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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Introduction of Heat Exchangers (HEXs) The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Fouling Factor Types of Heat Exchangers The Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) Method Effectiveness-number heat transfer unit (NTU) Method Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Rate Compact Heat Exchangers Analysis for Variable Properties Heat Exchanger design Consideration Ramazani, Heat Exchangers 2

Heat Exchangers

Dr. Ahmad RAMAZANI S.A.

Associate Professor Sharif University of Technology

Ramazani, Heat Exchangers

What is a heat exchanger ?

An equipment that permits to transfer heat from a hot fluid to a cold one without any direct contact of fluids Heat exchangers, can be seen in quotidian life, as well as different industries. Almost all Chemical And Petrochemical Plants, Air Conditioning Systems, Power production, Waste Heat recovery, Automobile Radiator, Central Heating System Radiator, Electronic Parts, .

Heat Exchanger can be categorized according to Flow arrangement and Type of Construction Parallel flow (fig. a) and Counter-flow (fig. b) in concentric tubes (double-pipe)

Ramazani, Heat Exchangers 3 Ramazani, Heat Exchangers

b) Counter flow

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Finned and unfinned tubular heat exchanger with cross flow

Shell-and-tube heat exchanger with one shell pass and one tube pass (Cross counter flow mode of operation)

Other types of Shell-and-tube heat exchanger

One shell pass and two tube passes

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Compact heat exchanger cores

Core of a plate Compact heat exchanger with counter flow from Aluminum, AKG America Corp.

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Heat Exchanger with fins on Surface, General Motors Corp., Lockport, NY

Heat exchanger with fins

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Fins deposited on tubes internal surface for increasing heat transfer

Heat transfer area density (m2/m3) for different types of heat exchangers

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The Overall heat transfer coefficient for walls

The Overall heat transfer coefficient for Duble-pipe (HEXs) (U can be determined from Total Thermal resistance to heat transfer between two fluid)

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Table 10.1. Approximate Values of Overall Heat-transfer Coefficient

EXAMPLE 10.1. OVERALL HEAT.TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR PIPE IN AIR.

Hot water at 98C flows through a 2-in schedule 40 horizontal steel pipe [k = 54 W/m.oC] and is exposed to atmospheric air at 20C. The water velocity is 25 cm/s . Calculate the overall heat-transfer coefficient (U) for this situation, based on the outer area of pipe. Solution. From Appendix A (P. 653) the dimensions of 2-in schedule 40 pipe are ID = 2.067 in = 0.0525 m OD = 2.375 in = 0.06033 m The heat-transfer coefficient for the water flow on the inside of the pipe is determined from the flow conditions with properties evaluated at the bulk temperature. The freeconvection heat-transfer coefficient on the outside of the pipe depends on the temperature difference between the surface and ambient air. This temperature difference depends on the overall energy balance. First, we evaluate hi and then formulate an iterative procedure to determine ho. The properties of water at 98oC are p = 960 kg/m3 = 2.82*10^-4 kg/m.s Pr = 1.76 k = 0.68 W/m.oC

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The Reynolds number is ud (960)(0.25)(0.025) Re = = = 44680 2.82 10 4 and since turbulent flow is encountered, we may use Eq. (64)

For unit length of the pipe the thermal resistance of the steel is

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EXAMPLE 10-2. OVERALL HEAT-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR PIPE IN STEAM. The pipe and hot-water system of Example 10-1 is exposed to steam at 1 atm and 100oC. Calculate the overall heat-transfer coefficient for this situation based on the outer area of pipe.

Solution. We have already determined the inside convection heat-transfer coefficient in Example 10.1 as hi = 1961 W/m2 . oC The convection coefficient for condensation on the outside of the pipe is obtained by using Eq. (9-12),

where To is the outside pipe-surface temperature. The water film properties are,

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After a period of operation, heat transfer surfaces of HEXs may become Coated with various deposits present in the flow systems Corroded Or, in general, deteriorated because of use Resulting in decreased performance because of additional resistance(s) to heat flow The overall effect of this deterioration is represented by a Fouling Factor Rf

Rf =

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1 U dirty

1 U clean

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From previous example hclean= 1961 W/m2. oC and so from above equation we can obtain hi

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Liquid Temperature profile in a Counter-flow double pipe HEXs (Oil is hot fluid in tube and water is cold one in shell)

Fluid Temperature profile in a Cross-flow Heat Exchangers (Steam is hot fluid and water is the cold one, Steam condense on the tube at a constant temperature)

