Date 1250 1450 1504 1590 1593 1608 1625 1629 1642 1643 1650 1656 1661 1668

1671 1698 1701 1710 1712 1714 1717 1725 1745 1752 1758 1759 1764 1769 1769 1769 1775 1780 1780 1783 1784 1785 1786 1788 1791 1792 1793 1795 1796 1796

Invention Or Discovery Magnifying glass Printing press Pocket watch Compound microscope Water thermometer Telescope Blood transfusion Steam turbine Adding machine Barometer Air pump Pendulum clock Methanol Reflecting telescope Calculating machine Steam pump Seed drill Piano Steam engine Mercury thermometer Diving bell Stereotyping Leyden jar (condenser) Lightning rod Achromatic lens Marine chronometer Spinning jenny Spinning frame Steam engine (with separate condenser) Automobile Submarine Steel pen Bifocal lens Balloon Threshing machine Power loom Steamboat Flyball governor Gas turbine Illuminating gas Cotton gin Hydraulic press Lithography Smallpox vaccination

Inventor Or Discoverer Roger Bacon Johann Gutenberg Peter Henlein Zacharias Janssen Galileo Hans Lippershey Jean-Baptiste Denys Giovanni Branca Blaise Pascal Evangelista Torricelli Otto von Guericke Christiaan Huygens Robert Boyle Isaac Newton Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Thomas Savery Jethro Tull Bartolomeo Cristofori Thomas Newcomen Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit Edmund Halley William Ged E.G. von Kleist Benjamin Franklin John Dollond John Harrison James Hargreaves R. Arkwright James Watt Nicholas-Joseph Cugnot David Bushnell Samuel Harrison Benjamin Franklin Joseph Michel Montgolfier and Jacques Étienne Montgolfier Andrew Meikle Edmund Cartwright John Fitch James Watt John Barber William Murdock Eli Whitney Joseph Bramah Aloys Senefelder Edward Jenner

Nationality English German German Dutch Italian Dutch French Italian French Italian German Dutch Irish English German English English Italian British German English Scottish German American British British British English British French American English American French British British American British British Scottish American English German British

1799 1800 1800 1801 1804 1804 1804 1805 1810 1810 1814 1815 1816 1819 1820 1820 1821 1823 1823 1824 1827 1829 1829 1830 1830 1831 1831 1831 1834 1835 1837 1838

Fourdrinier machine (papermaking) Jacquard loom Electric battery Pattern loom Screw propeller Solid-fuel rocket Steam locomotive Electroplating Food preservation (by sterilization and exclusion of air) Printing press Railroad locomotive Safety lamp Bicycle (no pedals) Stethoscope Hygrometer Galvanometer Electric motor Silicon Electromagnet Portland cement Friction match Typewriter1 Braille printing Platform scales Sewing machine Phosphorus match Reaper Dynamo Electric streetcar Pistol (revolver) Telegraph Morse code

Louis Robert Joseph Marie Jacquard Count Alessandro Volta Joseph Marie Jacquard John Stevens William Congreve Richard Trevithick Luigi Gasparo Brugnatelli François Appert Frederick Koenig George Stephenson Sir Humphry Davy Karl D. Sauerbronn René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laënnec J.F. Daniell Johann Salomo Cristoph Schweigger Michael Faraday Jöns Jakob Berzelius William Sturgeon Joseph Aspdin John Walker W.A. Burt Louis Braille Thaddeus Fairbanks Barthélemy Thimonnier Charles Sauria Cyrus Hall McCormick Michael Faraday Thomas Davenport Samuel Colt Samuel Finley Breese Morse Sir Charles Wheatstone Samuel Finley Breese Morse Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre and Joseph Nicéphore Niepce William Henry Fox Talbot Charles Goodyear James Nasmyth Kirkpatrick MacMillan Robert William Thompson Richard March Hoe Ascanio Sobrero Christian Friedrich Schönbein Crawford Williamson Long F.J. Monier Walter Hunt James Bicheno Francis

French French Italian French American British British Italian French German British British German French English German British Swedish British British British American French American French French American British American American American British American French British American Scottish British American American Italian German American French American American

