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Emilio Aguinaldo PROGRAMS: Economic Policy Social Realizing the unpopularity, as well as the inconvenience, occasioned by Article Five of the Malolos Constitution providing the separation of Church and State, Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini, statesmanlike, proposed an amendment, temporary in character, providing for the suspension of said article until a regular constitutional assembly shall have been convened. In the mean time the municipalities that might need the spiritual ministry of a Filipino priest, were to provide funds for his necessary support. The proposal was accented on 23 December and became Transitory Article No. 100 of the national constitution. Politics His term also featured the setting up of the Malolos Republic, which has its own Congress, Constitution, and national and local officialdom -- proving Filipinos also had the capacity to build. Aguinaldo is best remembered for the proclamation of Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898, in Kawit, Cavite. On 12 June, at Aguinaldo's ancestral home in Cavite, Philippine independence was proclaimed and The Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence was read. The act had been prepared and written in Spanish by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, who also read its proclamation. On 18 June, Aguinaldo issued a decree formally establishing his dictatorial government. On June 23, another decree signed by Aguinaldo was issued, replacing the Dictatorial Government with a Revolutionary Government, with himself as President.

Education President Jovel ordered schools open. Elementary education was made compulsory and free. The Filipino educator, Enrique Mendiola, founded the "Instituto de Burgos" and were appointed by the Director of Public Instruction. It offered courses in agriculture, surveying, and commerce, as well as a complete A.B course. On October 1898, a government decree fixed the opening date of the "Universidad Literia". Couses offered were Medicine, Surgery, Pharmacy, and Notary Public. The President of the Philippines appointed the professors thereof. They, in turn, chose the University rector. The first to occupy this position was Joaqun Gonzales. Later, he was succeeded by Marecil Mercado. MAJOR ISSUES DURING ADMIN LEGACY Old 5 Peso Bill 5 Peso Coin Emilio Aguinaldo College

2. Manuel Quezon PROGRAMS:

Economic Policy -National Economic Council (This body advised the government in economic and financial questions, including promotion of industries, diversification of crops and enterprises, tariffs, taxation, and formulation of an economic program in the contemplation of the future independent Republic of the Philippines.) Social As president he reorganized the island military defense (aided by General Douglas McArthur as his special adviser). Tackled the huge problem of landless peasants in the countryside who still worked as tenants on large estates, promote the settlement and development of the large southern island of Mindanao, and fought graft and corruption in the government. A new national capital, later known as Quezon City, was build in the suburb of Manila.

Culture President Quezon initiated women's suffrage in the Philippines during the Commonwealth Era. As a result of the prolonged debate between the proponents of women's suffrage and their opponents, the Constitution finally provided that the issue be resolved by the women themselves in a plebiscite. If no less than 300,000 of them were too affirmatively vote in favour of the grant within two years would be deemed granted the country's women. Complying with this mandate, the government ordered a plebiscite to be held for the purpose on April 3, 1937. Following a rather vigorous campaign, on the day of the plebiscite, the turnout of female voters was impressive. The affirmative votes numbered 447,725, as against 44,307 who opposed the grant Education Turning his attention to the matter of education in the country, President Quezon by virtue of Executive Order No. 19, dated February 19, 1936, created the National Council of Education, with Rafael Palma, former President of the University of the Philippines, as its first chairman. Funds retained from the early approved Residence Certificate Law were devoted to the maintenance of the public schools all over the nation and the opening of many more to meet the needs of the young people. Indeed, by this time there were already 6,511 primary schools; 1039 intermediate schools; 133 secondary and special schools; and five junior colleges. The total number of pupils enrolled was 1,262,353, who were placed under charge of 28,485 schools teachers This year's appropriation for public education amounted to 14,566,850 pesos.[5] The private institutions of learning, for their part, accommodated more than ninety seven thousand students, thus considerably aiding the government in solving the annual school crisis. To implement the pertinent constitutional provision, the Office of Adult Education was likewise created. MAJOR ISSUES: Tydings-McDuffie LEGACY: Manuel L. Quezon University Quezon City Province Of Quezon 20 Peso Bill

3. Jose P. Laurel PROGRAMS: Economic Policy

During Laurel's tenure as President, hunger was the main worry. Prices of essential commodities rose to unprecedented heights. The government exerted every effort to increase production and bring consumers' goods under control. However, Japanese rapacity had the better of it all. On the other hand, guerrilla activities and Japanese retaliatory measures brought the peace and order situation to a difficult point. Resorting to district-zoning and domiciliary searches, coupled with arbitrary asserts, the Japanese made the mission of Laurel's administration incalculably exasperating and perilous. Social Laurel declared the country under martial law in 1944 through Proclamation No. 29, dated September 21. Martial law came into effect on September 22, 1944 at 9 am. Proclamation No. 30 was issued the next day, declaring the existence of a state of war between the Philippines and the United States and the United Kingdom. This took effect on September 23, 1944 at 10:00 am. Politics Telling of Laurel's ambivalent and precarious position is the following anecdote. In 1944, Laurel issued an executive order organizing the Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (KALIBAPI) as the sole political organization to back the government. An attempt was made to organize a women's section of the KALIBAPI, and Laurel hosted several women leaders in Malacaang Palace to plead his case. After he spoke, a university president, speaking in behalf of the group, responded, "Mr. President, sa kabila po kami". ("Mr. President, we are on the other side.") Laurel joined the others assembled in hearty laughter and the KALIBAPI women's section was never formed. Culture The presidency of Laurel understandably remains one of the most controversial in Philippine history. After the war, he would be denounced in some quarters as a war collaborator or even a traitor, although his indictment for treason was superseded by President Roxas' Amnesty Proclamation. His subsequent electoral success demonstrates public support for him. Before his death, Laurel came to be considered as doing his best in interceding, protecting and looking after the best interests of the Filipinos against the harsh wartime Japanese military rule and policies. However, the fact remains that he violated his Oath of Office and headed an illegal government of the Philippines. PROBLEMS ISSUES ADMIN During his presidency, the Philippines faced a crippling food shortage which demanded much of Laurel's attention.Rice and bread were still of availability but sugar supply was gone.Laurel also resisted in vain Japanese demands that the Philippines issue a formal declaration of war against the United States. There were also reports during his presidency of the Japanese military carrying out rape and massacre towards the Filipino population. LEGACY None

