make several different types ,forms ,organ etc.The united power of them (asambinnasakthy)is divided as thulyajaatheeya and athulyajaatheeya (equal and unequal births)according to their ratio of sakthibheda(different sakthy)and main functions(Pradhaanavela).By measuring the maathra(units)of vyaapaara(commerce or functions)of each ,one can find out the total power within the pradhaana.By measuring the efficiency of each individual expended in aquiring the purushartha ,his internal sakthi(power )also can be measured.That which by its presence alone as a jewel of ayaskaantha functions its Kathamavrithy(function of quantum activity)within the internal

space becomes the pradhaanasabdavaachi(the principal sound)

seen.(drishya)This itself is seen as the five elemental forms as the gross and subtle universes etc.As their sensory perceptions the organs of hearing,sight etc are created as gross as well as subtle ,and they are transformation of the external prapancha only.Purusha have no use with all these.Yet,he makes them his body,and makes them

This is the

useful for enjoyment just by his presence and makes them his drishya.There is nothing except the purusha and his pradhaana .Anyadarsanam naasthi.By understanding the three guna,and their functions,the witnessing power of purusha one can cognize everything.It can be doubtlessly proclaimed that there is no other darsana apart from these.Some people think purusha is the intellect of the present only.That is because the success and failure for a warrior is for the present ,determined by his swami(commander)of the present.The effect of war is enjoyed not by the soldier but by the swami or king.This method of explaining purusha in present is because of the fact that purusha alone is the enjoyer of everything whether good or bad.At the end of the purushartha,by intellect one gets liberation from bondage.For cognition,for concentration,for deductions and love in philosophical questioning etc the purusha of the present is considered responsible by them.This is a type of adhyaropa of the sadbhava of purusha in one’s own budhi or intellect.Thus they enjoy the fruits by becoming one with purusha.

Vachas:-The sthithiseela(continuity or fixity of position )of the function of light(prakaasakriya)is seen as the sensory perception and its enjoyment.(Actually it is not seen by naked eye,and is continuous in all time .But considered as the seen light ,temporary ,and moving ,and changing with time and understood by sense organs and intellect of the present human beings alone .)Prakaasa is sathwa.Thamas is dainya(weakness and ignorance).Rajas is du:kha(sorrow).They love each other and unite with each other in different proportions.They with purusha undergo samyoga(association)and viyoga(dissociation)and make the prapancha.(universes).In the Aamnaaya it is said:

Ajaamekaam lohithasuklakrishnaam

Bahwi:prajaa:srijamaanaam saroopaa:

Ajosyeko jushamaano anusethe

Jahaathyenaam bhukthabhoggam ajo anya: (Sweth Up 4.5)

Depending upon each other ,by union in different ratio the forms of all like earth etc are aquired.From satya (truth)is born the shaantha(quiet or peaceful) nature.The small proportion of it is seen in predominantly rajasic and thamasic things also, and vice versa.We will not find ghora and mooda in a predominantly sathwa nature.Yet they too are merged in small proportions because of the thrigunathmaka nature of

everything

praised.Everything being the result of union ,to get a pure asamkara of sakthi or asamkara of effects is very very rare to find.(because everything is samkara only in prapancha).In a

simple ,and not complex way one can see sakthi or power as santham ,dheeram,and moodam depending upon the predominance of the three guna.These are only the different names of sakthi.In the sakthi which is cause of all these the guna have not originated and hence it is beyond guna(gunaatheetha).In different sakthi(bhinnasakthy)we may not be able to see its effects.The thread ,soil etc become cloth ,pot etc .Just like that from one

Sakthi

is praised as thrigunathmika.The sathwabhaava of her is

type another is born.By the ratio of thulyajaathi and athulyajaathi the prapancha is created.The thulyajaathisakthy is acting even in the athulyajaathisakthi as sahakaarisakthy(co-operative power)and by their ratio the character of each object is determined(including that of human beings).The main function(pradhaanavela)taken up by each person/object also is dependent on the predominant guna ratio in them.(Which means the chathurvarnya is dependent on this ).

Pradhaanavela(main function)of a person born in a divine body will be due to sathwaguna predominance and rajas and thamas as anga only,light and wisdom.Therefore called a deva.The one born in a human body is predominantly rajasic and is kriyaaseela but wisdom and ignorance do occur in different proportions which is manifested.The one born in a thiryagyoni has thamas predominant and ignorance and fixity to that position is characteristic.In this way the guna are seen in different main functions .The kaarya(effect)is born out of the previous kaarana(cause) and karma(action) is the cause of origin .Pradhaana is a sabda with importance of bhaava.Why? because by Dwayekayordwivachanaikavachane(ashtadhyayi 1.4.22)the duality gets oneness.even though all three gunas are there due to pradhana karma and pradhana guna the object has demonstrable ekathwa(oneness) in dithwa(duality) or anekathwa(manyness).How is this advaithabhaava experienced?Since pradhaana is udbhootha,it is possible.

In the enjoyer or rasika ,the sadbhaava of the anga are the pramaana or evidence.For a rasika of a gaana the experience of it bhaava as rasa itself is the evidence.No other evidence is needed.The presence(asthithwa)of the pradhaana bhaava or angibhaava creates the experience of rasa.All other angabhaava become merged in the angibhaava as one.A person who is capable of creating such a sadbhaava or sadguna,becomes interested in recreating it againand again.The gnaanasakthy(power of knowledge)thus become the enthusiasm to create more(ichasakthi) and thus is the cause for the effect.In this way ,without discontinuity the effect is produced forever.The generations of people respect and value and agree that this is the responsibility for purushartha . The total liberation from the three purushartha and from the thriguna happen when there is nothing else to be achieved.For a eternally liberated purusha there is nothing else to be achieved.therefore ,just by his presence as witness he makes the prapancha function.Dharma and adharma are of use to the guna.They are not of use to purusha who is beyond guna and beyond time and dharma and everything.In the present purusha(a living being)with predominant sathwa and rajas and thamas as anga,functioning for swakaarya(own effect /in secret )dharma etc are created.Therefore it is useful for the present.It is said: “Nimitham aprayojanam prakritheenaam varanabhedasthu thatha

:kshethrikavath(4.3)”.

In pradhaaanasabda by association of purusha the universes are created.The universe is effect .The origin of this effect is thus said.Pradheeyatha (the power of intellect or pragna) vidheeyatha(power of fate or vidhi or rules)and aadheeyatha(power of sorrow or pains and dependence )also has to be understood by the association of purusha and the pradhaana with the three guna.The effect derived from guna will be having character depending upon the guna only.In sathkaryavaada(theory of sath as effect)the evolution or

change of form of sadguna enlightens the elements including that of sense organs and the external objects.The enlightenment and wisdom happen in yogin by this.Though yogin is beyond the needs of worldly life,he advices the worldly people and try to kindle enlightenment in them .

Now bhoga is explained. Pain and pleasure are due to the guna in the intellect.They evolve according to their nature.But their cognition alone does not become enjoyment or bhoga.In the inseparable chitha as the thrigunaathmakapradhaana ,it is just known by its own light or prakaasa.In this way the internal function of division into sakrid(good action)and asakrid(bad action)happens.For this enjoyment of external objects is not needed.To do exposition of apavarga the term bhokthru is mentioned.Apavrijyathe aneene ithi apavarga: Due to lack of any other use,the experience of the adwaitha state is described by Panchasikha as “Ayam thu Khalwithi”(I alone am this entire universe).This consciousness is not the enjoyment of worldly objects.It is an internal enjoyment created by intellect and its function and cognition of the different types of bhoga or enjoyments and its memory.By its form and evidence we know purusha.The enjoyment is that of purusha(1-4).And purusha is the first or at the top(3-35).In intellect with the end of purushartha ,all bondages end.When bondage ends own swaroopa is known.Therefore in Bhogaapavarga,when we speak of purusha,the cognition is related to purusha and not to prakrithi.It is related to light of knoweldge .The term grahana is the process by which with a single maathra(unit) of swaroopa(unit of light )the cognition of all meanings(arthagnaana)is obtained. ( S:It is interesting to note that this term grahana which is applicable to both human cognition and to the creation of a shadow on a celestial object by light is split into two different terms in English language-cognition and eclipse-but Sanskrit uses the same term for both).The memory(smrithy) of it is dhaarana .The deduction of the spcial meanings embedded in it is called anumaana or ooha (deduction and guess).The imagined and projected meanings being removed(apanaya)is called apoha .By all these methods one cognizes and fixes the memory of the knowledge thus gained and this is called thathwagnaana(philosophy).The cognition of thathwa or truth and its meaning and the perpetuation of it and the love and involvement in it(abhinivesa)through generations keeps it eternal and continuous.

Pathan:-19.Visheshaavishesha lingamaathraalinghaani gunaparvaani.

Vyas:-The five elements are aakaasha,vaayu,agni,jhala and prithwi.In these five avisesha(general)the visesha are the units or thanmaathra of sabda,sparsa,roopa,rasa,and gandha respectively.The five senses of intellect are ear,skin,eyes,tongue,and nose interlinked with the above mentioned respectively.The five organs of work are vaak,paada,paani,paayu and upastha (word,feet,hands,hind end and generative organs.).These ten organs and the mind makes the eleven organs.These together form the special (visesha)of the special having the signs of asmitha.Thus they are visesha of visesha.The sixteen parinaama (11 indriya+ 5 elements)of guna are the visesha parinaama(special evolutions).Six are avisesha and they are the the five thanmathra and the conjoined one as asmitha as the sixth.(shashtavisesha).In the Athman which is only

satha(truth)as maathra(unit)the mahat is the parinama with six vishesha .Each with its ultimate visesha join by lingamaathra(linga is lakshana or sign) or unit of linga alone ,and form mahat and increase and reach its kaashta(ultimate growth).And in it all like truth,untruth,energy,mass,unmanifest,manifest,with signs,without signs ,pradhana ,purusha etc are experienced.Ni:sad means lingamaathraparinaama(evolution just by the unit of linga or sign)The state of alinga(no sign state)is not the cause of enjoyment of all purushartha.Aalingaavastha(embraced state)also happens with the first purusha and purushartha.The functions done for purushartha are not eternal but by the cause of state ,in the beginning they get the causal nature of purusharthatha.Hethu or cause has to be an eternal thing.The anityavasthu(object which ends)cannot be cause but is only an effect.For the guna in balanced state when all dharma are in equal proportions there is no end,beginning or middle and it is alinga(without sign).For the righteous people(dharmaka)who creates limits for the expenditure and attaining of the past karma which has to come in the future ,since they are beyond the time limits this character is common.They too are alinga or without signs (also means beyond limits of sex as man /woman).One say the Devadatha is poor.Why?Because his cow died.Here the death of cow or loss of wealth is said as the cause of poverty ,there is no swaroopahaani(loss of own form)for Devadatha.

Thus poverty here means lack of enjoyment of wealth .The lack of enjoyment of the yogin (of external wealth)is equivalent to that.The body,mind,and intellect are enlightened and occupy spacetime in the prapancha itself,but he does not enjoy the external prapancha in the same way as the other people do.He does not find bliss in that.He is not bound by it.he has seen the lingamaathra(signunit alone) alinga(signless /sexless)truth as most near and within himself and has become beyond everything .He has crossed the vritha or vrithi (cyclical)of the prapancha and its order (kramaan athivrithe:) by knowing it.This process is according to the same law of order of evolution which by the six special signs created the universe.In the same way he creates with specials (visesha)the elements ,organs,and analyses their functions and nature.The meaning of the saying that there is no other thathwa beyond the visesha is,there is no more parinaama or evolution for the most subtle visesha(The principle of Kanaada vaiseshika).It is no more divisible.This evolution(parinaama)with its dharmalakshana(signs of dharma)is explained. ( S:Note that in the prakaasavritha or cyclical cosmic light ,in the subtlest and the most indivisible kathama of the kanaadavaiseshika system of paramaanu ,and in the chitha of the yogin who has become one with the cosmic order and knowing it ,crosses beyond it,the cosmic law of order and law of energy is explained as one as a beautiful advaitha experience).

