IMECE2004

2004 ASME International Mechanical Engineering ConIerence
November 2004, Anaheim, CaliIornia, USA
IMECE2004 - 59182
EFFECT OF BITUMINOUS COAL PROPERTIES ON HEAT
TRANSFER CHARACTERISTIC IN THE BOILER FURNACES
B. Chudnovsky, A. Talanker
Israel Electric Corporation (I.E.C.)
Mechanical System Design Department
P.O. Box 10, Haifa, Israel, Phone: 972-4-8182749 Fax: 972 -4-8182792
Email:uta81¡iec.co.il
ABSTRACT
Over the past years experience has
been gained in employing changing
types oI imported coal. Apart Irom the
proximate analysis this led to
development oI evaluation criteria
regarding the operation oI coals. These
are criteria numbers obtained Irom
operational experience and criteria
numbers used Ior the characterization
oI speciIic operational properties on
the basis oI special laboratory
analyses.
The study evaluates the eIIect oI the
characteristics oI pulverized coal on
the Iurnace Iouling and radiation heat
transIer. The aim oI the study was to
access whether Iouling and radiation
heat transIer could be predicted Irom
coal characteristics.
The paper presents the experimental
results on the Iouling propensity oI
IiIteen coals tested in a 575 MW
combustion engineering tangential
Iiring boiler. The results showed that
no coals produced a strong molten
deposit. In order to rank the Iouling
propensity and radiation heat transIer
properties numerically, we measured
the proIile oI incident heat Iluxes,
deIined Iurnace exit Ilue gas
temperature and absorbed heat Iluxes.
The basic molar ratio correlates the
Iouling propensity. Besides that
increasing oI SiO
2
and Al
2
O
3
content
in the ash strongly reduces water wall
absorptivity Iactor.
The present work is also concerned
with the eIIect oI diIIerent bituminous
coal on their Ilame emissivity. Using
the radiation properties oI Ilue gases
derived Irom the Iull scale
experiments, we run computational
Iluid dynamics (CFD) on the
combustion process.
The known Iouling and radiation heat
transIer properties enable the
prediction oI the eIIect oI coal quality
on the perIormance oI a speciIic boiler.
INTRODUCTION
Due to liberalization oI the energy
markets and globalization oI coal
procurement, the management oI Iuel
has substantially gained in signiIicance
Ior power plant operators. Plant
operators are Iaced with new tasks
when purchasing imported coals at a
low price. Aside Irom the requirements
in connection with the environmentally
Iriendly and law-abiding operation oI
the plants, it must be ensured that the
Iuel can be combusted without any
operational malIunctions and at the
lowest cost possible regarding
operating supplies and plant
maintenance.
Over the past years experience has
been gained in employing changing
types oI imported coal. Apart Irom the
proximate analysis this led to
development oI evaluation criteria
regarding the operation oI coals. These
are criteria numbers obtained Irom
operational experience and criteria
numbers used Ior the characterization
oI speciIic operational properties on
the basis oI special laboratory
analyses. Most commonly the ash-
Iorming material represents between
10 and 25° oI the Ieed coal. Deposits
derived Irom the minerals and
inorganic components oI coal can
cause operational problems. Generally,
slagging reIers to molten deposits
within the Iurnace in areas directly
exposed to Ilame radiation, such as the
Iurnace walls and widely spaced
pendant superheaters. Determination oI
slagging propensity oI coal is a great
concern to the utilities. ManuIacture
and utilities use estimated slagging
propensities Irom indices based on
singly coals to guide operation and
selection oI coals.
It is very hard to determine eIIectively
and successIully the propensity to slag
under conditions close to actual
conditions in power station boilers.
Such inIormation is also required to
examine the accuracy oI the empirical
indices Ior predicting the slagging
propensity.
This paper develops the method to
rank numerically the slagging
propensity based on an expert system
Ior tracking the Iurnace and boiler
perIormance. Relatively small amounts
oI data enabled us to predict slagging
and Iouling characteristics oI coal as a
Iunction oI its chemical composition.
The slagging and Iouling Iactors serve
as a basis Ior more reliable boiler
modeling. The proposed methodology
enables the prediction oI the eIIect oI
coal quality on heat transIer
characteristic in the Iurnace and as
result prediction oI the perIormance oI
a speciIic boiler.
COAL PROPERTIES, DEFINITIONS
AND REQUIREMENTS.
Bituminous coal as a natural product
has diIIerent properties, depending on
its origin and Iormation. FiIteen coal
types were selected Ior this study. The
properties oI the organic and mineral
content oI the coals that are burned
typically in the boiler are summarized
in Table 1. As Iollows Irom the Table,
the organic content oI the coals is
almost unchanged (except volatile
matter). However, ash content and
especially ash chemistry is diIIerent Ior
various coal types. In order to predict
the inIluence oI ash elements, on
Iurnace water-wall Iouling Iormation
we classiIy ash categories using the
deIinition presented in |1,2|. In
accordance with this classiIication
bituminous coal ash may be deIined as
a lignite type (the content oI CaO ¹
MgO is larger than Fe
2
O
3
) and
bituminous type (the content oI CaO ¹
MgO is smaller than Fe
2
O
3
).
Since the characteristics oI bituminous
and lignitic ash varies signiIicantly,
criteria Ior slagging and Iouling indices
calculation is also diIIerent.
Calculation oI the slagging index (R
s
)
Ior bituminous ash takes into account
the base to acid ratio and the weight
percent, on a dry basis, oI the sulIur in
the coal. The calculation is as Iollows:
Where B ÷ CaO ¹ MgO ¹ Fe
2
O
3
¹
Na
2
O ¹ K
2
O (on a weight ° basis);
A ÷ SiO
2
¹ Al
2
O
3
¹ TiO
2;

