WINDOWS 98 DEVELOPER: microsoft DATE OF DEVELOPMENT: 11-May-1998 PLACE OF DEVELOPMENT: FEATURES OF OS:        Windows 98 SE 486DX.

66 MHz or better 24 MB (16 MB for first edition) min; 512 MB max 205-315 MB Runs from hard disk, Prompt available from boot diskette. VGA or better FAT, FAT32

ADVANTAGES OF OS:    Improved Ease of Use & Internet Access Improved Performance & Reliability Enables a New Generation of Hardware & Entertainment

LIMITATIONS OF OS: DISADVANTAGES OF OS:       Windows 98 has had no bug fixes or security updates since 2006. Most hardware manufacturers no longer supply drivers for Windows 98 Most software developers no longer work to ensure compatibility of their programs with Windows 98. Windows 98 has limited memory protection and no resource tracking, making it prone to crashes. Windows 98 cannot boot on a computer with more than 512 MB of RAM without unofficial (and very buggy) patches. Windows 98 does not support more than one processor core.

MINIMUM/RECOMMENDED HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:  A personal computer with a 486DX 66 megahertz (MHz) or faster processor (Pentium central processing unit recommended).

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16 megabytes (MB) of memory (24 MB recommended). A typical upgrade from Windows 95 requires approximately 195 MB of free hard disk space, but the hard disk space may range from between 120 MB and 295 MB, depending on your computer configuration and the options that you choose to install. A full install of Windows 98 on a FAT16 drive requires 225 MB of free hard disk space, but may range from between 165 MB and 355 MB, depending on your computer configuration and that options that you choose to install. A full install of Windows 98 on a FAT32 drive requires 175 MB of free hard disk space, but may range from between 140 MB and 255 MB, depending on your computer configuration and the options that you choose to install. One 3.5-inch high-density floppy disk drive. VGA or higher resolution (16-bit or 24-bit color SVGA recommended).

PARTITIONING: Partitioning the Hard Disk After you decide on the file system you want to use, run Fdisk: 1.Place the Windows 98 Startup disk or Boot disk in the floppy disk drive, and then restart your computer. 2.When the Microsoft Windows 98 Startup menu is displayed, choose Start computer without CD-ROM support, and then press ENTER. 3.At the command prompt, type fdisk, and then press ENTER. 4.If your hard disk is larger than 512 MB, the following screen is displayed: Your computer has a disk larger than 512 MB. This version of Windows includes improved support for large disks, resulting in more efficient use of disk space on large drives, and allowing disks over 2 GB to be formatted as a single drive. IMPORTANT: If you enable large disk support and create any new drives on this disk, you will not be able to access the new drive(s) using other operating systems, including some versions of Windows 95 and Windows NT, as well as earlier versions of Windows and MS-DOS. In addition, disk utilities that were not designated explicitly for the FAT32 file system will not be able to work with this disk. If you need to access this disk with other operating systems or older disk utilities, do no enable large drive support. Do you wish to enable large disk support (Y/N).............? [Y] If you want to use the FAT32 file system, press Y and then press ENTER. If you want to use the FAT16 file system, press N, and then press ENTER.

5.After you press ENTER, the Fdisk Options menu is displayed. Press 1 to choose Create DOS partition or Logical DOS Drive, and then press ENTER. 6.Press 1 to choose Create Primary DOS Partition, and then press ENTER. 7.After you press ENTER, the following message is displayed: Do you wish to use the maximum available size for primary DOS partition? FAT32 File System a.If you chose the FAT32 file system in step 4, and you want all of the space on the hard disk to be assigned to drive C, press Y, and then press ENTER. b.Press ESC twice to quit Fdisk and return to the command prompt. c.Skip to step 10. FAT16 File System a.If you chose the FAT16 file system in step 4, and you want the first 2 GB on the hard disk to be assigned to drive C, press Y, and then press ENTER for yes. b.Press ESC to return to the Options menu, and then skip to step i. c.If you want to customize the size of the partitions (drive letters) on the hard disk, press N, and then press ENTER. d.A dialog box is displayed for you to type the size that you want for the primary partition in megabytes or percent of disk space. Note that for a Windows 98-based computer, Microsoft recommends making the primary partition at least 500 MB. Enter the size of the partition that you want to create, and then press ENTER. e.Press ESC to return to the Options menu. f.Press 2 to choose Set active partition, and then press ENTER. g.The following prompted is displayed: Enter the number of the partition you want to make active. Press 1, and then press ENTER. h.Press ESC to return to the Options menu. i.To assign drive letters to the additional space on the hard disk:

1.Press 1, and then press ENTER . 2.Press 2 to choose Create Extended DOS Partition, and then press ENTER. 3.The dialog box that appears displays the maximum space available for the extended partition. You can adjust the size of the partition or leave it at the default size. Note that the default maximum space is recommended, but the space can be divided between multiple drive letters. Enter the amount of space you want, press ENTER, and then press ESC. 4.The Create Logical DOS Drive(s) in the Extended DOS Partition menu is displayed. This is the menu you use to assign the remaining hard disk space to the additional drive letters. Enter the amount of space you want to assign to the next drive letter in the Enter logical drive size in Mbytes or percent of disk space (%) box, and then press ENTER. 5.A table that lists the drive letter you created and the amount of space in that drive is displayed. If free space still remains on the hard disk, it is displayed near the bottom of the table. Repeat steps 1-4 until you receive the following message: All available space in the Extended DOS Partition is assigned to local drives 6.After you receive this message, press ESC twice to quit Fdisk and return to the command prompt. 7.After you create the partitions, you must format the partitions. Restart your computer with the EBD in the disk drive. 8.After you have created the partitions, restart you computer with the Windows 98 Startup disk or Boot disk in the floppy disk drive. 9.When the Windows 98 Startup menu is displayed, chose Start computer without CDROM support. 10.When the command prompt is displayed, type format c:, and then press ENTER. NOTE: If you receive the message "Bad command or file name," the Format.com utility may need to be extracted to your Boot disk. Type the following command at the command prompt, and then press ENTER: extract ebd.cab format.com After Format.com is extracted to your Boot Disk and the MS-DOS command prompt is displayed, type format c:. 11.When you run Format.com successfully, the following message is displayed: WARNING, ALL DATA ON NON-REMOVABLE DISK DRIVE C: WILL BE LOST!

Proceed with Format (Y/N)? 12.Press Y, and then press ENTER to format drive C. 13.After the format is finished, the following message is displayed: Volume label (11 characters, ENTER for none)? This is an optional feature that you can use to type a name for the hard disk. Type an 11-character name for the drive, or leave it blank by pressing ENTER. 14.Repeat steps 10-14 for any additional drive letters you created in step i. INSTALLATION: After you have partitioned and formatted your hard disk, you can install Windows 98: 1.Place the Windows 98 Startup disk or Boot disk in the floppy disk drive, and then restart your computer. 2.When the Windows 98 Startup menu is displayed, choose Start computer with CDROM support, and then press ENTER. 3.If CD-ROM support is provided by the generic drivers on the Startup or Boot disk, one of the following lines is displayed Drive X: = Driver MSCD001 Drive X: = Driver OEMCD001 where X is the drive letter that is assigned to your CD-ROM drive. NOTE: If the CD-ROM drive is not available after you boot from the Windows 98 Startup disk or Boot disk, you need to install the CD-ROM drivers included with your CD-ROM drive. For information about how to obtain and install the most current driver for your CD-ROM drive, view the documentation included with your device, or contact your hardware manufacturer. 4.Place the Windows 98 CD-ROM in the CD-ROM drive, type the following command at the command prompt, and then press ENTER X:\setup where X is the drive letter assigned to your CD-ROM drive.

5.The following message is displayed: Please wait while the Setup initializes. Setup is now going to perform a routine check on your system. To continue press Enter. Press ENTER, and then follow the instructions on the screen to complete Setup. Licensing Mode READ CAREFULLY - These Microsoft Corporation ("Microsoft") operating system components, including any "online" or electronic documentation ("OS Components") are subject to the terms and conditions of the agreement under which you have licensed Microsoft Windows 98 ("Microsoft Software License Terms" or "license terms") and the terms and conditions of this Supplemental license terms. BY INSTALLING, COPYING OR OTHERWISE USING THE OS COMPONENTS, YOU AGREE TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THE WINDOWS 98 LICENSE TERMS AND THESE SUPPLEMENTAL LICENSE TERMS. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS, DO NOT INSTALL, COPY OR USE THE OS COMPONENTS. Note: IF YOU DO NOT HAVE A VALID LICENSE TERMS FOR MICROSOFT WINDOWS 98, YOU ARE NOT AUTHORIZED TO INSTALL, COPY OR OTHERWISE USE THE OS COMPONENTS AND YOU HAVE NO RIGHTS UNDER THESE SUPPLEMENTAL LICENSE TERMS. Capitalized terms used in these supplemental license terms and not otherwise defined herein shall have the meanings assigned to them in the Windows 98 license terms. General. The OS Components are provided to you by Microsoft to update, supplement, or replace existing functionality of Windows 98. Microsoft grants you a license to use the OS Components under the terms and conditions of the Windows 98 license terms (which are hereby incorporated by reference) and the terms and conditions set forth in these supplemental license terms, provided that you comply with all such terms and conditions. To the extent that any terms in these supplemental license terms conflict with terms in the Windows 98 license terms, these supplemental license terms control solely with respect to the OS Components. Additional Rights and Limitations.

