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Hydrotest Pressure Calculation

Hydrotest Pressure Calculation

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Published by Chetan B Kapadia
API 5L SPEC. DETAILS CLARIFIED
API 5L SPEC. DETAILS CLARIFIED

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Published by: Chetan B Kapadia on Jun 25, 2012
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HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE FORMULA

P = 20 x k x s x t / D (bar)
P = internal unites pressure (bar)
S = minimum yield strength (MPa)
D = outside diameter of pipe (mm)
t = wall thickness of pipe (mm)
k = the percentage of yield strength included in the calculation

k va!"s a##$ t% API &L
For Grade and ! k="#$"
F%r 'ra(" )*2+),0
%utside diameter &'
()*$
inch k="#$"
%utside diameter $
')+
,+
')+
inchk="#-'
%utside diameter *"
.)/
,*+ inchk="#+'
%utside diameter 01"

inch k="#("
RELATIO-SHIP .ET/EE- DESI'- PRESSURE A-D /ALL THIC0-ESS
P("s123 = 2 x S x t x F x L x 4 x T / D (2S 3$$1,".)
P("s123 = 2 x S x t x F x 4 x T / D (SM4 !.*5+)
P("s123 = 2 x S x t x F x 4 / D (SM4 !.*5/)
Pdesign = pipeline design pressure (psi)
S = minimum yield strength (psi)
D = pipeline outside diameter of pipe (inches)
t = wall thickness of pipe (inches)
F = design factor
6 = location factor
7 = longitudinal 8oint factor
9 = temperature derating factor
2S = 9he 2anadian Standards ssociation
SM4 = merican :ational Standard ;nstitute
• 9he design factor (F) < Gas
A551#at1%3
CSA 6772+08 ASME .89$,+.89$*
F x L F
Cass9 Cass2 Cass8 Cass* Cass9 Cass2 Cass8 Cass*
General "#+" "#-1 "#'$ "#// "#+" "#$" "#'" "#/"
=oads "#$" "#'" "#'" "#/" "#$" "#'" "#'" "#/"
=ailways# "#'" "#'" "#'" "#/" "#$" "#'" "#'" "#/"
Station "#'" "#'" "#'" "#/" "#'" "#'" "#'" "#/"
• 9he location factor (6)
1
Cass Ar"a '"3"ra CSA ASME
2lass * Terkedilmiş 6=*#"" 6="#+" 6="#-1
2lass 1 dizayn faktörü 6="#(" 6="#-1 6="#$"
2lass . Şehir 6="#-" 6="#'$ 6="#'"
2lass / Şehir (yoğun nüfuslu) 6="#'' 6="#// 6="#/"
• 9he longitudinal 8oint factor (7)
P15" T:5" CSA 6772+08 ASME .89$,
ASME .89$*
Seamless *#"" *#""
4lectric >elded *#"" *#""
Submerged arc >elded *#"" *#""
Spiral >elded *#"" "#+"
!utt >elded "#$" "#$"
• 9emperature derating factor (9)
T";5"rat!r"
(ºC)
CSA 6772+08
ASME .89$,
ASME .89$*
0*1" *#""
*'" "#(-
*+" "#(.
1"" "#(*
*." "#+-
0." *#""
&*1" *#""
/EI'HT CALCULATIO- OF PIPE
/ = 0<02*77 x (D+t) x t (k2/;)
> = unit weight of pipe kg)m
D = outside diameter of pipe (mm)
t = wall thickness of pipe (mm)
U-IT SURFACE AREA OF PIPE
A = D x π x 90
+8
(;
2
/;)
2
= unit surface area of pipe m?)m
D = outside diameter of pipe (mm)
HELI) A-'LE OF PIPE PRODUCTIO-
C%s θ = . / D x π (("2r"")
! = width of coil kg)m
D = outside diameter of pipe (mm)
PRODUCTIO- TIME FOR 9 M$ PIPE
T = 9 / C%s θ x =
9 @ production time (min)
θ > heliA angle of production
B@ >elding speed (m)min) (m/dak)
API &L PSL 2 CHEMICAL RE?UIREME-TS FOR HEAT A-D PRODUCT A-ALYSES .Y PERCE-TA'E OF /EI'HT<
Grade
2arbon Manganese Phosphorus Sulfur 9itanium
%ther
MaAimum
a
MaAimum
a
MaAimum MaAimum MaAimum
! "511 *51" "5"1' "5"*' "5"/ d#e
C/1 "511 *5." "5"1' "5"*' "5"/ c#d
C/$#C'1#C'$ "511 *5/" "5"1' "5"*' "5"/ c#d
C$"
f
"511 *5/" "5"1' "5"*' "5"/ c#d
C$'
f
"511 *5/' "5"1' "5"*' "5"$ c#d
C-"
f
"511 *5$' "5"1' "5"*' "5"$ c#d
C+"
f
"511 *5+' "5"1' "5"*' "5"$ c#d
a
For each reduction of "5"*D below the specified maAimum carbon content# an increase of "5"'D aboEe the specified maA,imum manganese content is permissible# up to a maAimum
of *5'"D for Grades C/1 through C'1# up to a maAimum of *5$'D for grades higher than C'1 but less than C-"# and up to 15""D for Grades C-" and higher5
c
2olumbium FniobiumG# Eanadium# titanium# or combinations thereof may be used at the discretion of the manufacturer5
d
9he sum of the columbium FniobiumG# Eanadium# and titanium contents shall not eAceed "5*'D5
e
9he sum of the columbium FniobiumG# Eanadium and titanium contents shall not eAceed "5"$D eAcept that# by agreement between the purchaser and manufacturer# an alternatiEe
maAimum may be established5
f
%ther chemical compositions may be furnished by agreement between purchaser and manufacturer# proEiding that the limits of Footnote d# and the tabular limits for phosphorus and
sulfur are met5
CALCULATIO- OF CAR.O- E?UI=ALE-T<
3
For PS6 1 pipe# carbon eHuiEalent (24) calculations shall be based on the product analyses and shall be calculated as follows5 ll carbon eHuiEalent
results shall be reported@
a5 >hen the carbon content is less than or eHual to "5*1D# the carbon eHuiEalent shall be calculated using the following formula for 24(Pcm)@
;f the heat analysis indicates a boron content less than"5""*D# then the product analysis need not include boron# and the boron content can be
considered as Iero for the 24(Pcm) calculation5
b5 >hen the carbon content is greater than "5*1D# the carbon eHuiEalent shall be calculated using the following formula for 24(;;>)
MA)IMUM CAR.O- E?UI=ALE-T<
9he carbon eHuiEalent shall not eAceed the following@
a. For Grade C+" pipe# for all grades of seamless pipe haEing a specified wall thickness greater than "5+"" in5 (1"5. mm) and for pipe designated by
the purchaser as high carbon eHuiEalent pipe# the Ealue agreed upon between the purchaser and the manufacturer5
b$ For pipe not coEered in ;tem a aboEe# a 24(Pcm) of "51'Dor a 24(;;>) of "5/.D# whicheEer is applicable5
:ote *@ 9he 24(Pcm) formula for low carbon steel is commonlyc alled the ;to,!essyo formula5 24 (Pcm) is in fact the chemical portion of the full formula5 =eference@ J5
;to K L5 !essyo# M>eldability Formula of Nigh Strength Steels =elated to Neat ffected 3one 2racking# 7ournal of 7apanese >elding Society# *($+# .-# (()# (.+5
:ote 1@ 9he 24(;;>) formula is commonly called the ;;> F;nternational ;nstitute of >eldingG formula5 =eference@ 9echnical =eport#*($-# ;;> doc5 ;C,'.',$-5
TE-SILE RE?UIREME-TS FOR API &L PSL 2
Grade
Jield Strength Oltimate 9ensile Strength
minimum maksimum minimum maksimum
psi Mpa psi Mpa psi Mpa psi Mpa
! .'#""" (1/*) $'#"""
d
(//+) $"#""" (/*/) **"#""" (-'+)
C/1 /1#""" (1(") -1#""" (/($) $"#""" (/*/) **"#""" (-'+)
C/$ /$#""" (.*-) -$#""" ('1/) $.#""" (/./) **"#""" (-'+)
C'1 '1#""" (.'() --#""" ('.*) $$#""" (/'') **"#""" (-'+)
C'$ '$#""" (.+$) -(#""" ('//) -*#""" (/(") **"#""" (-'+)
C$" $"#""" (/*/) +1#""" ('$') -'#""" ('*-) **"#""" (-'+)
C$' $'#""" (//+) +-#""" ($"") --#""" ('.*) **"#""" (-'+)
C-" -"#""" (/+.) ("#""" ($1*) +1#""" ('$') **"#""" (-'+)
C+" +"#""" (''1) *""#""" ($(") ("#""" ($1*) *1"#""" (+1-)
TOLERA-CES FOR DIAMETER OF PIPE .ODY FOR API &L
4