S - weight ° sulIur, on a dry coal
basis.
The slagging index Ior lignitic ash (R
s
)
is based on ASTM ash Iusibility
temperatures. The index is a weight
average oI the maximum
hemispherical temperature (HT) and
minimum initial deIormation
temperature (IT):
Where (HT)max ÷ higher oI reducing
or oxidizing hemispherical soItening
temperatures
(IT)min ÷ lower oI the reducing or
oxidizing initial deIormation
temperature.
The Iouling index Ior bituminous ash
is derived Irom sintering strength
characteristic, using the sodium
content oI the coal ash and the base to
acid ratio as Iollows:
Where Na
2
O ÷ weight ° Irom analysis
oI coal ash.
The Iouling classiIication Ior lignite
ash coals (R
I
) is based on the sodium
content in the ash, as Iollows:
When CaO ¹ MgO ¹ Fe
2
O
3
· 20° by
weight oI coal ash and Na
2
O · 1.2° -
the ash has low Iouling tendencies.
These indices can be used on a
comparative basis to rank coals with
respect to their slagging and Iouling
potential when evaluating a new coal
supply Ior an existing unit.
The slagging indices oI the coals that
are burned typically in the boiler
belong to a low slagging category.
However, based on power plant
experience even Ior low slagging coal
Iurnace, heat transIer characteristics
may be considerably diIIerent Irom
coal to coal and we are trying to Iind
the reason Ior this phenomenon in the
presented paper. As is well known, the
most important parameter that
inIluences the boiler and Iurnace
perIormance is water-wall slagging
and emissivity characteristics.
The common way Ior the
determination oI Iouling is to perIorm
high-cost parametric tests Ior a large
number oI operation conditions.
However, the obtained Iouling value
corresponds only to coal tests and
extension oI Iuel spectrum by
utilization oI unknown coals requires
additional Iull-scale tests.
The other way oI the determination oI
Iouling and emissivity Iactor oI the
water wall can be based on using an
on- line supervision system that is
implemented in the speciIic unit. The
system can provide Iurnace Iouling Ior
diIIerent coal types. Generalization oI
the obtained results enable us to Iind a
relationship between ash
characteristics and Iouling Ior a
speciIic boiler and to use it Iurther Ior
Iurnace Iouling Iormation
determination oI unknown coals.
Furthermore, using the determined
Iouling Iactor CFD Iurnace modeling
may predict Iurnace perIormance and
pollutant emission Ior diIIerent coal
types, including unknown coals.
) 1 ( , S x
A
B
R
s
=
) 2 ( ,
5
min ) ( 4 max ) ( IT HT
R
s
+
=
) 3 ( ,
2
O Na x
A
B
R
f
=
In this study we have experimented
with diIIerent types oI the coal and
Iound that by using the proposed
methodology we obtained good
agreement with measured data. In this
paper we are presenting results Ior a
speciIic utility boiler oI the Israel
Electric Corporation. However, we
believe that the conclusions oI the
present study are general and may be
applied to other utility boilers as well.
BOILER DESIGN AND FURNACE
MODELING.
We are discussing here the results
obtained Irom 575 MW units equipped
with tangentially Iired boilers designed
by Combustion Engineering (Figure 1).
Fig.1 575 Mw unit tangentially Iiring
boiler
The boilers are equipped with twenty
straight Ilow burners, located in Iive
levels and are tangentially Iired within
the Iurnace. Five pulverizers, one Ior
each level, are used. A Iraction oI the
secondary air is Ied through the closed-
coupled overIire air ports located
above the burners. Steam capacity oI
the boiler is 1700 t/h, main
steam/reheat steam pressure are 181/43
at. Main steam/reheat steam
temperature is 540/540° C. A detailed
description oI the boiler and Iurnace
perIormance is presented in |3|.
The boiler is equipped with on-line
supervision systems |4|. The basic
Iunctional aim oI the supervision
system is to quantiIy the perIormance
oI the process (oI all units and its
elements) in real time, reporting
continuously on the controlled
parameter deviations Irom their
reIerence values. The system consists
oI data acquisition module, data
validation model, on-line interIace
system, calculation modules and a data
storage module. The three most
important independent calculation
modules are:
(1) Turbine and unit heat rate
calculation.
(2) Boiler perIormance and
eIIiciency calculation.
(3) Furnace perIormance
calculation.
The Iirst module is intended Ior turbine
cycle perIormance calculation. The
second module is based on an
algorithm that enables the provision oI
on- line boiler eIIiciency, heat duty and
cleanliness Iactors Ior each monitoring
stage. The third module is based on the
FURNACE Code |4|, which can
operate in the on-line and oII-line
modes. The FURNACE Code uses 3D-
zonal calculation model oI heat
transIer, which is described in |5|. The
code enables to calculate the
distribution oI the Ilue gases
temperature, as well as absorbed and
incident heat Iluxes at the Iurnace
walls. The Iurnace design, burned
design and arrangement, radiant heat
transIer properties oI the Ilue gas and
all the operating conditions are taken
into account. Validation oI the
calculation results is done by