Vachas:-The guna of the alinga which is viseshaaviseshalingamaathra is done to explain the difference between guna and the drishya and for cognition of swaroopa.For a person who has no difference between shantha,ghora and mood a,there are no special(visesha)vikaara(emotion)and his nature is that of prakrithi itself.In its order of creation it is akaasalinga(with aakaasa as its linga or sign).For its intellect ,sense organs etc which are visesha it is the asmithaalakshana and is avisesha.The twin importance of

mind has to be known with manana(analysis).The five thanmathra are seen as asmitha due to intellect .The cause of emotion as aviseshthwa is present in both thanmathra and asmitha.The union of all these (sankaram/samkalan) makes the visesha.They become several groups ,and makes several forms .The groups of the avisesha are six in number.Their samkalan(union)makes several creations.These creations can be great or not.For the earth with gandha as its athma,there are 5 signs or lakshsna.For water which has rasa as its athman there are only 4 lakshana.For fire,which has roopa as lakshana there are only 3 lakshana,and for wind which has touch as its athman there are only 2 lakshana and for the aakaasa with sabda as its athman there is only one lakshana ,the sabda or sound alone.

How did the effect become shadvisesha(with 6 specials)?By union with the Athman which is pure satha(truth).Sath has the ability to do functions for purushartha.Its bhaava or emotion is satha and its unit(maathra)is mahathathwa.For the sathwapurusha which has the enjoyment of sabda etc,there is only the lakshana of anyathaakhyaathi.All others end with the intellect which is Mahath.When we think of Athma we know its mahatwa(greatness)and there is negation of its littleness(thuchathwa).It is before prakrithi,and universes and is the truthbeyond all of them.Therefore its nature is beyond all their revolutionary cyclical paths and includes all of them.(This is vivarthavaada).The one who knows its truth and changelessness knows the greatness of athman.Greater than that there is nothing.In this knowledge he gets sathkaarya(sathkaaryasidhi)and experiences it and in that experience there are no six visesha .There is only one which is truth alone.From this experience of Samadhi state when one gets down ,it is like an avarohana from akaasa to earth.Therefore the order of origin and destruction are the same but in reverse order.One is aarohana and the other avarohana(as in the musical notes).This experience which occurs again and again as laya (concentration in oneself as one)and then coming out (gachathi)and moving again is called Linga.(Ling for laya/leena and Ga for gachathi)and thus the lakshana is this contraction and expansion as denoted by the term linga which goes in and comes out.Its adjective is ni:sathasatham .It is both.It has the efficiency of function foe purushartha of the sathapurusha.But it has the inefficiency too.Both satha and asatha is in it.The nishkraantha means the movement from sath to asath and in opposite direction .The balance of the three guna is not useful

for purushartha

as nothingness or unmanifested state.Even in that unmanifest state the mahad etc exist in athman (asthi)and therefore there is no end for the truth.(sath).For something which has no end there is no beginning or recreation as well.Therefore in purusha or in mahad and the sadbhaava there are no functions for purushartha and no use for such functions either.Samkramana (going from one to another)rise(arohana)fall(avarohana)etc are not there in the state of nishkramana.The cause is nishkraantha.Satha is its karya(effect)Even in the cause the sakthy exists as karya.Even in the unmanifest exists the manifest.Even in seed exists a great tree.Therefore that state is the poorna Samadhi state and not emptiness. Simply because it is not doing any function for purushartha it is called as asad but is not really asad.This ultimate cause which is absolute energy state ,measuring by raasi(zodiac)vishaana(stone as weight and measure) and saying that “I know it “from such measurement has to be negated.Asad is the effect of the form of icha(will).It has no

It

is not like a skyflower.It is the naasathya(naasadeeya)state and appears

movement (inert object).Similarly thinking of satha as the cause for producing skyflower and such magical things etc has also to be negated.In this way the truth is generated from truth only and not from untruth is explained.The first is said after (as the second after the first)and we know it.Linga as unit is purushakritha (done by purusha)and is temporary and alinga is eternal and is the state of yogin (naalingaavastha)which is beyond all linga .It is not with the external objects that the gnaana is created.But by the knower is the one who generates the knowledge of all.With alingavastha one knows we know cause of purushartha.Alinga state is known by the enjoyment of sabda etc,by the anyathakhyathi of sathwapurusha,the liberation from purushartha and the samya or balance state aquired for that liberation etc.The light of wisdom is the reason for purushartha.

To conclude:The noneternal nature is in the three signs of guna and their combinations.To see the use ,availability and the destruction of the cow ,and to say that it is the upachaya and apachaya of its owner Devadatha which is an entirely different entity from the cow ,is equivalent to seein the different ratios of guna in objects and their

changing nature and attributing it to the eternal purusha

order of creation so disorderly,the answer is ,the disorder (chaos)is only in the lingamaaathra (unit of the lakshana of laya and gamaka).The great banyan tree Nyagrodha ,produce a big tree from a small seed.The seed first starts from the heat and energy of the sun and the water from the clouds and the earth ,to swell up,produce a sprout ,and then the root and shoot with leaf,and a naala(channel)to take in both water from earth and sunlight and then slowly gets the stem,the branches ,a canopy of leaves with fruits and seed etc.There is a definite order in the creation.The elements and sense organs are always anitya(subject to destruction).The subtlest thing which is the visesha of all visesha(special of all specials as in Vaiseshika theory) is aparinaami(changeless) since it cannot be further divisible and that is nitya(eternal)This was explained earlier.

About

the question why is the

( S:The conclusion of the yogasuthra that the most subtle paramaanu and the greatest light field called the mahat are eternal is comparable to the modern relativistic astrophysics and quantum astrophysics.The noncontradictory synthesis of these two theories without using the language of mathematics- as is done in Indian astrophysics as well as in modern astrophysics,-and using the language of bioenergy fields and science of consciousness so that the neurobiological and cosmological energies are unified ,is noteworthy.The yoga is for experiencing the advaitha .Astronomy is the mathematical,experimental scientific method of enquiring into the origin of universe and light energy.Ayurveda is the physical ,mental,qualitative and quantitative analysis of the energy in human and other living things based on the ratios of three guna in them.The art of classical music is the experimental science of using the sabda the only linga of aakaasa –which is the Brahmalinga according to Brahmasoothra-by its order ,the change in order ,and the laya and gamaka as well as its relation to astrophysical laws.It is the practical way of attaining harmony and balance in the most easy way.Within this framework of philosophical and logical vidya,Indians have founded a basis for their alchemy,rasaayanavidya or medical lore,weights and measures and balances etc.And this has existed at least from the IVC Mehrgarh period is a fact which one have to think of and trace the history of human scientific consciousness and philosophy).

Pathan:-20.Drashtaadrisimaathra:sudho api pratyayaanupasya:

Vyas:-Drisimaathra is about the ability to see or the power of sight.The unit of darsana is the power of sight.This is different in each individual.Intellect is changing due to known and unknown subjects .Therefore it can see both known and unknown vishaya and their changing nature.The changeless nature of purusha is eternal and is the subject of knowledge in all times and it shines as lamp.To cognize it is difficult for the changing intellect.The difficultyis because of its changeless eternal nature which is not approachable by the changing intellect.Intellect learns about several things one by one(paraartha) .But it is unable to cognize its own(swartha)purusha .It cannot destroy it either as it does with other things.Purusha is beyond intellect.The intellect which cognizes and learns everything that is thrigunathma and is thrigunathmika by itself is by its very nature of thriguna ,achethana(jada)and not chethana like purusha.The only witness or seer is purusha only.Intellect is therefore not the same form as purusha.(not saroopa).But it is not formless(viroopa)also.In pure intellect when the vision of “I “(asou)occur again and again,this ability of sight is called Boudham(That pertaining to the intellect).When such a darsana occur ,it becomes one with purusha and become enlightened.Therefore one can understand that it is the aparinaamini(changeless)aprathisamkrami(one which does not change position from one to another) bhokthrusakthy(power of enjoyment)as purusha ,which had fallen to the (anupathana)the state of parinami and prathisamkranthi,and that intellect can by remembering agaian and again its swaroopa can engage itself in the function of gnaana and get enlightened again .(It is this function that Lord Budha did.It was not a change from one religion to another but a achievement by a rishi in that particular period as prescribed by the ancient yoga. )By the unit(mathra)of this sight the intellect is able to measure itself as a sight or a drisya .This ability is called Budhigrahana or cognition by intellect.And the function of this is also known as gnaanasakthy.(power of knowledge)

Vachas:-The explanation of the seer and the sight is given.This is for cognition of the form of self.Seer is one unit of the vision or darsana.It is sudha and invisible by any pratyaya or adjectives.The adjectives are its dharma .The dharma of darsana or sight is that of the seer.By this the interest or love for grahana (cognition)of unit(mathra)has to be understood.The seer is interested in cognizing and making the measuring units.Everything that is seen with sabda etc are only the adjectiveless visionary power of the seer only.Without touching the ability of cognizing power or the power of sight of the seer no darsana (sight/vision)has existence(asthithwa).Darsaka or seer is purusha or athman.The reflection of purusha in the mirror of intellect is the reason for the different opinions of different individuals about purusha.It is in the intellect that the sabda etc creates shadow.There is no oneness for intellect and energy(chaithanya)but only a shadow of light cast in intellect is considered as the form of intellect.The saaroopya and vairoopya are negated.The cause of vairoopya is known(gnaatham).The parinamini(changing)intellect has two forms –mine and thine (asmad,ushmad).What assumes the form of sabda etc become known by the lakshana of sabda etc.It is also unknown because of its nonfunctional states.(akaaratha)The dharma of intellect is opposite to that of purusha.Purusha is kevala(absolute)gnaaana and gneya and

gnaatha.Intellect is not so.Only in the nirodha state (chithavrithynirodha)it can cognize purusha.In other states it cognizes the three guna and the external objects only.Purusha is changeless and intellect is changing.Saadharmya (same dharma)between intellect and purusha is only during Samadhi ,in the awakened(vyuthana of sampragnatha)state.The functioning of intellect is for the sake of purusha.Purusha is chithi (chaithanya or light)and there is no differences in it.The thriguna the santha,ghora and mooda state etc are for intellect and not for purusha.The intellect is not the roopaparinaama of purusha ,but only the shadow of purusha reflected in the mirror as a measuring device to see itself.