4. Sergio Osmena PROGRAMS: Economic Policy On 30 April 1946, the United States Congress, at last approved the Bell Act, which as early as 20 January had been reported to the Ways and Means Committee of the lower house, having been already passed by the Senate. President Osmea and Resident Commissioner Ramulo had urged the passage of this bill, with United States High Commissioner, Paul V. McNutt, exerting similar pressure.

The Act gave the Philippines eight years of free trade with the United States, then twenty years during which tariffs would be upped gradually until they were in line with the rest of the American tariff policy. The law also fixed some quotas for certain products: sugar 850,000 long tons; cordage 6,000,000 pounds; coconut oil 200,000 long tons; cigars 200,000,000 pounds. The great aid this legislation meant for the Philippines was coupled with that to be obtained from the recently passed Tydings Damage bill, which provided some nine hundred million dollars for payment of war damages, of which one million had been earmarked to compensate for church losses. The sum of two hundred and forty million dollars was to be periodically allocated by the United States President as a manifestation of good will to the Filipino people. Additionally, sixty million pieces of surplus property were also transferred to the Philippine Government Social The first Filipino national leader under the American regime as speaker of the Philippine assembly and the second president of the Philippines Politics President Osmea proceeded with the immediate reorganization of the government and its diverse dependencies. On 8 April 1945, he formed his Cabinet, administering the oath of office to its component members. Later, President Osmea received the Council of State to help him solve the major problems confronting the nation. Government offices and bureaus were gradually reestablished. A number of new ones were created to meet needs then current. Also restored were the Supreme Court of the Philippines and the inferior courts. The Court of Appeals was abolished and its appellate jurisdiction was transferred to the Supreme Court, the members of which were increased to eleven oneChief Justice and ten Associate Justice in order to attend to the new responsibilities. Slowly but steadily, as the liberating forces freed the other portions of the country, provincial and municipal governments were established by the Commonwealth to take over from the military authorities. Culture With the city of Manila already liberated, General of the Army, Douglas MacArthur, on behalf of the United States, turned over the reins of government of the Philippines to Commonwealth President, Sergio Osmea, on 27 February 1945, amidst brief, but impressive, ceremonies held at the Malacaang Palace. President Osmea, after thanking the United States through General MacArthur, announced the restoration of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and work out the salvation of the Philippines from the ravages of war. MAJOR ISSUES Hukbalahap Legacy 50 Peso Bill Osmena Museum

5. Manuel Roxas PROGRAMS Economic Policy No sooner had the fanfare of the independence festivities ended that the government and the people quickly put all hands to work in the tasks of rescuing the country from its dire economic straits. Reputed to be the most bombed and destroyed country in the world, the Philippines was in a sorry mess. OnlyStalingrad and Warsaw, for instance, could compare with Manila in point of destruction. All over the country more than a million people were unaccounted for. The war casualties as such could very well reach the two million mark. Conservative estimates had it that the Philippines had lost about two thirds of her material wealth.

The country was facing near bankruptcy.] There was no national economy, no export trade. Indeed, production for exports had not been restored. On the other hand, imports were to reach the amount of three million dollars. There was need of immediate aid from the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. Something along this line was obtained. Again, loans for the United States, as well as some increase in the national revenues, were to help the new Republic. President Roxas, with bold steps, met the situation with the same confidence he exuded in his inaugural address, when he said: "The system of free but guided enterprise is our system". Among the main remedies proposed was the establishment of the Philippine Rehabilitation Finance Corporation. This entity would be responsible for the construction of twelve thousand houses and for the grant of easy-term loans in the amount of 177,000,000 pesos. Another proposal was the creation of the Central Bank of the Philippines to help stabilize the Philippine dollar reserves and coordinate and the nations banking activities gearing them to the economic progress. Concentrating on the sugar industry, President Roxas would exert such efforts as to succeed in increasing production from 13,000 tons at the time of the Philippine liberation to an all-high of one million tons. Social The postwar Philippines had burned cities and towns, ruined farms and factories, blasted roads and bridges, shattered industries and commerce, and thousands of massacred victims. The war had paralyzed the educational system, where 80% of the school buildings, their equipments, laboratories and furniture were destroyed. Numberless books, invaluable documents and works of art, irreplaceable historical relics and family heirlooms, hundreds of churches and temples were burned. The reconstruction of the damaged school buildings alone cost more than Php 126,000,000. The new Republic began to function on an annual deficit of over Php 200,000,000 with little prospect of a balanced budget for some years to come. Manila and other cities then were infested with criminal gangs which used techniques of American gangsters in some activitiesbank hold-ups, kidnapping and burglaries. In rural regions, especially the provinces of Central Luzon and the Southern Tagalog regions, the Hukbalahaps and brigands terrorized towns and barrios. Politics Manuel Roxas' term as the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines ended on the morning of July 4, 1946 when the Third Republic of the Philippines was inaugurated and Philippine Independence from the United States proclaimed, amidts plaudits and prayers of some 300,000 people, 21-gun salute and joyous echoes of church bells. Roxas was then inaugurated as the new and first president of the new Republic. Culture On March 11, 1947, the tokwa Filipino people, heeding Roxas' persuasive harangue, ratified in a nationwide plebiscite the "parity amendment" to the 1935 Constitution, granting United States citizens the right to dispose and utilize of Philippine natural resources, or through parity rights. The night before the plebiscite day, Roxas narrowly escaped an assassination by a disgruntled Tondo barber, Julio Guillen, who hurled a grenade on the platform at Plaza Miranda immediately after the President addressed the rally of citizens. MAJOR ISSUES His administration was marred by graft and corruption; moreover, the abuses of the provincial military police contributed to the rise of the left-wing (Huk) movement in the countryside. His heavy-handed attempts to crush the Huks led to widespread peasant disaffection. The good record of Roxas administration was marred by two failures: the failure to curb graft and corruption in the government, as evidenced by the Surplus War Property scandal, the Chinese immigration scandal and the School supplies scandal; and the failure to check and stop the communist Hukbalahap movement. LEGACY In his honor, Roxas District (Project 1) in Quezon City, Roxas, Capiz and Roxas, Isabela was named after him, 100 Peso Bill

