bizantiis imperiis ucnobi qarTveli didi bizantiis imperiis ucnobi qarTveli didi bizantiis imperiis ucnobi qarTveli didi

bizantiis imperiis ucnobi qarTveli didi
moxele da misi sagvareulo moxele da misi sagvareulo moxele da misi sagvareulo moxele da misi sagvareulo


balatunusis bilingva

siriaSi, bizantiur cixe-qalaq balatunusis (Plat anus) erTerTi burjis
nangrevebSi 2008 wels aRmoCnda orenovani (berZnul-qarTuli) warwera, romelic
amJamad inaxeba siriis mTavari saporto qalaqis latakiis (laodikea) muzeumSi.
2009 wlis bolos warwera saTanado gamokvleviT Cemi megobrisa da kolegis,
safrangeTis institutis (warwerebisa da bell-letris akademia) wevris, Jan-pier
maes saSualebiT gadmomigzavna maSin axlo aRmosavleTis (damaskos) franguli
institutis mecnierma TanamSromelma Julien alikom (Julien Aliquot ). cxadia, mas
ainteresebda bilingvis qarTuli warweris Sinaarsi, romlis amokiTxva parizSi
ver moxerxda.
rogorc batoni alikos SeniSvnebidan Canda, orenovan warweriani qvis
(qviSaqva) zomebia 57X162X21. bilingva me TviTon ar minaxavs, amitom qvemoT
yvelagan veyrdnobi baton alikos mier kargad Sesrulebul aRweras da aseve
kargad damzadebul fotoebs.







berZnuli warwera



batoni alikos mier wakiTxuli da frangulad Targmnili berZnuli
warwera Tavdapirvelad ase gamoiyureboda:
berZnuli teqsti:
[ [[ [´ ´´ ´ L LL L c cc c! !! !c cc ct tt t. .. . - -- -j jj j ] ]] ]o oo o - -- -c cc co oo o c cc c. .. .c cc c o oo ot tt t t tt to oo o c cc c ¡ ¡¡ ¡[ [[ [o oo ot tt t], ], ], ], o oo o t tt t [ [[ [o oo o t tt t. .. .ß ßß ß] ]] ]c cc c[ [[ [! !! !t tt t c cc cc cc c] ]] ]t tt tµ µµ µo oo o· ·· ·
[ [[ [t tt to oo o c cc c: :: :o oo o t tt t. .. . A AA At tt tt tt tj jj j ] ]] ] o oo o· ·· ·, , , , : :: :o oo o ¡ ¡¡ ¡t tt t t tt tt tt to oo o· ·· ·, , , , ¡ ¡¡ ¡ o oo ot tt t t tt t . .. .¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¹ ¹¹ ¹t tt t t tt to oo o¸ ¸¸ ¸c cc ct tt t o oo o· ·· ·, , , , ¸ ¸¸ ¸c cc ct tt t¡ ¡¡ ¡o oo o · ·· · c cc c - -- -
[ [[ [ç çç çj jj j ¡ ¡¡ ¡: :: :o oo oc cc cc cc c . .. . t tt t c cc c ¸ ¸¸ ¸] ]] ]- -- -¡ ¡¡ ¡. .. . t tt t ß ßß ßo oo o¡ ¡¡ ¡ß ßß ßo oo o ¡ ¡¡ ¡. .. .t tt t c cc c : :: :t tt t | || |. .. .µ µµ µo oo ot tt to oo o. .. . t tt to oo ot tt t Z ZZ Z. .. .j jj j · ·· · o oo o t tt to oo ot tt t o oo o ( (( (¡ ¡¡ ¡. .. .t tt t) )) )
[ [[ [o oo ot tt t! !! !o oo o¸ ¸¸ ¸¡ ¡¡ ¡t tt t c cc c ( (( (. .. .t tt t) ) ) ) j jj j µ µµ µ( (( (. .. . t tt t) ) ) ) t tt t] ]] ]c cc c t tt t t tt tc cc c- -- -c cc c t tt t : :: :o oo o¡ ¡¡ ¡o oo o 2 22 2: :: :o oo ot tt t o oo o, ,, ,o oo o. .. .o oo oj jj j, , , , : :: :o oo o ¡ ¡¡ ¡t tt t[ [[ [t tt t] ]] ]t tt t o oo o. .. . t tt to oo ot tt t
[ [[ [c cc c ¡ ¡¡ ¡o oo o j jj j, ,, ,o oo o. .. . ¹ ¹¹ ¹o oo oo oo o] ]] ]o oo ot tt tt tt tc cc ct tt t o oo o· ·· ·, , , , o oo o. .. . T TT Tj jj j: :: :c cc c! !! !t tt t, , , , µ µµ µj jj j( (( (t tt tt tt t ) ) ) ) ` `` `I II Io oo o. .. .t tt tt tt t . .. . , , , , t tt t t tt to oo o( (( (t tt tt tt t t tt t. .. . t tt to oo o· ·· ·) ) ) ) t tt to oo o ´ ´´ ´
[ [[ [c cc c ( (( (c cc ct tt t) ) ) ) o oo o: :: :o oo o t tt t ( (( (t tt t c cc cc cc c. .. .· ·· ·) ) ) ) t tt to oo o c cc cµ µµ µ( (( (o oo o. .. .) ) ) ) . .. .· ·· ·o oo o] ]] ]! !! !- -- -. .. .
franguli Targmani:
«Ce kastron sauvé par Dieu, que le nobélissime catépan Nicét as, pat rice, rect eur d’Ant ioche, a
arraché de la main des ennemis barbares sous Romain et Zoé, nos empereurs qui aiment le Christ , et qui a
ét é fondé par Spant agoudès Tèpeli, patrice et st rat ège de Laodicée, a ét é achevé au mois de juin, indict ion
14, l’an 6539 depuis la créat ion du monde».
franguli Targmani qarTulad:
«es RrTivxsnili kastroni, romelic ukeTilSobilesma katepanma niketasma,
patrikiosma da antioqiis reqtorma, xelidan gamostaca mtrul barbarosebs
qristesmoyvaruli romanosisa da zoias mmarTvelobis dros da romelic
daarsebul (an dafinansebul) iqna spantagude tepelis, patrikiosisa da
laodikeis strategosis mier, gasrulda ivnisis TveSi, indiqtions 14, 6539 wels
samyaros Seqmnidan».
igulisxmeba romauli welTaRricxvis 1031 weli (6539-5508=1031).