1839 1839 1839 1839 1845 1846 1846 1846 1846 1849 1849 1849

Photography Vulcanized rubber Steam hammer Bicycle (with pedals) Pneumatic tire Rotary printing press Nitroglycerin Guncotton Ether Reinforced concrete Safety pin Water turbine

1850 1851 1851 1852 1852 1852 1855 1855 1856 1858 1859 1860 1861 1861 1861 1861 1865 1866 1866 1868 1868 1868 1870 1871 1874 1876 1877 1877 1877 1877 1877 1878 1878 1879 1879 1879 1879 1880

Mercerized cotton Breech-loading rifle Opthalmoscope Nonrigid airship Elevator (with brake) Gyroscope Hypodermic syringe Safety matches Bessemer converter (steel) Harvester Spectroscope Gas engine Web-fed newspaper printing press Electric furnace Machine gun Kinematoscope Antiseptic surgery Paper (from wood pulp, sulfite process) Dynamite Dry cell

John Mercer Edward Maynard Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz Henri Giffard Elisha Graves Otis Jean Bernard Léon Foucault Alexander Wood J.E. Lundstrom Sir Henry Bessemer Charles and William Marsh Gustav Robert Kirchhoff and Robert Wilhelm Bunsen Jean-Joseph-Étienne Lenoir Richard March Hoe Wilhelm Siemens Richard Jordan Gatling Coleman Sellers Joseph Lister Benjamin Chew Tilghman Alfred Bernhard Nobel Georges Leclanché Carlos Glidden and Christopher Latham Sholes George Westinghouse John Wesley Hyatt and Isaiah Hyatt

British American German French American French Scottish Swedish British American German French American British American American English American Swedish French American American American Belgian American American Italian German American American American American Swedish British American American British German American American

Typewriter Air brake Celluloid Continuous current dynamo Zénobe-Théophile Gramme Quadruplex telegraph Thomas Alva Edison Alexander Graham Bell 2 Telephone Antonio Meucci Internal-combustion engine (four-cycle) Nikolaus August Otto Talking machine (phonograph) Thomas Alva Edison Microphone Emile Berliner Electric welding Elihu Thomson Refrigerator car G.F. Swift Cream separator Carl Gustav de Laval Cathode ray tube Sir William Crookes Cash register James J. Ritty Incandescent filament Thomas Alva Edison lamp Sir Joseph Wilson Swan Automobile engine (two-cycle) Karl Benz Arc lamp Charles Francis Bush Linotype Ottmar Mergenthaler

1884 1884 1884 1884 1884 1885 1885 1887 1887 1887 1887 1887 1888 1888 1889 1890 1891 1891 1891 1891 1892 1892 1892 1892 1893 1893 1893

Steam turbine

1894 1895 1895 1895 1896 1898 1900 1902

C.A. Parsons Comte Hilaire Bernigaud de Rayon (nitrocellulose) Chardonnet Multiple-wheel steam turbine Sir Charles Algernon Parsons Nipkow disk (mechanical television scanning device) Paul Gottlieb Nipkow Fountain pen Lewis Edson Waterman Chichester A. Bell and Graphophone (dictating machine) Charles Sumner Tainter AC transformer William Stanley Air-inflated rubber tire J.B. Dunlop Gramophone (disk records) Emile Berliner Gas mantle Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach Mimeograph Albert Blake Dick Monotype Tolbert Lanston Adding machine (recording) William Seward Burroughs Kodak camera George Eastman Steam turbine C.G. de Laval Rayon (cuprammonium) Louis Henri Despeissis Glider Otto Lilienthal Motion picture camera Thomas Alva Edison (kinetograph) William K. L. Dickson Motion picture viewer Thomas Alva Edison (kinetoscope) William K. L. Dickson Synthetic rubber Sir William Augustus Tilden AC motor Nikola Tesla Three-color camera Frederick Eugene Ives Rayon (viscose) Charles Frederick Cross Vacuum bottle (Dewar flask) Sir James Dewar Photoelectric cell Julius Elster Hans F. Geitel Diesel engine Rudolf Diesel Charles Edgar Duryea and Gasoline automobile J. Frank Duryea Louis Jean Lumière and Auguste Marie Lumière Charles Francis Jenkins Motion picture projection X-ray Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen Rayon (acetate) Charles Frederick Cross Wireless telegraph Marchese Guglielmo Marconi Experimental airplane Samuel Pierpont Langley Sensitized photographic paper Leo Hendrik Baekeland Rigid dirigible airship Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin Valdemar Poulsen Radiotelephone