SiIe 9olerance
a
(with respect to specified outside diameter)
& 1 .)+ P "5"*$ in5 , "5".* in5 (P "5/*mm# , "5-( mm)
Q1 .)+ and# ve R/ S # continuous welded T D*5""
0 1 .)+ and &1" T D "5-'
0 1"# seamless T D *5""
0 1" Ee & .$# welded P D"5-'# , D "51'
0 .$# welded P U in5 , *)+ in5 (P $5.' mm# , .51" mm)
a
;n the case of pipe hydrostatically tested to pressures in eAcess of standard test pressures# other tolerances may be agreed upon between the manufacturer and the purchaser
TOLERA-CE FOR DIAMETER AT PIPE E-DS FOR API &L
SiIe Minus 9olerance Plus 9olerance 4nd,to,4nd
9olerance
%ut,of,=oundness
Diameter# Ais 9olerance (Percent
of Specified %D)
a
MaAimum Differential !etween Minimum and MaAimum
Diameters (pplies %nly to Pipe >ith D)t R -')
&*" V *)$/("5/" mm) *)*$ (*5'( mm) , , ,
0*"V Ee &1" *).1 ("5-( mm) .).1 (15.+ mm) , , ,
01" Ee &/1 *).1 ("5-( mm) .).1 (15.+ mm) b T * D & "5'"" in5 (*15- mm)
0 /1 *).1 ("5-( mm) .).1 (15.+ mm) b T * D & "5$1' in5 (*'5( mm)
a
%ut,of,roundness tolerances apply to maAimum and minimum diameters as measured with a bar gage# caliper# or deEice measuring actual maAimum and minimum diameters5
b
9he aEerage diameter (as measured with a diameter tape) of one end of pipe shall not differ by more than .).1 in5 (15.+ mm) from that of the other end5
TOLERA-CES FOR /ALL THIC0-ESS FOR API &L
SiIe 9ype of Pipe
9olerance
a
(Percent of Specified >all 9hickness)
Grade ! or 6ower Grade C/1 or Nigher
& 1 -)+ ll P 1"5"# , *15' P *'5"# , *15'
0 1 -)+ Ee &1" ll P *'5"# , *15' P *'5"# , *15'
01" >elded P *-5'# , *15' P *(5'# , +5"
0 1" Seamless P *'5"# , *15' P *-5'# , *"5"
a
>here negatiEe tolerances smaller than those listed are specified by the purchaser# the positiEe tolerance shall be increased to the applicable total
tolerance range in percent less the wall thickness negatiEe tolerance5
5
E- 9002&>200* MECHA-ICAL PROPERTIES FOR FLAT A-D LO-' PRODUCTS
Designation#
DeoAidation
%ld Standard Subgroup Minimum Jield Strength =eN in :)mm? 9ensile Strength =m in :)mm?
4: *""1-,*
4:
*""1-,1
4: *""1'
(*((.)
D;: *-""$
:ominal 9hickness mm :ominal 9hickness mm
and R*$ 0*$ 0/" 0$. 0+" 0*"" 0*'" 01"" &. Q. 0*"" 0*'"
42;SS *" R/" R$. R+" R*"" R*'" R1"" R1'" R*"" R*'" R1'"
S1.'7= *5"".+ F: S1.'7=G1 St .-,1 !S 1.' 11' 1*' 1*' 1*' *(' *+' *-' .$",'*" .$",'*" .'",'"" ./",/("
S1.'7% *5"**/ F: S1.'7% St .-,. WS 1.' 11' 1*' 1*' 1*' *(' *+' *-' .$",'*" .$",'*" .'",'"" ./",/("
S1.'71 *5"**- FF S1.'71G.)G/ WS 1.' 11' 1*' 1*' 1*' *(' *+' *-' .$",'*" .$",'*" .'",'"" ./",/("
S1-'7= *5""// F: S1-'7=G1 St //,1 !S 1-' 1$' 1'' 1/' 1.' 11' 1*' 1"' /.",'+" /*",'+" /"",'/" .+",'/"
S1-'7% *5"*/. F: S1-'7% St //,. WS 1-' 1$' 1'' 1/' 1.' 11' 1*' 1"' /.",'+" /*",'+" /"",'/" .+",'/"
S1-'71 *5"*/' FF S1-'71 G.)G/ WS 1-' 1$' 1'' 1/' 1.' 11' 1*' 1"' /.",'+" /*",'+" /"",'/" .+",'/"
S.''7= *5""/' F: S.''7= !S .'' ./' ..' .1' .*' 1(' 1+' 1-' '*",$+" /-",$." /'",$"" /'",$""
S.''7% *5"''. F: S.''7% St '1,. WS .'' ./' ..' .1' .*' 1(' 1+' 1-' '*",$+" /-",$." /'",$"" /'",$""
S.''71 *5"'-- FF S.''71G.)G/ WS .'' ./' ..' .1' .*' 1(' 1+' 1-' '*",$+" /-",$." /'",$"" /'",$""
S.''L1 *5"'($ FF S.''L1G.)G/ WS .'' ./' ..' .1' .*' 1(' 1+' 1-' '*",$+" /-",$." /'",$"" /'",$""
S/'"7% *5"'(" WS WS !S 1(' 1+' 1-' 1$' 1'' 1'' 1/' 11' /(",$$" ''",-1" /'",$"" /'",$""
;mpact 4nergy# 9est 9emperature#
1-7 /" 7 $" 7 º2
7= L= 6= P 1"
7% L% 6% "
71 L1 61 , 1"
6
E- 9002& CHEMICAL COMPOSITIO- OF THE PRODUCT A-ALYSIS FOR FLAT A-D LO-' PRODUCTS<
Designation#
DeoAidation Subgroup
2 in D maA5 for nominal
thickness in mm
Si D
maA
Mn D
maA
P D
maA
S D
maA
: D
maA
2u D
maA
4: *""1-,*
4: *""1-,1
and R*$ 0*$ 0/"
42;SS *" R/"
S1.'7= *5"".+ F: !S "5*( "5*( "51. *5'" "5"/' "5"/' "5"*/ "5$"
S1.'7% *5"**/ F: WS "5*( "5*( "5*( *5'" "5"/" "5"/" "5"*/ "5$"
S1.'71 *5"**- FF WS "5*( "5*( "5*( *5'" "5".' "5".' , ,
S1-' 7= *5""// F: !S "51/ "51/ "51' *5$" "5"/' "5"/' "5"*/ "5$"
S1-' 7% *5"*/. F: WS "51* "51* "51* *5$" "5"/" "5"/" "5"*/ "5$"
S1-' 71 *5"*/' FF WS "51* "51* "51* *5$" "5".' "5".' , "5$"
S.''7= *5""/' F: !S "51- "51- "51- "5$" *5-" "5"/' "5"/' "5"*/ "5$"
S.''7% *5"''. F: WS "51. "51. "51/ "5$" *5-" "5"/" "5"/" "5"*/ "5$"
S.''71 *5"'-- FF WS "51. "51. "51/ "5$" *5-" "5".' "5".' "5$"
S.''L1 *5"'($ FF WS "51. "51. "51/ "5$" *5-" "5".' "5".' ,
S/'"7% *5"'(" FF WS "51. "51. "51/ "5$" *5$" "5"/" "5"/" "5"1- "5$"