SeniSvnebi berZnuli warweris interpretaciasTan dakavSirebiT

batoni alikos Targmani qmnida STabeWdilebas (aseve iyo ganmartebuli
komentarebSi), rom warwera ukavSirdeboda katepan niketas da ara spantagude
tepelis, romelic SesaZloa arc imyofeboda im dros balatunusSi. aseTi
interpretaciis sisuste advilad Canda berZnuli teqstis pirvelive
wakiTxvidan: bizantielebma katepan niketasis meTaurobiT balatunusi aiRes 1031
wlis gazafxulis dasawyisSi (martSi), xolo warwera Sesrulebulia amave wlis
ivnisSi. amrigad, cxadia, rom berZnuli t tt tc cc c t tt t t tt tc cc c- -- -c cc c t tt t : :: :o oo o¡ ¡¡ ¡o oo o 2 22 2: :: :o oo ot tt t o oo o, ,, ,o oo o. .. .o oo oj jj j unda
iTargmnos ara rogorc «daarsebul iqna» (an Tundac, «dafinansda») spantagudes
mier», aramed berZnuli enisaTvis gacilebiT ufro bunebrivad: «aigo//aSenda
spantagudes mier».
meore Cemi SeniSvna exeboda kvlav berZnuli teqstis arabunebrivad
wakiTxvas. Julien alikom sworad gansazRvra (amaSi mas daexmara berZnuli
warweris qvemoT qarTuli warweris mxolod arsebobac ki), rom «tepeli» tbels
unda aRniSnavdes. im codniT, rac tbelebTan dakavSirebiT man literaturidan
moipova, cxadia, unda efiqra, rom tbeli gvaris aRmniSvneli saxelia da
sruliad bunebrivad miiCnia, rom «spantagude . . . tepeli» erTi da imave piris
saxeli da gvaria. igi imdenad darwmunebuli iyo aseT interpretaciaSi, rom
angariSi ar gauwia kvlav berZnuli teqstis Cvenebas: 2 22 2: :: :o oo ot tt t o oo o, ,, ,o oo o. .. .o oo oj jj j . . . . . . . . . . . . o oo o. .. . T TT Tj jj j: :: :c cc c! !! !t tt t, , , ,
rac sityva-sityviT ueWvelad unda unda iTargmnos rogorc «spantagude
tepelisa» anu «spantagude tepelis Ze». aseTi gaazreba zusti analogiaa
saxarebiseuli Sesityvebis: : : : ` `` `I II Io oo o t tt t. .. .ß ßß ßo oo o· ·· · ¹ ¹¹ ¹! !! !o oo oo oo ot tt t o oo o. .. . (iakob alfesi anu iakob alfesis Ze) )) ), ,, ,
` `` `I II Io oo o. .. .o oo oo oo o· ·· · ` `` `I II Io oo ot tt to oo oß ßß ßo oo o. .. . (iuda iakobisi anu iuda iakobis Ze) da a.S.
mesame SeniSvna berZnuli teqstis aRdgenil dasawyiss exeboda. Cemi azriT,
epigrafikuli teqsti, sadac “urjuloebze” mniSvnelovani gamarjvebis Sesaxeb
aris laparaki, ar SeiZleba daiwyos gamoTqmiT L LL L c cc c! !! !c cc ct tt t. .. . - -- -j jj j (amitomac iyo, rom igi
Julien alikos TargmanSi sruliad ar aisaxa). garda amisa, qvis Camonatexi
ufro meti moculobis teqsts gulisxmobs, vidre sityva L LL L c cc c! !! !c cc ct tt t. .. . - -- -j jj j- -- -s SeuZlia
daikavos. Cemi varaudiT, da berZnuli epigrafikisa Tu saistorio Txzule-
bebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli trafaretiT, teqstis dasawyisi unda aRdgeniliyo
Semdegnairad: ´ ´´ ´ T TT To oo o. .. . O OO Oc cc co oo o. .. . ß ßß ßo oo oj jj j- -- -c cc c t tt to oo o , , , , an an an an T TT To oo o. .. . O OO Oc cc co oo o. .. . c.tc¡,ct c.tc¡,ct c.tc¡,ct c.tc¡,ct coo coo coo coo· ·· · “SewevniTa RmrTisaÁTa”.
Julien alikom mTlianad gaiziara Cemi SeniSvnebi da sabolood berZnuli
teqstis aRdgenam da Targmanma aseTi saxes miiRo:
[ [[ [´ ´´ ´ T TT To oo o. .. . O OO Oc cc co oo o. .. . ß ßß ßo oo oj jj j- -- -c cc c t tt to oo o ] ]] ] - -- -c cc co oo o c cc c. .. .c cc c o oo ot tt t t tt to oo o c cc c ¡ ¡¡ ¡[ [[ [o oo ot tt t], ], ], ], o oo o t tt t [ [[ [o oo o t tt t. .. .ß ßß ß] ]] ]c cc c[ [[ [! !! !t tt t c cc cc cc c] ]] ]t tt tµ µµ µo oo o· ·· · [ [[ [t tt to oo o c cc c: :: :o oo o t tt t. .. . A AA At tt tt tt tj jj j ] ]] ] o oo o· ·· ·, , , ,
: :: :o oo o ¡ ¡¡ ¡t tt t t tt tt tt to oo o· ·· ·, , , , ¡ ¡¡ ¡ o oo ot tt t t tt t . .. .¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¹ ¹¹ ¹t tt t t tt to oo o¸ ¸¸ ¸c cc ct tt t o oo o· ·· ·, , , , ¸ ¸¸ ¸c cc ct tt t¡ ¡¡ ¡o oo o · ·· · c cc c - -- -
[ [[ [ç çç çj jj j ¡ ¡¡ ¡: :: :o oo oc cc cc cc c . .. . t tt t c cc c ¸ ¸¸ ¸] ]] ]- -- -¡ ¡¡ ¡. .. . t tt t ß ßß ßo oo o¡ ¡¡ ¡ß ßß ßo oo o ¡ ¡¡ ¡. .. .t tt t c cc c : :: :t tt t | || |. .. .µ µµ µo oo ot tt to oo o. .. . t tt to oo ot tt t Z ZZ Z. .. .j jj j · ·· · o oo o t tt to oo ot tt t o oo o ( (( (¡ ¡¡ ¡. .. .t tt t) )) )
[ [[ [o oo ot tt t! !! !o oo o¸ ¸¸ ¸¡ ¡¡ ¡t tt t c cc c ( (( (. .. .t tt t) ) ) ) j jj j µ µµ µ( (( (. .. . t tt t) ) ) ) t tt t] ]] ]c cc c t tt t t tt tc cc c- -- -c cc c t tt t : :: :o oo o¡ ¡¡ ¡o oo o 2 22 2: :: :o oo ot tt t o oo o, ,, ,o oo o. .. .o oo oj jj j, , , , : :: :o oo o ¡ ¡¡ ¡t tt t[ [[ [t tt t] ]] ]t tt t o oo o. .. . t tt to oo ot tt t
[ [[ [c cc c ¡ ¡¡ ¡o oo o j jj j, ,, ,o oo o. .. . ¹ ¹¹ ¹o oo oo oo o] ]] ]o oo ot tt tt tt tc cc ct tt t o oo o· ·· ·, , , , o oo o. .. . T TT Tj jj j: :: :c cc c! !! !t tt t, , , , µ µµ µj jj j( (( (t tt tt tt t ) ) ) ) ` `` `I II Io oo o. .. .t tt tt tt t . .. . , , , , t tt t t tt to oo o( (( (t tt tt tt t t tt t. .. . t tt to oo o· ·· ·) ) ) ) t tt to oo o ´ ´´ ´
[ [[ [c cc c ( (( (c cc ct tt t) ) ) ) o oo o: :: :o oo o t tt t ( (( (t tt t c cc cc cc c. .. .· ·· ·) ) ) ) t tt to oo o c cc cµ µµ µ( (( (o oo o. .. .) )) ). .. .· ·· ·o oo o] ]] ]! !! !- -- -. .. . an an an an too too too too o o o o c cc c o o o o· ·· · . .. .· ·· ·o oo o] ]] ]

[RmrTis SewevniT] es RvTivdaculi (SeiZleba RmrTivxsnilic) kastroni,
romelic ukeTilSobilesma katepanma niketasma, patrikiosma da antioqiis req-
torma mtrul barbarosebs xelidan gamostaca qristesmoyvare romanosisa da
zoias mmarTvelobis dros, aSenebul iqna patrikiosisa da laodikeis stratego-
sis spantagude tepelis Zis mier ivnisis TveSi, indiqtioni 14, [samyaros
Seqmnidan welsa 65]39.

berZnuli teqstis bizantiuri transkripcia

kidev erTi, rac aucileblad unda iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli XI s-is
berZnuli teqstis wakiTxvisas, es aris bizantiuri berZnuli warmoTqma.
gansakuTrebiT, roca es exeba onomastikasa da anTroponimebs, miT ufro, Tu es
onomastika da anTroponimebi ar aris berZnulenovani da saWiroebs
identifikacias.
2 22 2: :: :o oo ot tt t o oo o, ,, ,o oo o. .. .o oo o- -- -j jj j bizantiuri berZnulis da qarTuli enis fonetikuri
Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT qarTulad SesaZlebelia gadmoices aseTi
formebiT: spantaRud-i, spandaRud-i, spantaRut-i, spandaRut-i (Sdr.
αγαπη>aRapi)
1
. garda amisa, 2 22 2: :: :o oo ot tt t o oo o, ,, ,o oo o. .. .o oo oj jj j ar aris Casmuli naTesaobiT brunvaSi,
rogorc amas moiTxovs mis win mdgari : :: :o oo o¡ ¡¡ ¡o oo o windebuli. am funqcias misTvis
asrulebs genetivSi dayenebuli misi msazRvreli titulatura : :: :o oo o ¡ ¡¡ ¡t tt t[ [[ [t tt t] ]] ]t tt t o oo o. .. . t tt to oo ot tt t
[ [[ [c cc c ¡ ¡¡ ¡o oo o j jj j, ,, ,o oo o. .. . ]. ]. ]. ]. 2 22 2: :: :o oo ot tt t o oo o, ,, ,o oo o. .. .o oo oj jj j qarTulad me gadmoveci “spantaRud-i” formiT, rogorc
es mosalodneli iyo qarTulisaTvis (saxelobiTi brunva). Cemi azriT, amis
safuZvels iZleva bizantiur berZnulSi j jj j- -- -s “i”-T wakiTxvis tradicia.
aseve, spantaRudis mamis saxeli T TT Tj jj j: :: :c cc c! !! !t tt t “tepeli”-s pirveli marcvlis j jj j (eta)
unda wavikiTxoT “i”-d (Sdr. zemoT 2 22 2: :: :o oo ot tt t o oo o, ,, ,o oo o. .. .o oo o- -- -j jj j spandaRud-i): “tipeli”. ase ufro
gasagebi gaxdeba, saidan gaCnda berZnulSi : :: : tp//tb Tanxmovnebs Soris “i”
xmovani (Sdr. somx. Trdat > berZn. T TT Tj jj j¡ ¡¡ ¡t tt to oo oo oo o j jj j· ·· · tiridates
2
). vinaidan bizantiur
berZnulSi ß ßß ß “beta” aRar gadmoscems “b”-s da ikiTxeba rogorc “v”, bunebrivia,
rom “b”-s aRsaniSnavad gamoyenebulia : :: : p, ( p, ( p, ( p, (Sdr. bagrat//pankrat
3
, ”baku-
rian”//“pakurian”). “tepeli”//”tipeli”, ra Tqma unda, bizantiuri gamoTqmaa
qarTuli anTroponimisa “tbeli”: ß>: (b>p), agreTve, or Tanxmovans Soris gaCeni-
li “i” (Sdr. tfilis>tiflis). sayuradReboa, rom somxur saistorio
mwerlobaSic (stefanos orbeliani, gv. 355) ivane tbelis saxeli am formiT
gvxvdeba: Իվան Տպէլ.

