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Look Beyond Knowledge Hub Disseminate To Empower Enable You to Excel Setting the Right Leap Set

Look Beyond

Look Beyond Knowledge Hub Disseminate To Empower Enable You to Excel Setting the Right Leap Set

Knowledge Hub

Look Beyond Knowledge Hub Disseminate To Empower Enable You to Excel Setting the Right Leap Set

Disseminate

Look Beyond Knowledge Hub Disseminate To Empower Enable You to Excel Setting the Right Leap Set

To Empower

Look Beyond Knowledge Hub Disseminate To Empower Enable You to Excel Setting the Right Leap Set

Enable You to Excel

Look Beyond Knowledge Hub Disseminate To Empower Enable You to Excel Setting the Right Leap Set

Letting You Execute

Look Beyond Knowledge Hub Disseminate To Empower Enable You to Excel Setting the Right Leap Set
Look Beyond Knowledge Hub Disseminate To Empower Enable You to Excel Setting the Right Leap Set

Setting the Right Leap

Look Beyond Knowledge Hub Disseminate To Empower Enable You to Excel Setting the Right Leap Set

Set New Milestones

MICROWAVE LINK (SDH & PDH)

Microwave

transmission

Microwave transmission refers to the technique of transmitting information over microwave frequencies, using various integrated technologies. The portion of the microwave spectrum called millimeter wave is highly susceptible to attenuation by the atmosphere (especially during wet weather).

History

Following World War II, which saw the development of high-power microwave emitters known as cavity magnetrons, the idea of using microwaves to transmit power was researched. In 1964, William C. Brown demonstrated a miniature helicopter equipped with a combination antenna and rectifier device called a rectenna. The rectenna converted microwave power into electricity, allowing the helicopter to fly. In principle, the rectenna is capable of very high conversion efficiencies - over 90% in optimal circumstances.

Different Types of Microwave Antenna

Different Types of Microwave Antenna

INTERFACES IN THE MICROWAVE LINK SYSTEM

Standard transfer rates in a radio link are defined accordingly to PDH and SDH. All the PDH signals and SDH signals are up to 155 Mbps are in principle transferrable in the radio link systems. The interface in a radio link is a definition of the transfer format and physical specification needed for connecting two network elements. The interfaces for different transfer speed are defined in ITU-T recommendation G.703.

The interface of Nokia Metro Hopper is 2 Mbps according G.703 to which at least PCM, GSM and SDH can be connected in Communications laboratory.

Uses of Microwave Communication

Used to link BTS-BSC and BSC-MSC. • Communication with satellites

Microwave radio relay links for television and telephone service providers

Uses of Microwave Communication ∑ Used to link BTS-BSC and BSC-MSC. • Communication with <a href=satellites • Microwave radio relay links for television and telephone service providers " id="pdf-obj-6-12" src="pdf-obj-6-12.jpg">
Uses of Microwave Communication ∑ Used to link BTS-BSC and BSC-MSC. • Communication with <a href=satellites • Microwave radio relay links for television and telephone service providers " id="pdf-obj-6-14" src="pdf-obj-6-14.jpg">

In GSM technology MWE links are used to link between 2 sites

In GSM technology MWE links are used to link between 2 sites

Interfaces In Microwave Communication

Microwave communication is established by two main interfaces that are:

• SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) • PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy)

PDH

The Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) is a technology used in telecommunications networks to transport large quantities of data over digital transport equipment such as fiber optic and microwave radio systems. The term plesiochronous is derived from Greek plesio, meaning near, and chronos, time, and refers to the fact that PDH networks run in a state where different parts of the network are nearly, but not quite perfectly, synchronized.

PDH allows transmission of data streams that are nominally running at the same rate, but allowing some variation on the speed around a nominal rate. By analogy, any two watches are nominally running at the same rate, clocking up 60 seconds every minute. However, there is no link between watches to guarantee they run at exactly the same rate, and it is highly likely that one is running slightly faster than the other.

In case of a PDH microwave link, we aim at receiving and transmitting the signal. For which two antennas are installed ,one for receiving and the other for transmitting.

* In some cases the link is also done by installation of one antenna. Here the BTS receives more than one E1 signals. We have to carry the E1 from the BTS and transfer it to the Indoor Unit (IDU). Through the IDU via microwave we transfer it to the next site.