The term athyanthaviroopa is used for intellect.It is not viroopa but athyanthaviroopa(not formless but with very dense form which is opposite to purusha).Purusha is suddha(most pure).The enjoying power of athman being changeless it should have similarity of form with purusha.Intellect has changing from one position to another(prathisamkrama)and change in form etc.These are not there for purusha.Only if there is function of samkranthi(change in position)a fall (pathana)can happen.Bythe love for the chaithanya(light)intellect does samkrama from one to another(as graham does from one rasi to another in zodiac)How the moons reflection changes position in clear water ,like that the samkranthi is a reflecting rathibimba of the asamkratha chithisakthy.But the intellect cannot grasp or cognize this fact.Therefore intellect has to see and again see(pasyathi,anupasyath)and go on repeating the same procedure for cognizing it. This repetition (abhyasa)is essential for intellect to grasp the truth.(Just like the samkranthi of the graham from zodiac to zodiac ,the sun does not have samkranthi because it is the athma of time and the purusha in solar system.But the feeling of samkranthi is in the intellect which is on a changing moving graham-earth –with samkranthi.The thrigunathmaka intellect has to repeatedly make observations and think and analyse in every generation to cognize this .This pasyathi ,anupasyathi creates and sustains the sciences and arts on earth)

Pathan:-21.Thadartham eva drisyasyaathmaa:

Vyas:-The drishya is the form of action of Purusha within the form of the seen.It is the seen itself which becomes the Athmaswaroopa.The own swaroopa itself is the roopa of the other.(pararoopa).The sight of swaroopa as pararoopa is for the purusha’s bhoga(enjoyment).Therefore the prapancha as the seen is for enjoyment of the seer,the purusha.There is no destruction of swaroopa of purusha.Purusha is avinasi(which cannot be destroyed).

Vachas:-The swaroopa of the seen is explained.The seen is the same as the self.The enjoyer of the seen is the seer or purusha.From his action originated the creation or the seen prapancha.Therefore the seen is the vibhoothi of the seer for him to enjoy.They are created out of himself for his own enjoyment .Therefore it is his swaroopa itself.But we find both pain and pleasure in it.There are positive and negatives in them as well as in the vishaya.But in Athma this difference of negative and positive does not exist and there are no opposites .From this we can understand that it is the chithisakthy or the power of

energywhich is manifested as positive and negative as opposites.Therefore the seen is for the sake of chithisakthy or energy.The seen is not for itself but for chithisakthy .sakthy of energy is for the Athma’s visualization.The person who follows the purushartha of the chithiswaroopa ,and gets out of the other purushartha of worldly life ,attains the swaroopa.The swaroopa of the seen is jada and that of purusha is chaithanya.Everything is for purusha ,the experienced bhoga of different types(bhogaapavarga).The form of pleasure for bhogha and experience of sabda etc are said.The light of purusha falling on the jada intelligence ,intelligence get experience of purusha which is light.Therefore all the experiences of intelligence are actually that of purusha.(The light of sun or moon falling on earth is equivalent).Entire universe is for the enjoyment of purusha.Then how can destruction of swaroopa of purusha happen?(The energy of purusha is forever inexhaustible)

Pathan:-22.Krithaarthamprathinashtamapyanashtam thadanyasaadhaaranathwaath

Vyas:-The gain and loss due to one person’s actions is seen as the common thing for all others.The expert person being destroyed ,and the ignorant one getting gains is seen in the world .The action or the subject of the action are not the cause of gain.The Athmaroopa as the pararoopa is the cause.The eternity of the seen and seer ,the beginningless union etc are used to explain this.The dharmamaathra(the measure unit of dharma) generated by the anaadisamyoga(beginningless union) of the dharmi are called anaadisamyogabandha.(eternal relation of association).

Vachas:-Why is purusha destructionless?The answer is: For a satisfied purusha loss and gain does notexist.All the losses and gains of all the expert and ignorant persons and their actions are ordinary.They do not touch the asaadhaarana (rare/not common man)purusha who is satisfied(krithaartha).The satisfaction he experiences has no end,no gain or loss. Its form is chaithanya(energy).It is the sakthy of creation of entire universe famous in the sruthy,smrithy,ithihaasa and puraana as unmanifest,eternal,indivisible and Eka.It is the sakthi which determines the laws of universe.The purusha who is expert in this activity is the satisfied purusha.He has nothing else to know,see,or enjoy or create.For the ignorant on the other hand,there is nothing seen like a blind person.Both have the absence of the seen.One is because of lack of chakshu(loss)and the other due to presence of internal eye or antharchakshu(gain).The Eka all the time experiences the creation of many from it and the liberation from the many.The same Eka in the sruthy is seen as the many and divided as different forms and names and with division into time,space,etc.This is explained in sruthi (swetha 4.5)as explained in commentary to 18 th soothra.The Athma of gnaani has gone through several births and deaths and had gains and losses and bears the memory of them and knows the eternity of the union of nitya and anitya and hence is not touched by the present gain and loss or pain and pleasure.The bhoga of such an Athma is just witnessing .This is a thathwa agreed upon by aagama.Because of the endless union as dharma of guna,the dharmi has the endless union of Mahad etc.In Mahad etc union as one each is beginningless but has an end.Yet the union of Mahad etc to purusha is nitya and by the maathra of dharma alone.By cognition of this maaathra or unit ,one can cognize the extent or vyaapthy.(with a tiny unit we can measure everything,and know everything

and cross everything including the spacetime).The beginningless union of purusha and mahat is the cognition of the past from origin of time.For a person who experiences such a eternal union with purusha ,no more gains or losses of the worldly things matter .He /she has no dualities.He/she alone is the truly satisfied.

Pathan:- 23.Swaswaamisakthyaa:swaroopopalabdhihethu:samyoga:

Vyas:-The swaroopa of union is said.Purusha is swami.He unites with the drisya(seen)for the sake of own darsana or vision.By this union the seen gets bhoga.The cause for the gain of the swaroopa of the seer is the union.At the end of the visualization,the union itself is the cause for separation also.The opposition of vision and nonvision is due to union and then disunion.The cause for moksha is not the vision.The lack of nonvision(adarsana)is the lack of bondage and that is liberation.In the bhaava or emotion of darsana(visualization)the nonvision of the cause of bondage and its destruction is the knowledge of the vision and it is this darsanagnaana(not darsana itself)which is the cause for kaivalya.(Adarsana=lack of bondage=the darsanagnaana of adarsana of cause for bondage=kaivalya)

Why the term adarsana?What is the right(adhikaara) of the guna?In the visions seen by the swamin,in the seen drisya,how can one cognize the lack of vision of own drishya which never originated in the pradhaanachitha?What is meaningful for the guna?If avidya is nirudha with the swachitha,what is the seed of origin of swachitha?How does the manifestation of gathisamskaara(movement)happen when the sthithisamskaara (fixed position state)is lost?The answers are explained. When pradhana is in a fixed(sthithy)state in the present(varthamaana)the vikaara (emotion)and karana(function)etc are apradhaana(not main).The same when in motion (gathi)in varthamaana(present)the eternity of emotion becomes apradhaana.The function of it is both(ubhaya).In this way one has to understand the vyavahaara (commerce/trade)of the principal(pradhaana). It has both gathi and sthithy.(rolling movement and permanent fixity)Without that no one can understand vyavahaara.Whether in another cause or in imagination,the charya(method)is the same. (S:The geocentric study of solar system has to be understood as the learning from the point of view of earth’s sthithisamskaara as a supposition or imagination.The gathisamskaara is understood with the heliocentric or gathivyavastha.For education of children ,first start from earth as fixed and then slowly by observation of minimum one year teach them the gathisamskaara based on heliocentric position.This is the oldest way of teaching).

The power of visualization itself is called adarsana.(lack of visualization).The action is for the spread(vyaapana)of Athma as far as pradhaana is concerned.In the praagcharithra(past history)or praagpravrithy ,one cannot find purusha which is able to cognize everything .A drishya which is able to lead to the root cause of all also is not found.In both seer and seen this lack of perception of dharma is adarsana.Both seer and seen are interdependent for the dharma of visualization or vision.Therefore the gnaana of darsana is adarsana in one factor alone.This is a vikalpa seen in sciences.Such vikalpa

happen because of union of guna with purusha.Therefore they are only sadharana(common)subjects.

Vachas:-While discussing the cause of union,the rarity of the subject of union of pradhana and purusha and the commonness of the other types of unions seen in world are said.The general unions are all common .The asadharana union is the eternal union of pradhana and purusha.The swaswaami and sakthy are of similar form(saroop)and therefore their union takes place.Drisya gets the saroopa,and the bhajamaana purushan as its swami.( Bhajamaana has two meanings.The one who was meditated upon .The one who is the twin divided as half of it as the Ardhanareeswara).Drisya itself is the swam(own)of purusha.The union is by sakthimaathra(unit of power or sakthy alone).The swaroopa is thus dependent on only one cause(hethu)and that is sakthimaathra.With a unit of sakthy purusha is revealed or manifested.By the mere presence of purusha (the yogyatha –or ability of yoga of purusha)drishya also visualize own yogyatha or greatness.The revelation of swaroopa of the seer is through apavarga.It is not mokshasaadhana.At the end of vision,there is separation from it.And this liberation from darsana or vision ,or chyavana (fall)is the real moksha.After darsana,separation from union,and then the darsana continues .Only if there is no more of the same vision ,we can call it adarsana.(permanent viraha or separation from darsana).Adarsana need not be due to avidya.One can liberate from the state of contradiction/opposition of darsana and adarsana.How we liberate from bondage? By the vision or darsana.The Athma which is divided into intellect etc,the swaroopa cognition is moksha and it can be either through darsana or through adarsana.

The cause for the asadharana union is adarsana.When it is cognized the vikalpa is the maathra of adarsana.It is having upeksha(disinterest) in all darsana.There the adhikaara or power of guna is only the ability to start the karya or effect.Therefore union is known as the cause of samsaara. When we cognize the negation of the creation ,the second vikalpa happen.By chitha and the sathwapurusha ,the seen subjects like sabda etc are generated.Since there is a pradhana vishayi(principle seer)for each vishaya,two types of darsana is generated each.Thus ubhayadarsana(both )are generated.Then a third vikalpa of udaaseena(disinterest)also exists.The lack of interest in worldly things is also called vidya .In sathkaryavaada,udaaseena is the 4 th vikalpa in avidya.During the time of prathisarga ,due to chithanirodha,the balance of pradhana happen and in the form of vaasana(tendency)the seed of the chitha is again formed.The opposite of vision .adarsana is also considered as a vaasana of avidya in it. The fifth kalpa isudaaseena (disinterest).By the balancing and evolution of generations of sthithisamskaara of actions of pradhaana,and their kshaya(destruction)gathi(movement)generated and beginning of Mahad etc happen,and its hethu ,the manifestation of a gathisamskaara and its progress forward happen.The oneness of this process is cognized in the intellect by Vyaasa etc. ( S:The term Vyasa here has two meanings.The commonmeaning is the sage vyasa.But it is also a term in geometry and mathematics and astronomy. The Eikaanthikathwa or Eikanthikabhakthi of Bhaagavatha seen by Vyasa is one meaning.The other is the Oneness of the circle ,expressed by its vyasa or diameter.)

This cognition become fixed(sthithy)as the chaithanya (light or enlightenment)and is the chidgathi(movement to the chid or enlightened state)and known by its emotions and functions(vikaarakarana).Therefore the word used is “Sthithyai gathyai”.Both are there in energy.

