n CO" te.

nts
. 1" ..
. '. .' I ..
I ~ .. ' .~,:

1

lntroductlon Battery Chargers and Zappers
Power Supplies= Fixed

V,""

illiI<II1

1

2 3

Power Supplies=- H'jgh Voltage P 4"~"O"'1:I'1ie' r Supplies -'l,·T.an'·,~"'l·ble···.·.· ·11... v.· i ..
YV', ., ..
1 "

.

at.·

·23 84 101 172 119 12'S
129

Power Supply Monitors '6 Power Supp Y Protection Circuits Sources
5 Index

1
Battery Chargers and Zappers
-.
-

The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section; which begins on page 125. The figure- number in the box of each circuit correlates to the source entryin the Source's section,
Lead-Acid Battery Charger 12-'V Battery Charger 200-rnA-hour 12-'V NiCad. Battery Charger NiC·ad Charger with Current and Vol'~g'e Limiting 14- V' 4-A. Battery Charger/Power Supply Fast Charger for NiC.ad Batte-ries d 6 V" C urrent- •.imited fi-V«C· harger L"
NiCad Charger Universal Battery Charger UJT Battery Charger '.. t .. ve Lr arger , . ·N::·C···-··· "a .:-·.C ~.S A U·t·'·omo tive :C' har _... ror .. 1.,,3.d: _ 'S;at te . Pa···· ks Constant- Voltage Current ..Limited Charger Vers.atile Battery Charger

,err

Gel-Cell Charger NiCad Battery Zap-per
PUT Battery Charger Thermally Controlled. NiCad Charger

Simple NiCa:d Battery Zapper
Battery Charger Automatic Shutoff Battery Charger Battery-Charging Regulator 12"-'VBattery-Charger Control (20 rrns Max.) Battery Charger
Universal Battery Charger Lead-Acid Low ... attery Detector B
.

NiC,ad Battery' Zapper II Portable N:i.C·ad Battery Charger Lithium 'Battery' 'Charger Rapid Battery Charge r for Icorn IC~2A. Battery Charger Operates on Single Solar Cell Wind-Powered Battery Charger

1

LEA.D-.ACID BATTE.RV CHARGER . -

'. 220 RI R:r .' 'EAO' -··C-li""l.~
.'

2k

1k

100 p.F

+
.
"'-

-._

L - t .'.··~·A··I~ -

BA ITE RY

,-=-(.6.

-+ .

CELLS'

:3 or 6

er l2V)

'1.5'~.

12V 2

"
+ LM

RI

334

R

3
33 R·s,

LE.D

EON

'. ',' ,. -,..... J .. rage ,:... 5 '. per ce .3 ',,·:0 :..... y . .. _. ,' a. t t'" .. ne :h·- '-': .ms .,}. ··"'t L.__:, Th'·· '(lIeUI. .lW1US_h. es an minar vo1+-""'" 0·f 2',,'.'V-"-'-'.' .' .... 0-"'. t 2"SoC to rapiidlv Ch arge .. b: artery, 'T::l .c. iarging current decreases as the battery' charges, and. when. the current drops to 180 :mA; the charging circuit ". -.,. '.-: Ita i!- . '.. :' -'~: V::' :. 5 zell 'II··' ." ... " U.l,e ,a, '.. .~ " .U .y C _.arge , .' _ .'... '.. .. .' '.. .re.d uee S ~h' Oil:tp t'. va·, ..ge.' lO 2-:'3..'",: per . ce, , lea.VIng ·l-L· b _ tt,ery In ·a f U··· .' h......... 'd s.ta··~._.." T"L..~.".,. 1ower va. It =. Il.e -U age prevents the battery from overcharging'." 'which would shorten its life,. The LM30lA compares the voltage drop across Rl 'with. an 18 mV reference set by R2..'The comparator's output controls the voltage regul ator forcing it to produce the lower float voltag.-,e 'when the battery'; charging current, passing through Rl , drops 'below 180 rnA:" The 150 .mV·difference 'between the charge and. float voltages is set by the ratio of R3 to R-4·" The LEDs show the slate of the circuit. Temperature compensation ..helps prevent overcharging, particularly 'when. a battery undergoes 'wide 'h . h .,: 1 temperature c._.. an,ges w bil bemg c.bar.ge· '" T'h.e." L'M''334, temperature sensor s· 0uld _.·.e _ ~ ." d . .. ' , ....: pa.ce.d near or on thre. 'be"'iIiot· _ ,'. " lor '.. ""h' .. "·'U rsecause.natterres red - ::.' '.','. .... t :. oanery t-,· d .... - -'., th ..··L........·· vo tage b 4 m"V,:,"'oC" t.·_ eaci ceu. B'" .. .. ,b,·.. te "" need more terno necrease tne cnargmg oltas e oy +;'" . .ower ",.','.ratun - .... .-'. ·V··· ·'IOC· per ceu i .. ' - _. ;' perature compensanon..'. a. '1,," '.' temperatures, c.'h ange 'R····,5··tc '3::0 ·111 lor a, tc 0f'" -, 5- m~' 'I."- n .... "if' app.]j'"ca · "._.,Q n ,. . '.. tion will se e temperatures below" _,20 o'C . The charger's input voltage must be filtered de "that is: at least 3 V' higher than, the maximum required output voltage: approximately' ,2i5'V per cell ..Choose a regulator for the maximum, current needed: L.M.3?1 far 2: All LM3,50 for 4 .A'·I' or LM338 for B A.,..At ,25°C and with no output load, adjust. R7 for a. VOU1~ of 7,·05
I .
t. ..'

·te··

,.

.1J..Cj.

[

••

,'..

••

:"

.'

-

j'

"\

••

~

,

.'.

_

_.

'.!

. '~'

,,"

..•,

,.

I....

,

.

',.

.

l'

.

..

'.

_-

....,

'.

'_,.;,,'

'.

.

'

.

,'-.1

_•

.

I.

'.!.'-

:

.•

'"

~.

'.

••

_..

.•

'.

'-

.

,~.

• . ,,'

_. u

..

•,

!.

.

.

'.

:.'

. .--

.

'.

.

~".'

...

.. , '_

,',

i'

.:"';"-

.'

',','.

I'

"

:-.

'.

I

','

.,",.

.

,"..

I'

-'.

',-:-',

".":-

.

:~

be"

.

--: 'hi ...

··:c:

. '.

c- "., -' .. -'

-~ ..

'to

'11'

V, and. adjust R8 for a Vom of 14~ V~ 1

2

12~V BATTERY C:HARGER

0.2
LM,350

AI

LED

. RZ
'15

+

2,30

R3

]

LMJOIA

TO 1.I.V IATTE·RY


;I;

+

START

4

I'. pF

NATI'ONAL SEMICONDUCTOR

Fig .. 1~·2

This circuit. is a high-performance charger for gelled-electrolyte lead-acid batteries, This charger quickly recharge s the 'battery and shu ts ·off at-full charge Initially, charging current is limited to. 2, A~ As the battery voltage rises, current to 'the. battery decreases, and when the current has. decreased to 150 rnA, . the charger switches to a lower float voltage, which prevents overcharge, When the. start switch is pushed" the output of the charger goes to 14.,5 V~ As the battery approaches. full charge, the cbarging current decreases and the output voltage is reduced from 14."5 V to about 12'~5 Vr terminating the charging, Tran. h' ( . _ . al In:. tea ... . full ' sistor Q' 1. ...en li hts t.e LED as .3 VISU·> i di non 0"f -.' ,C h arge O th -:g' tr
4

3

200~mAJHOU-'A- ,"2~V' NIC:AD BATTERY CHA,RGEFI ~ ~
' , " ,

"

'"

,,'

"

'_"

,

'-'

'~

-

,

"

,

,

,

iH22.JI
""'_~Yr---"'~"""""

.................. ... ----<),

r:-

1-.rTER'Y' 'T'D, ,If:

ICIMItGI:D

'N111

HAM A.A,DIO

mA~:,,_"",W" ~~'l " T"his cir'CW' :'t, ~'~lra:Q~'the batterv at 15"-" _ un... the b atterv 'j s charzed then it" reduces " 'the, current_ to. a !WI.lL6"""'''' '-""'J "' "-II:II':J" , ", ,,_ ,. ""' __ tn·C",~1L~~,~ rate It' will c'·'()mn~e't~'ly' recbaree ~ d,\a,:~d batterv in (our 'hours and the' batterv can be left in the DJ~ charger indefinitely, To set 'the ,shut-nff point, connect a, 270 ... ,~ W resistor across the ,charge: terminals n 2... and adjus:t: the pot for l5,~5 V '2[,c':rCH3,g the: resistor,
' ;i:J

l."

_',

ch""

,IIo..r-,~"

"g,

IIi,o,A.)'"

"

",

lb..1~,

aV·,

,[Ii

I

"_'

",

...

:... £._~.', .•.

.•

~l~./

..

~~,

••• _ ~. _

U

.'!~-',

•... __

,,-_.:,~,;}

,.r

,'.'."

"J

I

I,,"

I.

"1,'·

.

'"

I.'

"

_'

._&';'1

_\

-I

..

",'",'1"1

~'_'

IN'ICAID C!HARGER WR"H CURRENT AJNID VOLTAGE, LIIMITING

.

r

,.

11:2 -1'5 V'DC

, 'L"E,D .' ZJ

• cr-

"

,

1~1

G,R E,A,T' E A

47 O,ii" F IDA!

'.'

liiiii

...

'7~ ·if

all."I"EUIR· I~1,,",_",_''. ;I;

Eli ADIO l~_:· .._,":.. ..

'Ll VIiI ,~l~W brig~btly·" 'and" th L'E"~D····· be out hen ,will batterv ';8 low and being c'h,Ii!"iI!:t"!AQd'" but the, ~'D- WW, I~ 'b":;in~t"and we: lli' 'UUJ.J, .;I~ ,,-,,",Y, ' ," 'h ':'ul" I-e a W"e: cUd!t '...m,Le, .lor : l ted L_i!f_~' ,_.J't1 b e,~.J5);.~: 1m,: ,.:L,,;m.. '~~-"h,,"'t Wnen th,-"... ".ery IS 'al" mas st-,re:B,dv ''L"' :it-- 0,,>,d b , '" bul b th ....l8~,- e. ' , ,e,n ___e b att ",-,.""" ,,'" " , "(I' ~:L.,..- curreDIl., you, ~ ;"t"'(":.,., " ....U ,i.,b·.··~....,K,..,- ',' ca,pa,CI"'i .' ]VI:· e· "I-w", '10"")~ .... e:, '."',-. ,S_.ould 'L ....a. lea t 1- A" .,.' an:.:,d, 'Z·""I' "l" '-'-"-'-' '~_;_.'-C U.I],e '-""'" _-" ',UIUauy u.e 'U<llL'l.e',ry ,-,-" "'Ih1'd"""'d'd' u" .'_. D""',',d--I·Di" .... sh ", I.,lC at eas,· ·.,)0 irsa l ...sener diode 'with 'I volt':~,"edetermined .U;, the...:_:.'.._ charse batterv voltase minus 1 5 'v. After the W' hn _.... full.... :;1;.,3- . "_ ._· ·D.·. .. bat.tenr is 'fi1Hv' {:'b~rQ:edithe ~cmt: will, tloat ,it at about batterv ca~'a,cit'y,'divided 'by-:"-"," '100 mAH.' ._ "'IIIUI ~16'"
I' n, ...... &.dJ.i111 ,p, ~
! _. ".- •.

1-

J

~

••

,

.'~"'"

i

~._.:.~,_

..

!...,;

,~~j

I

'•. :.,:

~l

',g.

.

'_

,"

'~.'

~',

._ . ....:_; ,.:_).1_,~

'W'

,",

"_'

.J~

"th· -__ '¥ -',,;::iii

I_: , ~"~;"IJ

1,-'

I ','

'I~

i

~"

'

..:_:

: ..

"

1~~Ii!~':'

_~I

~.

",

"

. _ ~ L.

II

"~!':::::"-

'"~

L..

.,"

r.

-.....:

-',

-,'

".',

..

;

I",

....

II.I~

•••

:,

•.

_".,

,"

.

,"

-.1,.·_,,'

·.I .iI.Q.I. ••• J&.'""lr1~

I-:-:

·····1.-'.

1~1·1

':._ .•

:

'~.'

_!I!

_",

__ ",

_

_j:~'

.. _.

'[Il"

._.

"_-._

..

-

,I.

•.

,_ ..

_

_",.

',,~

__ .

"._

_.

.

_,'

I

_,

1~V 4-A BATTERY CHAA'GER/POWER S'UPPLV

1M24.