E- 9029@+9 MECHA-ICAL PROPERTIES FOR STEEL PIPES
Designation
4:
*""1-,1
MaA5 Jield Strength =eN in MPa 9ensile Strength =m in MPa
4longation ;mpact Strength#
:ominal 9hickness# :ominal 9hickness#
R*$ 0*$ &. min D LB 7
R/"
6ongitudinal
boyuna
9ransEerse
enine
" ,*" "
P*('9=* *5"*"- *(' *+' .1",//" 1- 1'
P*('9=1 *5"*"+ *(' *+' .1",//" 1- 1' /" 1+ 1-
P1.'9=* *5"1'/ 1.' 11' .$",'"" 1' 1.
P1.'9=1 *5"1'' 1.' 11' .$",'"" 1' 1. /" 1+ 1-
P1$'9=* *5"1'+ 1$' 1'' /*",'-" 1* *(
P1$'9=1 *5"1'( 1$' 1'' /*",'-" 1* *( /" 1+ 1-
E- 9029@+9 CHEMICAL COMPOSITIO- OF THE PRODUCT A-ALYSIS
Designation#
4:
*""1-,1
2 Si Mn P S 2r Mo :i l 2u :b 9i B 2rP2uPMoP:i
7
Kısa
Gösteriliş
P*('9=* *5"*"- "5*. "5.' "5-" "5"1' "5"1" "5." "5"+ "5." "5." "5"*" "5"/ "5"1 "5-"
P*('9=1 *5"*"+ "5*. "5.' "5-" "5"1' "5"1" "5." "5"+ "5." "5"1 "5." "5"*" "5"/ "5"1 "5-"
P1.'9=* *5"1'/ "5*$ "5.' *51" "5"1' "5"1" "5." "5"+ "5." "5." "5"*" "5"/ "5"1 "5-"
P1.'9=1 *5"1'' "5*$ "5.' *51" "5"1' "5"1" "5." "5"+ "5." "5"1 "5." "5"*" "5"/ "5"1 "5-"
P1$'9=* *5"1'+ *51" "5/" *5/" "5"1' "5"1" "5." "5"+ "5." "5." "5"*" "5"/ "5"1 "5-"
P1$'9=1 *5"1'( "51" "5/" *5/" "5"1' "5"1" "5." "5"+ "5." "5"1 "5." "5"*" "5"/ "5"1 "5-"
TOLERA-CE OF DIAMETER A-D /ALL THIC0-ESS FOR E- 9029@+9
SiIe %utside Diameter
>all thickness# t kalınlığı !
9R' '&9R/"
DR1*(5*
±D * or# Eeya ±"5'
>hich one greater#
hangisi bXyXkse
±D *" or# Eeya ± "5.
>hich one greater#
han"isi #üyükse
±D + or# Eeya ± 1
>hich one smaller#
han"isi kü$ükse
D01*(5*
±D "5-' or# Eeya ±$
>hich one smaller#
han"isi kü$ükse
Y :ot included weld area for plus tolerance%
/ELDI-' /IRES< Kaynak telleri
AsA1 E- @&7 (TS &8,@) A/S A&$9@ A/S A&$28
S* S* (S .+ 1 ! S* < fluA +$") 46 *1 ,,
S1 S1 (S .' 1 ! S1 < fluA +$") 4M *1 ,,
S1 Si S1 Si (S /$ 1 MS S1Si < fluA -$*) 4M *1L ,,
S1 Mo S1 Mo (S /$ / ! S1Mo < fluA 11.) ,, 4 1
E- @&7 S *7 * A. S2M% (S2M%)
8
2hemical analysis of wire electrode
FluA 9ypei (luminate !asic)
F!x<
Toz
S";b%<
Symbol
Manganese,Silica MS
2alcium, Silica 2S
3ircon,Silica 3S
=utile ,Silica =S
luminate,=utile =
luminate,!asic !
luminate,Silica S
luminate,Fluoride,
!asic
F
Fluoride,!asic F!
%ther,9ypes# &iğer
Ti'ler
3
/ELDI-' FLU)< Kaynak tozu
E- @70 A A. 9 7@ AC H& (P228)
S!rAa#" Pr"5arat1%3 Sta3(ar(s
9here are seEeral :ational and ;nternational Standards which define the Eisual assessment of surface cleanliness of steel before application of paint
and related products5
9he eHuiEalence of the Standards is summariIed in the following table@
9
2harpy ;mpact 4nergy#,/"º2# /-7
9ensile strength
S> wire,fluA combination
Standard name and number#
Metallurgical Ealues (Si,$# Mn,-)
Nydrogen for *"" gr welding metal
2lass
FluA type (luminate,!asic)
2urrent type (alternating current)
FluA production type (F##M)
Standard name and number
;S% +'"*,* (*(++)
!S -"-(@* (*(++)
Swedish Standard
S;S"''("" (*($-)
SSP2
(*(+1)
:24
>hite Metal
Sa . Sa . SP' *
:ear >hite Metal
Sa 15' Sa 15' SP*" 1
2ommercial !last
Sa 1 Sa 1 SP$ .
!rush,%ff !last
Sa * Sa * SP- /
SURFACE PROFILE A-D A.RASI=E SELECTIO-
=eference 2omparator G and S to ;S% +'".,* are aEailable for the Eisual assessment of gritKshot blasted surfaces5
'r1t bast"( S!rAa#"s
C%;5arat%r '
SB%t bast"( S!rAa#"s
C%;5arat%r S
Segment Surface
Profile µ
9olerance
µ
Segment Surface
Profile µ
9olerance
µ
* 1' . * 1' .
1 $" *" 1 /" '
. *"" *' . -" *"
/ *'" 1" / *'" *'
RA-'ES OF PROFILE 'RADI-'S
C%;5arat%r ' C%;5arat%r S R";arks
Fine(G) Fine (S) *≥ Segment 0 1
Medium (G) Medium (S) 1 ≥ Segment 0 .
2oarse (G) 2oarse (S) . ≥ Segment 0 /
Further detailed information relating to surface preparation may be obtained from the releEant specifications listed as follows@
9$ ;nternational Standard ;S% +'"*,*@*(++ MSpecification for rust grades of uncoated steel substrates and of steel substrates after oEerall
remoEal of preEious coatingZ (!S -"-(@Part *@*((/)5
2$ ;nternational Standard ;S% +'".,1@*(++ MMethod for the grading of surface profile of abrasiEe blast,cleaned steel5 2omparator ProcedureZ
(!S -"-(@Part 21@*(+()5
10
8$ Swedish Standard S;S %' '( "" (*($-) , MPictorial Surface Preparation Standards for Painting Steel SurfacesZ
*$ Steel Structures Painting 2ouncil (SSP2) Bolume 1 Systems K Specifications5
ISO 9992*+8 SI6E 'RADI-' FOR STEEL 'RIT
Product
SiIe (mm)
D @ min K maA cumulatiEe percentages allowed on corresponding sieEes
G*1
"D
+"D
min
("D
min