Even when the form of energy is eternally in sthithy(fixed)its gathi or cyclical repetition does not stop or get destroyed.Even when it is having gathi,it is fixed(sthithi)in chid and chitha.This is the swabhaava or character of prakaasa(light)Its character is that it is sath(true)without end,and without beginning.But by its emotion(vikaara)it undergoes chyavana(fall) and is different in this respect from pradhaana.The dhee(intellect)therefore calls it apradhaana,as different from pradhaana.Since in the sthithi and gathi of pradhana lies its action,(which is ubhaya)it cannot be called Ekantha(solitary).Vichaara is the imaginary or supposed charya(movement)which is by the imaginary paramaanu and is samaana(equivalent)to that within the parabrahma.(The vichaara is also thought.And its sthithiseela or fixity is in Samadhi.)Sthithi is not the cause for the present vikaara and karana.Gathi is not cause for the present vikara and eternity. The 6 th vikalpa is due to disinterest.In prajapathivratha,there are injunctions like one should not look at the Aditya etc.By the lack of observation,the power of observation and understanding also is destroyed.Darsana or observation is the first cause for bhoga or enjoyment.The seer see the objetand after thatloves it ,have union with it and enjoy it.It is the same way the union of pradhana is said in sruthy.The pradhana acts for Athma.Without that the observation power of athma does not function.It is capable of cognizing and making cognizance in everything and of everything.In the past actions or cycles of existence,the use of action in pradhana is only for the sake of Athma.When there is no union with it,this capacity does not exist.For the efficiency and for the use of actions or functions to happen,union is needed.The shashtakalpa is the one which takes as principal basis,the power of observation.

The 7 th kalpa is the one based on their mutual interdependence.In both purusha and the seen universes,the dharma of observation power is adarsana (not seen)according to one group.The dependence on all sakthy is for the seen and not for the seer ,according to others.The wisdom is not the basis of it,but the imbalance of the knowledge is.To say purusha has been seen,is saying that the energy has become jada (matter).This is the observation of effect of lack of sakthi by sakthy.(lack of energy by energy).The energy does not become matter.The matter has different dharma from energy and is not selfrevealing or selfluminiscent.The shadow of light on the matter makes the vision of cognition is something which we can prove.The sign of vishayi is seen in vishaya.In the drishyadharma there is knowledge.The knowledge also is purushadharma.Because of the similarity of this dharma seer and seen become one.Purusha is the seen prapancha.The intellect and the energy which are same cognize the shadow of energy and therefore the dharma of intellect and light are same. The 8 th vikalpa is said.The knowledge of darsana itself is the adarsana of sabda etc.The eye is the pramaana (proof)for form.But is aparamaana(not proof)for rasa(taste).Just like that.The gnana of sabda,form,sukha etc are born due to the union of seer and seen and depends on the ability of the seer and the seen as mentioned above.In this way,the only

acceptable vikalpa is the fourth one.All other vikalpa are unacceptable by the samkhya philosophy.This is the opinion of sasthra.

( S:It is here that Vachaspathy deviates from original samkhya and accepts the Navyanyaya and depends only on sathkaryavaada.Vyasa is highly scientific and says that energy and gathi and matter are same .This is what is proven by modern scientists also.Vachaspathy mentions this opinion but rejects it.The astronomical and musical .philosophical and ayurvedic concepts are all in tune with kapilasamkhya which accepts them as different methods of reaching the truth .The kapilasamkhya and Vyasa’s commentary has an integrated approach .But Vachaspathy thinks all the other methods are wrong and only sathkaryavaada is correct).

Pathan:-24.Thasy hethuravidya.

Vyas:-In each chethana ,the union of intellect happens.The cause for this is avidya.Avidya is tendency for having viparyaya (opposite)knowledge.It is not the purushakhyathi or nishta in effect but the tendency or vaasana of gnaana that functions as the rightful cyclical repetition.This ,when it attains purushakhyathi,become nishta in effects and have attained everything,and lack all bondage to tendencies and become without cyclical repletion and is called punaravrithyrahitha(moksha).This is explained with the story of Shandaka.The wife asked him:-“Aryaputhra,What is the use for me who has no children with a bhagini?” The husband said:”I can get children even out of a dead one” This type of knowledge or sidhi will never be of any use to bring about chithavrithinirodha.Acharyadesika said:Chithavrithynirodha isliberation.Lack of cause for adarsana is the nivrithi of intellect.The adarsana of it makes us liberated form darsana which is cause for bondage.What is not in place is only the mathivibrama or madness .All other meanings are in position.

Vachas:-The soothra analyses the fourth vikalpa.The different intellects of different people is the reason for the different opinions on knowledge systems.Avidya is opposite to knowledge(viparyaya).It is with its different apavarga that the union of own intellect happens.In a intellect which is not pure the knowledge pure does not originate.Therefore how is avidya responsible for different types of union?By the tendency of opposite(viparyaya)gnaana(knowledge).The tendency in pradhaana is within own chitha,which is internalized during creation itself with avidya as coexisting nirudha(obstruction).This pradhaana with the tendencies unite with each jeeva,and creates intellect suitable to each .Because of the eternity in the past sarga(origins or janma)there is no dosha in argument.The purusha has no liberation during state of prathisarga(each creation) because of viparyaya knowledge.Sathwathi is the state without bondage of such viparyayagnaana ,just like the purushakhyathi which has reached fixity in its effect.The kaivalya of a naasthika is like the creation of a son from a dead body by a shanda(who has no capacity for procreation)and this is mocked at. (S:Some historians think Budhism is a naasthika religion and that Vachaspathi was a Budhist monk.This cannot be true from the fact that Vachaspathi invokes Shiva in several of his books,quotes profusely from Vaishnava texts to prove his points and also because

,he mocks at the idea of a nasthika ever getting kaivalya.That is,if he is a Budhist,Budhism is not a naasthik religion.And Vachaspathi is neither a naasthika nor a Budhist as proclaimed by the historians.He is a person deeprooted in Indian philosophical traditions of antiquity and Budha also is of the same type from what his teachings suggests.The implication is Budhism is not a different religion .It is continuation of what was practiced in India for thousands of years Budha was a reformer of his times.).

The knowledge of Anyathaakhyathi of a gunapurusha will not lead to chithanivrithy.It needs paravairagya and gnaanaprasada to destroy chithavrithy with samskaara.What is felt as truth in such a chitha is its effect or karya.In it there is no asad(untruth).It is concluded with the lakshana of an Acharya (as prescribed in Vaayupuraana) as:

Aachinothy cha saasthraartham aachaare sthaapayathyapi Swayam aachaarathe yasmaad aachaaryasthenachoshyathe

(One who knows the meanings of the sciences,and becomes the founder and protector of sciences,and one who practices them in his life alone is an Acharya).That is mere liberation within the intellect alone is not moksha.It is also the liberation from the enjoyment of everything that is worldly in practice as well as by mind ,and intellect.It becomes by fixity of vivekakhyathi,at the end of dharmamegha,the continuous state.The sathya alone is revealed in intellect .This is called sphora(sphota).By lack of cause for bondage of adarsana,liberation of intellect.Adarsana is cause for bondage and darsana is liberation from it.Then one has to get liberation from darsana which is possible only with paravairagya.And it is the true moksha.Thus the general opinion is discussed and own opinion proved.The liberation from many is moksha.The visions give temporary relief of chitha from manyness.Here ,the visions of those with mathivibrama(madness)is not intended.The vision of wisdom is mentioned.It is the darsana of a wise person who has reached the limit of ekarsha ,and has achived chithavrithinirodha and seen his own swaroopa as purusha.Not that of branthadarsana (illusion,hallucianation etc)which has to be identified and separated by any person with logical understanding.

Pathan:-25.Thadabhaavaath samyogaabhaavo haanam thadrishyo:kaivalyam

Vyas:-Heya is sorrow.Union is the cause of heya.Lack of union is Haana.The vision thus obtained is Kaivalya.The vision of lack of samyoga of intellect and purusha is the ultimate bondage and its haana is kaivalya which is the permanent lack of samyoga of swami(purush)to his Sreebhaava.The total destruction of sorrow is by fixing in the blissful purusha as swaroopa.

Vachas:-Two vyuha are said.To speak of the third vyuha this soothra is introduced.Heya is sorrow.Its abhaava is abhaava of samyoga.Kaivalya is lack of samyoga forever.In mahapralaya the absolute samyogaless state occur(because there is no two for union)Sorrow is the desire .If desires are lost purushartha is visualized.

Pathan:-Vivekakhyathiraviplavaa haanopaaya:

How can we avoid samyoga? The vivekakhyathi(wisdom)which is aviplava(without any rebellion or pressures)is the method.The doubtless wisdom alone is the true knowledge of sathwapurusha.All others are only false knowledge.When the false knowledge is burned upto the seed the rebirths stop.By the vaseekaara which is without rajas and thamas ,the flow of wisdom become pure.After that there is no further creation or rebirth.Therefore method or haanopaaya is vivekakhyathi alone.

Pathan:-Thasya sapthadhaa praanthabhoomi:pragnaa:

Vyas:-Aamnaaya is within the khyathi which originates stage by stage.When the coverings of impurities are removed one by one we get seven types of pragna at seven levels.These are called Praanthabhoomi.One who got through all these 7 stages is called the kusala or expert .A kusalapurusha,who has become beyond all guna,even if he gets another birth,will be born as a sidha and muktha.

1.Parignaatha: the state where there is no more heya

2.Ksheena: there is no more cause for heya which has to be removed

3.Sakshathkritha. Haanam in nirodhasamadhi

4.Bhavitham:The knowledge that vivekakhyathi is the method of removal –Hanopaaya. These four are the effects of a pragna that is liberated(vimuktha)The next three are liberation of chitha

5.Charithaadhikaaraa budhi

6.The Guna originate from the mountain top and flow down to the sea of pralaya .Reaching the pralaya ,where they merge they have no rebirth as the flow of separate rivers.

7.From these states the kevalapurusha,which is beyond all guna,and is swaroopamathra and pure jyothis(light/energy)

Vachas:-Swaroopagnaana originate only with vivekakhyathi.The seven praanthabhoomi of that prgna which awaken in order in the yogins is described in aamnaaya.The covering of the sathwa of chitha is impurities.Only when the impurity of rajas and thamas does not arise anymore,the rebellionless or frictionless vivekakhyathi happen.The pragnaabheda in people is due to differences of vishaya in which they are interested .The state of pranthabhoomi also has to be understood inthis way.The pragna which has reached a praanthabhoomi is that in which vivekakhyathi is fixed. The first four bhoomi are achievable by effort of purusha.They pertain to pradhaana(praadhaanika).Parignaatha is the heya or sorrow which is opposite to gunavrithy and changing with heat and samskaara .Knowing heya is to reach heyaless(sorrowless)state which is aparignaatha(unknown).It is something at present

unknown and have to be known.Hence it is also parigneya.The ksheena is the state when the sorrow is knownand it is lessened and destroyed.The haana or direct perception in sampragnaatha is sakshaathkaara.Nothing after that remains to be known.The bhaavitha is haanopaaya as vivekakhyathi and beyond that there is nothing else tobe imagined by bhaavana.In these four ,being the effect,the action or karma and its traces are there.The liberation from this effect and its karma,the chitha gets liberated.The next three states are its levels. The first level in chithavimukthy is said to be charithaadhikaaara budhi.It is the adhikaara(right)of satisfaction(krithaarthatha)of having achieved what is the effect of bhogopavarga.The second is the guna,due to lack of use ,being merged in purusha(nirguna)does not originate again and does not become saguna,like a river which reached ocean remain as the ocean,not the river.In the third state the jeevapurusha become nityamuktha(eternal liberation)and kusala(expert).For the muktha there is no rebirth.Even if it takes birth(for a specific purpose as in avathaara)chitha remains muktha,and kusala and beyond guna.

S:(For the seven bhoomika different books give different names.For the sake of comparison they are given as a table including the modern concept.