qarTuli warwera

amis Semdeg ukve SegviZlia gadavideT balatunusis orenovani warweris
qarTul nawilze.
qarTuli warwera Sesrulebulia SedarebiT Rrmad amokveTili, sakmaod
lamazi, sagangebo saWreTeliT SeiaraRebuli, gamocdili xeliT, mrgvlovani
asomTavruliT. sityvaTa umravlesoba daqaragmebulia. sityvaTa Soris
gankveTilobis niSnad gamoyenebulia erTi wertili. paleografiulad igi,
bunebrivia, XI saukuniT TariRdeba. teqstis marjvena nawili (mayureblidan)
mniSvnelovnad aris dazianebuli (SesaZloa atmosferuli zegavleniT), Tumca
ikiTxeba, xolo erTgan amotexilia, ramac ramdenime grafema Seiwira. vinaidan
qvis marcxena nawili Camotexilia, amasTanave qarTuli warweris meore
striqonis pirveli oTxi grafema gadarecxilia, aRdgenis, qaragmebis gaxsnisa,
sityvaTa daSoriSorebis gareSe da gankveTilobis niSnebiT (rogorc es
teqstSia) igi ase ikiTxeba:
´ ´´ ´ ese.viTa.z~moÁ.b~rZld.sw~ria
- - - {s}. Z~mn.a~ve. e.c~xe.ese.S~w{v} . . . R~TsaÁTa
´ ´´ ´ ese.viTa.z~moÁ.b~rZld.sw~ria

1
ix. n. maxaraZe, bizantiuri berZnulis warmoTqmis sakiTxebi, Tb. 1978.
2
ix. giorgi amartolis qronografia, georgika, IV, nakv. II, berZnuli
teqsti qarTuli TargmaniTurT gamosca s. yauxCiSvilma, Tbilis, 1952,
gv. 311.
3
komentarisaTvis ix. iqve, gv. 274, sq. 4.
- - - s.Z~mn.av~e.e.cixe.ese.S~wv. . .R~TsaÁTa
Tanamedrove qarTuli damwerlobiT, qaragmebis gaxsniTa da sityvaTa Soris
intervalis dacviT warwera aseT saxes miiRebs:
´ ´´ ´ ese, viTa z(e)moÁ b(e)rZ(u)l(a)d sw(e)ria,
- - -s Z(e)m(a)n av(ag)e .e. cixe ese S(e)w(e)v. . . . R(mr)T(i)sa(Á)Ta.
vcadoT axla balatunis qarTuli warweris aRdgena berZnuli warwerebis
monacemebis gamoyenebiT. batoni alikos SeniSvniT qvas marcxena mxares mniS-
vnelovani nawili aqvs Camotexili, sadac daaxloebiT Tormeti berZnuli
grafema daeteoda. qarTuli grafemebi, rom berZnulTan SedarebiT viwroa, amas-
Tanave masSi TiTqmis yvela sityva daqaragmebulia, erTi SexedviTac cxadia.
isic cxadia, rom daaxloebiT oTxi grafemis farglebSi, Camotexilamde, qar-
Tuli warweris meore striqonis nawili gadarecxilia. amitom marcxniv
aRsadgeni, Cemi azriT, ocamde qarTuli grafema unda iyos. amitom mTlianad
qarTul warweras ase aRvadgendi:
´ ´´ ´ ese viTa z(e)moÁ b(e)rZ(u)l(a)d sw(e)ria,
[me, p(a)tr(i)km(a)n sp(a)nt(a)R(u)d tb(e)l(i)]s Z(e)m(a)n, av(ag)e 5 ese cixe
S(e)w(e)v[niTa] R(mr)T(i)sa(Á)Ta.
Var. [me, p(a)tr(i)km(a)n da l(ao)d(i)k(À)s str(ate)gm(a)n, sp(a)nt(a)R(u)d
tb(e)l(i)]. . .
spantaRudis titulaturis mTlianad aRdgena ver xerxdeba, vinaidan
Camotexil nawilSi ar aris amisaTvis sakmarisi adgili. qarTuli warwera ber-
Znulze ufro moklea da titulatura SesaZloa arc iyo (an srulad ar iyo)
masSi Setanili.
berZnuli warwerisagan gansxvavebiT qarTuli warwera azustebs, rom
spantaRudma balatunusis kastronSi xuTi cixe aago (aRadgina). rogorc Cans,
spantaRud tbelis Ze aWarbebs da xuT cixeSi balatunusis kastronis xuT
burjs gulisxmobs. marTlac, balatunusi xuTi burjiT (citadeli) iyo gamagre-
buli. SesaZloa, erTerTi maTgani aris swored is, sadac 2008 wels orenovani
warwera aRmoCnda (ix. foto 2).



rogorc zemoTac iTqva, berZnuli warweris t tt tc cc c t tt t t tt tc cc c- -- -c cc c t tt t qarTuli warweris
analogiiT, umjobesia iTargmnos “agebul iqna”/”aSenebul iqna” SesityvebiT. aqve
minda xazi gavusva, rom qarTuli epigrafika (ara marto qarTuli) termin
“aSenebas” ar ansxvavebs “aRdgenisagan” (restavracia).
rogorc Cans, orenovani warwera Sesrulebulia spantaRudis dakveTiT da
berZnul warweraSi mocemuli TariRi aRniSnavs cixeebis aRdgenis TariRs (ami-
tom ar aris Tvis zusti ricxvi dasaxelebuli) da ara kastronis aRebisa nikita
katepanis mier (maSin zusti TariRi iqneboda).
rogorc warweridan davinaxeT, spantaRudi atarebda patrikiosis tituls
da iyo laodikeis strategosi. patrikiosi (momdinareobs laT. patricius-isgan)
bizantiis imperiis karze umaRlesi rangis Cinia, romelic SemoiRo konstantine
didma rogorc sapatio, administraciuli funqciis gareSe. iustiniane I-is dros
es tituli SeeZlo moepovebina imperiis yvela warCinebuls damsaxurebis
mixedviT. VIII-X ss-Si patrikiosis tituli avtomaturad eniWebodaT imperiis
gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani regionebis ganmgeblebsa da sardlebs.
4
swored
aseTi iyo strategosi, romelic aRniSnavda romelime mniSvnelovani regionis
sardals, xolo sanapiro zolSi _ admiralsac. XI s-isaTvis strategosi iyo
Temis samxedro mmarTveli, romelic iTavsebda safinanso da iuridiul adminis-
tracias.
5

laodikea iyo sazRvao porti Crdilo siriaSi da siriis yvelaze ufro
mdidari qalaqi, romelic 968 wels foka keisarma daibruna arabebisagan. span-
taRudi atarebda patrikiosis tituls da iyo laodikeis Temis ganmgebeli da
sardali (admirali). marTalia, XI s-Si patrikiosoba aRar iyo iseTi mniS-
vnelovani Cini, rogorc gvian antikur xanaSi, magram spantaRudi mas flobda
swored im wesebiT da simaRleze, rogorc es miRebuli iyo ufro adre.
qarTuli warwera specialuri saWreTeli iaraRiT aRWurvili
profesionali qvaze mwerlis Sesrulebulia. igi, cxadia, gamocdilia
warwerebis amokveTaSi, magram isic cxadia, rom mas saqarTvelodan
specialurad amisTvis ver Camoiyvandnen, siriis am nawilSi ki es warwera
qarTvelTa aq yofnis pirveli dadasturebaa. unda vivaraudoT, rom mwerali Ca-
moyvanilia antioqiidan da spantaRudsac antioqeli qarTvelebi kargad
icnobden.



P3-is anderZi

1040 w. kalipos monasterSi (Savi mTa) ierusalimis jvris monastris
winamZRvris proxoresaTvis gadawerili xelnaweris (amJamad peterburgSi inaxeba
nomriT P3), kolofonSi vkiTxulobT:
“daiwera wmidaÁ ese wigni dasabamiTgan welTa xqkd(1020)
6
ÃeliTa CueniTa
codviliTa da Seimosa-ca queyanasa asureTisasa antioqisaTa, sanaxebTa wmidisa

4
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Prepared at Dumbarton Oaks, editor in chief Alexander
P. Kazhdan, III, New York-Oxford, 1991, gv. 1600.
5
iqve, gv. 1964.
6
dasabamiTganSi Secdoma SeniSna jer kidev a. cagarelma da gaaswora
(xqmd?) qoronikonis mixedviT. ix. А. Цагарели, Сведения о памятниках
sÂmeon sakÂrvelTmoqmedisaTa, sayofelsa wmidisa RmrTismSobelisasa
monastersa qarTvelTa kaliposs, mefobasa berZenTa zeda wmidisa mefisa
mixailissa, da afxazTa da qarTvelTa zeda bagrat kurapalatisasa, adiden
RmerTman mefobaÁ maTi qoronikonsa sÁ (1040).
qriste, adide suliTa sula zolavari
7
da Svilni maTni.
RmerTo saxiero, adiden orTave cxorebaTa Sina stefane da vaCe erTobiT.
ufalo RmerTo, Seiwyalen Zmani Cuenni sanano da vaSaÁ ZmiTurT da
Zmiswulni Cuenni giorgi, Teodore da iovane.
qriste, mflobelo yovelTa arsTao, adide orTave cxorebaTa spandaRut
patriki
8
, amen.