comparison with Iull-scale Iurnace test
data |6|. Besides data oI Ilue gas
temperature and Ilue heat Ilux
distribution, the FURNACE code
enabled us to calculate the water-wall
cleanliness and coal burn-out
characteristics in the Iurnace and
estimate the temperature oI the water-
walls, superheater and reheater tube
metal.
In addition to the FURNACE Code, we
used the three-dimensional CFD Code
GLACIER |7|, proprietary oI Reaction
Engineering International (REI). The
computational code includes a three-
dimensional turbulent reacting Ilow,
radiative heat transIer and Lagrangian
particle tracking. Interaction among
gas phase, radiation Iields and particles
are also accounted Ior. Turbulence is
modeled by a Favre-averaged k- c
model. Gas phase reaction is calculated
by assuming local instantaneous
equilibrium. The eIIect oI turbulence
on chemical composition is
incorporated by the assumption that
mixture Iraction is described by a
prescribed probability density Iunction.
Particles are tracked by calculating the
mean trajectory Ior each discrete group
oI particles in Lagrangian Irame oI
reIerence.
Due to the Iact that most coal burnout
is completed below the superheater
panels, our numerical model oI the
boiler extends Irom the middle oI the
hopper to the Iurnace arch. Constant
backside temperature was used as a
boundary condition oI the heat transIer
equation; thermal resistance oI the
walls was estimated on the basis oI the
FURNACE Code.
The geometrical Iurnace zone model is
shown in Figure 2. The Iurnace,
burners and OFA ports modeling are
similar to real design. Furnace total
heat transIer surIace is equal to the real
one.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.
Once the program FURNACE
adaptation was completed a large
database was built. The database was
obtained by running simulations Ior the
very large number oI Iurnace operation
Fig.2 Schematic view oI the boiler and
Iurnace
conditions.All the probable alternatives
oI the Iurnace operation condition,
including abnormal or distorted
situations, are calculated through the
simulating system. The results serve as
a reliable base oI the diagnostic
system.
On the base oI control room data
acquisition system inIormation and on-
line heat Ilux probe measurements we
can solve the inverted task: to Iind out
the Iurnace operational conditions,
including heat Ilux distribution, Ilue
gas temperature, coal burnout and
water-wall resistivity (cleanliness
Iactor). It should be noted that the
Iurnace was equipped with special heat
Ilux measurement probe in the upper
part oI the Iurnace (above the burners).
The heat Ilux readings are transmitted
to the existing acquisition system. It
enables us to provide reliable
validation oI the obtained results in
real time. Calibration oI the installed
heat Ilux probe was provided by
special measurements oI the incident
heat Ilux by inserting an uncooled heat
OFA(Over Fire Air)
nozzles
end air
auxiliary air
coal nozzles
(10 in each corner)
oil nozzles
(usually used as
air ports)
end air
5
8
m
Ilux probe |8| through the Iurnace
observation doors. At the same time
the Ilue gas temperature was measured
with an optical pyrometer. The
validation oI the obtained results is
described in |6|. Calibrated heat Ilux
probes data are able to provide heat
Ilux distribution and Ilue gas
temperature in the Iurnace cross-
section and, as a result, indicate
Iireball position in the Iurnace. The
developed method also enables us to
determine heat resistance oI water-wall
slag (Iouling).
It was mentioned above that the
analysis oI the ash characteristics using
the above method shows that the coals
presented in Table 1 have low slagging
and Iouling tendencies. However, even
thin ash deposition can reduce Iurnace
heat absorption and raise the Ilue gas
temperature levels at the Iurnace exit.
This, in turn, can aggravate the Iouling
in the convection banks where ash
deposits become increasingly more
diIIicult to control as the gas
temperature increases. The shiIt oI the
absorbed heat Irom the Iurnace to the
superheater and reheater results in
increasing attemperator spray Ilow Ior
control oI steam temperatures that
reduces cycle eIIiciency. The results
on Iurnace perIormance are presented
in Figure 3. They illustrate the series oI
traces derived Irom the data obtained
Irom the Iurnace within twelve hours
at nominal continuous rate (NCR) unit
load. The sampling period Ior all
graphs is Iive minutes. Figure 3a
shows unit capacity. Figure 3b gives
the cleanliness plot Ior the Iurnace Ior
diIIerent coal types. It is seen Irom
Figure 3b that the coal type
signiIicantly inIluences the cleanliness
oI the Iurnace. Furnace cleanliness
variations during the analyzed period
are due to the sootblowing operation
(aIter sootblowing operation the
cleanliness increases and then drops
when sootblowing shuts down). Figure
3c shows Iurnace exit Ilue gas
temperature trace. It should be
mentioned that FEGT Iollows Iurnace
cleanliness and strongly depends on
the coal burned type.
520.0
530.0
540.0
550.0
560.0
570.0
580.0
590.0
600.0
7:30:00 10:22:48 13:15:36 16:08:24 19:01:12 21:54:00
U
n
i
t