*The IDU’s are also known as FIU (Flex-bus Interface Unit ). One FIU can trigger a maximum of 16 E1 signals.

FIU 19E OVERVIEW & CONNECTOR DETAIL

Flex-bus Interface Unit(FIU

19)

Flex-bus Interface Unit(FIU 19)

Procedures for a PDH Link

The microwave is assembled with respect to the features provided for the particular project.

The Out Door Unit (ODU) is mounted on the Feed Horn.

A feed horn is a device which is an interface between the transmitting / receiving signal.

The polarization is set as Horizontal or Vertical with respect to the project planning.

Then after mounting the microwave antenna on the pole-mount. We are ready for the link, then we have to follow the same procedures for the far end site through which we will be bypassing the E1 signal.

Outdoor Unit
Outdoor Unit

Microwave Antenna

At least 60% of link gets successful with a clear Fresnel Zone. The link is performed by series of hit & trial methods. This is achieved by adjusting the height and azimuth of the antenna. A perfect link can be achieved upto 60% if the microwave installation is done Carefully ,considering all aspect required for a link like Fresnel zone etc.

 At least 60% of link gets successful with a clear Fresnel Zone. The link is

Again the link depends upon the transmission card used at the far end. If FIFA is installed then the E1 is processed at the BTS and the second is grabbed from FB2 port of the FIFA. It is bypassed directly through microwave or in some cases another FIU is installed and then the E1 is bypassed to the next site.

If FIPA is used then it can be directly transmitted through it, as it can bypass 8 E1 as it is also known as integrated card.

Again the link depends upon the transmission card used at the far end. If FIFA is

Towards

Backbone

Site

Towards Backbone Site Far end Site In some cases we have to carry the E1 from
Towards Backbone Site Far end Site In some cases we have to carry the E1 from

Far end Site

In some cases we have to carry the E1 from the back bone site to the fresh site. Here we have to install two microwaves in two directions ,one towards the backbone site where we will receive the signal and one towards the fresh site to transmit it.

Backbone site

Far end Site
Far end Site

Near end Site

Flexi Hopper Indoor Units

With Flexi Hopper there are many different indoor unit types available, both stand-alone and integrated into Nokia 2G/3G BTS

one indoor unit supports multiple outdoor units (2 – 4)

indoor unit also supplies DC power to the outdoor unit (25W max per OU)

every indoor unit supports all radio frequency bands (7 – 38 GHz) every indoor unit supports all radio transmission capacities (2x2M –

16x2M)

site add/drop capacity varies according to the indoor unit configuration indoor units include 2M-level cross-connection capability between their Flexbus (OU) interfaces and their E1 interfaces

No E1-cabling at all is required on a site where Nokia base station integrated indoor units are used

this may also eliminate the need for an expensive site support cabinet, reducing site space and allowing more flexibility in site selection

FIFA is the indoor unit integrated into Nokia Flexi EDGE BTS

it can support two outdoor units, and can add/drop up to 16 E1 signals towards the BTS

Flexbus Cable

Flexbus provides a single-cable interconnection between an indoor unit and an outdoor unit, or an indoor unit and another indoor unit

bidirectional coaxial cable, operating in full-duplex mode carries digital baseband signals and control data between IU and OU also feeds DC power to the OU

Flexbus can be used also to interconnect one Flexi Hopper IU to any other Flexi Hopper IU

Flexbus Cable  Flexbus provides a single-cable interconnection between an indoor unit and an outdoor unit,

Flexi Hopper outdoor units (1)

Flexi Hopper outdoor units (1)  Flexi Hopper radios are available in the following frequency bands:

Flexi Hopper radios are available in the following frequency bands:

7, 8, 13, 15, 18, 23, 26, 28, 32 and 38 GHz

each frequency band is divided into a number of sub-bands, with various duplex spacings

Every radio can support all transmission

capacities:

2 / 4 / 8 / 16 x 2 Mbit/s

capacity is programmable with element manager no need to replace radio when capacity changes

Radios have low power consumption: 25W max per OU eliminates the need for a separate power supply contributes to higher reliability and longer running times on battery backup.

Outdoor units are small, lightweight, and easy to install radios can be installed on a roof, wall, or tower alignment unit can be mounted on either side of a pole.