If you have multiple validly licensed copies of Windows 98, you may reproduce, install and use one copy of the OS Components as part of Windows 98 on all of your computers running validly licensed copies of Windows 98 provided that you use such additional copies of the OS Components in accordance with the terms and conditions above. For each validly licensed copy of Windows 98, you also may reproduce one additional copy of the OS Components solely for archival purposes or reinstallation of the OS Components on the same computer as the

OS Components were previously installed. Microsoft retains all right, title and interest in and to the OS Components. All rights not expressly granted are reserved by Microsoft. The OS Components may contain technology that enables applications to be shared between two or more computers, even if an application is installed on only one of the computers. You may use this technology with all Microsoft application products for multi-party conferences. For non-Microsoft applications, you should consult the accompanying license agreement or contact the licensor to determine whether application sharing is permitted by the licensor.

IF MICROSOFT WINDOWS 98 WAS LICENSED TO YOU BY MICROSOFT OR ANY OF ITS WHOLLY OWNED SUBSIDIARIES, THE LIMITED WARRANTY (IF ANY) INCLUDED IN THE WINDOWS 98 LICENSE TERMS APPLIES TO THE OS COMPONENTS PROVIDED THE OS COMPONENTS HAVE BEEN LICENSED BY YOU WITHIN THE TERM OF THE LIMITED WARRANTY IN THE WINDOWS 98 LICENSE TERMS. HOWEVER, THESE SUPPLEMENTAL LICENSE TERMS DO NOT EXTEND THE TIME PERIOD FOR WHICH THE LIMITED WARRANTY IS PROVIDED. IF MICROSOFT WINDOWS 98 WAS LICENSED TO YOU BY AN ENTITY OTHER THAN MICROSOFT OR ANY OF ITS WHOLLY OWNED SUBSIDIARIES, MICROSOFT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE OS COMPONENTS AS FOLLOWS: DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES. TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, MICROSOFT AND ITS SUPPLIERS PROVIDE TO YOU THE OS COMPONENTS, AND ANY (IF ANY) SUPPORT SERVICES RELATED TO THE OS COMPONENTS ("SUPPORT SERVICES") AS IS AND WITH ALL FAULTS; AND MICROSOFT AND ITS SUPPLIERS HEREBY DISCLAIM WITH RESPECT TO THE OS COMPONENTS AND SUPPORT SERVICES ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS, WHETHER EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY (IF ANY) WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF OR RELATED TO: TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, LACK OF VIRUSES, ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF RESPONSES, RESULTS, LACK OF NEGLIGENCE OR LACK OF WORKMANLIKE EFFORT, QUIET ENJOYMENT, QUIET POSSESSION, AND CORRESPONDENCE TO DESCRIPTION. THE ENTIRE RISK ARISING OUT OF USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THE OS COMPONENTS AND ANY SUPPORT SERVICES REMAINS WITH YOU. EXCLUSION OF INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL AND CERTAIN OTHER DAMAGES. TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT SHALL MICROSOFT OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DAMAGES FOR: LOSS OF PROFITS, LOSS OF CONFIDENTIAL OR OTHER INFORMATION, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, PERSONAL INJURY, LOSS OF PRIVACY, FAILURE TO MEET ANY DUTY (INCLUDING OF GOOD FAITH OR OF REASONABLE CARE), NEGLIGENCE, AND