I
o
a
d
,

M
w
SA, Amcoal
Austr., Warkhworth
SA, KFT
Fig. 3a Unit load
0.0018
0.002
0.0022
0.0024
0.0026
0.0028
0.003
0.0032
0.0034
0.0036
7:30:00 10:22:48 13:15:36 16:08:24 19:01:12 21:54:00
F
o
u
I
i
n
g

F
a
c
t
o
r
,

m
2
h
C
/
k
c
a
I
SA, Amcoal
Austr., Warkhworth
SA, KFT
Fig. 3b Furnace cleanliness Iactor
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500
7:30:00 10:22:48 13:15:36 16:08:24 19:01:12 21:54:00
F
E
G
T
,

C SA, Amcoal
Austr., Warkhworth
SA, KFT
Fig. 3c Furnace Ilue gas exit
temperature
Generalization oI the obtained data Ior
burning oI certain coals shows that
Iurnace cleanliness (Iouling) depends
on ash characteristics (under the same
operation condition). Figure 4 shows
the Iouling Iactor oI the Iurnace as a
Iunction oI basic content oI ash (at
NCR load Ior Iurnace clean condition
aIter sootblowing). The basic content
is equal to the ratio:
) 4 ( °, 100 x
B A
B
Basic
+
=
As may be seen Irom the data obtained
(Figure 4) basic content increasing
leads to Iouling rise.
0.0018
0.002
0.0022
0.0024
0.0026
0.0028
0.003
0.0032
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
Basic ratio, %
F
o
u
I
i
n
g