Flexi Hopper outdoor units (2)

OU reliability is enhanced by the mechanical construction

compact sandwich structure – no cables inside stacked PCB’s with pin/header connections

Antenna filter Heat sink IFU cover Power Supply Modem IFU MWU
Antenna filter
Heat sink
IFU cover
Power Supply
Modem
IFU
MWU

high degree of circuit integration

Flexi Hopper antennas (1)

FlexiHopper is available with either integrated or separate antennas

Integrated 20/30/60 cm antennas antennas are integrated onto FlexiHopper’s own alignment unit

Integrated 90/120/180 cm antennas with snap- on adapter

antennas are supplied with their own alignment unit

FlexiHopper radios are integrated onto them using a snap-on adapter

Separate 240/300 cm antennas with waveguide antennas are supplied with their own alignment unit.

Flexi Hopper radios are installed separately using Flexi Hopper alignment unit, and connected to the antenna via a flexible waveguide.

Any size antenna may be mounted separately and connected to the radio with a flexible waveguide.

Dual-polarized antennas can only be mounted separately, as they must be connected to two different outdoor units simultaneously.

Flexi Hopper antennas (2) Flexi Hopper antennas support both vertical and horizontal polarization. They are delivered

Flexi Hopper antennas (2)

Flexi Hopper antennas support both vertical and horizontal polarization. They are delivered with vertical polarization.

They can be configured with horizontal polarization by rotating the antenna feeder 90 o

Integrated radios must also be rotated 90 o (with handle and connectors facing sideways instead of down).

Antennas and radios are fitted with guides to installation in conflicting polarizations

prevent

Dual modulation modes

Flexi Hopper radios support both 4-state and 16-state modulation. 4-state modulation is π/4-DQPSK (differential quadrature phase shift keying) 16-state modulation is 32 TCM (Trellis coded modulation)

Modulation mode is selectable with the element manager.

16-state modulation is an optional feature – it enables doubling the transmission capacity in the same bandwidth as 4-state modulation

16-state modulation provides a capacity upgrade while maintaining the same bandwidth to save frequency spectrum

Channel Modulation bandwidth 4-state 16-state (MHz) 3.5 2 x 2M 7 4 x 2M 8 x
Channel
Modulation
bandwidth
4-state
16-state
(MHz)
3.5
2
x 2M
7
4
x 2M
8 x 2M
14
8
x 2M
16 x 2M
28
16 x 2M

Note that 16-state modulation operates only at 8x2M

capacities

Dual modulation modes Flexi Hopper radios support both 4-state and 16-state modulation.  4-state modulation is

and 16x2M

FEC and interleaving (1)

Flexi Hopper radios use forward error correction (FEC) and interleaving to improve signal quality

With FEC, redundant information is inserted into the transmitted data stream according to an algorithm which allows the receiver to detect and correct errors in real time – up to a certain threshold – without the need for retransmission

FEC uses Reed-Solomon coding – RS(63,59) – which provides 4 redundancy symbols for every 59 data symbols (6.4% coding redundancy)

FEC is continuously on

With interleaving, symbols in one transmit data block are distributed over several adjacent blocks, to minimize vulnerability to burst-type errors

in 4-state modulation, interleaving is selectable between Off, 2-depth and 4-depth modes; in 16- state modulation, interleaving is fixed to 4- depth mode

with 2-depth interleaving, symbols are distributed over two blocks; with 4-depth interleaving, symbols are distributed over four blocks

4-depth mode provides maximum error- correction effectiveness

When FEC is used together with interleaving, burst-type errors can also be corrected more effectively

ATPC and ALCQ (1)

ATPC and ALCQ are both techniques that enable the radio transmitter to increase or decrease the transmit power automatically, based on feedback about the received signal quality at the other end of the hop

ATPC – Automatic Transmit Power Control ALCQ – Adaptive Level Control with Quality measurement

When ATPC or ALCQ is in use, the radio always tries to transmit at the minimum power needed for adequate reception at the far end

the idea is to monitor the received signal level together with the bit error ratio (BER) of the receiver, and to adjust the far- end transmitter output power to adapt to the variable fading conditions

the maximum transmit power allowed for the hop, however, is specified (set) with the element manager