ANY OTHER PECUNIARY OR OTHER LOSS WHATSOEVER) ARISING OUT OF OR IN ANY WAY RELATED TO THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE OS COMPONENTS OR THE SUPPORT SERVICES, OR THE PROVISION OF OR FAILURE TO PROVIDE SUPPORT SERVICES, OR OTHERWISE UNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY PROVISION OF THESE SUPPLEMENTAL LICENSE TERMS, EVEN IF MICROSOFT OR ANY SUPPLIER HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY AND REMEDIES. NOTWITHSTANDING ANY DAMAGES THAT YOU MIGHT INCUR FOR ANY REASON WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, ALL DAMAGES REFERENCED ABOVE AND ALL DIRECT OR GENERAL DAMAGES), THE ENTIRE LIABILITY OF MICROSOFT AND ANY OF ITS SUPPLIERS UNDER ANY PROVISION OF THESE SUPPLEMENTAL LICENSE TERMS AND YOUR EXCLUSIVE REMEDY FOR ALL OF THE FOREGOING SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE GREATER OF THE AMOUNT ACTUALLY PAID BY YOU FOR THE OS COMPONENTS OR U.S.$5.00. THE FOREGOING LIMITATIONS, EXCLUSIONS AND DISCLAIMERS SHALL APPLY TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, EVEN IF ANY REMEDY FAILS ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE.

RED HAT LINUX 9 DEVELOPER: Red Hat DATE OF DEVELOPMENT: March 31, 2003 PLACE OF DEVELOPMENT: FEATURES OF OS:       First introduction of new threading technology: NPTL (Native POSIX Thread Library) OpenOffice.org office suite for creation of documents, spreadsheets and presentations. Mozilla Web browser , email client, address book, HL composer and authoring tool Ximian Evolution email client, calendar and contact manager CUPS for drag-and-drop printing capabilities Upgraded core components: Linux kernel 2.4.20, GCC 3.2.1, GNU libc 2.3 (with NPTL), web server powered by Apache 2.0

ADVANTAGES OF OS: LIMITATIONS OF OS: DISADVANTAGES OF OS: MINIMUM/RECOMMENDED HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: Minimum system requirements  6GB free disk space  2GB of RAM. Recommended system requirements  6GB plus the required disk space recommended by each guest operating system. For most operating systems more than 6GB of disk space is recommended.   One processor core or hyper-thread for the maximum number of virtualized CPUs in a guest and one for the host. 2GB of RAM plus additional RAM for virtualized guests.

PARTITIONING: a. Installing on separate physical drive If you are installtion Linux on second hardrive (primary slave) then it is called hdb in linux and first primary master is called hda so others are call hdc, hdd. Say you are installing on drive hdb then select it.Now

press "NEW" from Menu bar above the table. It will show a dialog box with lots of option, just select mount point and give size then press Ok.So Creat a partition with mount ponit "/boot" around 100 mb press "OK" if it shows any error then just Press "CONTINUE", create root parition with mount point "/" of atleast 6 GB as suggested. Make a Swap partition of around 300-500 MB ( I suggest 300 MB) by choosing file system type as SWAP then mount point will not be required. Also you can creat other partition like "/home" whose size depends on the No. of users who are going to use the computer. Bigger size more flexibility. Press "NEXT" to continue. b.Installing on Differnet partition same drive : When you are going to install Linux on differnet partition on same drive then follow the following steps. ( You should have either free space around 6 GB or a parition of 6 GB or more). I assume that you have 10 GB of Windows partition (FAT32) which was the drive F: under windows. NOTE: Partitions in linux are devoted by hda1 , hda2 ie. hda1 means fist drive's first partition , hda2 means first drive's second partition, hdb1 means second drive's first partition. Now locate your windows partition or free space you want to use for linux. To do so I have windows Last parition for LInux ie. F: so i looked for the last partition in the table which I found to be hda7. (If you choose a partition which is not last then find it by its size. And if all your parition are of same size the always choose last parition to install linux.) Now I found hda7 for linux then select and press "DELETE" in the Menu to delete that now it will become free space. ( If you have free space already then you should start partitioning from here ) . Now press "NEW" from Menu bar above the table. It will show a dialog box with lots of option, just select mount point and give size then press "OK" you can also change file system but just keep it "ext3" only. So we are now going to create only 4 partitions.. root ("/") 6 GB (6144 MB), boot ("/boot") 75 MB, ("/home") 3759 MB and SWAP (300 MB). To do so just press "NEW" select size and "OK". Make a Swap partition of around 300-500 MB ( I suggest 300 MB) by choosing file system type as SWAP then mount point will not be required. You can also make different partition table but I have suggested above for ease of understanding. Now when you have done your partion make sure who have done work over right partition becuase after this step you can't undo that. Now press "NEXT" to continue. INSTALLATION: You will install Red Hat Linux from CDROM so make sure that your BIOS is instructed to boot from it. When you start up your pc you will note a splash screen from Red Hat. At the end of the screen you will see a prompt: “boot: _”. Red Hat offers you the opportunity to give some options to the installer (when you should need them). E.g. if you would like to do a text only installation, enter “text” and confirm your input. Before every installation, you should check your installation media. As a general rule: corrupted media will result in a corrupted operating system. To check your media, press F2 at the menu. Your screen will flip into the “Installer Boot Options”. Input and confirm “linux