VNMGA

110 YAC-3IVCT

0,

1"400'2

50~: I

c,

CR_
CA3140 OR LM3Z4

-

SIL ICO:NI.. X

-F/g~ '·5

.age. Peak rectifier Dl , Cl supplies error amplifier .AI and the reference zener, This extra drive voltage must exceed its. source voltage by several volts for the 'VN64GAlo pass full load current". The output 'voltage is pulsating de, which is quite satisfactory for battery charging ~To convert the system to a regulated de supply; capacitor C2 is increased and another electrolytic capacitor is added across the load, The response .... '.. de .. T'h 'N' '0"0 linu,. .' ,. h' time' IS very' f-ase. deternune dI b the op amp- .' e,2 .. 44,·,: current . ..;.''. ter CirCUIt prevents tne output'. cur.. :Y·:· ditionf ren t .f rom excee dlU1g" 4 5 A H. .. ' owever; maintaining ,a Sh iortedd condition Jor mO.re tha one se.con·,d will". . icause ..'_.n : " the VN64GA to exceed its temperature ratings. A generous heatsink, on the order of l'oC!w~ must be use d."

'" .'..' .,;. ··1,':6 ....." . ... ... "tI"1 ... -. : .. :U;ooo· VN"' ..~ if'!rr't·1j;1 itrol 0·' pera~on:dI ampd _er A·"1 Ullec_y·. 00"',".ves th..e.·· : -6'= G'-'A···· .. ith... e· error S,ISUUI t '.COD:ro·· WI the .-.' .:.0 "."
I"""~ -; .
r:

4:'
-

•••.

til' -.-.~. {)U.. u. va··it... .' 't··, t ;. p
~.

II

..

r-

~,

~

.5

FA·ST CHARGER
15V

,F'OR NICAID BATTERJES.

'+Y~------~----------~------~~~--------~~~----------~-----2DD' 1ft,

Z

.r

I

INPUT LMJfl

LM338,..... -

o.,

...-ril, 0'2,
r.

lM335,

..........

---

'1 10k

-!IIIIiI

....

3

'+
Ull

\

\,
\,

TH'E AM,At L. Y' C:0 U P L E, \__,

~'

-

D'1 to 50 mV gr,e.a,!"er Vz than [)'2" ,Charge terminates on SoC temperature, rise, Couple D'2: to batterv, Adlust
NAilONLAL ,SEMI'CO!NDUCTOIR'

'IIIII!!!!!!II!!

...

Fig.. "-6 CURRE,N~,LI,MITED 6,-,V C'HA'R.OE,R
LMJ11l
~ .. ,9 \I 'TO '30\1 ~-V-I"..II
_

.. I·tN
'ADJ

I'V-

'V 0 UT::"-~-!!!I!I

.•. ----

.. 1

+

, 'U)tI',

R1

.. Set s peak
'II' 'I'

1000

!,~ IS F

IPEA K..=: -0 5 V {R, reco m me'rldedl ~'O f i'I t e r
~ t ran sienrs

CU Hen t-.

out a r'i Y

1111 pu

N,ATIONAL SEMICO'NDUCTQR'

f,._

,'-g, -" ,

. 1-· ... 1-:'
,

.

6
.

LED1

~,__

SW·1.
I

. ......e~
,FI"

12V
.

PARALLEL CELLS
L'EDi2

+v.

,

I
t

II
I

I I
I

lED3'

•I
I
~

I:WVlb
__ ---ii!!!!!iIIiiiii ...

ov

, ....',.,' ,'" 1I"ii', _"" D,:JIIIV IN" 1"'Q"tI"'" _. EL'E:"C'TFI'.OIUF'I 1""'5· 'TO'· '!I';, f_'" T-E~'nl;;iI A'T:IC'"....,'N'Al

'T'bj;'"s circur uses cons'tao D:, curreD. t "L''ED, . S lO' 8J_JU.;:t, ' G'h' ',,argmg, ~CUITen It lls,es ,'S " .. ,., ',,-.' ..,;, ,". _ ~ ." to. ,: ,.;.,-,'LE':D:""" tho a,, pass a;, COnSL41I,', at tant '_' ..,',' uit -,'""""-,::',-:-,' t ,',,-_' . ."" '.. f." "d" "'E:01' ,".,-'~ current of about 15 mA, for an applied voltage range of 2 to 18 V. They can be' paralleled to give any multiple ~l-.,'. _ 'fl" -". ·,-'m 'n a " ,.' :, .- ,_..: 0_,'15" ':A' . .... anu tho,ey. li~"'b:iii- u.p wu~en,,: . , ' .. nt .IS'" .. , ,__'" '~.. T".;L._, ClrCUl ·,'t' ........:n C "arge...a SIngle ceo ' ·t' 1"5'", 3' 0'::' ~or··45: 'mA·':·· ., curren, .', ,--,ccQ,w~g~,,,ue ..'.," ., ww . ,h, -'.' f _'. 'm '.. W I·' ' " '. .,g or cells in, series 'up to the rated suppl y voltage. limit (about 14,V),.
<I
I,,'~'i ., . ,·C.

i,,':

,l.

"'1

.,'

·.c·'.

1

SIIM,'PLE NI,CAD ,BATT,E,RV ZAPPE,R ..
---

-- -

0-10'A,
1(JA

'+"
..

DOOR·BELL OR '

F1L X'FMR

+, . ',000 gF
16V

6~,1'4V

7,3 AMATEUR

Mora

in nickel-cadmium batteries, To, operate, connect a 'NiCcad battery to the output and press 'the pushbutton for three seconds,

This circuit is used to clear internal.shorts

'7

BATT'ERY .CHARGE:R:
M1 d AM'METE;A','. _c. . .. 0-1-5A,

'~""

CRl
FW BR'IOGE 'RECTIFIER. ~",,'-.. 25A 1OUt p'V
POLY PAK8 92GU'123'4 TRI

T'A'IA·C··

1.','",' ..

8A

200 PRV R" 276-'1 01

s.~

1'1

TRANSfQ!A'MEA
"i,o!"Jn

I €'u

V ..........
\"!tL~

"

.... ,i--o-iiiiiiiii

10' ,K

R2

'POT 220,
R3

D1 B1·'DI'RECTIONA,L, A. S,' 21'5~,'050 1

DIODIE:

.'. R,4
.

" 2.0

vee 60 Hz
~'

'if. W' I,Z, ,,'

."

Cil
0'.1 ' 'E, , ./l-r
""00·· .. ',. ·V·.... .

'Y2W

n

'\

~ 10" n '12 W
~,

. .: O. '11 i-l F:
200 V

0:3

13 ,AMATEU.R RAni 0

Fig,., '1..10

,A diac is used in the, gate circuit to provide a threshold level for 'Dring the triac, C3 and. R4 provide a..... , ... . ..... d .'.''>2"- ," zid e p . ·-.~!'k t-ra'nsie nt, suppreSSIon _,,',.-t"war,: ~ ",IL 'D'I) 'R::3" "1' ,all·, C";< ,proVl _.'.. a ""h'·,,·a$e-s [WL, ne L;WOr:'k-: f, -' th ",.' ial bei ." _'; s.le~ -''.'"",.' ,.',. n~, ,., rk R····11 .' '., ,~or -",e , S1.gn-" :e,ll1,g applied t·0 t· h e ga!;.e,~..1"lS seiec t.'. t-'0.:· _'. th·· ...., maxImum, Ch~-' . curren, a,t urn, [oau.on,-' .,1 'R2"~, -': --~I-.". .rcnt t.,.Jl, ·t, ...::. 0" . ,." ' '.'.,"~': . ". ," .+:-, R' e··d . limit" it ne . ,arglng
Ii ~
,j " ". '.

't

'C','" .',' . I'

'."Ff-,

.. '

i..

,J.,

.'

,

-

..

".,',

.

,F....

..,.'

<

AU'TO'MATlC··SHUTOFF BATTERY CHAR'GER

~j
1;1"1

A ..-. ! at)',..... F ... 2.. V 5

" S'C.IR

'r fll ss; OR

," A7'" !!iii . "

~.

"ww

·J:·u·· .. Ad,' 8;t'· tbj.:
t ...
·i ....

_:, _ ,rt;I!. _

"Q-

~A,'~·_.:_-·

eireuit

'~r uy-

se ttin the,.' ," ·~V .resistor -'--: ir - --,b _.-- ' 5-'0",-0 '.
(l'

"_

while _',it is attached -""to a.. fullv' charged.. batterv, "_,." _... --~ '~~-'~'. ,~~ ... "j-

s'

BATTERV-CH,ARGING REGULATOR
RI

Ill,',

VOLTS:
"'C,

~'s'efU ............_ .GE, C2.20F'

" .,' OR G E C12'2F

'C;Ai
~E Ai4A

tit 7' (>H,MS .

C2.w'~ .

n UTe.rrno
, Ii7/iE.6J

CR~· R4,". GIE 'A,4'Of

4,1'0I-lMS t2W:]

R2'

• '.

~~2
+ IW

II V . R6
.' II(

GE~

'The circuit is capable o:fcharging a 12-V battery at up. to "a six ampere rate, Other voltages and currents, from 6 to 600'V and up to aoo A, can be accommodated 'by suitable COPlPQn~'nt selection, When the. battery voltage reaches its fully charged level, the charging SCR shuts off, and a trickle charge; as determined 'by the value of R4, continues to flow ..
12-V BATT'ERY~CHAR(JER ~ ." . .....

CO:"',N-'""TR':O'L (2":0:A rms M··· ..)': ' .: .,'AX.· .. II ..
''II.

2N61'61'
,

MR t 121

(4)

A~
6.8 k.

50. V A MS'
~AX

!3ATTERY'

1"2' V

--=-

(60 HI')

Z1
1 N4":35

CE
0,.1 ,11

F

I,

,R'
5~'1 :K

T1i ~ PRIMARY =: 30 TURNS '~:2,2 SECONDA,AY = 4.5 TURN'·S '~~2 CORlE = F E.R RO XCUB'E 2o:i F .~8 " ·3C:3
R" ' SERIES
-

ReS~STANCE TO. l~MrT' CUR"~.EN'T THROUGH SGR. 2N:816.7:' IS' ,RATED Al 2{),'iA,MPS FclMS

MOTOROLA

BATTER,V CHARGER:
D1 1N:1'183

+

D2
1Nl1BJ

'

:

FIB 200

n
01' 'T1P6142

Z2
"

'
"

..'TL4J,.

. ,0.22'7

RCl

-sOW

S'I
,-ON/OF'F: ,S,W,ITCH

Ft1

O-B,A
R2 2.,5 kfl:

'0

...
"S"A'T'T
:-"'-.~", ,~,

Va
(I,_

"5 V·

TL431

-

TEXAS I'N,STIRUME,NT8

Fig., 1~"4

~,~",,"v.

The charger is based on a charging..voltage of 2,,4 'V per cell ~in accordance with most manufacturers ~ ~,PA'mm"'' ' ' ' ein'' ..J.... 't""·'l"· ,', .. T·'h··· C~IrCW,~ '~,'.',... ,.ea. tt nl' 'un:"'',.":¥ ,~',a~~,t;.;,· -,01"' der ehareewith 1JiJ A .,., '("6'"'.-- ;11:' 9;t' ,.'.,.' ·····11)": '",lli1i_10ns _,"e circuit p.s,e:S·" the b "e'*'i' JL"t:"i"~ V·'-' ce,_s,x,.£i.~' V,',,' per ce a.,to ,a. ·..:'t: O'"-=_~":~:"C~ orote . te chareer's mtema ....... "";"",,. ients rhil .. -,., rate ""'f~'12""'O"'Hz:'· 'T"'"'h'-' deesign provie es .cu rentt limiting ..to0. protect the cnarger s ., ......."aI'" components wn."'e rne : ..;".. "-,,' '0' Old ." "'re"" W.1.UUU limiting the, charging tate to prevent damaging' severely discharged lead:..add batteries ~The, maximum rec:-"nended C:,,"argtng C,u,JL.l.._n, ,. ,ampere-".. ,our .:.tj,.j.- ... .-- '··f:,,·t' ,," ,. ,_,a ."' itterv rOo ~ .,~,n:·.·.·,~. twiy a •.... 1:. ..... ".""-'.1.!,,'." : .. ' Oromen _:c," ehana acurrent ..isnormall -aboutone-fourth , th,f: .'..'..... "" bon r:2L ,ng 0, "h", .'e· b .. "ery. Forexam ple, the maximum charging current. for an aeerage 44 ampere-hour battery is 11 Ai If the impedance of the '1...,,' t ." 1,~ . .~ I" 'h'nn 1oa dreoui •.reqwres a cu:argm~lcurre'n" t gre.ft."er th:an th 1- '1 A' ..current hrmt\ -':Ltne ctremtit 'Will"".. go.'m't'.a curre,,",t ·lm"l~'.I6"i •. ._L .~" ~.,_e The amplitude of the charging pulses' is controlled to maintaina maximum peak. charging current of 11 .A
",' __
-e-

r:

0:

'"

to,

(8

A average) ~

10,

UNIVERSAL BATTE'RV ICH,ARG'ER
II
18'1 l';~A "---"""1

H l-6A

r--'
~ ~

_._ 'I
"""" I

,2·:6.A .
1 o.G,PI V

III 2H315!1

PLI " H7VAC--

I

I
C ..