*5- ,15/
G*/
"D
+"D
min
("D
min

*5/ ,15"
G*$
"D
-'D
min
+'D
min

*51 ,*5-
G*+
"D
-'D
min

+'D
min

*5" ,*5/
G1' "D -"D +"D
11
min min "5-* ,*51
G/"
"D
-"D
min

+"D
min

"5/1 ,*5"
G'"
"D
$'D
min
-'D
min

"5. ,"5-*
G+"
"D
$'D
min
-'D
min
"5*+ ,"5/1
S4 SieEe
:o
- + *" *1 */ *$ *+ 1" 1' ." .' /" /' '" +" *1"
perture
1
5
+
"
1
5
.
$
1
5
"
"

*
5
-
"
*
5
/
"
*
5
*
+
*
5
"
"

"
5
+
'

"
5
-
*

"
5
$
"

"
5
'
"

"
5
/
1
'

"
5
.
'
'

"
5
.
"

"
5
*
+
"
5
*
1
'

ISO 9992*+8 SI6E 'RADI-' FOR STEEL SHOT
Product
SiIe (mm)
D @ min K maA cumulatiEe percentages allowed on corresponding sieEes
S-+"
15" ,15+
"D +'D
min
(-Dmi
n
S$$"
*5- ,15/
"D +'D
min
(-D
min
S''"
*5/ ,15"
"D +'D
min
(-D
min
S/$"
*51 ,*5-
"D 'D
maA
+'D
min
($D
min
S.("
*5" ,*5/
"D 'D
maA
+'D
min
($D
min
12
S.."
"5+' ,*51
"D 'D
maA
+'D
min
($D
min
S1+"
"5-* ,*5"
"D 'D
maA
+'D
min
($D
min
S1."
"5$ " "5+'
"D *"D
maA
+'D
min
(-D
min
S*-"
"5/1 ,"5-*
"D *"D
maA
+'D
min
(-D
min
S**"
"5. ,"5'
"D *"D
maA
+"D
min
("D
min
S-"
"5*+ ,"5.'
"D *"D
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SURFACE ROU'H-ESS PARAMETERS
Parameters Defined in SM4 !/$5* 2orresponding Parameters in ;S% /1+-#
=a rithmetic Eerage DeEiation of the ssessed Profile =a
=H =oot Mean SHuare DeEiation of the ssessed Profile =H
=p MaAimum Profile Peak Neight =p
=I Eerage MaAimum Neight of the Profile =y
=maA MaAimum =oughness Depth ,,,
13