PATHANJALI

PATHANJALI Vyuthaanachith a Nirodhachitha Nirmaanachitha

Vyuthaanachith

a

Nirodhachitha

PATHANJALI Vyuthaanachith a Nirodhachitha Nirmaanachitha

Nirmaanachitha

Prasaanthachith

a

Ekagrachitha

Prasaanthachith a Ekagrachitha Chidrachitha Paripakwa/divy achitha

Chidrachitha

Prasaanthachith a Ekagrachitha Chidrachitha Paripakwa/divy achitha

Paripakwa/divy

achitha

VYASA VASISHTA GNAANA SAMYA MODER MA N Parignaathap sabeejasama body body medicine ragna dhi Heyaksheena
VYASA
VASISHTA
GNAANA
SAMYA
MODER
MA
N
Parignaathap
sabeejasama
body
body
medicine
ragna
dhi
Heyaksheena
vikarana
praana
Sense
yoga
organ
Sakshathkrit
Thanumaana
mind
prana
Wind
ha
si
/praana
(prapyaprapt
hi)
Bhavitha
Sathyapathi
vignana
mind
psycholo
(karyasudhi)
gy
Charithadhik
Asamsaktha
anubhavika
intellec
Cognitio
ara
t
n
(karthadhikar
memory
a)
Gunaatheeth
parardhabha
rasathmaka
chitha
Bliss/ecs
a
vana
tacy
Swaroopama
brahmavidva
Athama(bra
athma
self
thra
rishta
hma)
(kevalapurus
ha)

By controlling of body,senses,mind,praana,intellect ,and practicing it for long time aquiring Samadhi and complete gnaana of everything to be known step by step,a total personality development is achieved for the benefit of oneself and for society and the entire world.This is a practical way of ancient Indians to develop the multiple intelligences as Howard Gardner has envisaged in modern times.But the method given by Indian seers is more practical and more compassionate and natural for world peace as well as for individual personality development).

Pathan:28.Yogaangaanushtaanaadasudhikshaye gnaanadeepthiraavivekakhyaathe:

Vyas: When one does the several anga of yoga,the impurities diminish.When impurities diminish,the gnaana is illumined.The practice(anushtaana)is saadhana(method)and phala(effect)is sidhi.Therefore,anushtaana is prior to effect.To get vivekakhyathi,impurities have to be removed.The ashtaanga of yoga is sadhana for this.When we practice them,the viparyaya with five divisions decrease in two ways.Thus the samyaggnaana is revealed.How much is the sadhana ,that much will be the lack of impurity and revelation of wisdom.With wisdom,the experience of bliss happens.Vivekakhyathi is the bliss(prakarsha)of the swaroopagnaana.It is to experience this that we keep our chitha free of impurities by ashtangayoga.Dharma is the cause of attainment of vivekakhyathi.There is no other cause for suka except dharma.Yet in science so many reasons are mentioned .Why? Why nine causes as,

Uthpathisthithiabhivyakthy vikaarapratyayaapthaya:

Viyogaanyathwadrithaya:kaaranam navadhaa smritham

1.The cause of origin of (uthpathikaarana) vignaana is manas(mind).

2.The cause of sthithi of mind is purushaarthatha,like food for body.

3.The cause of abhivyakthi(manifestation)of mind is its perception or darsana.Like knowledge of form,from its observation.

4.The cause of vikaara(emotion)is the form of vikaara of mind (thought)called vaak (the word)which is fire (agni)

5.The cause of pratyaya is the knowledge of meaning of word like knowledge of agni from its smoke.

6.To have knowledge of word and its meaning(apthy,praapthy) mind has to be concentrated and pure.Therefore yoganga practice is cause of aapthi.

7.The cause of viyoga or separation from avidya ,like impurities from a gold piece.

8.This can take place only in presence of a expert Guru,like a goldsmith ,and therefore Guru is the Anyathwakaarana.

9.Dhrithikaarana. The avidya related to women/men is moodathwa(thamasic).Hatred is sorrow.Raaga is happiness.Thathwagnaana(philosophy)is maadhyastha(central).The interdependence of body ,senses,mind,the five elements and the thanmathra of them,the relation of all living and nonliving things with the cosmos ,the interdependence of the many with the One is the cause of drithy. These nine causes are pertaining not only to mind but to everything in the universe.It is because of this our mind finds out their oneness.To understand the two types of causes (eka and aneka)and to decrease the viparyaya with five divisions ,the practice of yoganga helps.

Vachas:-There are four vyuha.The one who is in the center of it,his/her methods of haana,vivekakhyathi,with the past methods which are achieved and nonachieved as the milking of a cow(godohana)are being said.Sidha does yoganushtana to get vivekakhyathi and removal of impurity for its sake.The lakshana of the viparyaya with five divisions is the forms of impurities which are causes of ayurbhoga of each jaathi(born races of living things).The removal of this and revelation of gnana happen with practice of ashtangayoga.To show the liberation from impurity of avidya ,example of a parasu(axe)is said.A parasu (axe)can destroy a tree ,including its roots.Like that the tree of avidya has to be cut with yoganga practice.Only then intellect reaches vivekakhyathi.Dharma is bliss.Even then nine other reasons are mentioned in kaarika.Mind is the basis of thought.Each one living in the present experience knowledge as being originated in our own mind.Therefore the cause of origin is mind.How did mind get its fixity or continuity(nairantharya).Bythe purushaarthatha.In the mind formed by asmitha there are two types of purushartha.One is pravrithy or action and the other is liberation from action or nivrithy.The second is called moksha.In a mind which is fixed in dharma,the 4 th purushartha moksha is permanently sthitha.(sthithi state).It is food that sustains our body.The mind is manifested by the knowledge obtained through senses and the consciousness of it by samskaara.The knowledge of a form is what manifests it .Not the sight of it alone.

Emotions are generated by different vishaya.The sage Mrigandu was a great yogin who had controlled all emotions .Yet,just by hearing the fifth sound (panchamaswara)from a lyre and veena(vallaki,vipanchi)he lost his concentration in Samadhi and opened eyes.He saw the beautiful apsara Pramlocha in front of him.The chitha became attracted to her beauty.His organs were like burned hay ,after severe penances,and yet the emotions were generated which ended in union(samyoga)between the two.The cause of pratyaya of vishaya ,is knowledge of smoke should give knowledge of fire.Smoke is the swaasa(breath)of agni.Therefore knowledge of breath(praana)is the knowledge of agni(fire)within us.And gnaana of praana is also the gnaana of vaak(word)or sabda.Praana itself is sabda or sound.To know the agni in one,know the movement of his/her praana,the smoke created by it(the atmosphere is smoke).Gnaayatha ithi gnaanam. Outsargiki is the attainment of effect without any cause and without any dependence.For

water that flows down there is no obstruction.In its way ,a dam(sethu)is built and obstructed.Vivekakhyathi is bliss unobstructed like lightrays expanding and flowing everywhere.The adharma,thamas,or objects kept in its path obstructs this swachanda gathi .When dharma is practiced,the obstruction is removed.The flow become natural.According to the nature and differences of prakrithy,the nimitha could be either useful or not useful.It varies with the prakrithi in a particular spacetime.Just like Kshethrika(4.3),for attaining the effect called vivekakhyathi,the cause is the sadhana done for its attainment.The removal of impurity is its first step.The goldsmith(Guru)who removes impurity of gold,forms different ornaments like kataka(for arm)kundala(for ear)keyura etc.The person who made them are the same goldsmith.The gold also is the same element .the fire used and the instruments used are also same.In this way a Guru removes impurity of the different disciple’s minds (remove avidya)and depending upon the ability of each gives shape for it so that it is beautiful,artistic as well as useful to different purposes in the world.The difference or anyathwa is not actually in the guru(who is anya from the self of gold/disciple)but in the different abilities of the disciples called vikaara(emotions)which depend on his/her guna(rajas,thamas,sathwa and their anupaatha).There is no samkara(union of different types or races),no anyathwa of dharmi,but there is difference in vikaara of different minds.The difference in the kataka,kankana etc is only external and internally everything is gold only.Whatever function is given depending on the guna(chathurvarna)the essence is only Athman and is same in all.

The mooda(ignorant)who has been attracted by the moha of women/men and the samyoga(union)with other sex,becomes sorrowful.He/she thinks:I am unlucky.I didn’t get a suitable wife/husband either in Chaithra or Maithra.Or ,experiences the hatred,enmity ,envy etc of several of his/her consorts.In certain times enjoy the pleasures of the body with the spouse.In other times yearns for it.The knowledge of the human body composed of skin,flesh,fat,bones,and marrow,the position ,character and the seeds and the union of them and its effect resulting in birth etc makes the wise person remember that human body is the most impure.This will awaken vairagya.The medical knowledge is something which naturally should awaken vairagya .The reason for the bearing of the body and the organs is the dhrithy which is interrelation of all things in the cosmos.The general functions of all organs of body(physiology) are due to the five praana (panchapraana)starting from praana(oxygen).When praana is lost,the body falls.The body and praana are dependent on each other for body functions.The earth,moon,sun,stars ,men,watery and windy worlds(varuna and gandhavaaha-ocean and monsoon winds)are also dependent on each other and the body/praana complex of man is linked to this cosmos and is dependent on it.In the earth,the five elements are interdependent on each other for existence.There is nothing which does not have this interdependence (paarasparya)in the entire seen cosmos.The human,animal,bird,plant,nonliving objects etc are also interdependent in this way .None is entirely different from the other.Each is interconnected and Eka with the blessing of God as chaithanya(energy)and become increased with the same chaithanya(energy)and this is cognized(Dhaarayathethi)in human intellect by the same chaithanya.The parasparaarthathwa ,if understood in this way,all can live in harmony.

Pathan:-29.Yamaniyamaasanapraanaayaamapratyaahaaradhaaranaa-

Dhyaana samaadhayo ashtaavamgaani.

Vyasa:The eight organs of yoga are said in order.Their explanation and practice will be described later on.

Vachas:-To divide by positive and negative numbers,the yogamga are said and cognized one by one.The ashtanga are

1.yama.

2.niyama.

3.aasana

4.praanaayaama

5.pratyaahaara

6.dhaarana

7.dhyaana

8 samadhi

The abhyasa(practice),vairagya,sradha,veerya are also yogaswaroopa but they are not seen externally and are internal bhaava alone.

S:(I think Samadhi and dhyana and dhaarana are also internal ,and among which Vachaspathi mentioned as internal ,abhyasa is actually seen and is external .)

Pathan:-30.Ahimsaa sathya astheya brahmacharya aparigrahaa yamaa:

Vyas:-The five yama are:

1.Ahimsa.The state of not doing any harm to any elements in all times in any state is ahimsa or nonviolence.Whatever are the austerieties practiced by the Brahmana to attain Samadhi,in the same way there are practices which lead to pramaada(madness)and to Himsa(violence)and from them also are born words,mind and action.A person who is intend upon attaining Samadhi has to avoid all such things .The truth is experienced only with nonviolence. Our deductions depend upon our viewpoints (drishta)and the functioning of our words and mind depend upon what we hear(srutham).

2.Sathya. When someone utters words during samkranthy(change over)from this world to the other(the last words prior to death)they will not be tainted by selfishness,and would

not have any attachments,and will not be mad or cheated words.The last words of a dying man will be truth.It is for the benefit of all elements.It is not word obstructed by the selfish motives,and not obstructed by the vishaya of the panchabhootha.There is no touch of sin in it.It is truth.Satya reveals only goodness and there is no thamas in it.Whatever is good for all the elements and all the living and nonliving things is the only truth and this can be experimented and proven with evidence.

3.Astheya: The receiving of dravya(objects,money or riches)from others without any reason(doing any job)or with adharma(exploiting them)is stheya.The opposite of it is astheya.Nonreceipt of anything from any one is astheya.Only those who have desire in dravya do stheya.The desireless do not do stheya.