I
I I

'02, .•.
ZN3D!ii!i ': •.. ,.' ~,2,

L~~ ..

.~

11CI n

LMl' J
AIJJ R£G.

III

0
1____

<"

:: . 4.7K

.In

' .' 1111 .' ,1 n
C4
",47

ADJ.
.: RS! 5K
I .

r-=-----I!'C:..

03 ... 213804
I ..

.

2'
fI'5 .. U::'"

'U4 lMJll
UiK +

... Flii!G . . ·~.·ULAT'UI

A-VOLT

1101

1J2

R6

1

'IJ

n

I

C3

'.'7

,P.OPULAR ELECTRON'ICS,

The charger's output voltage •. adjustable and regulated; and has. an. adjustable constant-current s ".'i....._ .... ..... qrcm, it th am".-',es 1, ea§iY t'.- use ." ith m.os t ·N"··" d ., boo t t· enes. T·h· e, .' 'h'.,:.':...'. '... Gan c.b: . arge a smg :'1e cell ~ i " ·" .' U C~.ldlgLng '.~;'. ': . t ak .~,:: t ..· ·0 ,... WI , ' ~C'"' ,3 .'" . ,'.' , " .. C" rar,ger '.:': . 13
.c"'. '.:

I

"":'

... :

.e .•..

....

,

. ~".

or a number of series-connected cells up to a maximum of 18. ·V~ Power transistors Ql and 02 are connected as series regulators to. control the battery charger's out .. , put voltage and charge-current rate. An LM317 adjustable 'voltage regulator supplies the drive signal to the bases of power transistors Q1 and Q2 .. Potentiometer R.9 sets the output-voltage level" A, current-sampling resistor. RS (3 O..l-n'.~ 5-W unit), ls connected between the negative output lead and circuit ground, For each amp of' charging current that flows through .RB, (I 100 mV output ts developed across it, The voltage' developed across R~ is fed to. one input of comparator va. The other input of the comparator is,connected to variable resistor RIO, As the. charging voltage across the- battery begins ·to 'drop, the current through R8 decreases, Theil ... . L . ..1:,ta· "/ ,lee , :. ": oin- .', .. necrease ~~ an·" _e cornp.ara t " .... ',". ", ,. Il.urmng .' 'b' ck 0 -, .. L~i h tne VQ.,.. ge.. .r. ... diIn,g pm 5-, of U'3'_ de . "". ." ~ ',". d the ..··-".~ --""cor ou t',pu t 'f'"0 'n° OWS +., .. ':",. Q·'3··· a.c: "-'ff" ," W1lI..lLC, completes the signal's circular path to regulate the battery's charging current, The charging current can be.set by adjusting .RIO for the desired current, The circuit's output voltage R""9 1S set: ,':>:' .•
t
, by"

11'

"T R ~': 1~ >:.:

1,9 :.

,~,

[J

...

't A ~SETS TFU,P POINT. 60,,4 k

'1'004,'t2

PEJR CELL f~, 1 "av j CELl.

UNI'VERS,AL BArrERY

C:HAAGEFI
IN_,

m

MeAlS'S ,
'.

VOLT~,G'E' , .
DC
INPUT
, ... C:'E,% 1 k
j

.1AS,

.-

II

o.~~:F

lR1P~ POINT
o::iz .-

"'R5;

T ~ - PAIMlAAV =. m TUfV~:s. ,. 22 .S,E.CON:OArty ~. ·45 'ru~ "'.2 ( N'S CORE, F£RROXC,U~8E20.3 ,r l61: ·:lCl ~ RS - SE'R I,ES REStS" A.~CE 'TO. UM1I!T CUAAE NT' n~RCUGHI SCR MC~ 2818·3 I'S RA:TEIj,A'Y,20 AMiPS rm~,
!!!!

'Ud ,, .appue,-_ tto· the elrCuit ,S·eRl. ts ,(iff,. 'so there. is no bias-current ..r" , ., to e·· d'~ , nath arnlt~"·n· ". ,, thus, .LM317 acts as a current regulator. Th~ LM317 is connected to the battery through steer- --.di d ... , 'I!_~'. " mg' .,.0: ,e 0:"1 WIUIiDg resistor RI and. bias resistor ' , n·o ~ ~ Tb"'1 ··.·:estee,nng diode prevents the battery' from di~~h!'!.Ln-ftIj'li,ft, through the LED' and the S-·_·· w_.en," I ..C' 'R" ·h-·-~.uu,~,1lS . :'~ ',':".,,,-,",: :' P_OW,erS removed from tb~ circuit, As the battery t ,cbal<wes the, voJtarae across t?in~nn'm""-- ,t potentiome I ter rises ~ and :; -some" nnmil;.;I."t''-:~'''t' t~um""-,~ o~'n:~':",~:~s,,,c- -C-' ~. ,.- ' 'th' ' "'R 'Wh", , ., " " ".. .'.',':en power

IS

..

.i'

...

.

.

i

t

Y

_'W,

,

'I'

ii

i

-~

-

··,.c<_.

1

Then, current from the regulator can flow to ground ~ so 'the re~:·l:~tor ow ftmc,tifill~:in tb n1t"., n ,.' ~ . 5WD _.. - . .._. ase mode Wh··· 4.L. S·'··"C'·-·turns on" I' ._'Ii pmvl:id'es "t cusa ',eD,l,.uf! .'", R·· . LE·D1. 'd a P'ltb 'to ground through RS ~' wh'·"
I

R5 _... _
,~' ·"_,"'1

t

.. " ~'.

_.' ...[].'.'r~ ,

I

J'

of:

"

'Q

,'_·,'_l.:

~

,','

_.-(:·.·.1

I

,iii'-!

.

.,

.

"~ lli;, 1(il' 1!'U~.

.•.

'.ifi.&\,;':

mode: llu'L..p,'n -L'E'~"'.D-"'_:_ IS On.. th··,'e " _ · ~ ~-,.U -" "-'i "U",",_"""' . rent ..re , hyuy m-"' tlIU'~!II ,-AID :WJJ-16'
'-1-;
,~
I I ',_ ".'

,E-"D-- ·".1" L . - .' IS -,

;I~~' '"

OD,t

.',

I"

the
':" .~

.•

.'::~~< m the voltage:... ,~', arcw,t .IS ,regulatmg
r ,~:::"

'This circuit will not work. unless the battery to be charzed. is connected with proper 'nn~"'-!hJ' The , ........i!:!i.. ..... ' ."" ,. . " . ' ... .::_". f,!"--.1CIll·~·t;.I~· battery voltage controls the charger and when the battery is :fWly charged, the charge':r' 'VrOJ not' supply current to 'the batters The batterv ·c-:b.~ln'1ri""rI!C·" urrent , '·b--··'t· d th··"" "-- - ~h'~·'l.~L.· ~C'":'R~---' .-'I':u,~n~i.'WI ... -~ -~}' ,,,,"~s '0,· . aloe" . ,:nroug..·Lllf .~ "' .. when It' IS triggered ... ..•. mto the co,Ddue'tinl~ state by' the UJT ,relaxation oscillator, The oscillator is DIlly' activated when the: L ..... t . t ':t.:'.:IItJP,'" 1 'T}, t..:L. 'UJT" '~S,derived .. ... LJd;,,:.'ery VOI,~,,"' 'IS .'ow ~~.:Bt '0"- UJe:,'," from_" the 'vol't,!Jae of' the ba.·~"t":ary~' to be charzed .~,n.~ -~' ... ,._ . _. ;LQ6 ...:_ . ',_, .- .~ '_'" "~b~'~-'iIi sinca, 'hig.' "".. higb~ --,','_ V'SpOt,,, the, e· .. ~. er I'"~1II5\D,"l~' ·lb·.' Ii. eo' ."' - - ',", _"_.- - ier~ 'lIn. Whe'n 'V~exceeds ....&:---- b .... ; ·'re· ,l ..,AO·-fii,ll~ ';'II\O'·'j-'t'.ll,ne o··-f":t.'b-· e
.1. co.
-",'Ii, -

"if.

~

•.

,

,r~"

~

~iH

![U.;IJUl

~'"c-

......,

'f_'
,,.

'P'" ......
I

-

'1")' .-,_. '" )i"FI: '"",",,'
l~"

,-

..

_

~'_

'01!,!!!I--'

,I

'_ ;.:.....•. ~_"__ -"'_'

,'~ _.'_

'_:~ _,'"'_ .~ :~'