ufalo RmerTo saxiero, Seiwyalen suliTa salamaÁs Zeni Teodore da
kaloJan”.
9

ra Tqma unda, kolofonSi moxseniebuli spandaRut patriki aris igive
balatunusis berZnuli warweris spantaRud tbelis Ze. v. jobaZe, romelmac, cxa-
dia, ar icis balatunusis warweris Sesaxeb, spandaRuts monastris Zmobis wevrad
miiCnevs.
10
anderZis mixedviT, SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom 1040 wels spandaRut
patrikiosi ukve aRar aris laodikeis strategosi (aseTi daSveba ar aris
savaldebulo, magram mosalodnelia, radgan strategosebis gaZlierebis SiSiT
maT, rogorc wesi, mxolod 3-4 wliT niSnavdnen xolme), magram jer kidev
gamoCenili saero moRvawe rom aris, cxadia. amaze miuTiTebs misi patrikiosad wo-
deba da monastris Zmobis mier qristesTvis Sevedreba, adidos igi “orTave
cxorebaTa Sina”. vfiqrob, anderZSi kargad aris gamijnuli erTmaneTisgan saero
pirebi da berebi, cocxalni Tu gardacvlilni. saeroni: “qriste, adide suliTa
sula zolavari da Svilni maTni”; “RmerTo saxiero, adiden orTave cxorebaTa
Sina stefane da vaCe erTobiT”; “qriste, mflobelo yovelTa arsTao, adide orTave
cxorebaTa spandaRut patriki, amen”; “ufalo RmerTo saxiero, Seiwyalen suliTa
salamaÁs Zeni Teodore da kaloJan”. berebi: “ufalo RmerTo, Seiwyalen Zmani Cuen-

грузинской письменности, II, С. Петербург, 1889, gv. 43-44. cota mogvianebiT igive
Secdoma daafiqsira T. Jordaniamac da sqolioSi Secvala iseve,
rogorc a. cagarelma: xqmd. ix. T. Jordania, qronikebi da sxva masala
saqarTvelos istoriisa, I, tfilisi, 1892, axali gamocema Tbilisi, 2004,
gv. 180, sq. 10.
7
T. Jordanias sula zolavari sula kalmaxeli hgonia (iqve, sq. 12), magram
aseT daSvebas qronologia uSlis xels. spantaRudis mixedviT Cans, rom
mosaxsenebeli Sav mTasTan uSualo kavSirSi myof pirebs asaxelebs,
xolo sula kalmaxeli 40-iani wlebSi saqarTveloSi imyofeba. v. jo-
baZe, rogorc Cans, Tvlis. rom sula da zolavari sxvadasxva piria
(col-qmari) da maT Soris svams mZimes, albaT imitom, rom “Svilni
maTni” mravlobiTi ricxviT aris gamoxatuli. magram “zolavari”, ra
Tqma unda, “zoravaria” (sardali – sula sardali, Sdr. “zoravari aR-
mosavleTisaÁ grigol bakurianis Ze”, qarTlis cxovreba, gv. 301) da, rac
mTavaria, mxolobiTSia dasmuli zmna “adide”, iseve rogorc
spandaRutis SemTxvevaSi. iqve, sxva SemTxvevebSi, sadac ori an meti
piria dasaxelebuli, yvelgan zmnac Sesatyvis ricxviT aris gamoxatuli
_ “adiden”.
8
a. cagarelma spantaRud sworad ver amoikiTxa da miiRo gaugebari
siandaluk. ix. А. Цагарели, Сведения , gv. 43.
9
T. Jordania, qronikebi, I, 180; Materials for the Study of Georgi an Monasteries in the environs of Antioch
on the Orontes by Wakhtang Z. Djobadze, Louven, 1976, p. 10.
10
iqve, gv. 109.
ni sanano da vaSaÁ ZmiTurT da Zmiswulni Cuenni giorgi, Teodore da iovane”;
ufalo RmerTo saxiero, Seiwyalen suliTa salamaÁs Zeni Teodore da kaloJan”.
aqve SeiZleba SevniSnoT, rom am xelnaweris kolofonis asomTavruliT
naweri sazedao asoebi SesamCnevad gavs balatunusis qarTul warweris grafemebs.

tbelebis sagvareulo

axla ukve SegviZlia gadavideT spandaRutis mamis saxelze «tbeli».
X s-is manZilze tbelebi orjer TamaSobdnen mniSvnelovan rols
saqarTvelos istoriaSi. orjerve isini saqarTvelos erTianobis winaaRmdeg
gamodian. pirvelad isini daupirispirdnen afxazTa (dasavleT saqarTvelos)
mefes giorgi II-s (922-957) da mxari dauWires mis gandgomil Zes konstantines.
giorgim, “matiane qarTlisaÁs” cnobiT, tbelebi mkacrad ar dasaja da somxeTis
provinciaSi, vaspurakanSi (aspuragans) gaasaxla.
11

amiT qarTlSi tbelebis erisTavoba ar Sewyvetila. meored erTiani
saqarTvelos pirveli mefes bagrat III-s (960-1014) dros qarTlis feodalebma,
qavTar tbelis meTaurobiT 982 wlis axlos sastiki winaaRmdegoba gauwies
saqarTvelos gaerTianebisaTvis brZolaSi, magram damarcxdnen sofel
moRrisTan.
12
wyarodan ara Cans, ra bedi ewiaT TviTon tbelebs, magram marcxis
Sedegebi rom pirvel rigSi maT SeexebodaT, amaSi eWvi ar unda iyos: “romelnime
daÃocnes, romelnime daipyrnes da sxuani meotni gardaixuewnes da daifanCnes”.
13





tbeli _ anTroponimi

marTalia “tbeli” qarTlis erisTavebis sagvareulo saxelia, magram amave
sagvareuloSi igi anTroponimadac gvxvdeba. magaliTad SeiZleba davasaxeloT
borcvis jvris warwera, romelSic moxseniebulia qavTaris Ze tbeli da tbelis
oTxi Ze (am warweris Sesaxeb qvemoT calke iqneba saubari); cxrakaris warwera:
“qriste, adide oqropiri Ze tbelisaÁ”; iqve: “qriste, ganusvene sulsa
tbelisasa”
14
. xobis monastris kuTvnil Wedur xatze (XI s.) moTavsebulia war-
wera tbel grigolis Zis, romelsac xati Seuwiravs mraval gamarjvebaTa
sanacvlod
15
.
tbeli, rogorc sagvareulo da sakuTari saxeli daaxloebiT amave xanebSi
gavrcelda samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSic
16
, vinaidan aqac mdebareobda so-

11
“tbelni ganutevna mSÂdobiT asfuragans” (qarTlis cxovreba, Tb. 2008,
gv. 263). vfiqrob, ZiriTad teqstSi ukeTesi iyo am geografiuli saxelis
anaseuli Cvenebis (“aspuragans”) atana.
12
qarTlis cxovreba, gv. 269. daTariRebasTan dakavSirebiT ix. zaza
aleqsiZe, atenis sionis somxuri warwerebi, Tbilisi, 1978, gv. 54-56.
13
iqve, 269.
14
Nn. SoSiaSvili, v. ciskariSvili, sofel dodoTis cxrakaris eklesiis
warwera, akad. s. janaSias saxelobis saxelmwifo muzeumis moambe, XIX-A
da XXI-B, Tbilisi, 1957,Bgv. 96-98; lapidaruli warwerebi, I, aRmosavleT
da samxreT saqarTvelo (V-X ss.), Seadgina da gamosacemad moamzada n.
SoSiaSvilma, Tbilisi, 1980, gv. 178-183.
15
e. TayaiSvili, arxeologiuri mogzaurobani, II tf., 1914. gv. 145-146.
16
Tevdore tbelis Ze, ivane tbelis Ze. ix. tbeTis sulTa matiane, teqsti
gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleba da saZieblebi daurTo T. enuqiZem,
Tbilisi, 1977, gv. 92, N245; gv. 88, N225.
feli tbeTi da tbeTis monasteri, SemdegSi saepiskoposo (mtbevari) rezidencia.
am saxelis matarebelTa yvelaze cnobili warmomadgenelia tbel abuseris Ze.
17

rogorc Cans, qarTlis tbelebs patrikiosis titulic hqondaT
18
jer kidev
saqarTveloSi, SesaZloa, mTeli X saukunis manZilze. am tituliT bor-
cvisjvris warwerebSi (X s-is bolo) gvxvdeba tbeli, Ze qavTarisa;
19

amave eklesiis warwerebs Soris yuradRebas iqcevs ori erTmaneTis
momdevno warwera, romelTac v. Tofuria erT warwerad miiCnevs. erTSi moxsenie-