LE-'TH E?UI=ALE-TS
2onEert#
Meters ;nches Feet Millimeters Miles
SHuare
Lilometers
Meters * .(#.- .#1"+ *5""" "#"""$1*/ "#""*
;nches "#"1'/ * "#"+.. 1'#/ "#""""*'-+ "#""""1'/
Feet "#."/+ *1 * ."/#+ "#"""*+(/ "#"""."/+
Millimeters "#""* "#".(.- "#"".1+"+ * "#""""""$1*/ "#"""""*
Miles *5$"(#.' $.#.$" '#1+" *5$"(5.'" * *#$"(.'
Lilometers *5""" .(#.-" .1+"#+. *5"""5""" "#$1*.- *
* Meter = *"" cm = *""" mm = "#""* km = *5"""5""" micrometers
14
AREA E?UI=ALE-TS
2onEert#
(evrim
SHuare
Meters
SHuare
;nches
SHuare Feet SHuare Miles
SHuare
Lilometers
SHuare Meters * *'/(5(( *"5-$.( .5+$* A *"
,-
* A *"
,$
SHuare ;nches "#"""$/'1 * $5(// A *"
,.
15/(* A
,$
$#/'1 A *"
,*"
SHuare Feet "#"(1( *// * .5'+- A
,$
(#1( A *"
,+
SHuare Miles 1 '+( ((( 1-5+-+#/"" * 1#'(
SHuare Lilometers * """ """ *"5-$.#+$- "5.+$* *
* SHuare Meters = *" """ SHuare 2entimeters
* SHuare Millimeter = "#"* SHuare 2entimeter="5""*'' SHuare ;nches
CO-=ERSIO- FACTORS FOR /EI'HTS A-D MEASURES
O5S5 M49=;2
Pounds (Eoirdupois) A "5/'.'( = Lilograms
9ons (1""" pounds) A "5("-*+ = Metric 9ons
9ons (11/" pounds) A *5"*$"' = Metric 9ons
;nches A 15'/""* = 2entimeters
;nches A 1'5/""* = Millimeters
Feet A "5."/+"* = Meters
SHuare ;nches A $5/'*$. = SHuare 2entimeters
SHuare Feet A "5"(1( = SHuare Meters
2ubic ;nches A *$5.+-*$ = 2ubic 2entimeters
2ubic Feet A "5"1+.1 = 2ubic Meters
Pounds per Foot A *5/++*$ = Lilos per Meter
%unces per SHuare Foot A "5"."'*' = Grams per SHuare 2entimeter
%unces per SHuare Foot A ."'5*' = Grams per SHuare Meter
Pounds per SHuare ;nch A "5"-".* = Lilograms per SHuare 2entimeter
Pounds per SHuare ;nch A "5"""-".* = Lilograms per SHuare Millimeter
Pounds per SHuare Foot A /5++1/* = Lilograms per SHuare Meter
Pounds per 2ubic Foot A *$5"*+.- = Lilograms per 2ubic Meter
M49=;2  O5S5
Lilograms A 151"/$1 = Pounds (Eoirdupois)
Metric 9ons A *5*"1.* = 9ons (1""" pounds)
Metric 9ons A "5(+/1* = 9ons (11/" pounds)
2entimeters A "5.(.- = ;nches
Millimeters A "5".(.- = ;nches
Meters A .51+"+.. = Feet
SHuare 2entimeters A "5*'' = SHuare ;nches
15
SHuare Meters A *"5-$.+- = SHuare Feet
2ubic 2entimeters A "5"$*"1 = 2ubic ;nches
2ubic Meters A .'5.*//' = 2ubic Feet
Lilograms Per Meter A "5$-*(- = Pounds per Foot
Grams per SHuare 2entimeter A .15--* = %unces per SHuare Ft
Grams per SH Meter A "5"".1--* = %unces per SHuare Ft
Lilograms per SHuare 2entimeter A */511./ = Pounds per SH ;nch
Lilograms per SHuare Millimeter A */115./ = Pounds per SH ;nch
Lilos per SH Meter A "51"/+1 = Pounds per SH ;nch
Lilos per 2ubic Meter A "5"$1/. = Pounds per 2ubic Foot
CO-=ERSIO- CO-STA-TS
T% C%3v"rt Fr%; T% M!t15: .:
Gallons Pounds of water +5..
Pounds of water Gallons "5*1""/
%unces Pounds "5"$1'
Pounds %unces *$
;nches of water Pounds per sHuare inch "5".$*
;nches of water ;nches of mercury "5"-.'
;nches of water %unces per sHuare inch "5'-+
;nches of water Pounds per sHuare foot '51
;nches of mercury ;nches of water *.5$
;nches of mercury Feet of water *5*...
;nches of mercury Pounds per sHuare inch "5/(*/
%unces per sHuare inch ;nches of mercury "5*1-
%unces per sHuare inch ;nches of water *5-..
Pounds per sHuare inch ;nches of water 1-5-1
Pounds per sHuare inch Feet of water 15.*"