English French British German American American American Scottish American Austrian American American American American Swedish French German American British American British British American American British British German German American French American German British Italian American American German Danish

1902 1903 1903 1903 1905 1906 1907 1907 1908 1908 1909 1910 1910 1911 1911 1911 1911 1912 1913 1913 1913 1913 1915 1916 1916 1916 1919 1922-26 1922 1923 1923 1924 1925 1926 1926 1928 1930

Radiotelephone Airplane Windshield wipers Electrocardiograph Diode rectifier tube (radio) Gyrocompass Bakelite Triode amplifier tube (radio) Cellophane Two-color motion picture camera Salvarsan Hydrogenation of coal Gyroscopic compass and stabilizer Air conditioning Vitamins Cellophane Neon lamp Mercury-vapor lamp Ramjet engine

Reginald Aubrey Fessenden Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright Mary Anderson Willem Einthoven Sir John Ambrose Fleming Hermann Anschütz-Kämpfe Leo Hendrik Baekeland Lee De Forest Jacques Edwin Brandenberger C. Albert Smith Paul Ehrlich Friedrich Bergius Elmer Ambrose Sperry W.H. Carrier Casimir Funk Jacques Edwin Brandenberger Georges Claude Peter Cooper Hewitt René Lorin

American American American Dutch British German American American Swiss British German German American American Polish Swiss French American French American American American American American American American British American American Canadian Spanish American American American Norwegian American British American

Multigrid electron tube Irving Langmuir Cracked gasoline William Meriam Burton Heterodyne radio receiver Reginald Aubrey Fessenden Automobile self-starter Browning gun (automatic rifle) Gas-filled incandescent lamp X-ray tube Mass spectrograph Charles Franklin Kettering John Moses Browning Irving Langmuir William David Coolidge Sir Francis William Aston Arthur Jeffrey Dempster

Sound motion pictures T.W. Case Insulin Sir Frederick Grant Banting Autogiro Juan de la Cierva Television iconoscope Quick-frozen food Television image dissector tube Aerosol can Liquid-fuel rocket Penicillin Bathysphere Vladimir Kosma Zworykin Clarence Birdseye Philo Taylor Farnsworth Erik Rotheim Robert Hutchings Goddard Sir Alexander Fleming (Charles) William Beebe

1930 1930 1930 1931 1931 1932 1932 1933 1935 1935 1935 1935 1935 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1939 1940 1941 1942 1942 1942 1944 1945 1945 1946 1947 1947 1947 1947 1947 1948 1948 1948 1949

Freon (low-boiling fluorine compounds) Modern gas-turbine engine Neoprene (synthetic rubber) Cyclotron Differential analyzer (analogue computer) Phase contrast microscope Van de Graaff generator Frequency modulation (FM) Buna (synthetic rubber) Radiolocator (radar) Cortisone Electron microscope Sulfanllamide Nylon Twin-rotor helicopter3 Snowmobile Ballpoint pen DDT Helicopter4 Betatron Turbojet aircraft engine Guided missile Nuclear reactor Xerography V-2 (rocket-propelled bomb) Atomic bomb Streptomycin Electronic digital computer Holography Chlormycetin Polaroid Land camera Bathyscaphe Microwave oven Scintillation counter Aureomycin Transistor Ramjet airplane