".'":. .", ..- I,S: .- ···:h·- ."~ .. CIlCW'~t,~ , . 't ,e iCUl'm

..L"" -':e b -., , SC"R' '""ill no_ c·on,,"u:cct",,.~.,: .. ," :..I: .", ... ,LJ,Ult th . I. at ... ......:w_ -··t-' ...-". :.. ,. d :' : ;I ,IUS Inwcat~s., tery has attained j,ts desired charze '~'C set ~I',DQ u.~ ,~~, U.1
.' .._. ._ . . '__ " -l-~6'¥
J

~~~er ~e~Zl,the

m~ ~a;~~;~~' the ~and
!.-"
,_I ,,_,\, -

h"

_..

V'I:Lm1-.

. ..

~I!

12

:/_,',_ II AU- TO""MO'-'TIIV'-'E'

c'HA·"RG··'ER-·
'.,
_:I ,_,-', .,'

FO--"R--'
: '. -.,

-N"!"

'I'e:'A'D'-' gf1,11 II :,_, PAC---'it(,S'-' DA-rrERty' ,_
.,....'- ' ._ "' __

__:J,:,

REGULAR

'12 Cti:M'

,Ct·tAR,OE

1WAl'T

"

...

'.

~
.
'

.-: ..

.

"

..
-,

r:OAUfO CI'G;ARe,n,E: UGH TEA

RAPID

'1·2COHM
"I

-

CHARGE, L E.O

wAn

,

l~l.UG

4?'CHM

1WATl'
Ell 'D 1_,..·, D--- O'K"~ . EiI! IEl!._~'.'i;I!

CONSTANT~'VO'LTAG_E C'UR:RE.NT-LIMI'TED CHAR:GE,R

ic LM7,23C' V'OLTA'GE REGU'LATQ,R (FOR, 12V de OUT:PUT O~4'2A,'MAX._)
A1

D2

,_,
j,

_.
_,

'10

11--"'-"--'" _.', VR
"

.

I

IC, LM1.23C·

.-i

-

j'

!

Fer '12- V' sealed lead acid batteries.
e=

'T't I01;O~

C:l
A1

lRI
,A.2.
,A3

~c
:Pi4.

VR
'VUASA BATTE,AV'

,AS

C2

Fig·., "-20

'13

VERSATILE BATTE,R'y ,CHARGER

," I'Nf,tJD&

DIJ'

rzw

IS ,I("

R.$L

.:D.~'
IN4.IJ1.

oe

............... =-4~______,'I1

IN'f 001..,

...-

...
ZC2.

#I ,:iI ,rill,

, LM3,11'
_

IC I
... -

-

..-=--~--~~-~-~-_..

IN

l/!L W:
,1"."S3
,06

~.",.

~I~

RtJJ I'N'I'I J J
D1'
(J8 INII ,7,J.~

c·D~SIl'l
1/f41:.S.J

,010

IN¥'143
r""'J1 ..,.., .

vN61"/=
D ,"
,

.
II......iiiI!IftA..iI.....l!1

I'

"",

II,S'06'

',' " ",", ,
'"

SO./

l/2W

R5 /oo a:

r oo a:
~~W

R~6

o: V:zw
"

R"1"'"
"

D8" ro,

/oo

v~~

I 0'0 Il I/~,W

/oo

~'tf

a:

If? ~ 7"~~ ,.,

';/,,? y~ It'

/?'/O /OOfi.

,RADIO-ELECTRONICS

An :LM317 voltage regulator is configured as a,constant-current SOUf:Ce .. It is used to supply the 50~mA lii'a"'~ - lo'-'f" e" batt",~'",' n'~dc'ers~ l~ nnp.D:d,' '10°'" hl !LJ ',' ... ~ - ~-'., '.' fi.&J 0- 'r" AA:-, "-iIi"'4~U ba ttery hold .... Jl.. c., ch .' ~ J ,_",_u..l. ~.~. C-h ~'~;nlgc, cu IT're 0 +0" S,,': O"l-,~06: -~'" e:' " '-.an < D' " ,,.;;I its ',', '",-'-1' ' 'S sh ' ",' 'h ' the a. ery ,_,Ol'"er "', " •• ~"., , att :'e'rt.t . s,en-"~' with ~"',LE" ~',_' lanu I." as;soc." iiit"e' 'd."oS ,unt'",reSlS'tcor..','W", .',en,., 'b-' tte ,'h";'d·" ',- conl,+....,unS g, b",3 ,_"'), -th;-"e· 'LE"'D'" : '~', ',' glows during charging" Each 'battery holder/LED combination is 'paralleled bY'a 5.,1-V zener diode, H the battery' 'bolder is empty, the. zener conducts the current around the holder. ,''''''g': power h:i applie d to the circuit, ":II"io-i';ng, ',:- I'.':_:~i't]~":li't'-,e' by:., I'C,~"2;'~ ',d' A imin circuit prevents ove rchargin~-:-a 'W':,'h"e-,n e.'~ LU~A "," ·'S·' at' ble tuner. 'I, : e output 0 f:':,>IC"2'I~SlieU, to Q' '1- ,'m'> Wh en that outPlt t 15,hi.Hh tne Th 1.J' "'1...' 'b a CD4',C'AI O,SCm3torJpr-O,gI:;tlmma:"lw,e ti l.~" 't·-· sist',·0,r l~ OUt an"-; tho,e,-, argmg ~'.~,",,,~L c.omp et eli Wh','"" "en". th e OU_PU.b 1',:0":'", t"h",,,, tran _., t"" ~ ,IS Q,u" an'"d' " 't"'h- " e'' d . ch ,,-", Crrc.u.I'~ ',' nnl -d'! ... ,', -, .t,. ls ,,',t" -::,,', ::£!! ~ .,rans],: .~ _"" l~ .,,e anSI,S, ,or ." .\... 'pa:t.u, to gJO'UD d '~S':mte rrupte d.. -., '
, ;tu.J..~J_Ullli
l' [ I, ' .. _._

1' ,I.

II

"';I,1FiI1 ltIlIill

~,~ ~

IIU

'I

_'

~~

.

__

I~t~

~ll;

,A'.... P ~JL~'iIi

th'

~,

',"_i,"

IUd.

_:._~~

i;:" iiJ!

ft" U'PW

.

."

i,

I:

1

1

01

'D"

-.',

..

!

.

K!"""

~.:(~~-v~

~

-"

."

·~-l'.

~.,

r

','.

'

.-;"',_.

"

[

1I.~1 PL,.'

."1'.:',

.

"

..

'..

IIIt.-U\rU.

-II!

U_LI

,'0.

..

-

;

'

Ii

1.

",,!~.',

I

I':

I

£!;

cT'i

''C

If-

-11:11.1'

,!·',,,R

I

r

~

'14

GEL C·E.U..

6\1' 1.·2.Ah

2'70.&1

R2'

S~

:' '115:n
ill!'!.
R'S

.'~~

~ , ., .. full' ch . .' detects a ,..:, .... ~···argetate an,'d auto~. s This circuit d ,. to di· .. .. ' te afl rom rna·tic any switc he s:·· a·" oat condmon "._ fror 2' 4- 0. to 12"'mA'~:"
• ~. i .' -' ,','-, _l, .:

~VTI'

!,.

, -'.'

.'

,. ".....

'.::"',,,

'..

_

.,':

".,'

..

,.

. .;

,;-"'Il

:'I40k
I~

fii"'_"- ~----.---..

NE5i~5v UI .
----01·4

;',5'111. '.

R'S

:

~'% . I ~

2~--~~~--1-~~

I

Fig l' -,22
if

NI'CA,D BATTERY ,ZAP',P;E,R Charge 2'20 11(20 W) -OS'S C 1.",_

Be·twe,en ,:. + 20; V 1'0 60 V de ',: ...-.

,+ .
..

+
~:
...
,

N':'C' ·.a.. s I ··· ...··d·· to be
zapped

eo

'12,,000' "F
V (mln.)

,Fig". ' ..23

The short in a NiCad battery . can be ~'burned off" with this zapper Use o,,fthe SCR keeps heavy dis..,.i.,,,,"'''a.e ,.t, . ntac ·t·s·· .. CU'irrent fr'0; m damagin g" switch c,-.o:·
•.... / ',,'. ,'J" :.,,_ .• ,',_'., _:' __

1_, __ ""

'_"',

J~'.:'

..

_,_

' .. ;

~

_'

:.I.;.,._

..

,_._l:__.,

.. '.~

..

,·.W~!~·I.:

c

:

_ J.. ~',

[

_ ~.

'.

. . ">.' ...

,'.

-.'

[~~"

ill I

.'

.

I'

",

" ._~

.:'

",

JI!!I

"

15

r'---.--.----,.
I
i.t
't.

THE:RMALLY CONT:AOLLED NICAD CHARG.ER

~~ ~~~'.,.!-' -+-""__+---;i~.............f.1 -----+-~=+-----+--=
1.:NUl
'U'ift. ....,

1500 ............... ........... ~ .,._....,I!""""""""P----r___"..

-w----t

~~

'
"".

..............

..
-.....

1200 ..,..' -+--+-+--~I-----+""='4-----+.1

'-,',

~--t---J,--1o----.I

'100

.' ... 3

I'

.,
if----

1HMJ <\,'" 1000 .,.._....--+--+--rr- ........ +-~~~ ::ru\I..--1VV'l. ""__' .........

............... ----.t-___...

~~f----.I"'""l.

.\

-+--t-----~Io--+---I---+-__1 .

,520k - "5V !'~~~""'''tN

t"f
.......... -------~3k

I·2N6387 ..'.'.. L_
..

'ifj, ·800

'I

,il'

I 100
too
~

1-'

-+--+-+--~."""'.\.I""'I!- ....--+-+---+-'-~~+------4

~~---+---+---+=-""'_""""'_+-"""""--+---+---I ~I'==-+~---+---+--+l.' ',----+1 --+--+-....;j;--+--+---4 -

5.00 t--II--+--+-+--+- ..................... +-----~.._.........____.f_ ......... 400 t--t~--+-+--+---Io[\""" ..+-----+--~'----+----+-___.... I ,
:~

ZOO'

~r-=+---+-'i' ---+---+-----+---t',rt-- ===+=- ............ =-IF--+--+--II ....
't-=--i,..............-+--t----r-"""'t--flllr-+---II--+--+--+---1

•. _\.'

I

·'SINGLE. POI'NT GROUN D' THERMOCO\j'PlES t 40...V I ~C·.CH RDME~ -ALUM E L (TYPE .tq L.IN·EAR TECHNOLO(;V' CORP:

ARE,

1001~-+~~~~~~~-.~ O~_L~~_L~~-L~~

" _,
120

.. .~~ +
180

o

30

60

90

150

""'UTES

Fig. 1..24'

One 'way,to charge Nl'C'ad batteries rapidly 'without abuse is to measure cell temperature and taper the charge 'accordingly, 'The circuit uses a thermocouple for this function, A. second. thermocouple nulls out the effects of ambient temperature. The temperature difference between the two thermocouples determines the voltage, which appears .. t the amplifier's positive input, As battery temperature rises, this small. negaa live voltage (1°C difference between the thermocouples equals 40 pV) becomes larger. The amplifier, operating at .2. gain of 43-00, gradually reduces the current through the battery to maintain its inputs at balance. The battery charges at a high rate until heating occurs and the circuit then tapers the charge, The values given in. the circuit limit the battery-surface temperature rise over ambient. to about 5·0.·C.

NI'CAD BATTERY' ZAPPER. II
8.. Idl :2
1N4006
-0.
Q.

C106V'

-+

,9' k

.-

Ni·... CAO battery
_.'

NE·2 100 ",IF 200 V

1 kD

WILLIAM

SHEETS'

FI,g. 1-25

This zapper clears internal shorts in nickel-cadmium batteries by 'burning them away, CAUTION': The negative battery terminal is conne cted tc on e side of the acline. For safe operation, use a 1: I isolation transformer,

PUT BATTERY CHARGE'R
T111 115 V
.
:

... .' 14"- V·'
. .

tms

S(IR

A IR4

" K:
50K

.'~ R2
-----~
.. 'PUT ,Dl

+
~ '12'.V

1N5240 10 V·

C1 0..1 ~F
.

'.<

. '1 '1Z';',2
,. ;'" ,

T2

o
'b'

,0,

~

5 6 TrME' (HRl
4'
<"'~'

7

a

---

~2:
r'· ,r.'.g.~ ,'26" , ~-'

damaged by improperly connecting the hatte:ry to the circuit, 'With 115: 'V' ,at the input, the circuit commences tofunction when the battery' ',~,' is properly attached 'The batterv ]',', "._. . the' current to chame the ""y":'" _,' ... '. ".,.·~,,1 provides "-m;;,.,.~n capacr",or,· .;I" useu mtne. ~.p' ··U·T'': reiaxanon.. OSCWd:Or., 'u:rL... ,: ',.:"1 cr arges to th,'., -. '.'. d :": ;t:h ' ...... ',·'1 ',. ~:~ '.- .·al to lYll.e-n, C;' -.h -",. " '. ,.,0 tne , '. pOID vO.:~ge 0-·f · . ·,·t·· ".... .. '. lta 1..lUJ.LLi&, .',' ""~'" I-C' , peas ,;II,...... A Ul,e 'pr" U·''.T.. :~...'.',..e ..." ··T····xu es 't" __- .s .. 't';h eo'·· ··;··R·i.. . ," rhi -h' .. m ...,:.~,,*,,",,,,,,. .app"li~ ···'hjj;·'i"'fl'i· "., curren t,cto the b;...·t·t',elY.. ~ ..... th.:' e .. ' th" P'U' ,. J:_' curnmg .'. :C'C .. on.;. W.,.C· ' LU.f,11 ' le·8 Cl~Ku.l:iPng . -'- .. ~O .•J2 3( : battery' charges, the batteryvoltage Increases slightly' which increase'S the peak point voltage of: the .PUT~ 'L,:", .. ". ". 0 .... , .... ,-0 s~ .~' :tuy,ter oltaget ure e .' ~, ".e VOl ,~_·e'.,:" _ "-,.""'".,.,,:. '.' JI.... T,IllS means .th t 'Clh ""as, tc cnargeeb a.slizhtl Y·,h,;".;h·.·· VO aae .0 ·,t:= ........·t·:h·····P',:,U':T:'c':Thevoltag... on, 'C"'I' .Increases .3:,' '. until the, zener voltagte of Dt is. reached, 'which clamp-s the voltaze_ on ci and thus ¥. prevents the PUT b _ . .. .. oscillator from oscillating and cht,:lrmn,(J eeases ,'. The maximum batterv voltase ,:,,' set'". '~,~'p' ..iotentiometer 1(2' 'is' _ 1.11' ·.. ·,:: ~·o&.!l.~.'·· ,' . ',.'," , ".: .. ·.·.,.·LJ ",:." ',', ~'" .' .. h ets ... '" .' .... ooint firina '''It:!1ilT ofth '1'.. I'__ ' .. be .et w:hiu:;:. se s the pe,CU\ pomt n ng, vo;~e .0, '.• ~e:,P:··'UT. ' the circtrr s ho '.' 'th -C'~' argmg vonage cane set '. ~n, e ircuit own, me .h ."",.~,+--., fro.... '10'"'.. tI' :.: .'~',: 'V'". -, th :18 1- .. ';. m. ... set '.' 0"1' an·.... the upper, ImJ;.. '-',Y " • ··:·,t ".:.,.;'., .,,': V"·' 0 l'4' .... ,lower limit b " ....'" ·eJDg se, b~Y·_..·· ".". ,d~lIe, u '.' ,;. I' .... ....... :T"'l' ·
'::" · .. ·... ,.:--,·.1 ... ' ',.,.

"t' -proof ·'a···tt·1,')J. " "';Jj,.;u.~...... " 'n charzer provide e. an'. avernoe·.c '-.L~';L6 curren t ·f' aU ,,' 8''"A"~'*" a ·12''··'.. V',:~ a""h':::l-'rmna !.:I'L..Q,u,·t ~y .' .. A-· 5,hort-cireui .....';1" "or, ''''''''........' , LUV . a '·d\,...l~~·····, dvantaze: :' ww not . . ,.·U ....""",I' l·,···d,"'· stc '..,' ,81-" ",,' ,.' . _ea . amid S .orage' 'Ib:' ·It't'·"eryll "T'he charzer '. '.circuit has an .3-: ,t;U,UOl:U1'. . a.vaJl,LSge,\t .1."t "1'10:":11 OQ: function ::,n"'O"f"'WUJ,r:n 'lit". be ~6 ....bL""t"u:, ,:~ '. ",.. .
!'iir-...
"will' ~,
_i

1I;;..J~,.l,,"\,;;o.~

Q'
.'

.

-

-

)f~

,;.

.

,'!iII

o'·_·