Pounds per sHuare inch ;nches of mercury 15"/
Pounds per sHuare inch tmospheres "5"$+*
Feet of water Pounds per sHuare inch "5/./
Feet of water Pounds per sHuare foot $15'
Feet of >ater ;nches of mercury "5++1/
tmospheres Pounds per sHuare inch */5$($
tmospheres ;nches of mercury 1(5(1
tmospheres Feet of water ./
6ong tons Pounds 11/"
Short tons Pounds 1"""
Short tons 6ong tons "5+(1+'
16
FRACTIO-AL I-CHES TO MILLIMETERS
I-CH
0 9/97 9/, 8/97 9/* &/97 8/, @/97 9/2 C/97 &/, 99/97 8/* 98/97 @/, 9&/97
;;
" "#" *#$ .#1 /#+ $#/ -#( (#' **#* *1#- */#. *'#( *-#' *(#* 1"#$ 11#1 1.#+
* 1'#/ 1-#" 1+#$ ."#1 .*#+ ..#. ./#( .$#' .+#* .(#- /*#. /1#( //#' /$#" /-#$ /(#1
1 '"#+ '1#/ '/#" ''#$ '-#1 '+#- $"#. $*#( $.#' $'#* $$#- $+#. $(#( -*#/ -.#" -/#$
. -$#1 --#+ -(#/ +*#" +1#$ +/#* +'#- +-#. ++#( ("#' (1#* (.#- ('#. ($#+ (+#/ *""#"
/ *"*#$ *".#1 *"/#+ *"$#/ *"+#" *"(#' ***#* **1#- **/#. **'#( **-#' **(#* *1"#- *11#1 *1.#+ *1'#/
' *1-#" *1+#$ *."#1 *.*#+ *..#/ *./#( *.$#' *.+#* *.(#- */*#. */1#( *//#' */$#* */-#$ */(#1 *'"#+
$ *'1#/ *'/#" *''#$ *'-#1 *'+#+ *$"#. *$*#( *$.#' *$'#* *$$#- *$+#. *$(#( *-*#' *-.#" *-/#$ *-$#1
- *--#+ *-(#/ *+*#" *+1#$ *+/#1 *+'#- *+-#. *++#( *("#' *(1#* *(.#- *('#. *($#( *(+#/ 1""#" 1"*#$
+ 1".#1 1"/#+ 1"$#/ 1"+#" 1"(#$ 1**#* 1*1#- 1*/#. 1*'#( 1*-#' 1*(#* 11"#- 111#. 11.#+ 11'#/ 11-#"
( 11+#$ 1."#1 1.*#+ 1..#/ 1.'#" 1.$#' 1.+#* 1.(#- 1/*#. 1/1#( 1//#' 1/$#* 1/-#- 1/(#1 1'"#+ 1'1#/
*" 1'/#" 1''#$ 1'-#1 1'+#+ 1$"#/ 1$*#( 1$.#' 1$'#* 1$$#- 1$+#. 1$(#( 1-*#' 1-.#* 1-/#$ 1-$#1 1--#+
* inch = 1'#/ millimeters
Sample @ 1 *)1 inches (1 from the left column plus *)1 from the top row) = $.#' millimeters
METRIC PREFI)ES A-D SYM.OLS
M!t151#at1%3 Fa#t%r Pr"A1x S:;b%
* """ """ """ """ """ """ = *"
*+
4Aa 4
* """ """ """ """ """ = *"
*'
Peta P
* """ """ """ """ = *"
*1
9era 9
*"""""""""=*"
(
Giga G
*""""""=*"
$
Mega M
*"""=*"
.
Lilo k
*""=*"
1
Necto h
*"=*"
*
Deka da
"5*=*"
,*
Deci d
"5"*=*"
,1
2enti c
"5""* = *"
,.
Mili m
"5""" ""* = *"
,$
Micro m
"5""" """ ""* = *"
,(
:ano n
"5""" """ """ ""* = *"
,*1
Pico p
"5""" """ """ """ ""* = *"
,*'
Femto f
"5""" """ """ """ """ ""* = *"
,*+
atto a
17
MI-UTES CO-=ERTED TO DECIMALS OF A DE'REE
M13$ D"2$ M13$ D"2$ M13$ D"2$ M13$ D"2$ M13$ D"2$ M13$ D"2$
* "5"*$$ ** "5*+.. 1* "5.'"" .* "5'*$$ /* "5$+.. '* "5+'""
1 "5"... *1 "51""" 11 "5.$$$ .1 "5'... /1 "5-""" '1 "5+$$$
. "5"'"" *. "51*$$ 1. "5.+.. .. "5''"" /. "5-*$$ '. "5++..
/ "5"$$$ */ "51... 1/ "5/""" ./ "5'$$$ // "5-... '/ "5("""
' "5"+.. *' "51'"" 1' "5/*$$ .' "5'+.. /' "5-'"" '' "5(*$$
$ "5*""" * "51$$$ 1$ "5/... .$ "5$""" /$ "5-$$$ '$ "5(...
- "5**$$ *- "51+.. 1- "5/'"" .- "5$*$$ /- "5-+.. '- "5('""
+ "5*... *+ "5.""" 1+ "5/$$$ .+ "5$... /+ "5+""" '+ "5($$$
( "5*'"" *( "5.*$$ 1( "5/+.. .( "5$'"" /( "5+*$$ '( "5(+..
*" "5*$$$ 1" "5.... ." "5'""" /" "5$$$$ '" "5+... $" *5"""
PRESSURE E?UI=ALE-TS
M!t15:<
çarpım
02 5"r
sD!ar"
#;
P%!3(s
5"r
sD!ar"
I3#B
At;%s5B"r" .ar
I3#B"s
%A
M"r#!r:
01%5as#as
I3#B"s
%A
/at"r
F""t %A
/at"r
02 5"r sD!ar"
#;
* */511 "5($-+ "#(+"$- 1+5($ (+#"$- .(/5"' .15+/
P%!3(s 5"r
sD!ar" I3#B
"#"-".* * "5"$+"/ "#"$+(' 15".$ $#+(' 1-5- 15."(
At;%s5B"r" *#"..1 */5$($ * *#"*.1' 1(5(1 *"*#.1' /"-5*/ ..5(.