f
a
c
t
o
r
,

m
2
h
C
/
k
c
a
I
Lig. Ash
Bit Ash
Fe2O3~Cao
Fig.4 Furnace water-wall Iouling as
Iunction oI ash properties
As illustrated in |1, 2| the presence oI
basic constituents in acidic ash tends to
Ilux or reduce the melting temperature
and viscosity oI the mixture.
Conversely, the melting temperature
and viscosity oI a basic ash are reduced
by relative proportions oI acid
constituents.
It is also conIirmed by the |9| study,
where it was shown that alkaline
matter oI the ash, e.g. CaO; Fe
2
O
3
;
MgO; Na
2
O; K
2
O reduce the initial
deIormation or soItening temperature
respectively, thus enhancing the
melting oI the ash, whereas acidic
matter, e.g. SiO
2
; Al
2
O
3
; TiO
2
; P
2
O
5
increase these temperatures, thus
counteracting the slagging process.
Studies conducted by |1| on the
relationship oI ash composition to ash
viscosity have provided additional
Iactors which improve the simple base
to acid relationship. Experience has
shown that slag will Ilow readily at or
below a viscosity 250 poise. Low T
250
temperatures indicate low Iusion
temperatures and increased slagging
potential. Increasing amount oI base
constituents tend to lower the T
250
temperature and increase slagging
potential.
However, Iurnace heat transIer also
depends on Iurnace wall emissivity and
radiation properties oI the Ilue gases.
To the Iurnace heat transIer as Iunction
oI diIIerent coals burning, we should
consider the Iollowing heat transIer
mechanism presented in |10|. The
incident heat Ilux
inc
q oI the water
walls is
where
w
c is spectral emissivity and
0
o - SteIan- Boltzmann constant,
wnet
q
is net (absorpted) radiation heat Ilux,
and
w
T - water wall temperature with
the contamination, calculated by |11|
where T
Il
is water wall medium
temperature and c waterwall Iouling
Iactor.
ThereIore, incident radiation Iluxes are
equal to:
Based on the above, the net Iluxes
depend mainly on two Iactors: water-
wall emissivity and water-wall Iouling.
As presented in |10| and due to the
aIorementioned speciIic Ieatures oI the
spectra oI the radiation incident and
emitted by the layer oI contamination,
the mean total absorptivity oI the
contamination usually exceeds the
mean total emissivity. However,
sometimes such a relationship between
absorptivity (a
w
) and emissivity (
w
c ) is
violated with a change oI structure and
chemical composition oI deposits. It is
possible to say that the quantities a
w
and
w
c are equal only under conditions
oI local thermodynamic equilibrium.
) 5 ( ,
4
w
w
net w
inc
T
q
q
o
o
c
+ =
) 6 ( , ) (
net fl w
q T T c + =
) 7 ( , | |
4
0 net fl
w
net w
inc
q T
q
q c o
c
+ + =
Nevertheless, in engineering
calculation methods the ash deposits
are considered as a gray body.
It is normally assumed then that the
mean total absorptivity is numerically
equal to the mean total emissivity oI
the layer. This assumption
substantially simpliIies the
calculations, but then certain errors are
introduced into the Iinal results.
Because oI the absence oI reliable
experimental data on the quantities
w
c
(a
w
) Ior diIIerent Iuels and means oI
burning and also to simpliIy the
procedure, the standard method |11|
also employs the model oI "gray
approximation" oI the layer oI ash
deposits on heat-absorbing heat
transIer surIaces. The total absorptivity
oI contaminated water-walls (the
physical absorptivity oI the surIace) is
assumed to be constant (a
w
÷0.75)
within the temperature range Irom 800
to 1500 K Ior coal and oil Iiring.
At the same time, as obtained Irom
coal Iiring experience, the Iactor is
changed Ior diIIerent coal types. For
example, as shown in |12|, deposit
Irom high SiO
2
ash content coal
resulted in a white surIace on the
deposit. One oI the reasons oI the
white deposit comes Irom reduction oI
SiO
2
by carbon to yield vapor SiO. The
vapor will subsequently oxidize to
SiO
2
and condense |12|. As examined
by quantitative Electron Microprobe
Analyzer (EMPA), the white deposit oI
coal on the Iouling probes contains a
large quantity oI silica quartz. White
surIace on the deposit can be
considered as with low high reIlective
i.e. absorptivity Iactor
In order to clariIy inIluence oI water
absorptivity Iactor on radiation heat
transIer process in the Iurnace we
provided numerical analysis. For this
purpose we run a Iurnace calculation
Ior diIIerent absorptivity Iactors, using
common acceptance water-wall
Iouling. Generalization oI the obtained
results enabled us to receive water-wall
absorptivity as a Iunction oI acid ratio
(Figure 5).
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0.8 0.82 0.84 0.86 0.88 0.9 0.92 0.94 0.96
A/(A+B) ratio
E
m
i
s
s
i
v
i
t
y

f
a
c
t
o
r
Lig. Ash
Bit. Ash
Fe2O3~CaO
Fig.5Furnace water-wall contamination
absorptivity Iactor as Iunction oI ash
properties
Approximation oI the obtained results
may be expressed by the Iollowing
equations:
For bituminous type ash
where 0.82 ·
B A
A
+
· 0.95
For lignite type ash
where 0.80 ·
B A
A
+
· 0.87
Figure 6 shows the eIIect oI boiler
loading on water-wall contamination
heat resistance.
Fig. 6 Furnace relative water-wall heat
resistance as boiler load
) 8 ( , 40 . 4 ) ( 98 . 14 ) ( 35 . 10
2
÷
+
+
+
÷ =
B A
A
B A
A
a
w
) 9 ( , 49 . 0 ) ( 92 . 1 ) ( 81 . 1
2
+
+
+
+
=
B A
A
B A
A
a
w
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
BoiIer Load, %
R
e
I
a
t
i
v
e