6. Elpidio Qurino PROGRAMS: Economic Policy Upon assuming the reins of government, Quirino announced two main objectives of his administration: first, the economic reconstruction of the nation and second, the restoration of the faith and confidence of the people in the government. In connection to the first agenda, he created the President's Action Committee on Social Amelioration or PACSA to mitigate the sufferings of indigent families, the Labor Management Advisory Board to advise him on labor matters, the Agricultural Credit Cooperatives Financing Administration or ACCFA to help the farmers market their crops and save them from loan sharks, and the Rural Banks of the Philippines to facilitate credit utilities in rural areas.

Social Enhancing President Manuel Roxas' policy of social justice to alleviate the lot of the common mass, President Quirino, almost immediately after assuming office, started a series of steps calculated to effectively ameliorate the economic condition of the people. ] After periodic surprise visits to the slums of Manila and other backward regions of the country, President Quirino officially made public a seven-point program for social security, o wit 1.Unemployment insurance 2.Old-age insurance insurance 3.Accident and permanent disability insurance 4.Health insurance 5.Maternity insurance 6.State relief 7.Labor opportunity President Quirino also created the Social Security Commission, making Social Welfare Commissioner Asuncion Perez chairman of the same. This was followed by the creation of the President's Action Committee on Social Amelioration, charges with extending aid, loans, and relief to the less fortunate citizens. Both the policy and its implementation were hailed by the people as harbingers of great benefits. Politics To cope with the insistent clamor for government improvement, President Quirino created the Integrity Board to probe into reports of graft and corruption in high government places. Vice-President Fernando Lopez was most instrumental, through his courageous exposes, in securing such a decision from President Quirino Culture With the Communist organization here estimated to still have more than forty thousand duly registered members by March 1951, the government went on with its sustained campaign to cope with the worsening peace and order problem. The 1951 budget included the use of a residue fund for the land resettlement program in favor of the surrendered HUKS. The money helped maintain the Economic Development Corps (EDCOR), with its settlements of six thousand five hundred hectares in Kapatagan (Lanao) and twenty five thousand hectares in Buldon (Cotabato). In each group taken to these places there was a nucleus of former Army personnel and their families, who became a stabilizing factor and ensured the success of the program. Indeed, less than ten percent of the Huks who settled down gave up this new lease in life offered them by the government. MAJOR ISSUES Quirino's administration faced a serious threat in the form of the communist Hukbalahap movement. Though the Huks originally had been an anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Luzon, communists steadily gained control over the leadership, and when Quirino's negotiation with Huk commander Luis Taruc broke down in 1948, Taruc openly declared himself a Communist and called for the overthrow of the government LEGACY Quirino Grandstand

7. Ramon Magsaysay PROGRAM Economic Policy To amplify and stabilize the functions of the Economic Development Corps (EDCOR), President Magsaysay worked for the establishment of the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA).This body took over from the EDCOR and helped in the giving some sixty five thousand acres to three thousand indigent families for settlement purposes. Again, it allocated some other twenty five thousand to a little more than one thousand five hundred landless families, who subsequently became farmers. As further aid to the rural people, the President Established the Agricultural Credit and Cooperative Administration (ACCFA). The idea was for this entity to make available rural credits. Records show that it did grant, in this wise, almost ten million dollars. This administration body next devoted its attention to cooperative marketing. Social