.ar *#"*(-1 */5'".+ "5(+$(1 * 1(5'. *"" /"15*'$ ..5'*.
I3#B"s %A
M"r#!r:
"#"./'. "5/(*1 "5"../1 "#"..+$/ * .#.+$/ *.5$* *5*./
01%5as#as "#"*"*(-1 "5*/'".+ "5""(+$($ "#"* "51('. * /5"1*'$ "5..'*.
I3#B"s %A
/at"r
"#""1'.+ "5".$* "5""1/'$ "#""1/( "5"-./( "#1/( * "5"+..
F""t %A /at"r "#."/' "5/..1 "5"1(/- "#"1(+.( "5++*( 1#(+.( *1 *
TEMPERATURE CO-=ERSIO- FORMULAS
T% C%3v"rt Fr%; T% S!bst1t!t" 13 F%r;!a
Degrees 2elsius Degrees Fahrenheit ([2 A ()') P .1
Degrees 2elsius LelEin ([2 P 1-.5*$)
Degrees Fahrenheit Degrees 2elsius ([F ,.1) A ')(
Degrees Fahrenheit Degrees =ankin ([F P /'(5$()
18
TEMPERATURE CO-=ERSIO-
FaBr"3B"1t  C"3t12ra("
E F E C E F E C E F E C E F E C E F E C
6"r% ,*-5+ 2& ,.5( &0 *"5" @& 1.5( 900 .-5+
9 ,*-51 27 ,.5. &9 *"5$ @7 1/5/ 990 /.5.
2 ,*$5- 2@ ,15+ &2 **5* @@ 1'5" 920 /+5(
8 ,*$5* 2, ,151 &8 **5- @, 1'5$ 980 '/5/
* ,*'5$ 2C ,*5- &* *151 @C 1$5* 9*0 $"5"
& ,*'5" 80 ,*5* && *15+ ,0 1$5- 9&0 $'5$
7 ,*/5/ 89 ,"5$ &7 *.5. ,9 1-51 970 -*5*
@ ,*.5( 82 3ero &@ *.5( ,2 1-5+ 9@0 -$5-
, ,*.5. 88 "5$ &, */5/ ,8 1+5. 9,0 +151
C ,*15+ 8* *5* &C *'5" ,* 1+5( 9C0 +-5+
90 ,*151 8& *5- 70 *'5$ ,& 1(5/ 200 (.5.
99 ,**5- 87 151 79 *$5* C7 ."5" 290 (+5(
92 ,**5* 8@ 15+ 72 *$5- ,@ ."5' 220 *"/5/
98 ,*"5$ 8, .5. 78 *-51 ,, .*5* 280 **"5"
9* ,*"5" 8C .5( 7* *-5+ ,C .*5- 2*0 **'5$
9& ,(5/ *0 /5/ 7& *+5. C0 .151 2&0 *1*5*
97 ,+5( *9 '5" 77 *+5( C9 .15+ 800 */+5+
9@ ,+5. *2 '5$ 7@ *(5/ C2 ..5. 8&0 *-$5$
9, ,-5+ *8 $5* 7, 1"5" C8 ..5( *00 1"/5/
9C ,-51 ** $5- 7C 1"5$ C* ./5/ *&0 1.151
20 ,$5- *& -51 @0 1*5* C& .'5" &00 1$"5"
29 ,$5* *7 -5+ @9 1*5- C7 .'5$ @&0 .(+5+
22 ,'5$ *@ +5. @2 1151 C@ .$5* 9000 '.-5-
28 ,'5" *, +5( @8 115+ C, .$5-
2* ,/5/ *C (5/ @* 1.5. CC .-51
19
=%!;" ED!1va"3ts
T% C%3v"rt
Fr%;< ..den
çevirim
C!b1#
D"#1;"t"rs
(L1t"rs)
C!b1#
13#B"s
C!b1#
F""t
U$S$
?!art
U$S$
'a%3
I;5"r1a
'a%3
U$S$ .arr"
(P"tr%"!;)
C!b1#
D"#1;"t"rs
(L1t"rs)
* $*5"1./ "5".'.* *5"'$$+ "51$/*-+ "#11""+. "5""$1(
C!b1#
I3#B"s
"#"*$.(
*
'5-+- A
*"
,/
*5"*-.1 "5""/.1( "#"".$"$ "5"""*".
C!b1# F""t
1+#.*-
*-1+ * 1(5(11* -5/+"'' $#11+++ "5*-+*
U$S$ ?!art
"#(/$.$
'-5-' "5"../1 * "51' "#1"+1 "5""'('
U$S$ 'a%3
.#-+'/.
1.* "5*..$+ / * "#+.. "5"1.+*
I;5"r1a
'a%3
/#'/.-/
1--51-/ "5*$"'/ /5+"*1+ *51"".1 * "5"1+--
U$S$ .arr"
(P"tr%"!;
)
*'+#(+ (-"1 '5$*/$ *$+ /1 ./#(-.
*
* cubic meter = *#"""#""" cubic centimeters
* liter = *""" milliliters = *""" cubic centimeters
20
=1#k"rs Har(3"ss T"st
A > Surface area
( > rithmetic mean of the two diagonals# d* and d1 in mm
F > 6oad in kgf
H= > Bickers hardness
9o conEert NB to MPa multiply by (5+"-
Bickers hardness numbers are reported as **0H=80 @
//" @ the hardness number
NB @ giEes the hardness scale (Bickers)
." @ the load used in kgf
SURFACE AREA A-D =OLUME FORMULAS
'"%;"tr1# SBa5" S!rAa#" Ar"a
Prism
Prism (general) S=1!PPh
S=1lw P (1l P 1w)h
S=$s?
21
Pyramid
=egular Pyramid (general)# S=!Pn("#' bs)
S=! P n("#' s) b
S=b? P /("#')(/) s
S=b? P +s
2ylinder S=1π r?P πdh
2one
S=π r?P πrs
S=slant height
Sphere S=/π r?h
22
DI- 807@0 MI-IMUM COATI-' THIC0-ESS
Pipe siIe#
mm
Min5 9hickness of coating in mm#
Diameter# $a' & D: *"" *5+
*"" R Diameter# $a' & 1'" 15"
1'" R Diameter# $a' & '"" 151
'"" R Diameter# $a' & +"" 15'
Diameter# $a' Q +"" .5"