17
ix. abuserisZe tbeli, Txzulebani, teqsti gamosacemad moamzades,
gamokvleva, leqsikoni da saZiebeli daurTes nargiza goguaZem, mixeil
qavTariam da raul Cagunavam, baTumi, 1998, gv. 86-87 (aqve ix. sakiTxTan
dakavSirebuli literatura); v. silogava, tbeTis eparqia, religiis
istoriis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 2010, gv. 92.
18
vinaidan tbeli sakuTar saxelad eer warmoudgenia (magaliTad, “tbeli
patriki” Sdr. “adarnase patriki”), n. SoSiaSvili “patriks” sakuTar
saxelad miiCnevs da kompromisul daskvnas akeTebs: “sayuradReboa
saxeli _ patrikis damowmeba tbelebSi. es saxeli SesaZloa imis maCvene-
beli iyos, rom tbelebs IX an X ss-Si hqondaT bizantiuri tituli
“patriki” (VII s-Si gamoiTqmoda “patrikiosi”), rac Semdeg sakuTar
saxelad iqca am sagvareuloSi” (lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 60). Tu
“tbelebs qarTlis erisTavoba hqondaT mxolod X s-is dasawyisSi”
(lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 59), maSin maT IX s-Si ver eqnebodaT pat-
rikiosis (patrikis) tituli, radgan mis miRebas aucileblad erisTavoba
sWirdeboda. tbelebis patrikiosobas dasaSvebad miiCnevs m.
lorTqifaniZe. ix. feodaluri saqarTvelos politikuri gaerTianeba,
Tbilisi, 1963, gv. 254.
19
aRniSnul SemTxvevebSi n. SoSiaSvili da v. ciskariSvili “tbels”
miiCneven mxolod feodaluri saxlis ufrosis saxelwodebad da ara
sakuTar saxelad (ix. sofel dodoTis cxrakaras eklesiis warwera, gv.
94). magram gaugebaria warweraSi pirovnebis moxsenieba sakuTari
saxelis gareSe. magaliTad, winadadeba “tbelis Ze qavTar” maTi azriT
miuTiTebs, rom qavTari tbelis (feodaluri saxlis ufrosis) Zea misi
saxelis moxseniebis gareSe da TviTon ar SeiZleba iyos tbeli. imave
warweras kidev ufro ucnaur ganmartebas urTavs r. mefisaSvili: “war-
weraSi moxseniebulia qavTari Ze tbelisa, mamis saxeli ar axlavs.
SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom es tbeli Tavisi drois imdenad gamoCenili
piri iyo, rom misi saxelis aRniSvna zedmetad miiCnies”. magram Zneli
warmosadgenia warweraSi dasaxelebuli iyos “feodaluri saxlis me-
Tauri” an “gamoCenili piri” sakuTari saxelis gareSe. warwerebi
RmrTisa da momavlisaTvis keTdeboda da ara TanamedroveTaTvis. xom
gvaqvs sxva SemTxvevebSi “ivane erisTavman tbelman aRaSena ese wmidaÁ
eklesiaÁ salocvelad misTÂs da xuTTa ZeTa misTa” da a.S. qvemoT
vnaxavT dokumentur dadasturebasac imisa, rom ivane tbelis Svilebi
aseve tbelebi iyvnen. sagvareulo saxeli tbeli rom ojaxis yvela
mamakac wevrs aRniSnavda da ara mxolod gvaris ufross, amaze
miuTiTebs eredvis warwera: “aReSena wmidaÁ eklesiaÁ ese yovelTa
tbelTa brZanebiTa” (lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 173). SemdegSi n. SoSia-
Svilma Seicvala Sexeduleba da tbeli sakuTar saxeladac miiCnia.
marTalia, mas amis Sesaxeb ar umsjelia, magram pirTa saZiebelSi ki
gaitana: “tbeli (saxeli)” (ix. lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 329).
bulia patrikiosi tbeli rogorc gardacvlili da misi meuRle(?) epraqsi
20

(berZnuli warmoSobis saxeli “evpraqsi” dRevandel saqarTveloSic gvxvdeba),
xolo meoreSi _ maTi oTxi vaJiSvili: oqropiri, spdR~d, daviT, qavTar.
marTalia, es warwera 1924 wlidan ramdenjerme aris gamocemuli, magram specia-
listebma tbelis meore Svilis daqaragmebuli “spdR~d”-is gaxsna ver SesZles.
21

dRes CvenTvis ukve naTelia, rom es aris tbelis Ze sp(an)d(a)R(u)d-i, swored is,
sp(an)d(a)R(u)d-i<>spantaRud-i<>spandaRut (d<>t-s erTmaneTTan asimilaciis an
disimilaciis mixedviT), romelmac balatunusis burjebi aRadgenina da
orenovani warwerebi gaakeTebina.
erTdroulad am saxelisa da mamis saxelis matarebeli sxva piri,
ramdenadac me vici, ar aris dadasturebuli. amitom borcvis jvrisa da
balatunusis warweris protagonistebi erTi da imave pirad unda CavTvaloT.
Sida qarTlis warwerebis mixedviT spandaRudis mama tbeli patrikiosia da
misi mamis saxelia qavTar. rogorc Cans, igi 982 wlis axlos Tavis mamasTan
erTad ibrZoda bagrat mesamis winaaRmdeg da, SesaZloa, am brZolaSi daiRupa an
sikvdiliT dasajes. eredvis warwerebis mixedviT unda vifiqroT, rom tbelis
Svilebi X s-is bolo oceulis daswyisSi jer kidev arasrulwlovanebi an
bavSvebi iqnebodnen da aman gadaarCinaT.
amrigad, tbelebis am Stos genealogiuri xe aseTia:
qavTar-i
I
tbel-i _ epraqs-i(?)
I
oqropir-i, spandaRud-i, daviT-i, qavTar-i

spandaRudi _ tbelebis sagvareulo saxeli

warwerebi tbelebis sagvareuloSi ueWvelad adastureben Semdeg saxelebs:
ivane, tbeli, spandaRud, qavTar, oqropir, daviT, (sxvebs, romelTa Sesaxeb
pirdapiri miTiTeba ar aris, magram SeiZleba varaudi, me ar Sevexebi).
Teoriulad mosalodnelia sagvareuloSi saxelebi meordebodes. vnaxoT, rogor
aris saqme am mxriv sakmaod uCveulo saxelis “spandaRud”-is mimarT.

kldeisas warweraN

2010 wels xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi balatunusis bilingvis Sesaxeb
wakiTxuli moxsenebis Semdeg CemTan movida xelovnebaTmcodne giorgi gagoSiZe
da gadmomca kldeisis warweris foto, romelic 2009 wlis 15 maiss gadauRia

20
warwera dakargulia da mxolod m. broses (didi SecdomebiT) da v.
Tofurias (1924 wels) kiTxvis niSnis qveS amokiTxviT aris SemorCenili
(ix. v. Tofuria, Sida qarTlSi dacul zogierT siZveleTa warwerebi,
saistorio moambe, II, Tfilisi, 1924, gv. 133): “qriste ganusvene sulsa
tbelisasa epraqsis dsa mssa”. SoSiaSvili asworebs v. Tofurias
wakiTxvas: “qriste, ganusuene sulsa tbelisa patrikis, dResa mas”.
(lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 182). Nn. SoSiaSvilis wakiTxva
damajerebelia, magram mas, rogorc Cans SemTxveviT, gamorCa saxeli
“epraqsi”. radgan amokiTxvaSi ar SegviZlia darwmunebuli viyoT, ufro
bunebrivi iqneba, epraqsi tbelis meuRled miviCnioT. amis safuZvels
gvaZlevs iqve, meore warweraSi CamoTvlili pirebis moxsenieba rogorc
“Svilni maTni” (albaT tbelisa da epraqsis). v. Tofuria cnobiT, es
warwerebi erTdrouli da erTi adamianis mier iyo Sesrulebuli.
21
n. SoSiaSvili da v. ciskariSvili mas kiTxvis niSnis qveS kiTxuloben
rogorc “spoRd”.
reJisor gela qoqiaSvils (madlobas movaxseneb maT aseTi mniSvnelovani doku-
mentis mowodebisTvis).
kldeisas RvTismSoblis saxelobis taZari mdebareobs TrialeTSi, xramis
xeobaSi, kldeisis wylis napiras.
22
samxreTi karis Tavze, TaRsa da balavris
qvaze ganTavsebulia sami warwera.



karis TaRis warwera (marjvena mxares dakargulia warweris daaxloebiT
ori mesamedi):
q~e S~e Áv~ne - - - (q~e S~e Áv~ne - - -); q(rist)e S(eiwyal)e Áv(a)ne - - - (q(rist)e,
S(eiwyal)e Áv(a)ne - - -).
samxreTi karis kargad moCuqurTmebuli arqitravi (balavaris qva)
gayofilia jvriT or nawilad. orive mxares ganTavsebulia warwera.
marcxena mxares sam striqonad amokveTilia:
1. q~e S~e 2. sp~nd~R 3. oÂd (1. q~eS~e 2. s~pnd~R 3. Ud);
1. q(rist)e S(eiwyal)e 2. Sp(a)nd(a)R 3. oÂd (1. q(rist)e, 2. S(eiwyal)e 3. sp(a)nd(a)R
4. ud).
marjvena mxares oTx striqonad amokveTilia:
1. q~e S~e 2. qv~T~r 3. t~bl 4. n~i (1. q~eS~e 2. qv~T~r 3. t~bl 4. ni); 1. 1. q(rist)e
Q
S(eiwyal)e 2. (a)vT(a)r 3. tb(e)l 4. n~i (1. q(rist)e, S(eiwyal)e 2. q(a)vT(a)r 3. tb(e)l
4. ni).
warwera e. TayaiSvils, samwuxarod, gamoqveynebuli aqvs fotos gareSe.
asomTavruliT igi sworad gadmoscems mas, magram kiTxulobs SecdomiT: “sp(a)n-
d(a)Rud” e. TayaiSvils wakiTxuli aqvs rogorc “spiridon daRudi”. am Secdomis
wyaroa erTi mxriv misTvis sruliad ucnobi saxeli da meore mxriv erTi
saxelis ori daqaragmebiT gadmocema (warmoidgina rogorc saxeli da wodeba an
gvari), Tumca aseve ori daqaragmeba aqvs “qavTarsac”, magram es saxeli misTvis
kargad iyo nacnobi. garda amisa, e. TayaiSvils ukvirs, ratom aris “qavTar
tbelni” mravlobiTSi da TargmanSi wers mxolobiTs (“tbeli”) kiTxvis niSniT.
cxadia, mas “spiridon daRudi” da “qavTar tbeli” erTi gvarisad ver
warmoudgenia, radgan “spiridons”, misi azriT, Tavisi “daRudi” aqvs gvarad.
23