4.Brahmacharya:The samyama(control)of the secret or private organs like upastha(generative organs)is Brahmacharya.

5.Aparigraha: The lack of parigraha(touch or receipt)of any relationship or association with vishaya including their savings,protection,loss or gain,attachment ,and himsa etc is aparigraha.

Vachas:-No austerity without practice of ahimsa will give effects.Ahimsa is mandatory and must be followed strictly.Sidhi is the origin of gnaana.(Gnaana is Ekathwa or oneness.For that ,one has to purify mind,word and deed with ahimsa and do away with himsa .Without ahimsa one will not be able to understand the oneness of entire creation).This is a nishta which is agreed upon by all aagamaas.The impurity is himsa.Purity is ahimsa. Truth is in mind and in words.How much of the sabda is thought out in mind that much alone can be expressed in one’s words.And that much alone can be seen in deeds.When the mind,word and deeds are filled with satya ,satya is poorna(perfect).In reality,the thought,word and deed are one .And how much one practices this makes him truthful.When the consciousness do samkranthi to purusha which is truth,(during death and during Samadhi)the truthful words which are akin to own consciousness is spoken.When Yudhishtira said ,for the sake of killing Drona “Yushman sathyadhanaaswathaamaa hathaa”,looking at Drona and “Sathyam Hatho Aswathaamaa”looking at the elephant named Aswathaamaa,there is untruth as well as cheating in the form of a half-truth.The moment such a false word came out of a satyapurusha like Yudhishtira,for the sake of selfish motives,his consciousness of truth,fell from a higher position to a lower position(a samkramana) according to Vyaasa.The truth is the elephant is killed.From it,the consciousness of the king fell to the selfish motive of making a false image in the Guru’s mind of his son’s death and that was cheating.One who utters words which creates madness(braanthi) is called a madman(braantha).In that particular instance,Yudhishtira uttered brantha words to create branthi in his Guru’s mind and as far as Yudhishtira was concerned it was not just an utterance without any selfish motive also.To the true language of a nation,the mlechabhasha(the spoken dialects )of the same nation are associated and this association is called Prathipandhibandhi or prathipanthivandhya.The meaning of the word is

nishprayojana or not of much use (except for regional conversation).It is not useful to take the gnaana or knowledge to all irrespective of any village or place talking any language.That is the word is used as a vocal language which is not useful for conveyance of scince and knowledge and hence a slang or mlechabhaasha .But the words of even a person talking such mlechabhaasha become truth during death ,whenthe consciousness have samkramana from a lower plane of existence to a higher plane.These are truths worthy of transmitting to posterity.The words of a sidhapurusha who is transgressing from worldly to samdhi planes utter words which may be considered as meaningless ,the same way ,some people misunderstand the dying words of a human being.They are misunderstood as jalpana(incoherent words)and useless to huam race but are the most truthful and useful which are unselfish and for entire humanity and should be preserved for posterity. How can we test and experiment truth and prove that it is truth? By the effect of it on others.If it is for benefit of all it is truth.If it is of benefit only to some it is not entirely truth.If it is useful only to the person who said it ,it cannotbe true at all.When a sage who had taken the vow of truth,was asked by a group of killers “Did you see a group of merchants going along this way?In which direction did they move?”,the sage is in a dilemma.If he says truth,the killers will follow the merchants and kill them.If he utters a lie,it will be against his vow.The sage will opt to sit in silence to avoid both.This was not the category of untruth uttered by Yudhishtira.That is how we assess the truth or untruth of words and deeds.

The lakshana of stheya is by analysis of bhaavaadheena in abhava.That means the general is aimed by the special.The first is always thought(a function of internal organ-the mind)and this is followed by vaak(word)and the action (of the body).Therefore the thought being more ancient is more important than word or action.That means the desire ,desireless and such mental activities determine one’s astheya or stheya.Astheya is actually the sign of control of all desires of acquisition of wealth. By hearing a woman(man in the case of a woman) or hearing her(his)voice the mind becomes slave to kaama and desires touch and union etc and this is the function of the generative organs or upastha.The control of upastha(generative organs)from such desires is called Brahmacharya.Brahmacharya is the control of the secret organs(gupthendriya).It is not the external function of union alone,but also the internal desires to have such associations also is intended by the word.Both in words,deeds and in thoughts one has to be following Brahmacharya.When there is association with external vishaya,the sense organs do bhoga and their desire in bhoga as well as their expertise in enjoyment of bhoga also increases.(2.15)To have enjoyment of certain kinds human beings do different types of himsa or violence and destroys life and wealth of others.Therefore the sanga to vishaya is always dangerous and desires in them should be controlled.To receive or touch vishaya (parigraha)is equal to receiving or touching dangers or dosha.It is unscientific(asaasthreeya)also.Without any difficulty ,one falls into it very easily.On the other hand to control them is more difficult.Yogin practices this difficult task of aparigraha .

Pathan:-31 Jaathidesakaalasamayaanavachinnaa:saarvabhoumaa Mahaavratham.

Vyas:-Himsa(violence)separates (avachinna)and destroys the jaathi(races)and janma(lives).The rivers,holy waters etc which separate desa ,does not destroy them.They only determines a limit to the desa which they separate.The same is true of the time which separates kaala into imaginery limits with nakshathra,thithi,chathurdasi(40) or a mandala etc .The Mahaavratha of the saarvabhouma are jaathi,desa and kaala.The Deva and Brahmana do not resort to violence and do not destroy anything.Kshathriya do violence during wartime.In other times they also do not do violence.The Mahavratha is protection of races(jaathi)of all living things,of desa and of time.Therefore the absolute and the most important dharma of all is ahimsa itself.In all vishaya and in all desa,and bhoomika(states of existence)one has to cognize the mahavratha of sarvabhouma as Ahimsa.because it is that dharma which protects all (parithraana)and destroys none.

Vachas:-The general rules are explained.Just like the yogin and the Brahmin,for the emperors also the absolute dharma(paramadharma) is ahimsa .Not himsa allowed except in a war.The commentary is easy .

Pathan:-32.Souchasanthoshathapa:swadyaya Iswarapranidhaanaani niyama:

Vyas:-Soucha is the external purification of body with sand and water and the internal purification of mind with good thoughts.Santhosha or happiness is the effect of sadhana .Thapa is the ability to withstand the opposites(dwanda).This is the equanimity in loss and gain,heat and cold,positions and riches ,insults and praise,failure and success etc .The person in the ultimate state of thapas is not moved by these and keeps a meaningful silence when they come and go.He is the advaithin with no dwanda.This is more important than the austerities like krichra,chaandraayana etc .Swadhyaaya is the daily study of mokshasasthra ,its thoughtful analysis and japa of Pranava.Iswarapranidhaana is the absolute dedication to the paramaguru,God.

Sayyaasanastho atha pathivrajan vaa

Swastha :pariksheenavitharkajaala:

Samsaarabeejakshayameekshamaana:

Syaannithyamuktho amrithabhogabhaagi

This eternal mukthy which is the enjoyment of amrithabhoga is attained by the internal state of chethana of a yogin.These five are the niyama.

Vachas:-The sabda aadi means etc .The medhya or pure things are Gomaya(cowdung),gomuthra(cowurine),yaavaka(kanji water) etc which are used for purification of external environment.The sabda aadya menas the cognizable(grahya) are the graasa(process of understanding or swallowing or clutching etc),parimaana(the measures),and the samkhyaniyama(laws of numbers).The pure and impure are having cause and effect relationships to each other.Therefore how much is the medhya (pure

)that much will be the amedhya(impure) and thus law of measurement and of numbers has to be understood.(How much is matter ,that much is energy and the equalization of these two are mentioned ).The impurities of mind are ego,pride,envy and the like.The happiness due to the life (just by a unit of life,happiness is created)is more than that impurities taken together.These have to be grasped by the adjectives of receipt and sacrifice.The kaashtamouna( the extreme silence) is ,the expression of own opinion according to one’s wish.Mouna is silence where no arguments (vithrka)exist .In vitharka all the said views and criticisms and doubts,and opposites are included.In mouna none of these exist.Silence is the state which is pure and without any of the vikalpa.Vishnupuraana(6-7/36-38)speaks of yamaniyama as follows:

Brahmacharyam ahimsaam cha sathyaastheyaaparigrahaan

Sevetha yogee nishkaamo yogyathaam swamanonayan (36)

Swadhyaayasouchasanthoshathapaamsiniyathaathmavaan

Kurveem tha brahmani thathaa parasmin pravanam Mana(37)

Ethe yamaa:saniyamaa:panchapanchaprakeerthithaa:

Visishtaphaladhaa: kaamyaa nishkaamaanaam vimukthidha:(38)

Pathan:33.Vitharkabhaadhane prathipakshabhaavanam

Vyas:In yama and niyama by arguments the oppositions arise.For example in the case of Himsa ,Brahmana have doubts.In the acceptance of dravya(bhiksha),in the acceptance of wife,becoming their swamin by parigraha(acceptance of wealth and wives),and in every thing arguments and differences of opinion happen.The arguments began by those who wanted to reach the highest degree of sadhana ,by the fever of argumentative logic become red hot and ,this itself becomes the strong opposition to the progress.” To be protected from the fearful ocean of samsaara,come to me.The yogadharma gives protection to all elements and creation.To avoid me and depend upon vitharka(argument)is similar to the swaavrith(the function of a dog,or the cycling of a dog around its own tail).”The dog does not know to accept good things and accept the bad ones.

Vachas:-Since there are different types of sreyas(wealth) the different people argue and quarrel to the acceptance of which and by which method.The soothra is for this problem.The best way is to accept and sacrifice everything to the yogadharma of the Bhagavan,because it is for all living things and their welfare.

Pathan:-34.Vitharkaa himsaadaya:krithakaarithaanumodithaa:

Lobhakrodhamohapoorvakaa mridhumadhyaadhimaathraadukhaa_

Agnaanaananthaphalaa ithi prathipakshabhaavanam.

Vyas:-The himsa can be of three types.

1.Kritham(already done)

2 Kaaritham(the violence to be done in future)

3.Anumoditha(The violence which was encouraged to be done)

In each of these there are three varieties .

Due to lobha in flesh,skin and wealth

Due to krodha done in a moment due to various situations

Due to moha in dharma /adharma

Each of the lobha,krodha and moha are of three vibrations –Mridu(low

)Madhya(intermediate)and theevra(high)

In this way there are sixtythree types of himsa.

How ?

Take himsa in lobha.

It has mridu,Madhya and theevra.

In mridu itself mridumridu,madhyamridu and mridutheevra (three subtypes)

In Madhya mridumadhya,madhyamadhya and theevramadhya (three subtypes)

In theevra mridutheevra,madhyatheevra,and adhimaathratheevra (theevratheevra) three

subtypes.

Making nine subtypes.

In each of these nine subtypes,there are kritham,kaaritham and anumoditham.In this way the number becomes great and depending on this the types and severity of himsa also are different .Then addition of the vikalpa of niyama(rules),the numbers of the living things and their (praanabrith) different types of dharma the number of himsa become endless(parisamkhyeyam)and uncountable.