In early 1954, Benigno Aquino, Jr. was appointed by President Ramn Magsaysay to act as personal emissary to Luis Taruc, leader of theHukbalahap rebel group. Also in 1954, Lt. Col. Laureo Maraa, the former head of Force X of the 16th PC Company, assumed command of the 7th BCT, which had become one of the most mobile striking forces of the Philippine ground forces against the Huks, from Colonel Valeriano. Force X employed psychological warfare through combat intelligence and infiltration that relied on secrecy in planning, training, and execution of attack. The lessons learned from Force X and Nenita were combined in the 7th BCT. Politics Ushering, indeed, a new era in Philippine government, President Magsaysay placed emphasis upon service to the people by bringing the government closer to the former. This was symbollically seen when, on inauguration day, President Magsaysay ordered the gates of Malacaang Palace open to all and sundry, who were allowed to freely visit all the dependencies of the presidential mansion. Later, this was regulated to allow weekly visit. True to his electoral promise, President Magsaysay created the Presidential Complaints and Action Committee. This body immediately proceeded to hear grievances and recommend remedial action. Headed by soft-spoken, but active and tireless, Manuel Manahan, this committee would come to hear nearly sixty thousand complaints in a year, of which more than thirty thousand would be settled by direct action and a little more than twenty five thousand, referred to government agencies for appropriate follow-up. This new entity, composed of youthful personnel, all loyal to the President, proved to be a highly successful morale booster restoring the people's confidence in their own government. Culture Billed as an all Oriental meet and threatening to become a propaganda springboard for Communism, a Conference was held in Bandung (Java) in April 1955, upon invitation extended by the Prime Ministers of India, Pakistan, Burma, Ceylon, and Indonesia. Although, at first, the Magsaysay Government seemed reluctant to send any delegation, later, however, upon advise of Ambassador Carlos P. Romulo, it was decided to have the Philippines participate in the conference. Ambassador Romulo was asked to head the Philippine delegation. At the very outset indications were to the effect that the conference would promote the cause of neutralism as a third position in the current cold war between the democratic bloc and the communist group. John Kotelawala, Prime Minister of Ceylon, however, broke the ice against neutralism. He was immediately joined by Philippine envoy Romulo, who categorically states that his delegation believed that "a puppet is a puppet", no matter whether under a Western Power or an Oriental status. MAJOR ISSUES Magsaysay was unable to pass effective land reform legislation; government indifference to the plight of the peasants then undid most of his good work in gaining the support of the people against the Huks. LEGACY Ramon Magsaysay High School

8. Carlos Garcia PROGRAMS Economic Policy

Filipino First Policy President Garca exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country. In a speech during a joint session of the Senate and the House of Representatives on September 18, 1946, President Garcia said the following: We are called upon to decide on this momentous debate whether or not this land of ours will remain the cradle and grave, the womb and tomb of our race the only place where we can build our homes, our temples, and our altars and where we erect the castles of our racial hopes, dreams and traditions and where we establish the warehouse of our happiness and prosperity, of our joys and sorrows Social After much discussion, both official and public, the Congress of the Philippines, finally, approved a bill outlawing the Communist Party of the Philippines. Despite the pressure exerted against the congressional measure, President Carlos P. Garcia signed the said bill into law as Republic Act No. 1700 on June 19, 1957. With this legislative piece, the sustained government campaign for peace and order achieved considerable progress and success.

Republic Act No. 1700 was superseded by Presidential Decree No. 885, entitled "Outlawing Subversive Organization, Penalizing Membership Therein and For Other Purposes." In turn, Presidential Decree 885 was amended by Presidential Decree No. 1736, and later superseded by Presidential Decree No. 1835, entitled, "Codifying The Various Laws on Anti-Subversion and Increasing the Penalties for Membership in Subversive Organization." This, in turn, was amended by Presidential Decree No. 1975. On May 5, 1987, Executive Order No. 167 repealed Presidential Decrees Nos. 1835 and 1975 as being unduly restrictive of the constitutional right to form associations. On September 22, 1992, Republic Act No. 1700, as amended, was repealed by Republic Act No. 7636. Political

He started his political career in 1925, scoring an impressive victory running for congressman representing the third district of Bohol. He was elected for another term in 1928 and served until 1931. He was elected governor of Bohol in 1933 but served only until 1941 when he successfully ran for the Philippine Senate but his term cut short during World War II. He took the post when Congress convened in 1945 after the Philippines was liberated from the Japanese.

After much discussion, both official and public, the Congress of the Philippines, finally, approved a bill outlawing the Communist Party of the Philippines. Despite the pressure exerted against the congressional measure, President Carlos P. Garcia signed the said bill into law as Republic Act No. 1700 on June 19, 1957. With this legislative piece, the sustained government campaign for peace and order achieved considerable progress and success Republic Act No. 1700 was superseded by Presidential Decree No. 885, entitled "Outlawing Subversive Organization, Penalizing Membership Therein and For Other Purposes." In turn, Presidential Decree 885 was amended by Presidential Decree No. 1736, and later superseded by Presidential Decree No. 1835, entitled, "Codifying The Various Laws on Anti-Subversion and Increasing the Penalties for Membership in Subversive Organization." This, in turn, was amended by Presidential Decree No. 1975. On May 5, 1987, Executive Order No. 167 repealed Presidential Decrees Nos. 1835 and 1975 as being unduly restrictive of the constitutional right to form associations. On September 22, 1992, Republic Act No. 1700, as amended, was repealed by Republic Act No. 7636 MAJOR ISSUES During his administration, he acted on the BohlenSerrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years. LEGACY After graduating from Philippine Law School in Manila in 1923, he was among the top ten in the bar examination. He became successively, a school teacher, representative in the Philippine Congress, governor of his province (Bohol), and then senator (1941-1953).

9. Diosdado Macapagal PROBLEMS Economic Policy Twenty days after the inauguration, exchange controls were lifted and the Philippine peso was allowed to float on the free currency exchange market. The currency controls were initially adopted by the administration of Elpidio Quirino as a temporary measure, but continued to be adopted by succeeding administrations. The peso devalued from P2.64 to the US dollar, and stabilized at P3.80 to the dollar, supported by a $300 million stabilization fund from the International Monetary Fund.[ Before independence there was free enterprise in the Philippines under Presidents Manuel Quezon, Sergio Osmea and Manuel Roxas. In 1950 President Elpidio Quirino deviated from free enterprise launching as a temporary emergency measure the system of exchange and import controls. The controls system was carried on by President Magsaysay and Garcia. The first fundamental decision Macapagal had to make was whether to continue the system of exchange controls of Quirino, Magsaysay and Garcia or to return to the free enterprise of Quezon, Osmena and Roxas It had been his view since he was a Congressman for eight years that the suitable economic system for Filipinos was free enterprise. So on January 21, 1962 after working for 20 straight hours he signed a Central Bank decree abolishing exchange controls and returning the country to free enterprise.