CemTvis cxadia, rom balavris warwera ekuTvnis Zmebs spandaRud da qavTar
tbelebs da igi ase unda iqnas wakiTxuli:
q(rist)e S(eiwyal)e sp(a)nd(a)Rud; q(rist)e S(eiwyal)e q(a)vT(a)r _ tbelni.
24

vfiqrob, cxadi unda iyos isic, rom samxreTis karis warwerebi qmnian erT
jgufs da ekuTvnian erT ojaxs. didia albaToba, rom ivane aris mama (mTavari

22
Е. Такайшвили, Археологические экскурсии, вып. 4, Тифлис, 1913, gv. 116.
23
iqve, gv. 118.
24
lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 170-171.
warwera), xolo spandaRudi da qavTari misi Svilebi. maTi saerTo sagvareulo
saxelia tbeli (“tbelni”). ivane [tbelis] warwera amokveTilia satriumfo TaRze
meti kaligrafiuli daxvewilobiT da, cxadia, is unda iyos eklesiis
amSenebeli. dakargul nawilSi mosalodnelia, rom ewereboda misi sagvareulo
saxeli da titulatura. paleografiulad es warwerebi X s-is meore naxevarze
adrindeli ar unda iyos.
eredvisa da dodoTis eklesiebis warwerebSi orjer gvxvdeba ivane tbelis
saxeli: eredvSi is moxsenebulia rogorc “qarTlis ufali”, xolo dodoTis
warweraSi rogorc erisTavi. n. SoSiaSvili maT erTsa da imave pirad miiCnevs
da orive warweras aTariRebs 914 wlis axlo xanebiT, xolo r. mefisaSvilis
azriT dodoTis warwera X-XI ss. mijniT unda daTariRdes. Cemi azriT, imdenad
gansxvavebulia es ori warwera paleografiulad, rom erT periodSi dawerili
ar unda iyos. meore (dodoTis) ivanes warwera aSkarad ufro gviandelia, vidre
pirveli. zustad TariRis gansazRvra paleografiulad Znelia, magram radgan
tbelebis warwerebi X s-is 80 wlebze gviani ar SeiZleba iyos, mis TariRis
zeda zRvaric aseve unda ganisazRvros: X s-is II naxevari 80-ian wlebamde.
kldeisis warweris ivane erisTavs an erisTavTa erisTavs me vaigiveb
dodoTis warweris ivane erisTavTan: “saxeliTa RmrTisaÁTa, ivane tbelman eris-
Tavman aRaSena ese wmidaÁ eklesiaÁ salocvelad misTuis da xuTTa ZeTaTuis.”
25

e. TayaiSvils iqve eklesiasTan unaxavs qvebis grova, romelTa Sorisac misi
varaudiT warwerianiebic iqneboda. samwuxarod, mas qvebis grovis gaSla da
daTvaliereba ver mouxerxebia (mosalodnelia, rom samxreTis karis warweris
nawilis moZebnac SesaZlebeli iqneboda), magram, risi (eklesiis garSemo
mimofantuli qvebi) naxva da wakiTxvac SesZlo, Zalian mniSvnelovania. ai erTi
maTganic, romelmac Cemi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miipyro:
1. q sx~[eliTa] R~aTa meb~Ta w~sa Rm~Sb~T aR
2. vaSene ese- -ekles~Á - - [gleT] iv~ne [e~]emn
1. q sx~[eliTa] R~aTa meb~Ta w~sa Rm~Sb~T aR
2. vaSene ese - - ekles~Á - - [gleT] iv~ne [e~]eman
qaragmebis gaxsniT warwera Semdeg saxes miiRebs:
q sx~[eliTa] R~aTa meb~Ta w~sa Rm~Sb~T aR
2. vaSene - -ekles~Á - - [gleT] iv~ne [e~]emn
1. q s(a)x[eliTa] R(mrTis)a(Á)Ta, me(oxe)b(i)Ta w(midi)sa Rm(rTi)S(o)bl(isaÁ)Ta
aR
2. vaSene ese- - ekles(ia)Á - - [gleT] iv(a)ne [e(risTavT]e(risTav)man
Zalian Znelia msjeloba warweraze, romlis arc fotoa gamoqveynebuli,
arc monaxazi, arc paleografiuli aRweriloba da arc miaxloebiTi
daTariReba. miuxedavad amisa, samxreTi karis TaRis warweris ivane da eklesiis
saamSenebelo warweris ivane erisTavi (e. TayaiSvilis aRdgeniT _ erisTavT-
erisTavi) me erTi da igive mgonia.




worbisis warwera

1980 wlis Semodgomaze Sida qarTlSi, tbelebis samflobeloSi aRmoCnda
warweriani (asomTavruli) qva worbisis eklesiidan. pirvelad igi amoikiTxa da

25
iqve, gv. 176. erisTavT-erisTavis saxelo IX s-dan Cans qarTul
wyaroebSi. Tavdapirvelad erisTavsa da erisTavT-erisTavs Soris
arsebiTi gansxvaveba ar iyo, amitom erTi da igive pirebi erTsa da imave
konteqstSi xan erisTavebd ixseniebodnen, xan ki erisTavT-erisTavebad.
ix. k. kekeliZe, “mTavarTa” da “erisTavTa” dadginebis wesi Zvel qarTul
mwerlobaSi, etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, III,
Tbilisi, 1955, gv.1158-159.
gamoaqveyna (1981 wels) i. megreliZem.
26
samwuxarod, qronikonis amokiTxvaSi man
Secdoma dauSva da warwera 880 wliT daaTariRa. imave 1981 wlis arqeologiuri
eqspediciis rusulad gamoqveynebul angariSSi igive warwera axlad waikiTxa da
TariRic samarTlianad gaaswora (960 w.) o. tyeSelaSvilma.
27
fotosTan Se-
darebis Semdeg teqstma sabolood aseTi saxe miiRo:
“saxel(i)Ta RmrTis(aÁ)Ta, ese k(o)nqi S(e)qmna iv(a)ne er(i)sT(a)vm(a)n)
s(aloc)v(e)l(a)d m(a)Tda qr(o)n(i)k(o)nsa rp rp rp rp s(a)bais m(a)m(a)s(a)xl(i)s(o)b(a)sa”.
rogorc i. megreliZem, ise o. tyeSelaSvilma worbisis warweris ivane
erisTavi ivane tbel erisTavTan gaaigives, magram TariRi rom sxvadasxva hqon-
daT, identifikaciac sxvadasxva ivanesTan gaakeTes. Cemi azriT, dodoTis,
kldeisas da worbisis warweris ivane erisTavebi (erisTavT-erisTavebi) erTi da
igive pirovnebaa da maTi qarTlis (ara mxolod Sida qarTlis) erisTavobis
miaxloebiTi daTariRebisaTvis ukve sayrdenic mogvepoveba: es aris 960 wlis
axlo periodi. Tu asea maSin, Cven SegviZlia tbelebis genealogiuri xisTvis
kidev ori Taobis Semateba:
rogorc Cans, tbelebis “qarTls Sina ufloba” gacilebiT metis mTqmeli
iyo, vidre dRes Cven warmogvidgenia da arc maTi erisTavoba grZeldeboda sul
raRac oci weli
28
. tbelebi eklesias aSeneben Sida qarTlSic da qvemo
qarTlSic (samSvildis regionSi), xolo ivane tbeli qarTlis erisTavT-eris-
Tavis titulsac atarebs. marTalia, “qarTlis cxovrebis” cnobebiT afxazTa
mefeebi periodulad maT Secvlas cdiloben, magram, Cans, tbelebi Tavis ufle-
bebs mTeli X s-is manZilze ara Tmoben da maTi meTaurobiT qarTlis
warCinebulTa brZolac qveynis gasaerTianeblad mebrZoli afxazTa mefeebis
winaaRmdeg, amis niSania. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom kldekaris erisTavebis
aRzeveba moRrisi brZolis Semdeg, tbelebis mier qarTlis erisTavobis
dakargvis Semdeg iwyeba.