Arguments (vitharka)is due to sorrow and ignorance is the view of opposition.(prathipakshabhaavana).The killer has expenditure of his entire veerya(energy)in his first killing itself.The moment he lays down the instrument of killing ,his sorrow starts.The killed is free from sorrows of life in one moment,but the killer is bound to it forever.By expenditure of veerya in violence,the mind and intellect become tired and body looses its veerya too.Sorrows generated .The hell of the past killings and the dead one’s curses follow him forever.In every moment of life he expects the death or punishment for what he did .Even if he wants to end life toget out of misery of this sorrow,due to the effects of his karma,the life continues and the sorrows too.Even if we find some degree of happiness in a person even after violence,thatwill be shortlived only.In the same way,for untruth etc the effects have to be there and we have to understand each.Engaging in arguments like whether one can do himsa or not etc,if someone goes on committing violence,by his karmavipaaka he falls into sorrow.Noone will get peace of mind with vitharkka.

Vachas:-The views of oppositions due to argument about dharma are explained.Different types of violence,their causes,their extant and severity etc are numberless.All types of violence are full of thamas(darkness or ignorance).All take us to the ocean of ignorance .The effect of it(agnaana )is sorrow.The killer gets nothing but sorrow out of his violence.The moment one see the animal bound to the tree or the log,the sorrow starts mentally,even before the sword is raised .The mental and physical sorrows involved in violence will definitely bear fruit for the killer as sorrow .

Pathan:-35.Ahimsaaprathishtaayaam thathsannidhou vairathyaaga:

Vyas:-The opposite views cause arguments and heya.To avoid such sorrows,the yogin sacrifices the sidhi like adhikaara in science which is one of the aiswarya. S:(The power of science and scientific knowledge through logical arguments and the fame of being a scholar is sacrificed by yogins because this sidhi brings in sorrow of arguments which is obstruction to attainment of Samadhi.) The hatred ,hurting and killing of a living thing comes out of lobha,krodha,moha or enmity .The wealth(aiswarya)or sidhi obtained by such a act is not needed for a yogin.Even if it is swarga,the yogin is ready to sacrifice it for protecting a life.Only a person with vairathyaaga(sacrifice of all enmity)gets fixed in nonviolence and in the advaitha(ekeswaravaada).The sacrifice of enmity in all creation is the love and compassion in every living being .

Vachas:-The arguments become obstructions to practice of yama and niyama.The mostimportant of these is the violence .Violence of any form has to be totally sacrificed.Nonviolence is sacrifice of enmity to all beings.Even a horse,cow,buffalo,rat,cat etc are in praanaprathishta same as Bhagwan .They are not lesser creatures than human beings.This ultimate wisdom makes one withdraw from violence and live with love and compassion for all and fixed in nonviolence. The prathishta of vow of ahimsa is lack of enmity to all creation.

Pathan:-36.Sathyaprathishtaayaam kriyaaphalaaasrithathwam.

Vyas:-The one who does dharma is the dhaarmika or the righteous one.For one who does action for getting heaven,heaven only is obtained.What is amogha only becomes the word.

Vachas:-The prathishta in the vow of sathya is by dependence on kriya(action).The action of dharma and adharma are the kriya.By them either heaven or hell is attained.What type of action we do the reaction will be according to that.What action was done with what bhaava ,we reach that bhaava only.The dhaarmika who does righteous actions is famous for that.The one who does actions to get swarga gets swarga only.Bhagawaan alone is the vaak which is amogha.It is the pranava.Amogha means aprathihatha or always continuous ,the one which flows forever without any obstruction.That pranava or eternal sound of saaraswatha is Bhagawaan.Bhagawaan is the created word.By Pranava doing the anusandhaana of Bhagawan ,one becomes the vaagdevatha itself.The yogin reaches this state of pranava (naadabrahma ) .No one else can reach that state.That state of Naada is the truth,eternal.

Pathan:-37.Astheyaprathishtaayaam sarvarathnopasthaanam

Vyas:-Astheya is having its prathishta in all the rathna or jewels.Rathna are in all the diks(directions).

Vachas:-Commentary is very clear.

S:(The ashtavasu or the eight rathna are in the eight directions.The Lord of all the directions and Lord of all the 8 dikpaaala is the Vasudeva and if one is fixed on such a lord of jewels what is the need for any other wealth? And this is the reason for astheya.)

Pathan:-38.Brahmacharyaprathishtaayaam veeryalaabha:

Vyas:-Gain or laabha is the increase of guna.The increase of veerya is by the practice of veeryadhaarana or brahmacharya.The veerya is not lost ,but accrued bt practice of Brahmacharya and hence there is gain.The wise sidha by their Brahmacharya become capable of producing good progeny when the need comes.

Vachas:-Veerya is the energy or extertise for creation.By Brahmacharya ,the sidha become experts in every branch of knowledge creation as well as in creation of progeny.

Pathan:-39.Aparigrahasthairyai janmakathanthaasambodha:

Vyas:-Who am I ? How did this become like this?What will happen to this in future?How was this before,in the past?These questions due to curiosity to know the past,present and future of existence of self,universe etc are generated .By this questions and enquiry into them and the consciousness arising out of them alone can the aparigraha be fixed.The story of the janma and its internal sambodha(consciousness)gives aparigraha.

Vachas:-Birth(janma),life and death are related and associated with body and the organs and senses.The wish to know about it and its origin leads to direct perception and knowledge of this subject.To quieten the senses the knowledge of the janma is essential.When the intellect is fixed on enquiry into the past ,history as well as the past lives are known.When the intellect wants to know about the present body ,its origin from the elements ,their structure ,the knowledge of psychology etc ,one gets knowledge of these.The next question will be ,what will the future of this body,of this world,of these knowledge systems etc.How to protect them is that thinking process.In this way ,the history of past,present,and future of the universe,of the people and of oneself is known.And one becomes expert in that knowledge.One says things which one wishes.One does things which one wants to achieve and achieves them too.The experience of the sorrows of the present and their relation to the worldly pleasures ,and the study of scriptures about them leads one to the wisdom of sacrificing the worldly pleasures and attaining kaivalya and this wisdom is communicated to generations through word.

Pathan:-40 Souchaath swaamgajugupsaaparairasamsarga:

Vyas:-Among niyama soucha was said.By doing the external soucha,one notices the impurities that accumulate in ones ownbody and understands the impurity of our organs .One cannot suffer the impurities of one’s ownbody.Then how can one suffer the impurities on another body?From this originated the vow of not touching another body or asamsarga.The beginning of the untouchability of the body is by the observation of one’s own body and the difficulty in keeping it clean everyday and the observation that others are also having the same impurities and they are not cleaning them properly.

Vachas:-The cause for the untouchability is a part of external soucha.

Pathan:-41.Sathwasudhisoumanasyaikaagradhyendriyajayaathmadarsanayogyathwaani

cha:

Vyas:-In purity,the purity of sathwa ,the goodness in the mind,concentration,control of senses ,and the ability to observe or visualize Athma are included.All these are obtained if there is pure sathwa(sathwasudhi).By suchi one gets sathwasudhi,by sathwasudhi one gets soumanasya or goodness in mind,by soumanasya one gets ekagratha or concentration,and by it indriyajaya or control of organs,and by it athmadarsanayogyatha or ability to see athman.In this way,by the fixity in soucha one gets everything in order ,one by one.

Vachas:-The sidhi of internal soucha is explained.When the impurities of the chitha are washed away the chitha become pure.In pure chitha the clarity occur which is called the soumanasya or good mind.In the clear mind naturally concentration occurs.And concentration is the cause for indriyajaya or control of senses.By indriyajaya ,the intellect gets ability for visualizing the Athma.

Pathan:-42.Santhoshaadanuthama:sukhalaabha:

Vyas;-In Santhiparva(174;46/177;51)it is said:

Thachakaamasukham loke

Yachadivyam mahathsukham

Thrishnaakshaya sukhasyethe

Naarhatha:shodaseem kalaam

Vachas:-Santhosha(happiness) is the greatest gain of sukha(pleasure).Worldly people think that the greatest pleasure is kaamasukha(sexual pleasure).Vishnupuraana says about the sacrifice of the youth of Pooru to Yayaathi :

Yaa dusthajaa dhurmathibhirabhyaa na jeeryathe jeeryathaam

Thaam thrishnaam samthyajan praagna:sukhenaivaabhipooryathe.

The sacrifice of thrishna or desire is the greatest ever happiness and pleasure which pragna can attain.

Pathan:-43.Kayendriyasudhirasudhikshayaatthapasaa:

Vyas:-The impurity of the body and senses are removed by thapas (heat of austerities).When the impurities are removed the eight sidhi starting from Anima are obtained.The sidhis like doorasravana and darsana happen in this way.

Vachas:-The soothra explains the sidhi of thapas.The sign of impurity are the actions due to adharma and they are the coverings of thamas or ignorance.When they are lost,the anima,mahima,laghima and other sidhis become manifested.

Pathan:-44.Swadhyaayaadhishtadevathaasamprayoga:

Vyas: The deva,Rishi and sidha and such great purusha only get darsana or visions.Because they are all the time immersed in swadhyaaya for the sake of darsana and gnaana of the Ishtadevatha.

Vachas:- The soothra talks about swadhyaaya and its effect,the darsana of the ishtadevatha.The commentary is easy.

Pathan:-45.Samadhisidhireeswarapranidhaanaath.

Vyas: when everything is dedicated to Iswara,one gets the sidhi of Samadhi.Every wish is

then fulfilled and every knowledge is then attained.And the continuous knowledge of the past ,present and future are revealed in Pragna as truth.(This is because the chitha has become one with Iswara).

Vachas:-By iswarapranidhaana,all the seen and unseen internal and external things are revealed in the pragna.In sampragnathasamadhi ,by union of all this experience can happen.This is a unified timespace vision (samagradesakaaladarsana).

S:(Vachaspathimisra separates the vision as the vision of Iswara and the vision of entire external world.The Iswarapranidhana is internal and the sampragneyadarsana is that of external world as unified in sampragnaathasamadhi.This is for easy understanding.But Vyasa says that all the external world and universes are the vibhoothi of Iswara only.Therefore by Iswarapranidhaana one gets darsana of both internal and external.For vyasa,the external universe of timespace continuum and the internal universe of its Aiswaradarsana are not two separate entities but the two sides of the same coin)

The word Pragna originates from the word Prajaanaathi or to know.Along with practice of yama and niyama one gets the pragna also.

Pathan:-46.Sthirasukham aasanam

Vyas:- There are several asana like

Padma,Veera,Bhadra,Swasthika,Danda,Sopaasraya,parynka

,Krounchanishadana,Hasthinishadana,Ushtranishadana,Samasamsthaana etc.

The sitting posture should be one which gives sukha for the saadhaka .One can select the most comfortable posture according to ones wish.

Vachas:-Sthiram means permanent or without movement.Sukham means which gives pleasure to sadhaka.Aasana means aasyathathra aasthevaan anenethi aasanam.

Asthi=exists.

S:(That means,the base which is the origin or the proof of our existence .The earth on which our Upastha or body rests in a fixed position .The awakening is from mooladhara to sahasraara ,from earth to the lotus of the nabhas or spacetime and timelessness The existence of life is on the base earth from which the thoughts can reach everywhere)

The different types of yogaasana exists .Some of them are mentioned here. Padmaasana is the most famous . (S:It is seen in an Indus valley seal showing its antiquity) Veeraasana is the fixing of both feet on earth and the knee bend .(S:The Narasimha and Lord Ayyappa are sometimes in this posture) When the feet are kept near the vrishana(testis) and hands kept over their level on the

thigh ,it is Bhadraasana. Swasthika is when the left foot is under the right calf and the right foot under the left calf .Sopaasraya is a yogaasana when we use a yogapatta to tie the lower limbs S:(Lord Ayyappa has this). Paryanka is the lying down position with extended arms as that of Vishnu. Krouncha,hasthi and ushtranishadana means like a bird,elephant and a camel respectively.Samasamsthaana is when the ends of feet are contracted and made to press each other .Whichever the saadhaka feels good for him he can select and there is individual preferences.Only thing is that in the selected posture one should be able to sit and concentrate on Iswarapranidhaana.This is the view of the Bhaagavathasoothrakaara .It is well accepted .