Thomas Midgley and coworkers Sir Frank Whittle Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland and Wallace Hume Carothers Ernest Orlando Lawrence Vannevar Bush Frits Zernike Robert Jemison Van de Graaff Edwin Howard Armstrong German scientists Sir Robert Watson-Watt Edward Calvin Kendall Tadeus Reichstein German scientists Gerhard Domagk Wallace Hume Carothers Heinrich Focke Armand Bombardier Georg and Ladislao Biro Paul Müller Igor Sikorsky Donald William Kerst Sir Frank Whittle Wernher von Braun Enrico Fermi Chester Carlson German scientists U.S. government scientists Selman A. Waksman John Presper Eckert, Jr., and John W. Mauchly Dennis Gabon Mildred Rebstock Edwin Herbert Land Auguste Piccard Percy L. Spencer Hartmut Kallmann Benjamin Minge Duggar and Chandra Bose Subba Row John Bardeen, Walter Houser Brattain, and William Shockley René Leduc

American British American American American Dutch American American German British American Swiss German German American German Canadian Hungarian Swiss American American British German American American German American American American English American American Swiss American German American American French

1950 1952 1952 1953 1954 1954 1955 1955 1955 1956 1956 1956 1957 1957 1958 1959 1960 1960 1960 1962 1964 1965 1966 1966 1967 1970 1971 1971 1972 1972 1973

Color television Hydrogen bomb Bubble chamber (nuclear particle detector) Maser Solar battery Polio vaccine Synthetic diamonds Carbon dating Optical fibers Hovercraft First prototype rotary engine

Peter Carl Goldmark U.S. government scientists Donald Arthur Glaser Charles Townes Bell Telephone Laboratory scientists Jonas Salk General Electric scientists W.F. Libby Narinder S. Kapany Christopher Cockerell Felix Wankel Charles Ginsberg Ray Dolby

American American American American American American American American Indian English German American American Soviet American American American American American American American American American American South Africa American American American American Soviet American

Videotape Sodium-cooled atomic reactor U.S. government scientists Artificial earth satellite USSR government scientists Communications satellite U.S. government scientists Jack Kilby Integrated circuit Robert Noyce Charles Hard Townes, Arthur L. Laser Schawlow, and Gordon Gould Chlorophyll synthesized Robert Burns Woodward Gregory Pincus, John Rock, and Birth-control pill Min-chueh Chang Light-emitting diode (LED) Nick Holonyak, Jr. Liquid-crystal display George Heilmeier Kevlar technology Stephanie Kwolek Artificial heart (left ventricle) Michael Ellis DeBakey Tunable dye laser Mary Spaeth Human heart transplant Christiaan Neethling Barnard First complete synthesis of a gene Har Gobind Khorana Microprocessor Ted Hoff Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging Raymond Damadian Electronic pocket calculator J.S. Kilby and J.D. Merryman First magnetohydrodynamic power generator USSR government scientists Skylab orbiting space laboratory U.S. government scientists

1974 1975 1975 1976 1978 1978 1979

Recombinant DNA (genetic engineering) CAT (computerized axial tomography) scanner Fiberoptics Supercomputer Synthesis of human insulin genes Mammal to mammal gene transplants

U.S. scientists Godfrey N. Hounsfield Bell Laboratories J.H. Van Tassel and Seymour Cray Roberto Crea, Tadaaki Hirose, Adam Kraszewski, and Keiichi Itakura Paul Berg, Richard Mulligan, and Bruce Howard Joop Sinjou Toshi Tada Doi

American British American American American American Dutch Japanese

1979 1981 1982

Compact disc Genetic flaw repaired in mouse cells by recombinant DNA and micromanipulation techniques W. French Anderson and coworkers Space transportation National Aeronautics and Space system (space shuttle) Administration engineers Artificial heart Robert K. Jarvik Scanning tunneling microscope Gerd Binnig Heinrich Rohrer

American American American German Swiss

1983

1986 1992 Notes

High-temperature superconductors Magnetic boat

J. Georg Bednorz Karl A. Müller Yoshiro Saji

German Swiss Japanese

1) An impractical prototype that was never widely used.

2) Bell received a patent for the telephone in 1876, but Meucci developed an earlier model around 1860.

3) Both rotors operated on a horizontal plane.

4) One rotor operated on a horizontal plane to provide lift, while another rotor operated on a vertical plane to counter the torque generated by the first rotor.