H
e
a
t

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
Furnace Wall Average Condition (Between
Sootblowing)
Furnace Wall Clean Condition (After Sootblowing)
The dependence oI the Iouling on the
load is partly due to the Iollowing
known temperature relationship Ior the
conductivity oI slag |13|.
Where -
o - experimental Iactor
0
ì - conductivity Iactor
t - layer temperature
In the given Iurnace the temperature oI
the slag layers Ialls when decreasing
the load because oI the reduction oI the
heat Ilux passing through the layer, as
well as the decline in the temperature
oI boiling with a sliding pressure.
When the load changes Irom 1.0 to 0.4,
in accordance with the temperature
relationship in |13|, the conductivity
Iactor ì should be changed by about
15 - 20° and it corresponds to water-
wall cleanliness conditions aIter soot-
blowing. For water-wall cleanliness
corresponding to its layer thickness
between soot-blowing operation shiIt
deposits heat resistance is increased
(upper curve in Figure 6).
Additional problem Iaced us when
diIIerent coals burning, determination
oI radiative characteristics oI the
Iurnace medium include the data on
the emissivity and absorptivity oI
gaseous combustion products (CO
2
and
H
2
O ), and the ash, char, soot particles
suspended in the Ilow oI these gases.
The emissivity oI gaseous combustion
products in developed FURNACE
code is based on the equation |10| Ior
determination oI total absorption
coeIIicient oI gaseous products oI
combustion oI organic Iuels. This
Iormula can be presented in the Iorm
( ) ) 11 ( , 10 37 . 0 1
1 . 0
6 . 1 78 . 0
3
2
T
L p
r
O H
g
÷
¿
- ÷
-
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
= o
where
¿
=
v
v
r
O H
O H
2
2
is relative
volumetric content oI steam
O H CO
p p p
2 2
+ =
¿
is overall partial
pressure oI CO
2
and H
2
O
L - emitter layer thickness
T - Ilue gases temperature
A solid dispersed phase oI a Ilame
exerts a strong eIIect on the thermal
radiation oI a pulverized coal Ilame. In
this case in calculation oI the overall
heat transIer in Iurnaces, along with
the radiation oI gases one can only
account Ior radiation Irom Ily ash and
char particles that occupy virtually the
entire Iurnace volume.
The total absorption coeIIicient oI the
Ily ash is calculated based on equation
presented in |14|. This equation can be
presented in Iorm
( )
) 12 ( ,
1000
3
2
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
T
c
ash ash
ash
µ
o
where
ash
µ - relative concentration oI
Ily ash in the Ilue gases
T - Ilue gas temperature
ash
c - experimental Iactor, depended
on relative Ily ash surIace
For bituminous coal
ash
c Iactor is
changed Irom 16 to 20. For brown coal
it is changed Irom 10 to 16.
As distinguished Irom |11| absorption
coeIIicient Ior char particles in the
developed FURNACE code is
determined on the base oI Iollowing
equation
( ) ) 13 ( , 012 . 0 02 . 0 b c
c
÷ - + = o
where c - carbon content in the Iuel, °
b- experimental Iactor and Ior
coals with volatile matter content
between 25 to 30° is equal to 65.
Using the above Iurnace radition heat
transIer calculation method we run
simulation Ior diIIerent coals type. The
results we compare with measurement
data. Comparison results show a good
) 10 ( ), 1 (
0
t o ì ì + =
agreement between measured and
calculated data when volatile matter
content does not exceed 30 -32° |6,7|.
However, volatile matter content
increasing higher than above value
leads to disagreement between
calculated and measured results.
Here, should be noted that volatile
matter rise can lead to increasing oI
soot particles because oI volatile
matter decomposition and pyrolysis
and as result to increasing oI total
incident radiation heat Iluxes.
As obtained Irom Indonesian coal
Iiring experience, even Ior the total
absorptivity oI contaminated water
walls that is assumed to be 0.95,
Iurnace exit Ilue gas temperature is
exceeded measured value. Because oI
this reason we run Iurnace heat transIer
calculation Ior Indonesian coal type
with higher absorption coeIIicient Ior
char particles and it was Iound good
agreement between measured and
calculated heat Iluxes and Iurnace exit
temperature when Iactor b in equation
(13) is equal to 50.
Generalization oI the obtained
experimental data Ior burning oI high
volatile matter content coals shows that
volatile matter increasing Irom 30-32
to 45° leads to reduction oI Iactor b
Irom 65 to 50.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
10 20 30 40 50
Furnace height, m
H
e
a
t

f
I
u
x
,

k
W
/
m
2
Ìndonesian coal,
Calculated, 575 Mw
Unit
Ìndonesian coal,
Measured, 575 Mw
Unit
Ìndonesian coal,
Calculated, 350 Mw
Unit
Ìndonesian coal,
Measured 350 Mw
Unit
Ìndonesian coal,
Calculated
Ìndonesian coal,
Calculated, 350 Mw
Fig. 7 Heat Iluxes distribution through
the Iurnace height
Figure 7 presents the data oI the total
incident radiation Iluxes as Iunction oI
the Iurnace height Ior tangential Iiring
boiler oI the unit 575 Mw and opposite
wall Iiring unit 350 Mw when
Indonesian coal is Iiring.
The presented data cover nominal
continuous rate load Ior both units. As
can be seen Irom the obtained results
the measured values are in a good
agreement with calculated data. It
should be noted that the presented
plots oI the incident radiation heat
Iluxes are related to the Iurnace
corners. The measurements oI heat
Iluxes were perIormed through the
observation ports. It is seen Irom the
Iigure that the higher value oI the heat
Iluxes are observed in the zones
located above the level oI the burners.
It decreases in the direction to the
Iurnace exit.
Figure 8-10show the way in which
incident radiation heat Iluxes varies
over the height oI the Iurnace burning
Colombian Drummond coal (volatile
matter content is 41°), Australian
Warkworth coal (volatile matter
content is 33°) and South AIrican
Total coal (volatile matter content is
29°).
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
10 20 30 40 50
Furnace height, m
H
e
a
t

f
I
u
x
,

k
W
/
m
2
Warkworth coal,
Calculated
Warkworth coal,
Measured
Warkworth coal,
Calculated
Fig. 8 Heat Iluxes distribution through
the Iurnace height
The data presented compare measured
and calculated results and reIer to
nominal continuous rate oI the boiler
and optimal values oI the Iuel air ratio.
Generalization oI the obtained data is
shown in Figure11. The total incident
radiation heat Iluxes predicted using
corrected equation (13) Ior diIIerent
coal type show a good agreement with
measured data.
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
10 20 30 40 50
Furnace height, m
H
e
a
t

f
I
u
x
,

k
W
/
m
2
Drummond coal,
Calculated
Drummond coal,
Measured
Drummond coal,
Calculated
Fig. 9 Heat Iluxes distribution through
the Iurnace height
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
10 20 30 40 50
Furnace height, m
H
e
a
t

f
I
u
x
,

k
W
/
m
2
Total coal,
Calculated
Total coal,
Measured
Total coal,
Calculated
Fig.10 Heat Iluxes distribution through
the Iurnace height
200
300
400
500
600
200 300 400 500 600
CaIcuIated heat fIux, kW/m2
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
d

h
e
a
t

f
I
u
x
,

k
W
/
m
2
Ìndonesian coal
Warkworth coal
Drummond coal
Total coal
Fig. 11 Comparison oI calculated and
measured heat Iluxes
CONCLUSION
Utilization oI coal in highly developed
industrial countries is dominated by
pulverized coal combustion. The
dependence oI EU on imported coals is
signiIicant at the present time and will
continue to rise in the next decades.
Main export regions are South AIrica,
North and South America, Australia,
etc. This wide variety oI supplying
countries also leads to a wide scatter in
combustion behavior oI the coals.
Thus, close-to-practice assessment oI
this behavior is needed, aiming to
prevent high-cost Iull-scale testing in
real boilers. The result presented
herewith shows clearly that
implementation oI modern diagnostic
tools, generalization oI obtained results
and combined with CFD Iurnace
modeling enables the choice oI proper
coals Ior speciIic boilers without
perIorming Iull-scale tests and the
extension oI coal spectrum without
impact on boiler and unit eIIiciency
and reliable operation. We believe that
the conclusion oI the present study is
general and can be applied to other
utility boilers as well.
Nomenclature
R
s
-slagging index
R
I
- Iouling index
B - base content oI the ash
A - acid content oI the ash
w
T - water wall temperature
fl
T water wall medium temperature
L - emitter layer thickness
inc
q - incident heat Ilux
net
q - absorpted heat Ilux
r - relative volumetric content
p - partial pressure
t - contamination layer temperature
c - water wall Iouling Iactor
w
c - water wall emissivity Iactor
a
w
- water wall absorptivity Iactor
0
o - SteIan- Boltzmann constant
o - experimental Iactor
0
ì - conductivity Iactor
ash
µ - relative concentration oI Ily ash
References
|1| "Steam. Its Generation and Use ".
Babcock & Wilcox, a McDermott
Company, 40
th
Edition, Barberton,
Ohio, U.S.A., 1992, pp. 20.7 - 20.17.
|2| Alehanovitch, A., Bogomolov, V.,
Gladkov, V., et al., 1996, "Slagging
and Fouling in the Steam Boilers",
Trudi VTI, Moskva, pp. 111 - 122.
|3| Karasina, E., Livshits, B.,
Chudnovsky, B., Talanker, A., 1999,
"Application oI Zonal Combustion
Model Ior On-Line Furnace Analysis
oI
575 MW Tangenital Coal Firing
Boilers", PowerGen ConIerence,
Europe, FrankIurt (CDROM).
|4| Chudnovsky, B., Levin, L.,
Talanker., 2001, "Advanced On-Line
Diagnostic Ior Improvement oI Boiler
PerIormance and Reduction oI NOx
Emission", PowerGen ConIerence,
Europe, Brussels (CDROM).