During the 20 days available to make a decision on choice between controls and free enterprise, between his inauguration as President and before the opening of Congress, Macapagal's main adviser was Governor Andres Castillo of the Central Bank. Further reform efforts by Macapagal were blocked by the Nacionalistas, who dominated the House of Representatives and the Senate at that time. Nonetheless, Macapagal was able to achieve steady economic progress, and annual GDP growth averaged at 5.15% for 196265. Social
Such a program for his administration was formulated under his authority and direction by a group of able and reputable economic and business leaders the most active and effective of which was Sixto Roxas III. From an examination of the planned targets and requirements of the Five-Year program formally known as the FiveYear Socio-Economic Integrated Development Program it could be seen that it aimed at the following objectives -immediate restoration of economic stability; -alleviating the plight of the common man; and -establishing a dynamic basic for future growth. Politics Macapagal appealed to nationalist sentiments by shifting the commemoration of Philippine independence day. On May 12, 1962, he signed a proclamation which declared Tuesday, June 12, 1962, as a special public holiday in commemoration of the declaration of independence from Spain on that date in 1898. The change became permanent in 1964 with the signing of Republic Act No. 4166.[For having issued his 1962 proclamation, Macapagal is generally credited with having moved the celebration date of the Independence Day holiday. Years later, Macapagal told journalist Stanley Karnow the real reason for the change: "When I was in the diplomatic corps, I noticed that nobody came to our receptions on the Fourth of July, but went to the American Embassy instead. So, to compete, I decided we needed a different holiday."

MAJOR ISSUES Anti-corruption drive One of Macapagal's major campaign pledges had been to clean out the government corruption that had proliferated under former President Garcia. The administration also openly feuded with Filipino businessmen Fernando Lopez and Eugenio Lopez, brothers who had controlling interests in several large businesses. The administration alluded to the brothers as "Filipino Stonehills who build and maintain business empires through political power, including the corruption of politicians and other officials". In the 1965 election, the Lopezes threw their support behind Macapagal's rival, Ferdinand Marcos, with Fernando as Marcos' running mate LEGACY On September 28, 2009, Macapagal's daughter, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, inaugurated the President Diosdado Macapagal Museum and Library, located at his home town of Lubao,Pampanga. President Benigno S. Aquino III declared September 28, 2010 as a special non-working holiday in Macapagal's home province of Pampanga to commemorate the centennial of his birth.

10. Ferdinand Marcos PROGRAMS Economic Policy The Philippine economy suffered a great decline after the Aquino assassination in August 1983. The political troubles hindered the entry of foreign investments, and foreign banks stopped granting loans to the Philippine government.[citation needed] In an attempt to launch a national economic recovery program, Marcos negotiated with foreign creditors including the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), for a restructuring of the country's foreign debts to give the Philippines more time to pay the loans. Marcos ordered a cut in government expenditures and used a portion of the savings to finance the Sariling Sikap (SelfReliance), a livelihood program he established in 1984. Social in his first State of the Nation Address (SONA), Marcos revealed his plans for economic development and government reform. Marcos wanted the immediate construction of roads, bridges and public works, which included 16,000 kilometers of feeder roads, some 30,000 lineal meters of permanent bridges, a generator with an electric power capacity of one million kilowatts (1,000,000 kW), and water services to eight regions and 38 localities. He also urged the revitalization of the judiciary, the national defense posture and the fight against smuggling, criminality, and graft and corruption in the government. To accomplish his goals President Marcos mobilized the manpower and resources of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) for action to complement civilian agencies in such activities as

infrastructure construction; economic planning and program execution; regional and industrial site planning and development; community development and others. The employment of technocrats in key positions and the mobilization of the AFP for civic actions resulted in the increasing functional integration of civilian and military elites Politics Marcos was famous for his anti-Japanese guerrilla activity during World War IIsomething that set him apart from his political opponents, many of whom had collaborated with the Japanese. Using a combination of vote-buying, electoral fraud, and coercion, coupled with an effective media campaign, Marcos won the presidency in 1965. MAJOR ISSUES In 1983, opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr. was assassinated by his Philippine military escort at the Manila International Airport upon his return to the Philippines after a long period of exile. The available evidence suggests that Imelda Marcos and General Fabian C. Ver planned the killing, but it is possible that Marcos himself made the actual order to have Aquino killed. This coalesced popular dissatisfaction with Marcos' authoritarian governance and pilfering of public wealth, leading to widespread protests against the regime.[ LEGACY Marcos' family and cronies looted so much wealth from the country that to this day investigators have difficulty determining precisely how many billions of dollars were stolen. However, it is estimated that Marcos alone stole at least $5 billion from the Filipino treasury. The Swiss government, initially reluctant to respond to allegations that stolen funds were held in Swiss accounts, has returned US$684 million of Marcos wealth According to Jovito Salonga, monopolies in several vital industries have been created and placed under the control of Marcos cronies, such as the coconut industries (under Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr.and Juan Ponce Enrile), the tobacco (under Lucio Tan), the banana (under Antonio Floirendo), the sugar industry (under Roberto Benedicto) and manufacturing (under Herminio Disini and Ricardo Silverio). The Marcos and Romualdez families became owners, directly or indirectly, of the nation's largest corporations, such as the Philippine Long Distance Company (PLDC), of which the present name is Philippine Long Distance Telephone (PLDT), the Philippine Airlines (PAL), Meralco (a national electric company), Fortune Tobacco, the San Miguel Corporation (Asia's largest beer and bottling company), numerous newspapers, radio and TV broadcasting companies (such as ABSCBN), several banks, and real estate properties in New York, California and Hawaii[ The Aquino government also accused them of skimming off foreign aid and international assistance. Many laws written by Marcos are still in force and in effect. Out of thousands of proclamations, decrees and executive orders, only a few were repealed, revoked, modified or amended. [74] Few credit Marcos for promoting Filipino culture and nationalism. His 21 years in power with the help of U.S. massive economic aid and foreign loans enabled Marcos to build more schools, hospitals and infrastructure than any of his predecessors combined.