“romelnime daÃocnes, romelnime daipyrnes da sxuani meotni gardaixuewnes
da daifanCnes”

ivane tbels xuTi vaJiSvili hyavda. amaTgan Cven ukve vicnobT
spandaRudsasa da qavaTars. radgan qavTaris Ze tbeli misi SviliSvilia, me
vuSveb SesaZleblobas, rom ivanes mesame vaJic tbelis saxels atarebda. bagrat
III-sTan brZolaSi qarTlis didebulebs saTaveSi udgas qavTar tbeli. eWvi ar
unda iyos, rom mas mxarSi amoudgebodnen Zma spantaRud da vaJi tbelic. Tqma
ar unda, misi sul cota kidev erTi Zma, mosalodnelia saxelad tbeli,
agreTve monawileobda brZolebSi.
zemoTac davwere, rom bagrat mesamesTan brZolaSi mis mowinaaRmdegeTagan
zogi rom daiRupa, zogi tyved Cavarda, xolo zogi gadaixvewa da gaifanta sxva-
dasxva mxares, cxadia pirvel rigSi tbelebs unda exebodes. sxvebis Sesaxeb
zustad jer araferi viciT, magram qavTaris Ze tbeli rom gardacvlilia
(albaT daRupuli), viciT borcvisjvris warweridan. isic kargad viciT
balatunusis warweridan, rom spantaRud tbelis Ze 1031 wels bizantiis imperiis

26
komunisti, 1981, 14 ivnisi.
27
О. Ткешелашвили, Предварительный отчет о работе цорбисской экспедиции,
Полевые археологические исследования в 1981 подуб Ебилисиб 1984, gv. 71.
arcerT am Sexedulebas ar iziarebs j. gvasalia “qronologiur
Seusabamobis» gamo. vfiqrob, raRac gaugebrobasTan gvaqvs saqme, radgan
dodoTis warweras igi, ratomRac, XI s-iT ixseniebs (ix. Джондо Гвасалиа,
Историческая география Восточной Грузии, Тбилиси, 1991, gv. 65.
28
Sdr. lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 59. Tbelebis sagvareulos
mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb ix. m. lorTqifaniZe, feodaluri saqarTvelos
politikuri gaerTianeba, gv. 252-257.
didi moxelea, laodikeis strategosi. daaxloebiT 982 wlidan 1031 wlamde
gasulia 49 weli, xolo 1040 wlamde _ 58. Ggasagebia, rom moRrisis brZolis
dros spantaRudi da misi Zmebi mcirewlovanebi iqnebodnen. magram qarTlSi maT
mainc ar datovebdnen, asakSi Sesulebs Tavisi sagvareulo uflebebisTvis
brZola rom ar daewyoT.

spandaRud tbeli bizantiaSi

spandaRudi ar unda iyos saqarTvelodan didi xnis, jer kidev bavSvobaSi
wasuli. misTvis qarTul enaze warweris gakeTeba, miuxedavad imisa, eyoleboda
Tu ara mas mkiTxveli, jer kidev didad mniSvnelovania. maS, sad aris igi
mowifulobamde?
sumbat daviTis Ze gvamcnobs:
“gardaicvala giorgi (giorgi I), mamaÁ amis bagratisi (bagrat IV), TrialeTs
. . . qoronikonsa s~m~z (1027), Tuesa agÂstosa i~e (15) . . . da dajda Semdgomad
missa mefed Ze misi bagrat cxrisa wlisaÁ. xolo aznaurni taoelni warvides
saberZneTs: vaCe kariWis-Ze da baneli episkoposi iovane, da amaT Tana umravles-
ni aznaurni taoÁsa[ani], romelnime cixovanni da romelnime ucixoni. ganudges
bagrats da mierTnes kostantines, Zmasa basili berZenTa mefisasa, romeli
Semdgomad missa mefe iyo”.
29

amave movlenebis TviTmxilveli somexi istorikosi aristakes
lastiverteli (XI s.) mogviTxrobs:
“1027 wels mefem (bizantiis keisarma romanos mesamem _ z. a.) aRmosavleT
mxareSi gamogzavna mmarTvelad saWurisi vinme nikit[a], romelic movida saqar-
TveloSi da macduri sityvebiT qveynis bevri aznauri gamoiyvana samSoblodan
da mefis karze gagzavna. es rom [keisarma] ixila, ganixara, pativi sca maT didi
ZRveniTa da saxelisuflebo CiniT, TviTeul maTgans uboZa maTi Rirsebisamebr
soflebi da dabebi xelweriliTa da beWdiT samaradiso samemkvidreod”.
30

matiane qarTlisaÁ
31
da sumbat daviTis Ze
32
ar asaxeleben bizantiis keisris
mier aRmosavleTis mmarTvelad dayenebuli nikitas (Νικητας) saxels da mo-
ixsenieben mas TanamdebobiT _ katabani (berZn. Κατερα νω katepano) aRmosavleTisa
anu iberiis Temisa, iseve rogorc mis Semdeg gamogzavnil simons
33
mxolod
parkimanozis (παρακοιµενος parakimenos, qarT. “mesawoleT-uxucesi”
34
) tituliT
moixsenieben.
didia albaToba, rom saWuris Nnikita katepanis mier gadabirebul qarTvel
warCinebulTa Soris iyo taoSi gadaxvewili spantaRud tbelis Zec.
rogorc Cans, amave rigis movlenas asaxavs meore somexi istorikosis
maTeos urhaecis (XII s.) cnoba: romanos III-is alepoze laSqrobaSi (1030) monawi-
leobs “vinme mTavari apuqap (bizant. wyaroebSi “apokapes”, arab. Aabu xaf),
romelic winaT qarTvelTa mefis daviT kurapalatis “mesawoleT-uxucesi” (somx.

29
qarTlis cxovreba, gv. 374; am ambavs daaxloebiT aseve yveba matiane
qarTlisaÁ, iqve, 278.
30
Պատմութիւն Արիստակիսի Լաստիվետցւոյ, Աշխատասիրությամբ Կ. Ն.
Յուզբաշյանի, Երեվան, 1963, gv. 41. citirebulia gamocemidan: aristakes
lastiverteci, istoria, qarTuli Targmani gamokvleviTa da
komentarebiT gamosca e. cagareiSvilma, Tbilisi, 1974, gv. 24. Cems mier
motanil teqtSi mcireodeni, araarsebiTi cvlilebia Setanili.
31
qarTlis cxovreba, gv. 277.
32
iqve, gv.

373.

33
iqve, gv. 278-279.
34
garigeba Ãelmwifis karisa, qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, II, teqtebi
gamosca, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo prof. i. doloiZem, Tbilisi,
1965, gv. 81, 83-84, 91, 95-96.
Վրանապահ vranapahi, berZn. παρακοιµενος parakoimenos, qarTul wyaroebSi
“parkimanoz”-i
35
) iyo. momdevno wels bizantiis keisari romanosi edesas iRebs da
mas aZlevs edesis duqsis Tanamdebobas.
36

vnaxoT axla, ra damTxvevebi gvaqvs movlenebsa da pirovnebebs Soris 1027
wels saqarTvelodan (taodan) saWuris nikita katepanis bizantiaSi dabrunebisa
da Tan qarTveli warCinebulebis gayoliebis gaTvaliswinebiT.
1. saqarTvelodan dabrunebuli patrikiosi nikita katepani ramdenime wlis
Semdeg xdeba antioqiis reqtori
37
da xelmZRvanelobs Crdilo siriis makontro-
lirebeli Zlieri cixe-simagris, balatunusis bizantiis imperiisaTvis
dabrunebas. balatunusis bilingvis mixedviT, cixe-qalaqi 1031 wels daibruna
saWurisma nikita katepanma da amave wels aRadgina laodikeis strategosma da
patrikiosma spantaRud tbelis Zem, romelic rogorc laodikeis Temis jarebis
sardali, ueWvelia qalaqis aRebaSic monawileobda da igi mis ganmgeblobaSi
Sedioda. sad SeiZleboda eseni erTmaneTs Sexvedrodnen siriaze laSqrobamde,
Tu ara taoSi, rodesac nikitam vaCe kariWisZe da sxva qarTveli didebulebi
bizantiaSi waiyvana, xolo romanoz mesamem mis mxares gadasuli qarTvelebi
sxvadasxva TanamdebobebiTa da teritoriebiT daasaCuqra. Tu vismes eqneboda