Pathan:-47.Prayathnasaithilyaananthasamaapathibhyaam

Vyas:-For great efforts ,results are mandatory.Success is sure to happen.If by any chance the effort is destroyed or obstructed,the chitha makes its base(aasana)in several samapathy and become without action(nirvritha).

Vachas:-By effort one gets sidhi.The failure of effort need not be due to the shortcoming of the advised yoganga or not due to the presence of the body which is considered as obstacle by some. S:(If so,no one will get Samadhi and then the advice of yoganga become superfluous). The failure may be due multifactorial causes like the lack of enough effort,the failures that occurred in mind,words and deeds and in the following of the practice of yama,niyama ,and other actions prescribed so far.sometimes we find sidhi in people who have natural and accidental effort ,and in others even after following instructions from a Guru ,no effect is observed.The serpent king Anantha has not just one thousand but innumerable heads to expand this cosmos and carry it.The human mind like that,even without getting expected sidhi with the advice of the Guru,gets fixed in innumerable samaapathy by natural and accidental efforts become nirvritha and fixed in Samadhi.

Pathan:-48.Thathodwandaanabhighaathaa:

Vyas:-The success of aasana is expressed as the success over dwandwa or dualities like insults and praise,pain and pleasure etc.

Vachas:-In Vishnupuraana(6.7.39) about the aasan ,it is said:

Evam bhadraasanaadeenaam samaakhyaaya gunairyutham.The sign of success in the practice of aasana is liberation from the opposites or the dualities.

Pathan:-49.Thasmin sathi swaasapraswaasayor gathivicheda:praanaayaama:

Vyas:-In the practice of aasanajaya,the intake of external air is swaasa(inhaled air).The

expulsion of air(Ni:saaarana)of air within the koshta(inside the respiratory tract)is praswaasa (expiration).By the obstruction of these two movements (control or gathivicheda)both are made absent (ubhayaabhaava) and this is praanaayaama.

Vachas:-The sign of control of breath sitting in sukhaasana is explained.Rechaka and kumbaka are the two gathivicheda(obstruction of swaasapraswaasa).Thse are the general signs of praanaayaama.The act of getting in the air from outside so that it fills within the respiratory tract is poorana(filling in).The opposite of this is rechaka or act of virechana.In pooraka,rechaka ,and kumbaka there is gathivicheda of air.This control of praana according to ones own wish is praanaayama.(The breathing is an involuntary act. This is changed to a voluntary act under own control by the yogin.)

Pathan:- 50 Baahyaabhyantharasthambavrithirdesakaalasamkhyaabhi:

Paridrishto deerghasookshma:

Vyas:-The lack of gathi(movement)of praswaasa is external or baahya.The lack of movement of swaasa is internal or abhyanthara.the lack of both the gathi is sthambavrithy .This is achieved by practice for a long period. When water falls on a redhot plane ,it contracts completely .Like that the absence of both external and internal movement of air happens in the heat of tapas.If these three are seen in the same place ,that place where all the three occur simultaneously is known as the desa (space).If they are seen simultaneously at one place ,at the same time(same kshana which is unit of time),one has to cognize that it is not avachinna (separate).And in this way the timespace continuity is cognized. The numbers (samkhya)are also to be cognized in the same way.In the breathing (swaasapraswaasa)the first is (prathama)first originated and then controlled or ended.Then the second,the third and in that order we count the numbers.Each of these samkhya have a mridu,Madhya and a theevra state as well .In this way ,by ypractice ,lengthening praana and shortening it to the subtlest unit(sookshmamathra)we can control our breath,we can control our voice and speech and learn their gathi (movement)as well as the gathiniyama(laws of movement).

Vachas:-The soothra speaks of the three lakshana of praanaayama.It visualizes the within the external and internal sthambavrithy itself,the occurrences of spacetime ,numbers,and units of length (dheergha)and sookshma(smallest).Vrithisabda is also associated with them.(Vrithy is action and purity).Rechaka (of praswaasa)and pooraka(of swaasa)and kumbaka as the third is spoken of .The effort to control the breath,and the constant practice of it are mentioned.The effort or prayathna is generating heat.When water falls on a redhot plane ,it becomes condensed and is lost as a gas or air.It becomes invisible to naked eye by this process.By heat the contraction of water is a direct perception of the senses.Wind(Maruth)is powerful and has carrying property.(vaahanaseela).To control the wind (air) or the praana ,one needs strength and effort .This prayathna(effort)or action produce heat (metabolic heat)in the body ,and the water content become less due to this

process.wherever the water content is dried up,in all those places the praana expands and fills.Pooraka and rechaka are these processes.Therefore they are subjects of space.Here the body is compared to a space .This desa is limited by organs .Hastha etc are the organs by which one can measure the body. Only a limited space can be measurable.From head to foot the external and internal body is like the touch of a ant.It is not something one has to deduct .The deduction is for nivaathadesa which is space guessed by the kriya like eeshika and thula etc .The 4 th part of kaala which is divided bythe actions like the closure of an eye(nimeesha) is a kshana.This process of division(avachinna) is to cognize the kaala which is indivisible(anavachinna). The units of time are limited as 360 .The first mridu is udaya or dawn.The second which is twice the first is the Madhya or intermediate.The third is thrice the second and is the theevra.

1=mridu

1 X 2= 2=Madhya

2X 3=6=Theevra.

In this way ,in praanaayaama six different types of spanda(beats or vibrations)from mridu to theevra are said.To awaken each of these,(Udhaarana),to win over and attract (jaya and vaseekaara)and then destroy(nigraha)and entering into the next ,we have to control anantham(endless)numbers of breaths,and timespace units as the chidbheda(the different types of energy).In this way during a long practice,several days,fortnights,seasons,years the winning over of several spacetime units as chidbheda and chidkana (units of energy)happen.The groups of sabda which are expanded in spacetime as dheergha (lengthy)and as sookshma(subtlest )are controlled only by punya,and by Samadhi.This is how several swarasruthiprachaya (sound waves as swara and sruthy) as sookshma,manda and theevra and madhyama and their differences as samkhya(numbers)which are anantha ,are cognized and controlled in Samadhi.All these are seen explained in samkhyaasaasthra.(Mathematics).

S:(This is a very noteworthy passage.This speaks of bioenergy and cosmic energy and its variant forms and unifies them.The cosmic energy and the spacetime and the unification of light and soundwaves and the quantum wave mechanics and the general theory of relativity ,and also the mathematical,musical and linguistic explanations of it are seen in this .The metabolic heat is only part of cosmic heat.The human breath is only part of cosmic winds.The body is only part of universe.The term chidbheda as different forms of energy and its knowledge is commendable.The practice of swara and sruthi control and the entry from one to another is unification of musicology with mathematics and astrophysics and sabda with light energy.Thus a yogin is a scientist who does experiments on all these with his own body as the experimental animal for study of consciousness as a form of universal energy )

Pathan:-51.Bhaahyaantharavishayaakshepi chathurtha:

Vyas:-The desa,kaala and samkhya are not external vishaya alone.They are internal

vishaya too.Because of this duality(ubhayatha) is the dheergha and sookshma(the lengthiest units and the shortest units).Praanaayaama is the process of winning over the earlier bhoomika(planes)and stage by stage aquiring the lack of gathi(gathyabhaava) of the ubhaya(both)types .By measuring gathi as long(dheergha)and sookshma(shortest)for prolonged periods (the saayana system of measurement )one reaches the state of gathyabhaava(nirayana or stage of no movement/inertia) and the entry of thought into this state is motionless and achala.By the cognizance of the movement of praana by praanaayaama,stage by stage one has to reach this nischala(movement less )and then win over that too.This is the 4 th state .Here all the external and internal movements and lack of movement and all forms of knowledge are known or revealed.

Vachas:-After the three lakshana of desa,kaala and samkhya are said the 4 th stage is mentioned.the 4 th stage is where all the internal and external are lost (kshepa).In it there is no difference between in and out,time,space or number,differences like sookshma or dheerga etc.It is a state of total pralaya or merged state .In this ,from the third state of Sthambavrithy,the yogin enters the 4 th stage.The third is due to the good action and .practice and there is no accompanied thought processes.It can happen even without thought processes.The liberation from several types of actions happen with thought or with gnaana (knowledge) or darsana (called alochana or thought because directly perceived internally as gnaana).Pooraka and rechaka are done without knowledge or as thoughtless actions.Desakaalasamkhyaa and their knowledge is with thoughtful internal processes and visions.From these ,one enters a state of visualizing and experiencing only the timeless spaceless limitless numberless kevala energy state .This is the 4 th state.

Pathan:-52.Thatha:ksheeyathe prakaasaavaranam.

Vyas:-Then in the yogin,all the coverings which obstruct the light are lost and wisdom is manifested.The truth or the nature of light was hidden from view by the covers of Mahaamaaya or mahaamoha .The gathi,bramana ,(movements and revolutions)of the world and the samsaara become weak forces(durbalasakthy)and the uncovered truth revealed as pure light.By heat of thapas the coverings are washed off,and the wisdom revealed .The knowledge of light (prakaasa)is the knowledge of self.(our real nature)

Vachas:-The use (prayojana)of praanaayaama is the removal of the coverings which hides light from revealing its true nature to self.The sorrows,klesha and darkness of the ignorance and opposite knowledges are all gone with pranaayaama and meditation on it .The knowledge revealed as budhisathwa’s light .The knowledge of wisdom is wisdom itself.Its covers are destroyed.the karma,the seeds of karma and the klesabeeja are destroyed and this is agreed by aagama.

Raaga is the mahaamoha .The grahana or cognition of it is also the method to get out of it.It is the Indrajaala(magic)of raaga which is the last grahana mentioned in the steps of the yogin’s journey to light. S:(By controlling praana and the sanchaara or gathi of it one becomes expert in raaga music and this is the final step to achieve laya with iswara ).

Praanaayaama thus destroys all dosha(Manu 6.72).Vishnupuraana (6-7;40-41) says:

Praanaakhyamanilam vasyam abhyaasaath kuruthethuya:

Praanaayaama:savigneya;sabeejo abeeja eva cha

Parasparenaabhibhavam praanaapaanouyadaanilou

Kuruthasthadwidhaanena thritheeyam samyamaathayo.

Pathan:-53.Dhaaranaasuyogyathaa manasa:

Vyas:-By praanaayaama mind become ready and eligible for dhaarana.(Dhaarana is cognition.)The saying Prachrdanavidhaaranaabhyaam vaa praanasya (1.34)

Vachas:-By praaanayaama mind can fix on something (concentrate)and cognize that.

Pathan:-54.Swavishayaasamprayogo chithasya swaroopaanukaara

Ivendriyaanaaam pratyaahaara:

Vyas:-What is pratyaahaara? The withdrawal from the senses by the chitha which has become totally unselfish .In chithanirodha ,there is no need for trying to control each indriya.All are controlled if chitha is controlled.The king of the honeybee after union with his female queen does not procreate further.In this way,the senses,after chithanirodha become disinterested in vishayasukha .This natural withdrawal of senses from vishayasukha following chithavrithinirodha is pratyaahaara.

Vachas:-Thus the yama etc become samskritha and samyama and then pratyaahaara begins.The lakshana of it is said in t