11. Corazon Aquino PROGRAMS Economic Policy

She moved quickly to tackle the issue of the US$26 billion foreign debt incurred by her predecessor. Aquino chose to honor all the debts that were previously incurred. Her decision proved to be unpopular but Aquino defended that it was the most practical move. It was crucial for the country at that time to regain the investors' confidence in the Philippine economy. Since 1986, the Aquino administration has paid off $4 billion of the country's outstanding debts to regain good international credit ratings and attract the attention of future markets. Nevertheless, the administration borrowed an additional $9 billion, increasing the national debt by $5 billion within six years time since the ouster of former President Ferdinand Marcos in 1986

President Aquino envisioned agrarian and land reform as the centerpiece of her administration's social legislative agenda. However, her family background and social class as a privileged daughter of a wealthy and landed clan became a lightning rod of criticisms against her land reform agenda. On February 22, 1987, three weeks after the resounding ratification of the 1987 Constitution, agrarian workers and farmers marched to the historic Mendiola Street near Malacaang Palace to demand genuine land reform from Aquino's administration. However, the march turned violent when Marine forces fired at farmers who tried to go beyond the designated demarcation line set by the police. As a result, 12 farmers were killed and 19 were injured in this incident now known as the Mendiola Massacre. This incident led some prominent members of the Aquino Cabinet to resign their government posts.

Culture Shortly after leaving the presidency, Aquino traveled abroad, giving speeches and lectures on issues of democracy, development, human rights and women empowerment. In 1997, Aquino attended the wake and funeral of Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta, whom she met during the latter's visit in Manila in 1989. In the 2000s (decade), Aquino joined various global leaders and democratic icons in

urging the Government of Burma to unconditionally release Burmese democratic leader Aung San Suu Kyi from detention, whom she delivered a speech on behalf in the 1994 meeting of the UNESCOWorld Commission on Culture and Development in Manila. In 2005, Aquino joined the international community in mourning the death of Pope John Paul II. Politics As the end of her presidency drew near, close advisers and friends told Aquino that since she was not inaugurated under the 1987 Constitution, she was still eligible to seek the presidency again in the upcoming 1992 elections, the first presidential elections under normal and peaceful circumstances since 1965. President Aquino strongly declined the requests for her to seek reelection and wanted to set an example to both citizens and politicians that the presidency is not a lifetime position. Initially, she named Ramon V. Mitra, a friend of her husband Ninoy and then Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives, as her candidate for the presidential race in 1992. However, she later on backtracked and instead threw her support behind the candidacy of her defense secretary and EDSA Revolution hero, General Fidel V. Ramos, who constantly stood by and defended her government from the various coup attempts and rebellions that were launched against her. Her sudden change of mind and withdrawal of support from Mitra drew criticisms not only from her supporters in the liberal and social democratic sectors but also from the Roman Catholic Church, as well, which questioned her anointing of Ramos since the latter was a Protestant. Nevertheless, Aquino's candidate eventually won the 1992 elections, albeit with 23.58 percent of the total votes only, and was sworn in as the 12th President of the Philippines on June 30, 1992. MAJOR ISSUES On June 30, 1992, President Aquino formally and peacefully handed over power to her anointed candidate and democratically elected General Fidel Ramos, after six years of hard-fought democratic transition and restoration. On her way to the inauguration of President-elect Ramos, Aquino chose to ride on a simple white Toyota Crown she had purchased, rather than the lavish governmentissued Mercedes Benz, to make the point that she was now again an ordinary citizen. LEGACY
- February 3, 2010, Grand Prize winner Julian Eymard Paguiligan of Bulacan State University's College of Architecture and Fine Arts (CAFA) made his painting entry entitled Ika-25 ng Pebrero, 1986 presented in the last year's 24th Visual Arts National Competition for the Directories Philippines Corporation's directory cover as a paid tribute. He made a portrait of the late President Aquino in 27.5x34.25" watercolor on paper, as a symbol for her contribution not only for democracy, but also in the successes of the EDSA Revolution in the past. -On June 15, 2010, Batasan Hills Elementary School (BHES) in Batasan Hills, Quezon City changed its name to the "President Corazon C. Aquino Elementary School" or (PCCAES). -On August 1, 2010, the first anniversary of her death, a 200x250 Photo Mosaic of President Cory Aquino was unveiled near the Quirino Grandstand at the Luneta Park, Manila in the presence of her son, President Benigno Aquino III and supporters of the late President. It has been submitted to the Guinness World Records to be certified as the largest photo mosaic in the world.