|5| Karasina, E., Shrago, Z.,
Borevskaya, S., 1982, "The Algorithm
and Code Ior Zonal Calculations oI
Heat TransIer in Furnace oI Steam
Boilers", Teploenergetika, Moscow,
No. 7, pp. 42 - 47
|6| Karasina, E., Livshits, B.,
Chudnovsky, B., et al., 2000,"Adapting
the Code FURNACE Ior Calculations
oI Heat TransIerring the Boilers
Furnace oI a 575 MW Power
Generation Unit", Thermal
Engineering Moscow, Vol. 47, No. 11,
pp. 1031 - 1036.
|7| URL http://www.reaction-eng.com.
|8| Abryutin, A., Maidannik, M.,
Zhivaev, A., 1994, "An Uncooled
Thermal Probe Ior Measuring Incident
Heat Flux", Electricheckie Stansii, No.
3, pp. 6 - 11.
|9| Zehner, P., 2002, "Characterization
oI Power Plant Coals", VGB Power
Tech., 9, pp. 36 - 43.
|10| Blokh, A., 1984, "Heat TransIer in
Steam Boilers", Originally published
by Energoatomizadat, Leningrad,
USSR, As Teploobmen V Topkakh
Parovykh Kotlov with revision Ior the
English edition.
|11| Kuznetsov, N., Mitor V., Blokh,
A., Karasina , E., et. al., 1973,
"Thermal calculation oI boiler units",
The Normative Method. Energya
Press. Moscow, 295 pp.
|12| Su, S., Pohl, J.H., Holcombe, D.,
Hart, J.A., 2001, "Slagging
Propensities oI Blended Coals", Fuel
80, pp. 1351 - 1360.
|13| VargaItic, N.B., Oleshchuk, O.N.,
1958, "The Conductivity oI Slag in the
Solid and the Melted State",
Teploenergetica, Moskva, 12, pp. 79 -
85.
|14| Abryutin, A., Karasina, E.,
Livshits, B., Shnirman, A.,
Chudnovsky, B., 1998, "Further
Development oI the Algorithm and
Code Ior Zonal Calculations oI Heat
TransIer in the Furnaces oI Coal Firing
Units", Teploenergetika, Moscow, No.
6, pp. 20 - 24
Table 1 Summary oI properties oI the coals typically burned (organic content is in
weight percent, dry coal basis).
CoaI Type
Coal Content South
AIrican,
TCOA
South
AIrican,
Glencore
South
AIrican,
Middleburg
Australian,
Ensham
Australian,
Saxonvale
Australian,
MIM
Colombian,
Drummond
Indonesian,
KPC
South
AIrican,
Total
South
AIrican,
Anglo
Austr
alian,
Wark
worth
Total
moisture, °
7.6 7.8 7.9 9.6 9.2 7.3 12.4 9.4 8.3 7.1 9
Volatile
matter, °
27.3 27.5 24.4 32.4 34.9 27.4 41.4 44.1 29.3 26.8 33.1
Ash, ° 13.5 13.9 13.8 11.2 11.3 15.4 5.5 5.3 13.2 13.7 12.9
Fixed
Carbon, °
59.2 58.6 61.8 56.4 53.8 57.2 53.1 50.6 57.5 59.5 54
SulIur, ° 0.52 0.62 0.37 0.41 0.66 0.49 0.48 0.51 0.68 0.72 0.46
Carbon, ° 73.51 73.18 73.01 74.4 74.2 73 76.14 75.56 72.7 73.16 72.7
Hydrogen, ° 3.85 3.82 3.92 4.73 4.64 3.91 5.91 5.37 3.88 4.02 4.72
Nitrogen, ° 1.74 1.66 1.74 1.69 1.62 1.6 1.35 1.48 1.69 1.73 1.56
Oxygen, ° 6.88 6.82 7.16 7.57 7.58 5.6 10.62 11.78 7.84 6.63 6.36
6370 6420 6320 6636 6670 6450 6397 6800 6330 6420 High heating
value (as
received),
Kcal/Kg
6414
Ash Chemistry
SiO2, ° 45.52 40.67 52.28 55.4 69.5 51.7 59.83 55.03 44.79 42.15 76.4
Al2 O3, ° 32.24 35.14 35.97 27.6 20.3 34.8 24.91 25.27 29.19 32.67 15.9
Fe2 O3, ° 3.17 3.68 2.83 8.1 5.3 4.6 6.13 8.44 4.56 3.8 3.3
CaO, ° 9.92 10.92 3.04 1.24 0.61 2.1 2.16 1.7 10.55 10.84 0.55
MgO, ° 1.78 2.41 0.59 0.93 0.52 0.65 0.97 2.31 2.05 2.37 0.61
TiO2, ° 1.72 1.51 1.78 1.23 0.95 0.99 1.03 0.91 1.79 1.6 0.9
K2O, ° 0.47 0.44 0.59 2.6 0.93 1.2 0.96 2.78 0.5 0.5 0.78
Na2O, ° 0.13 0.36 0.06 0.43 0.54 0.15 0.42 0.9 0.21 0.2 0.64
SO3, ° 2.44 2.7 0.97 0.75 0.4 1.44 2.23 2.1 2.37 3.37 0.58
P2O5, ° 2.12 2.17 1.5 0.43 0.33 1.54 0.19 0.37 2.37 2.46 0.17
Initial
deIorm.
Temp, C
1340 1350 1500 1320 1300 1500 1400 1160 1320 1340 1400
SoItening
Temp., C
1350 1360 1500 1480 1500 1480 1350 1340 1360
Hemispheric
Temp., C
1380 1380 1500 1490 1560 1600 1482 1380 1350 1370 1500

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