mediacheck” to start this check on your installation media. Linux will start booting and some seconds later you will face a blue text screen that reports: “CD found”. Select “OK” and “Test” to start the media check on the current disk. Make sure that all your disks are verified sane. After the disk check, initial probing of hardware will start and a graphical “welcome” screen will pop up. Choose “next”. Here you are able to read through the release notes of Red Hat 9 and to choose the preferred language during the installation (Dutch is available). Configure your preferred keyboard layout on the next screen. Belgian people will prefer “Belgian (be-latin1)”. Select your mouse type (e.g. “Wheel Mouse (USB)”) and optional three mouse button emulation. After this, the Red Hat installer will try to locate any existing Linux installations on your PC. When another Red Hat Linux system is detected, it will offer you the choice to perform an upgrade of an existing Linux system or to perform a new Red Hat Linux installation. You will not see this screen if you have an empty hard disk. Next, you will need to choose your installation type that will best meet your required needs. You have the choice between “Personal Desktop”, “Workstation”, “Server” or “Custom”. If you are new to Linux, your choice will probably limit amongst “Personal Desktop” and “Workstation”. A “Personal Desktop” is the most appropriate setup for people that want to give Linux a try and it will create a graphical desktop environment for your desktop or laptop. The “Workstation” will also provide you with a graphical desktop environment and will include additional software development tools. File System:   ext4 file system The ext4 file system is a scalable extension of the ext3 file system, which was the default file system of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. Ext4 is now the default file system of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, and can support files and file systems of up to 16 terabytes in size. It also supports an unlimited number of sub-directories (the ext3 file system only supports up to 32,000), though once the link count exceeds 65,000 it resets to 1 and is no longer increased. Ext4 uses extents (as opposed to the traditional block mapping scheme used by ext2 and ext3), which improves performance when using large files and reduces metadata overhead for large files. In addition, ext4 also labels unallocated block groups and inode table sections accordingly, which allows them to be skipped during a file system check. This makes for quicker file system checks, which becomes more beneficial as the file system grows in size.

Licensing Mode LIMITED WARRANTY EXCEPT AS SPECIFICALLY STATED IN THIS AGREEMENT OR IN AN EULA, THE SOFTWARE PROGRAMS AND ANY RED HAT, INC. TECHNICAL SUPPORT

SERVICES ARE PROVIDED AND LICENSED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT, AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Red Hat, Inc. warrants that the media on which any of the Software Programs are furnished will be free from defects in materials and manufacture under normal use for a period of 30 days from the date of delivery to you. Red Hat, Inc. does not warrant that the functions contained in the Software Programs will meet your requirements or that the operation of the Software Programs will be entirely error free or appear precisely as described in the accompanying documentation. ANY WARRANTY OR REMEDY PROVIDED UNDER THIS AGREEMENT EXTENDS ONLY TO THE PARTY WHO PURCHASES RED HAT LINUX FROM RED HAT OR A RED HAT AUTHORIZED DISTRIBUTOR. LIMITATION OF REMEDIES AND LIABILITY To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, the remedies described below are accepted by you as your only remedies, and shall be available to you only if you or your dealer registers this product with Red Hat, Inc. in accordance with the instructions provided with this product within ten days after delivery of the Software Programs to you. Red Hat, Inc.'s entire liability, and your exclusive remedies, shall be: if the Software Programs media are defective, you may return them within 30 days of delivery to you along with a copy of your receipt and Red Hat, Inc., at its option, will replace them or refund the money paid by you for the Software Programs. TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT WILL RED HAT, INC. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING LOST PROFITS, LOST SAVINGS, OR OTHER INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE PROGRAMS OR THE TECHNICAL SUPPORT SERVICES, EVEN IF RED HAT, INC. OR A DEALER AUTHORIZED BY RED HAT, INC. HAD BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

New Era University College of Engineering and Technology Computer Science Department

CS 233L- Operating Systems

Case Study Proposal A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WINDOWS 98 AND RED HAT LINUX

Student Name: Student Number: Class Schedule: Date of Submission:

RATING

Prof. Marc P. Laureta Instructor