long any * m length of pipe# the coating thickness may be up to *"D less than the minimum reHuired# proEided the thinner area does not coEer more than ' cm?
DI- 807@0 TESTS
S!rAa#" C"a313"ss C%;5ar1s%3 = Sa 1 S , D;: ''(1+ Part .
.%3( Str"32tB = at a test temperature of (1" T') \2# be at least .' : per cm of test piece width
at a test temperature of ('" T') \2# be at least *' : per cm of test piece width for type : coatings# and 1' : per cm type S coatings
C%3t13!1t: (B%1(a:) = 1' kB
I;5a#t Str"32tB = ." impact# dar#e
I3("3tat1%3 Bar(3"ss = "5. mm (1. T1 \2)
P"r#"3ta2" "%32at1%3 at Aa1!r"= 1"" D
C%at132 R"s1st1v1t: = *"+ Ω m?
H"at a3( 12Bt a2"132 = the melt flow rate shall not deEiate by more than .' D of the original Ealue
APPLICATIO- PROCESS FOR PE COATI-' OF 4OI-T AREA
23
9 Neat the steel surface to be insulated to /",'"\2 and clean to the
purification degree 1 as per G%S9 (5/"15 9reat the polyethylene coating
with emery paper to proEide sufficient surface roughness5
2 Neat the insulated surface and ad8acent factory insulation coating to at
least ("\2 (in summer) or **" (P*") \25 pply the preliminary prepared
epoAy primer onto the steel surface and the ad8acent factory insulation
coating oEer the entire insulated portion5
8 >rap the sleeEe around the weld 8oint so that the oEerlap with
the factory coating is at least -' mm at each side and the oEerlap
of the sleeEe ends is at least *"" mm5
* Neat the glue layer with a soft flame on the closure plate and install
the plate in the central position onto the sleeEe end oEerlap by hitting it
with a hand or rolling with a silicon roller5 9he closure plate should be
located on the pipe circumference near the 1 or *" o]clock position5
24
& Neat the sleeEe with a soft flame from the center to the edges
beginning from the bottom part of the weld 8oint to remoEe
bubbles from the sleeEe surface5
APPLICATIO- PROCESS FOR REPAIR OF PE COATI-'
9 Neat the repaired polyethylene coating portion to *"" (P*"\2)
and remoEe the damaged factory coating with a spatula or a knife5
Smooth the sharp edges of the coating and make the coating more
rough (with emery paper) oEer a -' mm area around the remoEed
coating portion5 =emoEe rust from the repaired pipe surface
portion with emery paper5
2 Neat the steel surface to $"\2 and polyethylene surface of the repaired
portion to *"" (P*") \2 (within a *"" mm area around the damaged
spot)5
pply the repair filler (preliminary cut to siIe) onto the steel and
polyethylene pipe surfaces5 Neat the filler with a gas burner# fill in the
damaged portion with a spatula and uniformly distribute it with the spatula
oEer the polyethylene surface (oEer a -' mm area around the damaged
spot)5
8 Neat the adhesiEe layer (preliminary cut to ensure /",/' mm
oEerlap with the factory coating)5 Neat until the adhesiEe layer
becomes lustrous5
25
* ;nstall the tape onto the repaired pipe area so the tape adhesiEe layer
eAtend from beneath the tape to at least 1" mm5 Neat the tape with a gas
burner and roll down with a roller remoEe glue blobs and air bubbles5
&
=oll the tape down with a silicon roller to remoEe glue
blobs and bubbles5
26

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