__

•....

;".~'-,-""'"

-

I

., .. ,:,'1

:-'>._

~'.'

,_.

_,

J"

",.Ii

.-

..

_,"

...

_,I.

~'_'

_

.

I.

,"

,',

_~._. ..

_"

'_~~

..

'_","

c.

.rl;'[,"", ", ~ ..'

'!~

'.

'I

,I

I,

.0

"_'

_.

'"_

.

.

..

-

.

..'.

-

-

_.

I

I

..

_

}1,

_

•.

I

J.

-.

I

I

.

t_

'.

-

l'

.•

.

. ..

._ "

J.

I

.

J

.'

',

,:..._

.

"~.'"

" __ "

,

..

,.,.".'

c ..

,1

;

,

,.'

,

I

'.

C

o~','

"",i

".

;C"

:-'J'

1

17

PORTAB,LE. N:ICAD ,BATT'E'RY CHARGE,R

[Fn

U""I.a_

C,

'

,.I

...

'

. 2 S'li

1

l~OjIJf

;i"'U !lr~lr
V\,i!

"-'I,.._. I

TI I),ETA,lllS
COlre
C] ~100'Pf

F X·.343 7" 'W~l'~h Oap/Spla,c.~r
of O,OBmm

Former

OT'2,.4,9.2 Winding, ,order W2'f W4~ W'3 then
,40T
L •• "

Wi

W,2 W4 W',3 Wl

20T
"3T

,30a,wg·. ... ,30awg~
,36awg~

1 ,2T'

36awg.

ZETEX (mrme'rly FERRANTI)

This circuit was designed to charge NiCad battery packs, in the range of .4,.8'to 15,,'6 V from a convewent remote power source, such 3:$,' an, automobile: battery, Vlhen power is first applied to the circuit, a small ) bias'. current' supplied:' bv Rlvia winding 'WII :r'~ starts ".. to tum on. the., transistor TRI This force' S'·' a"volt. - _-" , -. ." -'.'. -. \, .. ~"f"';' - - .'J" .' " '.___:_. . '. _. : :. _', ,," age across W·'2' an·'"'"the P":OS' , '!':ti"'v",o, fee db ack given UJ the coupling of W'.'·'·':l",,,..:._ .," cau ses the transisto r to tum" ... d an"d-- 'W····'·2··' .'~_" "..' ,·,.WI, ,".: " . ...... hard ., on, apptymg 'th sun SUPpiYacross 'W"2" T'hne- 'b-" d"'nve vonage ttl.d uced acrosawr 'm,Cllles thie Juneition ' - ,-1,·'" ~~:n . oltaz '. '" W"':'l- ,..,.1:. ... " .~ U4([ j te :: '. :,ase,- -" .' between Rl and R2 become negative with respect to the 0-V supply, forward ..biasing diode Dl to provide
I . '. '_. ." ... ,.'.,' -. . ." l

,!I

-'

-:~

'.

- ...

, ',"',

-

".,

."

'.

to"

',

••

_.-.

_

Ci.3I

.

oft

I:.

__'_.

_

,

••

,

..... _.

,',...1

.•.••

,

--,',

-

U:!

..

:

,..IL.1.

'~'!!'

1,1'.~j

..

:rbf' la, ..

-, U'QJ1'h1

,y __ '.,.
i

_'.
..

_

.

.'

·'If-

-_

-

I

.'

r

th ne cessarv bas e current to hold TRI on · n . "e,transistor on" a magnetizing current b ild up '. 'W"'2'I' 'W~: b eventually saturates th~ ferri · .. .,~ Ui· .... bui ~'S ln", ..:' 'hi'~c;, e ternte WIith thetrans core 0'·"f- transfo rm e r Tl This reesults in a sud den JJ.j~I~ '. ase on' .. the co. Hector:' current flo'wm'g" through T''R"'Iincre _ -__:___ .' ,."' ..:_.: - .". .. ":_.' ' .' ~~ .:. ,,'.. .' t causing its, collector -emitter 'voltage to, rise, and thus reducing the' 'voltage, across W2" The current flowing · W'" torces tne COlU' "lL. , r- h ,":," ... .. ~ m'> 2 ~ ector voltage 0' the T'RI- to swmg PO'SlDve, until,- restricted bJy' transformer output 1 d . :08," ~- " ., twork R' 4" , d C': ' _' the turn till 'u't·" z ' .:. - ~-, 'f'th" "-. 'to mg. R'xc ne,l.WOr,_,':, ano c 3:' Ii'.~rm t stne t --... ransient.. 'T' "Rl' -;;~.,:an- C'' '21 main ts ". th e. 1oop gam 0' e circurt ,:, RoO'3"1 . d am, ...It: d --"I' d. W b en wo:'·:e ''D.'. IS not conducting ..
_ .",w' . '.Qj; ]',

'-._.1,-,:

,",~)

._... __....:.,,_1

......

_~~['--:

...:~._

.'

~'.:

_ .. ..:._

':.._:

Ii

"

'._

~

"

_.'

-

.

~

':

r

.

,.Ii

I..

.

:._.....

-

-

-.I

1

1

-

~.

.'

-

•. ;

.

I'

•• '

'..

.'.":

J.

i

i,

18

Ct:lARG:lNG VOL,TAGIE' (_ ~'Ibll b.loW)

D.C.

ADJ 1
, > [n."
,r'I'!Io

(AC ADAPlE R)

.. IR1:

.

IK

)

~K5

-e:

OUlPtJ·T
(OPT I ONA.L)

;>' RI

? Ff9
I

Fuse

a

12

s
Iii

.~ ~2 .'. 1M

:::! iilO
X

!Ii}

iiO

; R7'
3

).

.

.;( ~

.....

FHO

Q

...J

6.

_'---.

+

:I~E'L

••
---

s

IBA'ITERV PACK(S)

A8

Rl'l'

MC'L.I ENlERGY LIMITED . .

1:'1 2"S' ,-,g.... _.:'.

Charzina j~ accomplished with a"constan nt current 'l.".of,'", -6':0': It_..·r··' ,,··· cells to a,'cut off vo ltage of2-4 V per -"'~. '0' [',",', AA' '·~D;.II.A~ 'T'I.l_ _' .... lJ~ "ll u.".,' "h - .. ' - ne -.: t '.' .'.'.... ea. ine. "h" . \ ",' .t .... ' own "'" ..l .... ,..... , ~. , mu n-ee ' cen, at W h·ucr pomtt the CJlUU~,e ust b e. termma te d T"h·','.cnargmg . system S,'h, . -:, IS oesignetd' .101' " lti-c -'Il mt .I!.b. ..-, .. ,.:. battery packs of 2 to 6 series-connected ceo Ie or series/parallel arranzements It is essential that all cells ;'h..... ~ "'); .. "" ,. :i ., ,,:.. - .', ",' ass;em.bled ,-',' tb'·e: p'-a C ' ar'e" at an ,l -en t,,,,: ,1' s. ,'. e".-w,I..(U·,;.e. ,va·l IAge·. be·· J.ore c.harzi .,/ T'h" ·maxmUlm upper , l,e in ,:' -:k " ~" '. ,"d"" . leal state 3rglDgil '- ,e. cut -off-:vo 'iifra'g:" is 15, 6 V' (6)C' 2 6·'< ').... . e V,.·, ,1.'. ,.... '-._.
.
iI;Il -, -_
I •• :'

Lll

·,b·

.:::J_ '_

..

_..

~]I.,:I:

a;

",:

_.

,-·-IIIi..,..·-:Ll

_

,',

',"

.....

__

..

c.' ",

-.~

......

.,"

'.'

.

,.'

.,h,,"l'l"Vll'··'

"

:

_'':_

,,"

_'.

_:'."

___:~

'.

",'

.•.•.

,

•••

,1.,

._~

'

'

,

_ •.. :.~

.

!

.......•.

".-

::(j..1..dJ!

j

_

!!II"

••

.

'.1',

'

.

I!,'

_'.

".

'.

, ..

c

I

of,

'.~ ,....

,rn - (: , .. ..

r.

-I'

..

!L:...

:1-

'_'"

",

__

.I! .....

\

.....

".J'

r:

,'!!

.M

o

[i!7\, b.;-=~ ~:~,~'
i'~

a'an ~

sae .'
'

47:0 .
-:-_-." ... -"1 .",

LED
"

;

''!rR'.PK.'Lie

'l~5fl ,
"

MJE·205· Ra€httShi'ck, 2'1'6'~ 2011'

1C;~~,Fi_:G-E;, R,~ T1~ !;?N

"S~2'"'

SlB

,.1.~ ','

I

• ,I

'~

.:§:

I-Pin
~-

a~~--------------~
'I'~' J
"
"

~"~",'h' lE-:.U E./I·". Ut ..: .
I;'

A'~,~ i:~s"lto~s w. ~,x:~p:t" ~ w'~ef');, !i'l~'rk~d.
Ie\~' ~I :~!ll \11.'

,&2 SP;S~lp;ulhblolin~'rI

t:i" '.. D-

'D' ~~'T__r~.
l,

la-F

~

c R'
1",

,::!:

'.

~

2 ...-~'506'",...., tr_ ,L N- '~.JIr 2 I!"!i.' ","i:;:1~''iiI r.:
_...

,

D < "".!iIij ~ iI.. I." ':'t""I~ n8uH) ~~~;!iUJ:1I\.i:J - 'IDiC'" ..." . -)i!;;',; - . .Wi t

~

>OiN:·;',t~~D ~ . ~!l;"'"O

BOUUM 'V,I~:'E~

.

"

CdS PHOTOCEll Uld.
___....,;I

D
R':2' 820 k

D2,
,

,03

04, 1N9t4

R1 100 k '.
(:

6V

:~ C1

,;01

rr -u

ff
,

'sJ'i~Cd

"

--=- EJaC:CITAT ION SAFE'
SU,PPlV

FAIL~,

01 MTH,35N'O§, :-: _____.. .. _

0'2
" MTH3.sN05

9 'V N~,"'Cd,

-,

'...' '

:-_"'~.~

'M il"'W'nR'OLA ::1 , __ :',_.

Ul

,= MC1'409JB-

t.., k ~, . ,--.., --- ,- . -,-, d scnmrt ,.ng~ T"'· ' CIrCW:·char ",. ,a. '9' V ua'tte - . a.t-- auou,l;. 30 rnA'" per Inpu, .t_ampere a.t 0t, 4' V"" U--I aqua., S'. h '~'t,ttru . ".He . ~~. it .. arges -: 'u:TY , - 'i-. "~ ',.'r , .:_, " ger; operates aSI an astable multivibrator to drive push-pull T.M'OS deviees, "Ql·:and. Q2~ Power for Ul is derived from the ·g..,'V battervJ via D,4:,Ipower for Ql and. Q2 is supplied bv the solar cell, 'The. multivibrator .... ., ilJ . . frequency determined 'by R2lCl is set to 180 Hz for maximum efficiency from a ()"3... filament trans.•',' · V' former; Tl . 'The secondary of the transformer is applied to a. full-wave bridge rectifier, D 1~ which is connected to· the batteries. being charged ~The small NiC·,ad. attery is a. fail-safe exdtation supply to.allow the b system to r''I3 ov,e., l·,f·<t'",e:-- '9", "V,:,',:' b-d-ery b ,-'..."',', " fu:" 1']-'' di lSC1J.41.~,e.d " "r -h' .'-, 'tt·.. ~.' < ',: .:_'.'" ,e-comes ,..y '" . J·.........,..n 'n If- .. 'L cill' . '. k . ,~. d"'·' ~ A C".: phol · ':dS' iotocell shuts 0.':. tne OSI "',ator in darsness to preserve the fail-safe battery during .shipping, storage, and prolonged darkness,
,="

c.,",

.

,

F'

,.

.. , .

.'!II'".

'

.

.. -'

.'

_.._

...'

t, _...

" ". ...' .. -

.. '

'..',

',"

,,'

,.

., _.

--

'", _'

,.',

~~ .

I

'_-'

~~.

J

~.'

~

_..

[~

"

.-

;,"

':

'_

I

_

~

-

_.

""

"'_,'

.,,~,1..<:'

p

t.

.

2.1

'WIN,D~P"OWEREiD BATTE!RV' CHA,RGER

WlND ,,'
'

I~,

..........
," 1:N4Q01

,~~

UV
LEAOACIO , ,'J6.n
,5W

RAITERv. - ,

4,5\1- '" HM:AO ::

'I

Fig,. 1~1

The de motor is used as a generator; the 'Voltage output is proportional, to its rpm, The LTC 1042, monitors, the voltage output and provides the following control functions, 1., If generator voltage output is below 13.,8 'V, thecontrol circuit is active 'and the NiCad battery' is chargin,g through the LM334 current S01U~ce~he lead-acid battery' is not be~ing charged. T 2 lithe generator 'v'o~'·~:"'e output is between , 13 8 and 15 ...1 Y' 'the 12... lead-acid battervis.. being",' charsed ,V :·~W·· .. ..... _ .....:._. :.• .. ," " _';iL:J ~ ... at about l~·amp/hour rate Oimited, by the power F'ET)~ 'II d -, "V''. ~ d d ed hen tne - ,',,-·:at · 3~ If· generator VOltage'exceeds 15~1,",a(' condition caused tly excessive wmu speec or wnen th 12' V-' b ' .. '_'.;~ tervr IS"fuUY' chOl'l'~d) then:' [" .'fixed load is connected 'W'· limits the' zenerator rp'",:'" un.,' to prevent damaze ~:_. .:;IJr.a.Lli5.'~·~v·t '~-"' ....... a ..... [ hich -~_,.,ft~··__:l .... ":" ,',',;
•. ~l _'.
>,', • J" '. :: ... ' : _'._' , _', ~. •• ',_ '•• ' ••••

I.

_"

_:_:' _ _

'.'

'.

,:_'_.'

'_

.:_

... "

','

",

.

'.L·:

...:.:,

~~.".'

J

,

,

1tI,'

I'

,_'

':

_;'1 •• _.-.,_

•••••••••..•

-

.••.•••••

_- .•••

,II!

..

;

.....:.-,~f

•.

_~~l,_.

UQ..l'~'1I

be , sed , , '--'",,' .. O"':--', ',.- where -.. -wm' ,",,-" .~. ';_,:>,~ ,'"., a -.',' :ote .,.,., , Th'ia "'""..;h"arg-'" ,car c"'an''-;,e,us,,~sa-:-,. Iiem :." SOUIc,e;of 'P;,~wer" ",." ;,' -~:_'d-' en'e't'UV' 'I'S', plentiful such 'BC!' O'D' OJ satlboa..,I ,or 8'" remob ra, 10 " a 'IW, ,f! s:O,:cupawere" pa':--:-' 'II's,,, ,.LUl~' sys·· emvvw fun- -tl""", m t.. ....d -~'~'k' alar - ,'," ered ::l,:n.e., " . -··_"t·' '." ..,,....::11 ;'" cCO!D. ~" LRl S~J . -- ,t·~,,'-,- t re'mD)e radir re,peaJLer Slies, ~ U" weather and ' "ll't- n1luh- it'·,
j",:c-:..
,<;'-~ :' .

'J

,~U]·'_,,"O"

i.

I

Q

=",,_"

'_

","',.",~

:c.

;'bi~~

........

~,.

0,,_

~

'll'

22

2

Power Supplies-Fixed
The sources of the following circuits are contained in the Sources section, which begins on page 125. The figure number in the box of each circuit correlates to the source entry in the Sources section. General-Purpose Power Supply 12-Vdc Battery-Operated 120-Vac Power Source Simple Power Supply Charge-Pool Power Supply Bilateral Current Source 3- to 30-V Universal Power-Supply Module Regulator/Current Source Low-Power Switching Regulator Variable Voltage Regulator Switching Power Supply IOO-kHz Multiple-Output Switching Power Supply Isolated Feedback Power Supply Dual-Tracking Regulator + 15-V I-A Regulated Power Supply -IS-V I-A Regulated Power Supply Hand-Held Transceiver de Adapter Low-Dropout 5-V Regulator Triac-Controlled Voltage Doubler High-Stability IO-V Regulator Voltage-Controlled Current Source Low-Power Inverter Three- Rail Power Supply Programmable Power Supply Efficient Negative Voltage Regulator 5 V-to-Isolated 5 V (at 20 rnA) Converter Positive Regulator with npn and pnp Boost l'racking Preregulator Adjustable 10-A Regulator Low-Cost Low-Dropout Linear Regulator Voltage Doubler Safe Constant -Current Source Low-Cost 3-A Switching Regulator 50-W Off-Line Switching Power Supply Positive Regulator with pnp Boost Low Forward-Drop Rectifier Circuit Low- Ripple PO'WerSupply 5.0-V/IO-A Regulator 5.0- V/3.0-A Regulator Bench-Top Power Supply Variable Current Source (100 rnA to 2 A)