The controlled use of transmit power reduces interference between neigh-boring systems, and allows more efficient utilization of radio

FEC and interleaving (2)

FEC and interleaving (2) Tx data FEC encoding Interleaving Interference Radio frame De-interleaving FEC decoding: X

Tx data

FEC and interleaving (2) Tx data FEC encoding Interleaving Interference Radio frame De-interleaving FEC decoding: X

FEC encoding

Interleaving

Interference

FEC and interleaving (2) Tx data FEC encoding Interleaving Interference Radio frame De-interleaving FEC decoding: X

Radio frame

De-interleaving FEC decoding: X errors detected, N corrected Corrected frame
De-interleaving
FEC decoding:
X errors detected, N corrected
Corrected frame

ATPC and ALCQ (2)

ATPC controls the Tx power level so as to maintain the far-end Rx signal level above a certain user-defined threshold

this threshold is based on the modulation method and capacity being used

ALCQ is more sophisticated, and also monitors the BER of the receiver

in addition, ALCQ applies a novel pseudo-error monitoring mechanism developed by Nokia

the bit errors detected by the FEC decoder, which are invisible to the user, are interpreted as pseudo-errors and used as an additional input for ALCQ operation

this method can respond to the degradation of Rx signal quality before actual bit errors occur over the radio relay

ATPC and ALCQ (2)  ATPC controls the Tx power level so as to maintain the

The selection between ATPC and ALCQ (or the choice not to use transmit power control at all) can be made with the element manager

ATPC and ALCQ (2)  ATPC controls the Tx power level so as to maintain the
ATPC and ALCQ (2)  ATPC controls the Tx power level so as to maintain the
ATPC and ALCQ (2)  ATPC controls the Tx power level so as to maintain the
ATPC and ALCQ (2)  ATPC controls the Tx power level so as to maintain the

Installation

Installation
Installation with vertical polarisation Installation with horizontal polarisation
Installation with vertical polarisation Installation with horizontal polarisation

Installation with vertical polarisation

Installation with horizontal polarisation

SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) are standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Lower rates can also be transferred via an electrical interface. The method was developed to replace the Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) system for transporting larger amounts of telephone calls and data traffic over the same fiber wire without synchronization

The basis of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) is

synchronous multiplexing - data from multiple tributary

sources is byte interleaved.

In SDH the multiplexed channels are in fixed locations

relative to the framing byte.

SDH Rates

SDH is a transport hierarchy based on multiples of 155.52 Mbit/s

The basic unit of SDH is STM-1:

STM-1 = 155.52 Mbit/s

STM-4 = 622.08 Mbit/s

STM-16 = 2588.32 Mbit/s

STM-64 = 9953.28 Mbit/s

Each rate is an exact multiple of the lower rate therefore the hierarchy is synchronous.

Procedures for SDH Link

Some of the essential requirements for a SDH link are MUX FIU FIU can bypass a maximum of 16 E1 signals. A MUX can trigger a maximum of 63 E1 signals. The FIU and the MUX are connected through Optical fiber cables.

A site is rated as a SDH node depending upon the number of sites in its coverage.

In SDH we have an electrical interface for the link.

SDH Rack

IF cable OFC SDH
IF cable
OFC
SDH

MUX

The procedure implemented for a SDH link are the same as in PDH link, but here we don’t have to install two microwaves for

 The procedure implemented for a SDH link are the same as in PDH link, but

receiving and transmitting.

In this case already 63 E1 have been dumped in it, and from that node the signal is distributed to different sites ahead. First the signal is received through the microwave ,dumped and processed in the MUX. The signals are dumped in the sections of the KRONE plate .

After the initial installation of both FIU and Micro- wave antenna and alignment, the FIU is connected to the MUX and the KRONE where two tests are done:

LED test

Here a LED is used to trace the TX port and the RX port of PCM cable at KRONE, the LED glows at the TX and vice- versa.

Loop test

After the Led test the loop test is done to check the dumped E1.

It is done by creating a loop and breaking it.

If the NOC receives the break then we conclude the E1 is dumped.

Loop

Loop Break NOC receives the break then we conclude the E1 is dumped.

Break

Loop Break NOC receives the break then we conclude the E1 is dumped.

NOC receives the break then we conclude the E1 is dumped.