35
qarTli cxovreba, gv. 374. “parakoimenos”-i bizantiaSi, gansakuTrebiT X-
XI ss-Si Zalian maRali Tanamdeboba iyo. cxadia, aseve iqneboda daviT
kurapalatis samefoSic, risi mowmobacaa apuqapis ase dawinaureba
keisris karze. amitom misi Tanamdebobis Sesatyvisad ar viyenebT iseT
qarTul terminebs, rogoric aris, magaliTad, “sawolis mekre” an
“sawolis daraja” (garigeba Ãelmwifis karisa, gv. 85), Tumca somxur
“vranapahs” eseni ufro Seesatyvisebian. am terminebTan dakavSirebiT ix.
ilia anTelava, saqarTvelos centraluri da adgilobrivi mmarTveloba
(XI-XIII ss.), Tbilisi, 1983, gv. 32-35.
36
Մաթեոս Ուրհաեցի, Ժամանկագրութիւն, Վաղարշապատ, gv. 57. mixedavad
imisa, rom apuqapi qarTvelTa mefis daviT kurapalatis karis moxele
iyo, h. aWarianma igi da misi Svili vasili Tavis leqsikonSi Seitana
rogorc somexi moRvawe. ix. Հր. Աճարյան, Հայոց անձնանուների բառարան,
Երեվան, I, 1942, gv. 202; V, 1962, gv. 276; a. kaJdani Tvlida, rom apoqapebis
qarTuli an somxuri warmoSobis ueWvelad dasabuTeba SeuZlebelia da
maT (iseve rogorc “Tornikianebsa” da “bakurianebs”) somxur-qarTul
sagvareulobebs uwodebs (ix. А. П. Каждан, Армяне в составе господствующего
класса Византийской империи в XI-XII вв, Ереван, 1975, gv. 67-71. apoqapebis
somxuri warmoSobisYyvelaze aqtiuri damcvelia v. aruTiunova-
fidaniani (ix. В.А. Арутюнова, Византийские правители Эдессы в XI в.,
Византийский временний временник, 35, 1975, gv. 141-1524; В.А. Арутюнова-
Фиданян, Армяно-византийская контактная зона (X-XI вв.), Москва. 1994. gv. 84, 85).
Tavdapirvelad apuqarpis Sesaxeb mecnierulad swori da obiqturi
pozicia daikava J. dedeianma: “qarTveli an somexi qalkedoniti”. ix.
Gérard Dédéyan, Les princes arméniens de l’Euphratése et l’Empire Byzantyn (fin XI-milieu
XII s.), L’Arménie et Byzance, Paris, 1996, gv. 82. samwuxarod, sul male manac
Seicvala pozicia, Tumca ufro rbilad: «apuqapis, ufro mosalodnelia,
somxuri saxli, qarTuli orientaciis marTlmadidebeli sarwmunoebisa”.
ix. G. Dédéyan, Le RoleGdes arméniens en Syrie du Nord pendant la reconquete Byzantine
(vers 945-1031), Byzantinische Forshungen, Amsterdam, 1999, gv. 274.
37
Werner Seibt, Das Byzantinische militärkomando “Iberia”, samecniero paradigmebi,
Tbilisi, 2009, gv. 147; qarTuli varianti ix. iqve, gv. 159.
sakmarisi motivacia saqarTvelos datovebisa, es unda yofiliyo bagrat mesamis
winaaRmdeg mebrZoli qavTar tbelis SviliSvili spandaRud tbelis Ze.
2. Sav mTaze kalipos monastris xelnaweris (P3) kolofonSi spandaRudis
zustad analogiuri epiTetiT (“adide orTave cxorebaTa Sina”), romelic bi-
zantiaSi maRal administraciul an samxedro Tanamdebobas gulisxmobs,
moxsenebulia vaCe, vfiqrob, seriozuli albaTobiT, igive vaCe kariWisZe. advili
SesaZlebelia, rom vaCe kariWisZem romanoz mesamisgan “misi Rirsebis”
Sesaferisi Tanamdeboba da mamulebi miiRo swored CrdiloeT siriaSi, ise
rogorc apuqapma (edesa) da spandaRudma (laodikea). saqme is aris, rom am
xanebSi bizantiisaTvis umTavresi mizani iyo siriis dabruneba arabebisgan da
misi teritoriebis Tavisi erTguli pirebis mier aTviseba rogorc politikurad
ise socialurad. gavrcelebuli SexedulebiT, vaCe kariWisZis Svilia Sav mTaze
moRvawe efrem mcire. Tu vaCe 1027 wlis Semdeg dasaxlda am regionSi maSin
gasagebia, rom efremi bavSvobidanve siriaSi aRizrdeboda, SesaZloa, Sav mTaze,
radgan sxvagan kargi ganaTlebis miReba ver moxerxdeboda. ara mgonia, ueWveli
iyos k. kekeliZis varaudi, TiTqos 1057 wels berZnebTan giorgi mTawmidlis
kamaTis dros efremi jer kidev iq ara yofila, radgan berZnulidan qarTulad
mTargmnelad mxolod giorgis asaxeleben qarTvelebi.
38
cxadia, 1057 wels
efremi Wabuki, ganswavlis procesSi iqneboda da mas giorgisTan aravin
gaaTanabrebda.
39
swored SeniSnavs q. bezaraSvili, rom efrem mcire “Tavis
kolofonebSi sakuTar moRvaweobasTan dakavSirebiT arsad axsenebs
konstantinepols".
40
amasve unda mowmobdes efrem mciris anderZi, romelSic igi
pirdapir wers, rom berZnuli ganaTleba man Sav mTaze miiRo “Jamsa siucbisa da
siWabukisa Cemisasa”.
kalipos monastris xelnaweris kolofonis mosaxsenebelSi, cxadia,
SemTxveviTi pirovneba ver moxvdeboda. cxadia, agreTve, kolofonSi moxseniebul
yvela pirs raRaca siaxlove da damsaxureba hqondaT Savi mTis qarTul
monastrebTan.

tbelebi svaneTSi

“matiane suaneTisa krebisaÁ”-Si (gamomcemeli p. ingoroyva XIII s-is meore
naxevriT aTariRebs
41
) maÁs krebis mosaxsenebelSi 107-e nomrad dasaxelebulia
g(iorg)i tbeliani
42
, xolo 67-e nomrad _ furTux tbeliani.
43
ReSteris krebis
mosaxsenebelSi 23-e nomrad dasaxelebulia i(van)e tbeliani.
44
radgan svanTa
gvarebis umetesoba saxelebidan an metsaxelebidan aris nawarmoebi, cxadia, ukve
sxvadasxva ojaxad Camoyalibebuli tbelianebi tbelis Camomavlebi arian.
sainteresoa, rom beCus krebis mosaxsenebelSi me-8 nomrad dasaxelebulia
“tbelis deda mTvare”.
45
es cnoba imis mimaniSnebelia, rom mosaxseneblis Sedge-
nisas saxeli “tbeli” svaneTSi jer kidev cocxalia.

38
korneli kekeliZe, Zveli qarTuli literatures istoria, I, Tbilisi.
1980, gv. 252.
39
qeTevan bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika
grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa qarTuli Targmanebis mixedviT,
Tbilisi, 2004, gv. 100.
40
iqve, gv. 101.
41
p. ingoroyva, svaneTis saistorio Zeglebi, nakveTi meore, teqtebi,
Tbilisi, 1941, gv. 114.
42
iqve, gv. 126
43
iqve, gv. 129.
44
iqve, gv. 121.
45
iqve, gv. 152.
magram romeli tbeli unda asuliyo svaneTSi, samudamod iq dasaxlebuliyo
da saTave daedo misi saxelis matarebeli sagvareulosaTvis, qarTlis Tu
samxreT-dasavleTi saqarTvelosi? vfiqrob, “svaneTis krebis matianem” amisi
pasuxic Semogvinaxa.
lhas krebis mosaxsenebelSi 324-e nomrad dasaxelebulia spandaRudiani
momaÁ. saqme is aris, rom gamomcemelma pavle ingoroyvam (da yvelam sxvam, vinc
ki am masalaze imuSava) ver warmoidgina, rom “spandaRudi” SeiZleba mTliani
anTroponimi iyos da daSala or nawilad: “spanda” da “Rudiani”, sadac misi az-
riT “spanda” saxeli iyo, xolo “Rudiani” _ gvari.
46
SeuZlebelia SemTxveviTi
iyos tbelianisa da spandaRudianis erTdrouli dadastureba svaneTSi. cxadia,
qarTlis tbelebi svaneTSi asulebi arian da aqve SeuqmniaT TavianTi
sagvareulo: tbelianebi da spandaRudianebi.

qarTlis tbelebis genealogia

kidev ufro mniSvnelovani is aris, rom tbelebis sagvareuloSi unda
vigulisxmoT ori tbelis (sakuTari saxeli) arseboba, radgan spandaRudis mama
tbeli ukve qarTlSia gardacvlili (Tu mokluli) da svaneTSi ver
gadasaxldeboda. rac Seexeba spandaRuds qarTlis tbelebSi ori gvyavs am
saxelis matarebeli: spandaRud ivanes Ze da spandaRud tbelis Ze. spandaRud
tbelis Ze bizantiaSi gadavida (Cemi azriT, taos gavliT), spandaRud ivanes Ze
ki, rogrc Cans, svaneTSi.
47
dagvrCa tbeli, romelsac adgili unda vupovoT X s-
is tbelebis genealogiur xeSi. vinaidan ivane tbelis xuTi Svilidan
jerjerobiT mxolod oris saxeli viciT, vvaraudob, rom ajanyebulTa
meTauris, qavTar tbelis erTerTi Zma SesaZloa saxelad tbeli yofiliyo.
amitom tbelebis zemoT aRdgenilAgenealogiur Stos SegviZlia gavukeToT
damateba, romelic faqtiurad dafaravs mTel X s-s dasawyisidan 80-ian
wlebamde:



ivane U”ufali qarTlisa” (X s-is pirveli oceuli)
I
Uucnobi
I
ivane erisTavi//erisTavT-erisTavi (960 weli da mis axlos)
I
spandaRud-i, qavTar-i, tbeli (?) da kidev ori Zma (960 wlis axlos)
I
tbel-i patriki _ epraqs-i? (982 wlis axlos)
I
oqropir-i, spandaRud-i, daviT-i, qavTar-i (982 wlis axlos)


46
iqve, gv. 139.
47
safiqrebelia, rom aseve gaCndnen svaneTSi rati da ratianebi, abuleTi
da abuleTianebi.

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