23

Basic Single-Supply Voltage Regulator B-A Regulated Power Supply for Operating Mobile Equipment Low- Voltage Regulators with Short-Circuit Protection High-Stability I-A Regulator High-Current Inductorless Switching Regulator 200-kHz Switching Regulator 5-V O.5-A Power Supply 3-W Switching-Regulator Circuit Regulated Split Power Supplies from a Single Supply Switching Step-Down Regulator Single-Ended Regulator ± 50-V Push-Pull Switched-Mode Converter 5-V/O.s..A Buck Converter Slow Tum-On l5-V Regulator ac Voltage Regulator Uninterruptible + 5-V Supply Stand-By Power For Nonvolatile CMOS RAMs 5-V Supply With Stabilized Momentary Backup Uninterruptible Power Supply for Personal Computers 90-Vrms Voltage Regulator Using a PUT Switch-Mode Power Supply Micropower Bandgap Reference Supply ± 50-V Feed-Forward Switch-Mode Converter Traveller's Shaver Adapter lOO-V/O.25-A Switch-Mode Converter Voltage Regulator Dual-Polarity Power Supply S.O-V/6.D-A/2S-kHz Switching Regulator With Separate Ultra-Stable Reference

Mobile \Ultage Regulator Negative Switching Regulator Positive Switching Regulator Positive Floating Regulator Negative Floating Regulator Negative Voltage Regulator - 15-V Negative Regulator Slow Turn-On l5-V Regulator High-Stability lO-V Regulator 5-V/l-A Switching Regulator ls..V/I-A Regulator with Remote Sense Increasing the Power Rating of Zener Diodes Voltage Regulator Zener Diode Regulator 12- to l4-V Regulated 3-A Power Supply de-to-de SMPS Variable (18 to 30 V Out at 0.2 A) SCR Preregulator Fits Any Power Supply Off-Line Flyback Regulator SOD-kHz Switching Inverter for 12-V Systems lO-A Regulator with Current and Thermal Protection Bipolar Power Supply For Battery Instruments Power Supply for 25- W Arc Lamp Power-Switching Circuit lOO-V/O.25-A Switch Mode Converter Radiation-Hardened l25-A Linear Regulator Supply Voltage Splitter 3- to 5-V Regulated Output Converter Memory-Save On Power-Down lOO-Vrms Voltage Regulator

24

GENERAl·PURPOSE

POWER SUPPLY

DIODES 6A-60PIV

A

E uA123

2 RSC 3

R2 1500 TRANSFORMER FROM 10 TO 40 VOL TS AT A AND B DEPENDING ON OUTPUT REQUIRED,

4 100 pF

R3 Note 1 10000 R4 Not. 1 RS

+

100I'F

1

NOTE 1: FOR 14 V TO 3Ii V OUTPUT - R3 - 2 k, R4· 500 0 FOR 1 V TO 14 V OUTPUT - R3· 2 k, P4· 2 k 0,86 V CURRENT LIMIT RSC·-IUimid

TEXAS

INSTRUMENTS

Fig. 2·'

The supply can be used for supply output voltages from 1 to 35 V. The line transformer should be selected to give about 1.4 times the desired output voltage from the positive side of filter capacitor C1 to ground. Potentiometer R2 sets the output voltage to the desired value by adjusting the reference input. Rsc is the current limit set resistor. Its value is calculated as:

"r=t:
0.65 V For example, if the maximum current output is to be I A, Rsc= 0.65/1.0 =0.65 n. The I-kn resistor. is a light-loaded resistor designed to improve the no-load stability of the supply.

s;

25

12-Vdc BATTERY-OPERATED

120-vac POWER SOURCE

If Ql is faster and has a higher gain than Q2, it will turn on first when you apply the input power and will hold Q2 off. Load current and transformer magnetizing current then flows in the upper half of the primary winding, and auto transformer action LOAD 20W supplies the base drive until the transformer satuMAX rates. When that action occurs, Q1 loses its base drive. As it turns off, the transformer voltages reverse, turning Q2 on and repeating the cycle. The output frequency depends on the transformer iron and input voltage, but not on the load. The freTRANSFORMER 0" a. '" 2N5877 UTC TYPE FT. 10 quency will generally range between 50 to 60 Hz ORSTANCOR with a 60-Hz transformer and car battery or equivaTYPE P6377 lent source. The output voltage depends on turns EON Fig. 2-2 ratio and the difference between input voltage and transistor saturation voltage. For higher power, use larger transformers and transistors. This type of A simple 120 V: 24 V, center-tapped control inverter normally is used in radios, phonographs, transformer and four additional components can do hand tools, shavers, and small fluorescent lamps. It the job. This circuit outputs a clean 200-V pk-pk will not work with reactive loads (motors) or loads square wave at 60 Hz and can supply up to 20 W. with high inrush currents, such as coffee pots, fryThe circuit is self-starting and free-running. ing pans, and heaters.

SIMPLE POWER SUPPLY
117 VAC

01-04
IN4001 (4)

03

._..----Q +9V
04
+

Cl

16V

100", GROUND

C2
t----- __

+

10_0.:..."_16_V_---o F_:_,

.9V

HANDS-ON

ELECTRONICS

Fig. 2-3

This power supply delivers plus and minus 9 V to replace two 9-V batteries. The rectifier circuit is actually two separate full-wave rectifiers fed from the secondary of the transformer. One full-wave rectifier is composed of diodes D1 and D2, which develop + 9 V, and the other is composed of D3 and D4, which develop -9 V. Each diode from every pair rectifies 6.3 Vac, half the secondary voltage, and charges the associated filter capacitor to the peak value of the ac waveform, 6.3 x 1.414 = 8.9 V. Each diode should have a PIV, Peak Inverse Voltage, rating that is at least twice the peak voltage from the transformer, 2 x 8.9 = 18 V. The lN4001 has a PIV of 50 V.

26

CHARGE-POOL
UV ZEin

POWER SUPPLY to the separate power supply is still possible. If the remote transmitter can be operated in a pulsed mode where it is active only long enough to perform its function, then a charge pool power supply can still allow the transmitter to be powered directly by the current loop. In this circuit, constant current I I is supplied to the charge pool capacitor, CP, by the HA-5141 (where 11 =3 mA). The voltage V 1 continues to rise until the output of the HA-5141 approaches + Vs or the optional voltage limiting provided by Z2. The LM2931 voltage regulator supplies the transmitter with a stable + 5-V supply from the charge collected by CPo Available power supply current is determined by the duration, allowable voltage drop on Cp, and required repetition rate. For example, if VI is allowed to drop 4.4 V and the duration of operation is 1 ms, the available power supply current is approximately:

·V,

IMO

_ OPTIONAL HARRIS

+5V OUTPUT TO LOOP TRUIMITTER

Fig. 2-4

It is usually desirable to have the remote transmitter of a 4- to 20-mA current loop system powered directly from the transmission line. In some cases, this is not possible because of the highpower requirements set by the remote sensor/ transmitter system. In these cases, an alternative BILATERAL
R2 1M + 1SV

CURRENT SOURCE This circuit uses a CA3193 precision op amp to deliver a current independent of variations in RL• With Rl set equal to R3, and R2 approximately equal to R4+R5, the output current, h, is: VIN (R4)/(R3) (R5). 500-pA load current is constant for load values from 0 to 3 Q.

6
R1 2M

r

ALL RESISlORS ARE 1% ALL RESISTANCE VALUES ARE IN OHMS IF R1 "" R3 AND R2 = R4 + AS THEN IL IS INDEPENDENT OF VARIATIONS IN Rl FOR Rl VALUES OF 00 to 3KO WITH V "" 1V I V R4 V 1M V = A3 RS '" (2M)(1 K) "" 2K "" SOOj4A_

L
GEfRCA

l

Fig. 2-5

27

3- to 3O-V UNIVERSAL POWER-SUPPLY MODULE

IA

+I--

.... .......... ~

~-e--~--------__---------o+
150 2.2K

~~
LM-317

(A)

47~i1
UNREG.......... _ VU" .........

0.1

IN4002
VIN- ...... --------~

REGULATOR BOARD

IN4002

150

2.2K

JA

(B)

73 AMATEUR

RADIO

Fig. 2-6

VI, an LM3l7 adjustable regulator provides short-circuit protection and automatic current limiting at 1.5 A. The input voltage to the regulator is supplied by DBl, a 4-A 100 PIV full-wave bridge rectifier. Capacitor Cl provides initial filtering. VI provides additional electronic filtering as part of the regulating function. The output level of the regulator is set by trim-pot Rl. Bypass capacitors on the input and output of Ul prevent high-frequency oscillation. The current rating of the transformer must be at least 1.8 times the rated continuous-duty output of the supply. This means that a 1.5-A supply should use a 2. 7-A transformer. For light or intermittent loads, a smaller 2.0-A transformer should suffice. WIring a second LM317, U2, in parallel with U1 is a quick and clean way to increase the currentlimitingthreshold to 3 A without sacrificing short-circuit protection. When more than 3 A is required, the regulator module can be used to drive the base of one or more pass-transistors (see Fig. 2-6B).

28

REGULATOR/CURRENT

SOURCE

0,
VN'OKM

-'5V

lOOk
lNIl<)S6 15V

EON

·-!5V

Fig. 2-7

The circuit powers the load via the regulator's input instead of its output. Because the regulator's output sees constant dummy load Rl, it tries to consume a constant amount of current, no matter what the voltage across the actual load really is. Hence, the regulator's input serves as a constant-current source for the actual load. Power the circuit with anyone of the commonly available ± 15- or ± 12-V supplies. The voltage dropped across the regulator and dummy load decreased the total compliance voltage of the circuit. Youset the load's current with Rl. The current equals 1.25 A/flxR
j•

LOW-POWER SWITCHING REGULATOR
+sv
......
01

.....;.;,2N29())~A- _ _

...ro'o.... H'........-_ m....
IN4148

LI

...... -+5VOlJT

T47
+

390.

50, OUTPUT ADJUST 1M

12,
11 : DALE TE·l103iTA

LINEAR TECHNOLOGY

CORP.

Fig. 2-8

29

LOW-POWER SWITCHING REGULATOR (cont.)

A simple battery-powered switching regulator provides 5 V out from a 9- V source with 80% efficiency and 50-rnA output capability. When Q1 is on, its collector voltage rises, forcing current through the inductor. The output voltage rises, causing At's output to rise. Q1 cuts off and the output decays through the load. The 100-pF capacitor ensures clean switching. The cycle repeats when the output drops low enough for Al to tum on Q1. The I-p.F capacitor ensures low battery impedance at high frequencies, preventing sag during switching.

VARIABLE VOLTAGE REGULATOR IN.002
CRI

ICI

LMI17K ADJ

Your
Rl