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Fluid Temperature Profile in Double Pipe Heat Exchangers Parallel Flow Counter Flow

Q = UAT m Ramazani, Heat Exchangers T = Suitable mean temperature difference across HEX m

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Heat exchanges at length an element of HEXs

Putting values of mhCh and mcCc in relation obtained for ln of temperatures differences

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Fig. 10.8. Correction Factor for HEX with one Shell Ramazani, Heat Exchangers 37 and two, four, or any multiple of tube passes

Fig. 10.9. Correction Factor for HEX with Two Shell Ramazani, Heat Exchangers 38 and four, eight, or any multiple of tube passes

Fig. 10.10. Correction Factor for Single-pass Cross-flow Ramazani, Heat Exchangers 39 HEXs, both fluid unmixed

Fig. 10.11. Correction Factor for Single -pass Cross-flow Ramazani, Heat Exchangers 40 HEXs, one fluid mixed, the other unmixed

EXAMPLE. 10-4. CALCULATION OF HEAT EXCHANGER SIZE FROM KNOWN TEMPERATURE. Water at the rate of 68 kg/min is heated from 35 to 75OC by an oil having a specific heat of 1.9 kJ/kg.oC. The fluids are used in counterflow double pipe heat exchanger, and the oil enters the exchanger at 110oC and leaves at 75oC. The overall heat-transfer coefficient is 320 W/m2.oC. Calculate the heat exchanger area. Solution. The total heat transfer is determined from the energy absorbed by the water

Since all the fluid temperatures are known, the LMTD can be calculated by using the temperature scheme in Fig. 10-7b:

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F=0.81

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Use of the LMTD for calculation exchanger performance. Example 10.6. Design of Shell and tube HEXs:

Water at the rate of 30000lbm/h [3.783 kg/s] is heated from 100 to 130oF [37.78 to 54.440C] in a shell-and tube heat exchanger. On the shell side one pass is used with water as the heating fluid, 15,000 1b.m [1.892 kg/s], entering the exchanger at 200 oF [93.33oC]. The overall heat-transfer coefficient is 250 Btu/h . ft2. oF [1419 W/m2 . oC], and the average water velocity in the 3/4in [1.905-cm] diameter tubes is 1.2 ft/s[ 0.366 m/s]. Because of space limitations the tube length must not be longer than 8 ft [2.438 m]. Calculate the number of tubes per passes, and the length of the tubes. consistent with this restriction. Solution: We first assume one tube pass and check to see if it satisfies the conditions of this problem. The exit temperature of the hot water is calculated from

& & q = m c C c Tc = m h C h Th Th = Th =

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Effectiveness-NTU Method

Energy balance for a) parallel flow b) Counterflow Shell-tube HEXs

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P. 578 P. 573

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Fig. 10.15

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Example: Application of Effectiveness-NTU Method (Con.) Example: Application of Effectiveness-NTU Method (Con.)

We should assume values for the water flow rate until we could match the performance of HEX according to Fig. 10. 15 or table 10. 3. The selected iterations to approach to correct values are as follow:

Fig. 10.15

q=

o h h

& ; and q = m C T

h h

645 = 0.154 kg/s [1221 lb /h] 4180 The exit water temperatu re is accordingl y and & m =

h m

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w , exit

= 82 . 22

4 O

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For these types of heat exchangers driving mathematical relation can be difficult, however some correlation are presented to able us to calculate heat transfer and Pressure drop values for them. These correlations are based on Stanton and Reynolds dimensionless numbers Which are written based on the mass velocities in the minimum flow crosssectional area and hydraulic diameter stated in

Mass Velocity

f is friction inside the tubes and v1 and v2 are specific volume at entrance and exit and vm is its average at HEXs

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Fig. 10.20. Heat transfer and friction factor for finned circular-tube HEX

St Pr2/3 or f

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(10-33)

Where,

(10-34)

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Solution Method: The numerical-analysis procedure is clear when the inlet temperatures and flows given: 1) Choose a convenient value of Aj for the analysis. 2) Calculate the value of U for the inlet conditions and through the initial A increment. 3) Calculate the value of Q for this increment From Eq. (10-32). 4) Calculate the values of Th, Tc, and Th - Tc, for the next increment, using Eqs 10.31 and 10.34 5)Repeat the foregoing steps until all increment in A are employed

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Fig. 10.16. A rock-bed thermal-energy storage unit schematic

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Stored energy with time for the rock-bed thermal-energy storage unit of figure 10.16

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