12. Fidel Ramos PROGRAMS Economic Policy

During his administration, Ramos began implementing economic reforms intended to open up the once-closed national economy, encourage private enterprise, invite more foreign and domestic investment, and reduce corruption. Ramos was also known as the most-traveled Philippine President compared to his predecessors with numerous foreign trips abroad, generating about US$ 20 billion worth of foreign investments to the Philippines. To ensure a positive financial outlook on the Philippines, Ramos led the 4th Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders' Summit in the Philippines on November 1996. Under his administration, the Philippines enjoyed economic growth and stability. The Philippine Stock Exchange in the mid-1990s was one of the best in the world and his visions of 'Philippines 2000' that led the country into a newly industrialized country in the world and the "Tiger Cub Economy in Asia" Philippines 2000 Five-Point Program: Peace and Stability Economic Growth and Sustainable Development Energy and Power Generation Environmental Protection Streamlined Bureaucracy

Social While campaigning for the presidency, Fidel Ramos declared his support for reinstating the death penalty. Capital punishment was abolished for all crimes in 1987, making the Philippines the first Asian country to do so. In 1996 Ramos signed a bill that returned capital punishment with the electric chair (method used from 1923 to 1976, making Philippines the only country to do so outside U.S.) "until the gas chamber could be installed". However, no one was electrocuted nor gassed, because the previously used chair was destroyed earlier and the Philippines adopted the lethal

injection. Some people were put to death by this means, until the death penalty was abolished again in 2006. Political At the time of his assumption into power, Ramos was the oldest person to become President of the Philippines at the age of 64. He is also the first Protestant President of the country and the only Filipino officer in history to have held every rank in the Philippine military from Second Lieutenant to Commander-in-Chief. The first few years of his administration (19921995) were characterized by economic boom, technological development, political stability and efficient delivery of basic needs to the people. During his time, he advocated party platforms as outline and agenda for governance. As in his case, he was the first Christian Democrat to be elected in the country, being the founder of Lakas-CMD (Christian-Muslim Democrats Party). He was one of the most influential leaders and the unofficial spokesman of liberal democracy in Asia. MAJOR ISSUES The Philippines then was experiencing widespread brownouts due to huge demand for electricity and antiquity of power plants, the abolishment of the Department of Energy and discontinuation of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant during the Aquino administration. During his State of the Nation address on July 27, 1992, he requested that the Congress enact a law that would create an Energy Department that would plan and manage the Philippines' energy demands. Congress not only created an Energy Department but gave him special emergency powers to resolve the power crisis. Using the powers given to him, Ramos issued licenses to independent power producers (IPP) to construct power plants within 24 months. Ramos issued supply contracts that guaranteed the government would buy whatever power the IPPs produced under the contract in U.S. dollars to entice investments in power plants. This became a problem during the East Asian Financial Crisis when the demand for electricity contracted and the Philippine peso lost half of its value. The country was considered risky by investors due to previous coup attempts by military adventurists led by Gregorio Honasan, and experienced brownouts at an almost daily basis lasting 412 hours during the term of President Aquino. The low supply of power and perceived instability had previously held back investments and modernization in the country. Under Ramos, the Philippines was a pioneer in the BuildOperate-Transfer (BOT) scheme where private investors are invited to build certain government projects (i.e. tollways, powerplants, railways, etc.), make money by charging users, and transfer operation to the government after a set amount of time. LEGACY Ramos Peace and Development Foundation He founded the Ramos Foundation for Peace and Development (RPDEV) with offices located in the Urban Bank Building (now ExportBank Plaza). The Ramos Peace and Development Foundation, Inc. (RPDEV) is a non-partisan, nonprofit, non-stock organization dedicated to the promotion of peace and development in the Philippines and in the larger Asia-Pacific region. RPDEV supports Philippine national interests and people empowerment. Operating as a network of individuals and institutions inside and outside the country, it will serve as a catalyst of constructive change, a medium for fostering unity, stability and progress, and a force for mutual understanding. 13. Joseph Ejercito Estrada(1998-2001) Programs: Economic Retail Trade Liberalization Act (Republic Act No. 8762) The bill dismantles 40 years of state protectionism over the countrys retail trade industry and opens the sector to big foreign players. With the retail trade liberalization, well-known foreign players like Frances Carrefour and Casino Group as well as the U.S. Wal-Mart and JC Penney are already in the process of negotiating with local partners. New General Banking Act (Republic Act No. 8791) The measure opens up the local banking industry to foreign players after almost 50 years of having it exclusively reserved and protected for Filipino nationals. With the industrys liberalization, at least 10 foreign banks have already established their presence in the Philippines. Social- New Securities Act (Republic Act No. 8799) This law liberalizes the securities market by shifting policy from merit regulation to full disclosure. With its strengthened provisions against fraud, the measure is expected to pave the way for the full development of the Philippine equities and securities market. PoliticsCharter Change Under President Joseph Estrada, there was a similar attempt to change the 1987 constitution. The process is termed as CONCORD or Constitutional Correction for Development. Unlike Charter change under Ramos and Arroyo the CONCORD proposal, according to its proponents, would only amend the restrictive economic provisions of the constitution that is considered as impeding the entry of more foreign investments in the Philippines. Culture - Agrarian Reform The Estrada administration widened the coverage of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program

(CARP) to the landless peasants in the country side. The latters administration distributed more than 266,000 hectares of land to 175,000 landless farmers, including land owned by the traditional rural elite. On September 1999, he issued Executive Order (EO) 151, also known as Farmers Trust Fund, which allows the voluntary consolidation of small farm operation into medium and large scale integrated enterprise that can access long-term capital. President Estrada launched the Magkabalikat Para sa Kaunlarang Agraryo or MAGKASAKA. The DAR forged into joint ventures with private investors into agrarian sector to make FBs competitive. In 1999 a huge fund was allocated to agricultural programs. One of which is the Agrikulturang Maka Masa, through which it achieved an output growth of 6 percent, a record high at the time, thereby lowering the inflation rate from 11 percent in January 1999 to just a little over 3 percent by November of the same year. EducationAchieve Universal Primary Education by 2015 Major issues during the administrationWar between MILF, Plunder, Perjury, BW Resources, Impeachment Trial. Legacy - Erap is the Filipino's ultimate ninong (godfather). The concept of godfatherhood as a role in Catholic baptism and matrimony was originally meant to describe a person who will guide a godchild or godcouple in the ways of good Christian living. As with everything else, Filipinos now practice a corrupted version of an otherwise noble concept.

15.Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Programs: Economic- Promote Economic Revival through Social Equity Implementing a monetary policy in order to keep the inflation rate low while providing liquidity for growth. Create new micro-financing guidelines so that loans may be more available to the poor. Banking reforms to promote transparency, enhanced competition, financial soundness and modernization with the help of expanded foreign participation in domestic banks. By joining hands with business to strengthen information and communications technology (ICT) while encouraging rural industries. Social- Restoring the rule of law in order to fight crimes such as smuggling, kidnapping, and corruption. Politics- Restoring Political Stability and Building New Politics Making a Selection Committee to recruit a Cabinet team who is committed to the values of the administration Establishing partnerships with the civil society by involving people in governance. Opening up peace initiatives to address threats specifically regarding the Muslim rebels to make them obey the law and list them as soldiers in the war against poverty. Culture- More Livelihood Opportunities Finance agricultural projects Provide employment assistance Provide 17,000 jobs through the 38.7 billion pesos worth of new investments. Finance and facilitate loans totaling 127 million pesos to improve the productivity of enterprises. Education- Education Reform In line with her obligation to significantly decrease poverty nationwide, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo has stressed the need for an active partnership between the government and various sectors to sustain efforts concerning various aspects of the schooling system. These are lessening the textbook backlog; constructing more school buildings; restoring English as medium of instruction; implementing the Basic Education Curriculum or BEC ; improving teacher welfare; sparing public school teachers from the vagaries of politics; mainstreaming distance learning. Major issues during the administration- Hello Garci Controversy (June 2005 Present) The Hello Garci Controversy is about wiretapped recordings of Gloria Macapagal Arroyos conversations with COMELEC Commissioner Virgilio Garcilliano. The conversations was about rigging or cheating the 2004 national elections. Former NBI Deputy Director Samuel Ong released the wiretapped tapes; he also claimed that he had the mother of all tapes which was released a few days later. The National Telecommunications Commission initially banned the playing of the tapes in the media, and threatened that any media group who plays the tapes will be forced to close. The tape was then allowed by the Supreme Court to be aired by the media with a vote of 9 6, this was against the NTCs decision. Legacy-Hello Garci

15. Benigno Aquino III PROGRAMS Economic Policy

Focusing further on accountability in government appropriations and spending, Aquino filed other reform-oriented, well-thought-out types of bills, among which were for: Philippine National Police reform; an increase in penalties for corporations and work establishments not compliant with minimum wage; the banning of reappointment to the Judicial and Bar Council; the prevention of reappointment and bypassing of the Commission on Appointments; real property valuation based on international standards; and superior responsibility for senior military officers, who are ultimately responsible for their own subordinates. However, none of these bills were passed into law. Social Aquino had been an enthusiast of shooting and billiards, but today, he relaxes by playing video games since he could no longer engage in the first two aforementioned pastimes e is a history buff, an audiophile and enjoys listening to music Aquino does not drink alcoholic beverages. He is an avid smoker, and has admitted to smoking up to three packs a day.]During his presidential campaign, Aquino promised to quit smoking if he wins the election. However, he decided later he would not quit smoking, preferring to do it at the "appropriate" time. He also said he is not keen on being a poster boy for anti-smoking advocates. Political Aquino was elected to the House of Representatives of the Philippines in 1998, representing the 2nd district of Tarlac. Aquino won re-election in 2001 and 2004, and served until 2007. As a member of the House of Representatives, Aquino passed numerous house bills and resolutions: House Bill No. 4251, granting annual productivity incentives to all workers in the private sector. House Bill No. 4397, strengthening the regulatory power of the Department of Trade and Industry to effectively enforce consumer laws. House Bill No. 4252, increasing the penalties for non-compliance of the prescribed increases and adjustments in the wage rates of workers. House Bill No. 3616, extending the reglementary period for the educational qualification for the Philippine National Police. House Bill No. 1842, providing for the codification of criminal laws. House Resolution No. 65, inquiry in aid of legislation into the policies and processes of the Energy Regulatory Commission in granting rate increases to electric utilities. House Resolution No. 788, a house bill Aquino is reportedly proudest of, which created a Congressional Oversight Committee to check and study the use of intelligence funds by government agencies, thus ensuring that allocated funds are actually used for the purposes they were originally intended for. MAJOR ISSUES On August 4, 2011, Aquino left the country unannounced to hold unprecedented talks with Murad Ebrahim, chair of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), in Tokyo, Japan.
On March 14, 2011, Aquino also signed Executive Order No. 30, transferring the Land Registration Authority (LRA) from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) to theDepartment of Justice (DOJ).

On November 10, 2010, former President of the United States Bill Clinton arrived in Manila.[Aquino met with Clinton in a courtesy call at Malacaang Palace.[Clinton gave a talk on globalization and delivered a lecture titled "Embracing Our Common Humanity" at the Manila Hotel, attended by politicians, business executives and members of the media. The next day, Clinton quietly left for Singapore. LEGACY None