VOLTAGE
IN

rCl

231!l

VOLTAGE OUT

HAM RADIO

Fig. 2-9

The variable voltage regulator lets you adjust the output voltage of a fixed dc power supply between 1.2 and 37 Vdc, and will supply the output current in excess of 1.5 A. The circuit incorporates an LMl17K three-terminal adjustable output positive voltage regulator in a ID-3 can. Thermal overload protection and short-circuit current-limiting constant with temperature are included in the package. Capacitor C1 reduces sensitivity to input line impedance, and C2 reduces excessive ringing. Diode CRt prevents C2 from discharging through the during an output short.

Ie

30

SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY
All Resistors 112Wall Except As Noted Otherwise
10K A15M (4P laces) ~~1OV +310V

I~
470 47k
3W

VES7C~ 47K BA159,1 '+~~

.-o+VOLIT
2_5K

~
0------

k'~fr';
f)

~RL
10k

1OOK Ao ,,_SA 159(2)
T

O3jll "I"
::£;{2
nl n4

T'
F{
6900 10

R"

To Load

PCI

22OVAC 50 160Hz

;::~

+ (Cl0S0)

DIAC

ST~G
12

100 jlF

02

~100 18 Val BA159

350V ,-15K

5W

47K 3W

:- Cl c::: !OoF

.._____. + 2.2j1F

;::.r:

100

lit
~CR~

i1t,oo
Al4U

2_21'F

~
180

....__

Rss

039 3W

;::.r:: 3.4nF lKv

Q~
Q ~sus2N4988

Q 1-D64VP5

R o-On Time Adjust R L-Load Voltage Adjust R ,,--Feedback Gain Adjust

Selected for V

~800 Volts

C2,!:::: 10FT

GE

L-2Sp.H SCRI BRY55S All Unmarked Diodes-A 1148 Q4,Q5-2N6001 Vour-2 Volts-VDC IL-0-10 Amperes

Output Transformer Bifilar Core-850GER 42 x 21 x 15 (LCG) Wound I nl-95 Turns q, = 0.6 mm Nearest I n2-96 Turns q, = 0.6 mm Core n3-3 Turns of 4 Strands Jl = 1 mm Parallel n4-3 Turns p. = 0.4 mm

Fig. 2-10

This low-voltage high-current output, switching de power supply is running off the 220-Vac input. In this circuit, an ST2 mac relaxation oscillator, Q3, C1, and the diac, initiates conduction of the output switching transistor Ql, the on-time of which is maintained constant by a separate timing/commutation network consisting of Q2, C2, SUS, and SCR 1. The output voltage, consequently, is dependent on the duty cycle. To compensate for unwanted variations of output voltage because of input voltage or load resistance fluctuations, an Hl IC wired as a linear-model unilateral pnp transistor in a stable differential amplifier configuration is connected into the galvanically isolated negative-feedback loop. The loop determines the duty cycle and hence the output voltage. Of further interest in this circuit is the use of several low-current, high-voltage, 400-V VDR.\1 thyristors (Q2, Q3), which are also used as pnp remote-base transistors. Short-circuit protection is assured by coupling Q1 collector-current feedback into the turn-off circuitry via Rss.

(,J

N

100-kHz MULTIPLE-OUTPUT

SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY

.. ",

"'",. r'"
. c.

MINIMUM LOAD>

lPo

too ""

"'

3JI)
I.I~'"

HOlES

CAPACllOR$ ;n~E.SE "Ttl. PARTS

f!:E:SIS'rOAS IN OHMS '1. 12.noll

IN IYIICFt(lF-ARAOS UNLeSS NOTED W. 5~ IJNL ES5 tfOTE"D MOUNTED ON HEAT SINKS.

U.l3.l4-SHTE)tTFORn~AILS

et,
D.'

".

'" "
I

"'0
sec ev
.... JIJST D

""
, Tl400

J

ca

c,'

L-

._-+~---------~

"" "

.

"" "

._------~ Fig. 2-11

SJLJCONIX

l00'K

R"

""''''

The power supply uses two VN4000A 400-V MOSPOWER FETs in a half-bridge power switch configuration. Outputs available are + 5 V at 20 A and ± 15 V (or ± 12 V) at 1 A. Since linear three-terminal regulators are used for the low-current outputs, either ± 12 V or ± 15 V can be made available with a simple change in the transformer secondary windings. A TU94 switching regulator provides pulse-width modulation control and drive signals for the power supply. The upper MOSPOWER FET, Q7, in the power switch stage is driven by a simple transformer drive circuit. The lower MOS, Q6, since it is ground referenced, is directly driven from the control Ie.

Ie

ISOLATED FEEDBACK POWER SUPPLY

+36 V +

_

T

1000,.1

IOV

I I
I I

r--------, I
C VOLTS .,01

I
I I I I

~-==~nq
I I __ ~ L

I I
I I I ...J

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS

Fig. 2-12

Figure 2-12 is a power supply circuit using the isolated feedback capabilities of the TL3103 for both current and voltage sensing. This supply is powered from the ac power line and has an output of 5 V at 1.5 A. Both output voltage and current are sensed and the error voltages are applied to the error amplifiers of the TL594 PWM control Ie. The 24-V transformer produces about 35 V at the 1000-JLF filter capacitor. The 20kHz switching frequency is set by the 6-kQ resistor and the 0.01-JLF capacitor on pins 6 and 5, respectively. The TL594 is set for push-pull operation by tying pin 13 high. The 5-V reference on pin 14 is tied to pin 15, which is the reference or the current error amplifier. The 5-V reference is also tied to pin 2 which is the reference for the output voltage error amplifier. The output voltage and current limit are set by adjustment of the 10-kn pots in the TL3103 error-sensing circuits. A pair of TIP31E npn transistors are used as switching transistors in a push-pull circuit.

33

DUAL-TRACKING
nRn
83

REGULATOR

"all
lGD,oM 'I'"

14

1I~111'lUITU'

In DUl

-,av.l(&t

r---~r---+-~~''''~~-1~~--~--~~~:'~

Ian

I.

MAXIM

Fig. 2-13

A MAX634 inverting regulator is combined with a MAX630 to provide a dual tracking ± lS-V output from a 12-V battery. The reference for the -l5-V output is derived from the positive output via R3 and R4. Both regulators are set to maximize output power at low battery voltages by reducing the oscillator frequency, via LBR, when VBATT falls to 8.5 V.

+ 15-V l-A REGULATED POWER SUPPLY

'20v~111
6

e.sa n
ASC

lOO~FI
C3

15 V

A3 OUTPUT 1.000n

AEF
uA72l

2

5

3

AI
12kn


C2 100 "F
":"

A2
10kn

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS

Fig. 2-14

The supply receives + 20 Vdc from the rectifier/filter section. This is applied to pins 11 and 12 of the uA723, as well as to the collector of the 2N3055 series-pass transistor. The output voltage is sampled through Rl and R2, providing about 7 V with respect to ground at pin 4. The reference terminal at pin 6 is tied directly to pin 5, the noninverting input of the error amplifier. For fine trimming the output voltage, a potentiometer can be installed between Rl and R2. A l00-pF capacitor from pin 13 to pin 4 furnishes gain compensation for the amplifier.
34

+ 15~V1~AREGULATED POWER SUPPLY (cont.)

Base drive to the 2N3055 pass transistor is furnished by pin 10 of the uA723. Since the desired output of the supply is 1 A, maximum current limit is set to 1.5 A by resistor Rsc whose value is 0.433 n. A lOO-JLFelectrolytic capacitor is used for ripple voltage reduction at the output. A l-kn output resistor provides stability for the power supply under no-load conditions. The 2N3055 pass transistor must be mounted on an adequate heatsink.

-15·V 1·A REGULATED POWER SUPPLY

·:zvv
.. C
R5

S1

1.8krJ

--- lOPE .. TO RESE TI

]
INV

R4
3krJ

TEXA$IN$TRUMENTS

Fig. 2-15

The supply receives - 20 V from the rectifier/filter which is fed to the collector of the Darlington pnp pass transistor, a TIP105. The base drive to the TIP105 is supplied through resistor R5. The base of the TIPI05 is driven from Vz terminal at pin 9, which is the anode of a 6.2-V zener diode that connects to the emitter of the uA 723 output control transistor. The method of providing the positive feedback required for foJdback action is shown. This technique introduces positive feedback by increased current flow through resistors R1 and R2 under short-circuit conditions. This forward biases the base-emitter junction of the 2N2907 sensing transistor, which reduces base drive to the TIP105.

35

HAND-HELD

TRANSCEIVER
lM3\7 T

de ADAPTER

*
RI Z~O

+o----

.... --t
n,
W

\Z V OC I,..

35V
TAi'lTALUM

0.1 "F

+

liZ CI

C2 Rl

+

I",F 3~V

9 V OC OUT

~

TAi'lTAlUM

II2W

*
QST

USE

HEAT

SIIiK

Fig. 2-16

This de adapter provides a regulated 9-V source for operating a Kenwood TR-2500 hand-held transceiver in the car. The LM317T's mounting tab is electrically connected to its output pin, so take this into account as you construct your version of the adapter. The LM317T regulator dissipates 2 or 3 W in this application, so mount it on a 1- x -2-inch piece of l/s-mch-thick aluminum heatsink.

LOW-DROPOUT

5-V REGULATOR
2.1'12219

k-..... ~Vo

- IV

100 II
100 k!l

120 1<11

I Mil ~ EVEAEADY E.91 CElLS

-=-e v

l-----PflDlECTIDt.i

SHOIll

CIRCUIT

FEEDBACK 8

AMP

LOAD

6

4 tTl 004
1.2 V 11'1914

1.2

kll

30 kll

0,0111 V........... t .1 1 mA - , mV Vdropout a 10 mill. - 111mV VdrollOUt" 100 mA - 9& mA

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS

Fig. 2-17

36

TRIAC-CONTROLLED

VOLTAGE DOUBLER
VjN

HIGH-STABILITY

10-V REGULATOR
0

15V

vour
2K

OlIGEJ
01 IN4GUl CI 250jtf
250·WVOC

Tftl

o
.".

CI
lilf

Al

IOV

Ri UK
LM329B

+ DC
LOAD R3

urv { AC

._----------~----~

26m

GNO

HANDS-ON

ELECTRONICS

Fig. 2-18

POPULAR

ELECTRONICS

Fig. 2-19

VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED
+IV

CURRENT SOURCE

G.6S,u.F

1k

1. r-t}---,

This is a simple, precise voltage-controlled current source. Bipolar supplies will permit bipolar output. Configurations featuring a grounded voltage-control source and a grounded load are usually more complex and depend upon several components for stability. In this circuit, accuracy and stability almost entirely depend upon the 100-0 shunt.

-e-

O~RAlES

FRGM A S'NGl, \, SuPl'tY

LINEAR

TECHNOLOGY

CORP.

Fig. 7-20

37

LOW-POWER INVERTER
INPUT
+12V

RI IKn 1/4W

4,14

R3 IK!l 5,B,I2 1/4W R4 IKn 1/4W

TI

II[OUTPUT

R2
12Kn 114W 2,6

UI

556

9

TI'

120V ISVCT RADIO SHACK 273-15158

73 AMATEUR

RADIO

Fig. 2-21

This low-power inverter uses only 9 parts and turns 10 to 16 Vdc into 60-Hz, l1S-V square-wave power to operate ac equipment up to 25 W. The first section of the 556 timer chip is wired as an astable oscillator with R2 and C1 setting the frequency, The output is available at pin 5, The second section is wired as a phase inverter, That output is availableat pin 9. Resistors R3 and R4 keep output transistors Q1 and Q2 from loading down the oscillator, The two transistors drive the transformer push-pull fashion. When one transistor is biased-on, the other is cut-off. The transformer is a 120 V/l8 VCT unit that is connected backwards, so that it steps the voltage up rather than down, Oscillator circuit U'l, Rl, R2, and C1 operates from about 4 to 16 V with a very stable output,

THREE-RAIL POWER SUPPLY

D,
7.SV AC 2,0,

IC,

0,

1-----+------0

Yo,

.--------+------~----~~-----~-------_o
7.5Y AC 2,0,

COMMON

0, 0,
~~--~-~~--~


EON

L-

t--------------o
IC,

Yo,

Fig. 2-22

38

THREE-RAil

POWER SUPPLY (cont.)

This circuit generates three supply voltages using a minimum of components. Diodes D2 and D3 perform full-wave rectification, alternately charging capacitor C2 on both halves of the ac cycle. On the other hand, diode Dl with capacitor Cl, and diode D4 with capacitor C3 each perform half-wave rectification. The full- and half-wave rectification arrangement is satisfactory for modest supply currents drawn from - 5 and + 12-V regulators IC3 and IC2. You can use this circuit as an auxiliary supply in an up-based instrument, for example, and avoid the less attractive alternatives of buying a custom-wound transformer, building a more complex supply, or using a secondary winding, say 18 Vac, and wasting power in the 5-V regulators.

PROGRAMMABLE

POWER SUPPLY

1------0

DIGITAL CONTROL
10K

lK

HA2400

LOAD
HARRIS

Fig. 2-23

Many systems require one or more relatively low-current voltage sources which can be programmed to a few predetermined levels. The circuit shown above produces positive output levels, but could be modified for negative or bipolar outputs. Q1 is the series regulator transistor, selected for the required current and power capability. Rl, Q2, and Q3 form an optional short circuit protection circuit, with Rl chosen to drop about 0.7 V at the maximum output current. The compensation capacitor, C, should be chosen to keep the overshoot. when switching, to an acceptable level.

39

EFFICIENT NEGATIVE VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Feedback path MUR410

tVi"

I~
~

~

....

,

-:: t ::;; 470,.,F

1
V,n

"

t5.VoulpUI (IVPical)

MUR410 ::;:

... .....

LT1D86

'-

Switching legulalor

I ~
MUR410

r: 470,u.F
v;

+

ADJ
.1.

Va•1

+12V R.
124 R2 1.07k

::;:

+
~Ol'f

++C
Tl0,~F lT10S6 V.g, ADJ 1

., D 1 .4 "IN 4002

1.5 A

J.
ELECTRONIC 0 ESIGN

.....
Io.J

:::r: 470I'F

t

":.b.c

R, 12.
R2 1.07k

1
+
10I'F

'=' 4

·1 '4lilm le5islors

T1O\,F

.. IN4 002 -12V
1.5 A

D1

Fig. 2-24

One way to provide good negative-voltage regulation is with a low-dropout positive-voltage regulator operating from a well-isolated secondary winding of a switch-mode circuit transformer. The technique works with any positive-voltage regulator, although highest efficiency occurs with low-dropout types. Under all loading conditions, the minimum voltage difference between the regulator V1N and VOUT pins must be at least 1.5 V, the LTI086's low-dropout voltage. If this requirement isn't met, the output falls out of reguJation. Two programming resistors, Rl and R2, set the output voltage to 12 V, and the LTI086's servo the voltage between the output and its adjusting (AD]) terminals to 1.25 V. Capacitor Cl improves ripple rejection, and protection diode Dl eliminates common-load problems. Since a secondary winding is galvanically isolated, a regulator's 12 V output can be referenced to ground. Therefore, in the case of a negative-voltage output, the positive-voltage terminal of the regulator connects to ground, and the -12 V output comes off the anode of Dl. The VIN terminal floats at 1.5 V or more above ground.
5 V-TO-ISOLATED 5 V (AT 20 rnA) CONVERTER
+4.5Y TO >6V INPUT ti 'Ys +~

~
L, 5 lN50811
1

1 YAfF

MAX635
-VOUT

II
-z-

r-aot'_-

ISOLATED .SVI2Om .. OUTPUT

47UF

pFI
MAXIM

0,1

LBI

OtlO 4

0

T

-=-

-=-

TR .... SFORMER: 1:1 TURtlS R .. TIO 27O!;H, <0,50 PRIMARY 14 ' 8 mm POT CORE SCHOTT 0ti71147S0 (615) 889·8800

Fig. 2-25

40

5 V-TO-ISOLATED 5 V (AT 20 rnA) CONVERTER (cont.) In this circuit, a negative output voltage de-de converter generates a - 5-V output at pin A. In order to generate - 5 V at point A, the primary of the transformer must fly back to a diode drop more negative than - 5 V. If the transformer has a tightly coupled 1: 1 turns ratio, there will be a 5 V plus a diode drop across the secondary. The IN5817 rectifies this secondary voltage to generate an isolated 5-V output. The isolated output is not fully regulated since only the - 5 V at point A is sensed by the MAX63S.

POSITIVE REGULATOR WITH npn AND pnp BOOST

+

R1

--tCt8 INPUT

I

02 A

I ...

v+

r
..l ...R5 :
I

DIP

4

R3
ICl 8211 01
J

C2

OUTPUT

1

TH

v5
R4

INTERSIL

Fig. 2-26

In the circuit, Ql and Q2 are connected in the classic SCR or thyristor configuration. Where higher input voltages or minimum component count are required, the circuit for thyristor boost can be used. The thyristor is running in a linear mode with its cathode as the control terminal and its gate as the output terminal. This is known as the remote base configuration.

41

TRACKING PREREGULATOR

POPULAR

ELECTRONICS

Fig. 2·27

ADJUSTABLE 10-A REGULATOR

AOJ IN

Al 240n 0

112

non
\lOUT

113

120n

C2
IJ.iF 114 IK OUTPUT ADJUST

GND
':'

POPULAR

ELECTRONICS

Fig. 2-28

42

LOW-COST LOW-DROPOUT

LINEAR REGULATOR

r- n
i

I I lN4148 .01

I
l00V

1=

L --- fJ!
II

MTP3055A

I
Ll:

!A
I

.02511 'hW

RS

I
I

I

MUR

I \~
Al 10 ..

I

]

T!

~

330 35 V

1

I
I
1

I
I

CAl IN!l6:l11

r~

r....

A7 2.2 ..

02
~N4401

I I I
RJ 10 k

I

+

JaO 35 V

A2 1k

22 pF

c:

I
1

REGU LATEO
OUTP UT

DC

I
I

u.

~i
Ul TLY31ClP

1

I
R4 tk

I
I I

I IL
MOTOROLA

I
Fig. 2-29

AS
2.2 k

_j

This linear post regulator provides 12 Vat 3 A. It employs TU31 reference VI which, without additional amplification, drives TMOS MTP3055A gate Ql series pass regulator. Bias voltage is applied through Rl to Ql's gate, which is protected against overvoltage by diode CRl. Frequency compensation for closed-loop stability is provided by C1. Key performance features are: Dropout voltage: 0.6 V Line regulation: :!: 5 mV Load regulation: Output ripple: 10 mV 10 mV pk-pk

VOLTAGE DOUBLER
.12V

JOOI J'

+22V oc @ 'SOmA
+16V

@ 300mA

oc

IN4001

This circuit drives relays of 24 and 18 Vde from a 12-V power supply. Use this circuit with almost any pup or npn power transistor. Parts: Ul: NE 555 timer. C1 and C2: 50 p.FI 25 Vdc. Ql: TIP29, TlP120, 2N4922, TIP61, TIPllO, or 2N4921. Q2: TIP30, TIP125, 2N4919, TIP62 , TIP115, or 2N4918.

73 AMATEUR RADIO

Fig. 2-30

43

SAFE CONSTANT-CURRENT

SOURCE

----------~~----------------~---------------.-----------+

IRF 952q 1.25V. ICL8D69

ELECTRONIC

ENGINEERING

Fig. 2-31

In the circuit shown. a CMOS op amp controls the current through a p-channel HEXFET power transistor to maintain a constant voltage across Rl. The current is given by: 1= VREFJR1. The advantages of this configuration are: (a) in the event of a component failure, the load current is limited by Rl; and (b) the overhead voltage needed by the op amp and the HEXFET is extremely low.

LOW-COST 3-A SWITCHING REGULATOR
l.8V

SOO"H·

LI

TO 32V

0.01

C2

240n

R3

01 lNlBBD GND tSDlID TANTALUM • COA E-A AND LOA ·254166·2 60 T UA NS
POPULAR ELECTRONICS

Fig. 2-32

44

50~W OFF~LlNE SWITCHING POWER SUPPLY

ilIl

2 [ 11

6

[CL7675 I

Component Cl (;2 C3 C4 0_022 ,...F140(}V
470 ,...Fn_~OV

Values Table

c.~

ell
C9 Cl0 CII

C6 C7

470 I'FI rsv 220 pF/IOO\' 470 pF/SOOV 2200 pF/500V 270 pF 1500V ':19pF!500V 11,000 ",F/6.3V 10 /LFI 16V 0_047 ,...FI I OV

Rl R'2 R~ K4 RS R6 R7 11.8 R9 RIO RII R1.

1000 at ~ 5'C
[O/[W

1.[
D[

100/0'25W 100 kll/O'2S ....· 0,330/1 W 10 k0/0.25W 3'JOJlnW 22 kfl/lOW 68n/02"W 100/0_" \.... 3.30/0,5W SOIlO\'.'

02 TI '1'2 Fl MI QI QI

251'H lN4937 MBRI035 Lp~9"'H,"=1 SO,...H,n=I:3 Fu<,," I A/SB
Diode BI'ldge

15

BUZ80A/[Xrp4J\;80 (220VAC) GE IRF823 {llOVACI

INTERSIL

Fig. 2·33

The schematic shows a 50-W power supply with a 5-V lO-A output. It is a flyback converter operating in the continuous mode. The circuit features a primary side and secondary side controller with full-protection from fault conditions such as overcurrent. After the fault condition has been removed, the power supply will enter the soft-start cycle before recommencing normal operation.

45

.

POSITIVE REGULATOR WITH pnp BOOST

I.
O/P
TH_

•.••

A. !~C' t",F

J

output supply. R2 and R3 determine the output voltage as follows:

L

.......

O.

'.1\1.)1)11 1

INf!UT

ICL 1J11

In addition, the values of R2 and R3 are chosen to provide a small amount of standing current in Ql, _.II which gives additional stability margin to the circuit. Where accurate setting of the output voltage is required, either R2 or R3 can be made adjustable. INTERSIL Fig. 2-34 If R2 is made adjustable, the output voltage will The lC8211 provides the voltage reference and vary linearly with the shaft angle; however, if the regulator amplifier, while Ql is the series pass tran- potentiometer wiper was to open the circuit, the sistor. R1 defines the output current of the IC8211 , output voltage would rise. In general, therefore, it while Cl and C2 provide loop stability and also act is better to make R3 adjustable, since this gives to suppress feedthrough of input transients to the fail-safe operation.

A'
AJ

r
I/"

!i~.~.

OUT ..... T

1.'IV·::rJ_.'V

LOW FORWARD-DROP RECTIFIER CIRCUIT
Q1 MTH40N05 "CATHODE"

I

C$)~~
I

I I I

G Rl 10 k

I

--..,

I I

I I
I

DC .~ OUT~

'"
MOTOROLA

I I

.=..

+ 15 V

\7

,
I

A TMOS power FET, Ql, and an LM393 comparator provide a high-efficiency rectifier circuit. When VA exceeds Va, 01 's output becomes high and Ql conducts. Conversely, when VB exceeds VA, the comparator output becomes low and Ql does not conduct. The forward drop is determined by Ql's on resistance and current I. The MTH40NOS has an ON resistance of 0.0280; for 1= 10 A, the forward drop is less than 0.3 V. Typically,the best Schottky diodes do not even begin conducting below a few hundred mY.

Fig. 2-35

46

LOW-RIPPLE POWER SUPPLY

+Ve

R3 10k

GND
ELECTRONICS TODAY INTERNATIONAL

Fig. 2-36

This circuit can be used where a high current is required with a low-ripple voltage (such as in a highpowered class AB amplifier when high-quality reproduction is necessary). Q1, Q2, and R2 can be regarded as a power-Darlington transistor. ZD1 and R1 provide a reference voltage at the base of Q1. ZD1 should be chosen thus: ZD1 = VOUl -1.2. C2 can be chosen for the degree of smoothness as its value is effectively multiplied by the combined gains of Q1IQ2, if 100 I'F is chosen for C2, assuming minimum hfe for Q1 and Q2, C= 100x 15(Q1) x25(Q2) = 37,000 p.,F.

5.0-V/10-A
MJ295S O~

REGULATOR
EUUIV

S.O-Vi3.0-A
In.
'W

REGULATOR

MJEJ10

OR

EOUIV

o
lH

,.0 v 10 A

8W

MOTOROLA

Fig. 2-37

MOTOROLA

Fig. 2-38

47

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful