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Improper Integrals

Mathematics 54–Elementary Analysis 2

Institute of Mathematics

University of the Philippines-Diliman

1/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

In deﬁning

_

b

a

f (x)dx, we assumed

[a, b] is ﬁnite;and

f is continuous on [a, b]

2/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

In deﬁning

_

b

a

f (x)dx, we assumed

[a, b] is ﬁnite;and

f is continuous on [a, b]

2/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

In deﬁning

_

b

a

f (x)dx, we assumed

[a, b] is ﬁnite;

and

f is continuous on [a, b]

2/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

In deﬁning

_

b

a

f (x)dx, we assumed

[a, b] is ﬁnite;and

f is continuous on [a, b]

2/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

Suppose f has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x =c, on [a, b].

_

1

−1

x

x

2

−2x

dx =

_

1

−1

1

x−2

dx = ln|x−2|]

1

−1

=−ln3

If f (x) =

_

x

2

if x <0

x−2 if x >0

, then

_

1

−1

f (x) dx =

_

0

−1

x

2

dx+

_

1

0

(x−2) dx =

1

3

−

3

2

=−

7

6

3/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

Suppose f has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x =c, on [a, b].

_

1

−1

x

x

2

−2x

dx =

_

1

−1

1

x−2

dx = ln|x−2|]

1

−1

=−ln3

If f (x) =

_

x

2

if x <0

x−2 if x >0

, then

_

1

−1

f (x) dx =

_

0

−1

x

2

dx+

_

1

0

(x−2) dx =

1

3

−

3

2

=−

7

6

3/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

Suppose f has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x =c, on [a, b].

_

1

−1

x

x

2

−2x

dx =

_

1

−1

1

x−2

dx = ln|x−2|]

1

−1

=−ln3

If f (x) =

_

x

2

if x <0

x−2 if x >0

, then

_

1

−1

f (x) dx =

_

0

−1

x

2

dx+

_

1

0

(x−2) dx =

1

3

−

3

2

=−

7

6

3/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

Suppose f has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x =c, on [a, b].

_

1

−1

x

x

2

−2x

dx

=

_

1

−1

1

x−2

dx = ln|x−2|]

1

−1

=−ln3

If f (x) =

_

x

2

if x <0

x−2 if x >0

, then

_

1

−1

f (x) dx =

_

0

−1

x

2

dx+

_

1

0

(x−2) dx =

1

3

−

3

2

=−

7

6

3/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

Suppose f has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x =c, on [a, b].

_

1

−1

x

x

2

−2x

dx =

_

1

−1

1

x−2

dx

= ln|x−2|]

1

−1

=−ln3

If f (x) =

_

x

2

if x <0

x−2 if x >0

, then

_

1

−1

f (x) dx =

_

0

−1

x

2

dx+

_

1

0

(x−2) dx =

1

3

−

3

2

=−

7

6

3/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

Suppose f has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x =c, on [a, b].

_

1

−1

x

x

2

−2x

dx =

_

1

−1

1

x−2

dx = ln|x−2|]

1

−1

=−ln3

If f (x) =

_

x

2

if x <0

x−2 if x >0

, then

_

1

−1

f (x) dx =

_

0

−1

x

2

dx+

_

1

0

(x−2) dx =

1

3

−

3

2

=−

7

6

3/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

Suppose f has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x =c, on [a, b].

_

1

−1

x

x

2

−2x

dx =

_

1

−1

1

x−2

dx = ln|x−2|]

1

−1

=−ln3

If f (x) =

_

x

2

if x <0

x−2 if x >0

, then

_

1

−1

f (x) dx =

_

0

−1

x

2

dx+

_

1

0

(x−2) dx =

1

3

−

3

2

=−

7

6

3/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

Suppose f has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x =c, on [a, b].

_

1

−1

x

x

2

−2x

dx =

_

1

−1

1

x−2

dx = ln|x−2|]

1

−1

=−ln3

If f (x) =

_

x

2

if x <0

x−2 if x >0

,

then

_

1

−1

f (x) dx =

_

0

−1

x

2

dx+

_

1

0

(x−2) dx =

1

3

−

3

2

=−

7

6

3/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

Suppose f has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x =c, on [a, b].

_

1

−1

x

x

2

−2x

dx =

_

1

−1

1

x−2

dx = ln|x−2|]

1

−1

=−ln3

If f (x) =

_

x

2

if x <0

x−2 if x >0

, then

_

1

−1

f (x) dx

=

_

0

−1

x

2

dx+

_

1

0

(x−2) dx =

1

3

−

3

2

=−

7

6

3/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

Suppose f has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x =c, on [a, b].

_

1

−1

x

x

2

−2x

dx =

_

1

−1

1

x−2

dx = ln|x−2|]

1

−1

=−ln3

If f (x) =

_

x

2

if x <0

x−2 if x >0

, then

_

1

−1

f (x) dx =

_

0

−1

x

2

dx+

_

1

0

(x−2) dx

=

1

3

−

3

2

=−

7

6

3/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

Suppose f has a ﬁnite discontinuity at x =c, on [a, b].

_

1

−1

x

x

2

−2x

dx =

_

1

−1

1

x−2

dx = ln|x−2|]

1

−1

=−ln3

If f (x) =

_

x

2

if x <0

x−2 if x >0

, then

_

1

−1

f (x) dx =

_

0

−1

x

2

dx+

_

1

0

(x−2) dx =

1

3

−

3

2

=−

7

6

3/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

We extend the concept of deﬁnite integrals to include cases

where

1

the interval of integration is inﬁnite or

2

f (x) has an inﬁnite discontinuity on the interval [a, b].

Some examples are

_

∞

1

dx

x

,

_

1

−∞

dx

x−4

,

_

∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+1

_

4

0

dx

x−4

,

_

5

1

dx

x ln

3

x

,

_

10

1

dx

3x−7

_

∞

0

2

x

2

dx,

_

+∞

0

dx

x ln

2

(x−5)

4/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

We extend the concept of deﬁnite integrals to include cases

where

1

the interval of integration is inﬁnite or

2

f (x) has an inﬁnite discontinuity on the interval [a, b].

Some examples are

_

∞

1

dx

x

,

_

1

−∞

dx

x−4

,

_

∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+1

_

4

0

dx

x−4

,

_

5

1

dx

x ln

3

x

,

_

10

1

dx

3x−7

_

∞

0

2

x

2

dx,

_

+∞

0

dx

x ln

2

(x−5)

4/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

We extend the concept of deﬁnite integrals to include cases

where

1

the interval of integration is inﬁnite

or

2

f (x) has an inﬁnite discontinuity on the interval [a, b].

Some examples are

_

∞

1

dx

x

,

_

1

−∞

dx

x−4

,

_

∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+1

_

4

0

dx

x−4

,

_

5

1

dx

x ln

3

x

,

_

10

1

dx

3x−7

_

∞

0

2

x

2

dx,

_

+∞

0

dx

x ln

2

(x−5)

4/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

We extend the concept of deﬁnite integrals to include cases

where

1

the interval of integration is inﬁnite or

2

f (x) has an inﬁnite discontinuity on the interval [a, b].

Some examples are

_

∞

1

dx

x

,

_

1

−∞

dx

,

_

∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+1

_

4

0

dx

x−4

,

_

5

1

dx

x ln

3

x

,

_

10

1

dx

3x−7

_

∞

0

2

x

2

dx,

_

+∞

0

dx

x ln

2

(x−5)

4/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

We extend the concept of deﬁnite integrals to include cases

where

1

the interval of integration is inﬁnite or

2

f (x) has an inﬁnite discontinuity on the interval [a, b].

Some examples are

_

∞

1

dx

x

,

_

1

−∞

dx

,

_

∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+1

_

4

0

dx

x−4

,

_

5

1

dx

x ln

3

x

,

_

10

1

dx

3x−7

_

∞

0

2

x

2

dx,

_

+∞

0

dx

x ln

2

(x−5)

4/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

We extend the concept of deﬁnite integrals to include cases

where

1

the interval of integration is inﬁnite or

2

f (x) has an inﬁnite discontinuity on the interval [a, b].

Some examples are

_

∞

1

dx

x

,

_

1

−∞

dx

,

_

∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+1

_

4

0

dx

x−4

,

_

5

1

dx

x ln

3

x

,

_

10

1

dx

3x−7

_

∞

0

2

x

2

dx,

_

+∞

0

dx

x ln

2

(x−5)

4/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Introduction

We extend the concept of deﬁnite integrals to include cases

where

1

the interval of integration is inﬁnite or

2

f (x) has an inﬁnite discontinuity on the interval [a, b].

Some examples are

_

∞

1

dx

x

,

_

1

−∞

dx

x−4

,

_

∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+1

_

4

0

dx

x−4

,

_

5

1

dx

x ln

3

x

,

_

10

1

dx

3x−7

_

∞

0

2

x

2

dx,

_

+∞

0

dx

x ln

2

(x−5)

4/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx =−

1

b

+1.

Letting b →+∞,

lim

b→+∞

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx = lim

b→+∞

_

−

1

b

+1

_

=1.

By letting b →+∞, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 1. We write its area as

_

∞

1

1

x

2

dx =1

5/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx =−

1

b

+1.

Letting b →+∞,

lim

b→+∞

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx = lim

b→+∞

_

−

1

b

+1

_

=1.

By letting b →+∞, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 1. We write its area as

_

∞

1

1

x

2

dx =1

5/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx

=−

1

b

+1.

Letting b →+∞,

lim

b→+∞

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx = lim

b→+∞

_

−

1

b

+1

_

=1.

By letting b →+∞, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 1. We write its area as

_

∞

1

1

x

2

dx =1

5/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx =−

1

b

+1.

Letting b →+∞,

lim

b→+∞

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx = lim

b→+∞

_

−

1

b

+1

_

=1.

By letting b →+∞, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 1. We write its area as

_

∞

1

1

x

2

dx =1

5/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx =−

1

b

+1.

Letting b →+∞,

lim

b→+∞

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx = lim

b→+∞

_

−

1

b

+1

_

=1.

By letting b →+∞, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 1. We write its area as

_

∞

1

1

x

2

dx =1

5/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx =−

1

b

+1.

Letting b →+∞,

lim

b→+∞

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx

= lim

b→+∞

_

−

1

b

+1

_

=1.

By letting b →+∞, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 1. We write its area as

_

∞

1

1

x

2

dx =1

5/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx =−

1

b

+1.

Letting b →+∞,

lim

b→+∞

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx = lim

b→+∞

_

−

1

b

+1

_

=1.

By letting b →+∞, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 1. We write its area as

_

∞

1

1

x

2

dx =1

5/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx =−

1

b

+1.

Letting b →+∞,

lim

b→+∞

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx = lim

b→+∞

_

−

1

b

+1

_

=1.

By letting b →+∞, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 1. We write its area as

_

∞

1

1

x

2

dx =1

5/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx =−

1

b

+1.

Letting b →+∞,

lim

b→+∞

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx = lim

b→+∞

_

−

1

b

+1

_

=1.

By letting b →+∞, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 1. We write its area as

_

∞

1

1

x

2

dx =1

5/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx =−

1

b

+1.

Letting b →+∞,

lim

b→+∞

_

b

1

1

x

2

dx = lim

b→+∞

_

−

1

b

+1

_

=1.

By letting b →+∞, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 1. We write its area as

_

∞

1

1

x

2

dx =1

5/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, +∞), then

_

+∞

a

f (x) dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

a

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on (−∞, b], then

_

b

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

t→−∞

_

b

t

f (x) dx

The above equalities hold provided the limits exist.

In which case, the improper integrals are said to be

convergent.

If a limit does not exist, the corresponding integral is said to be

divergent.

6/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, +∞), then

_

+∞

a

f (x) dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

a

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on (−∞, b], then

_

b

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

t→−∞

_

b

t

f (x) dx

The above equalities hold provided the limits exist.

In which case, the improper integrals are said to be

convergent.

If a limit does not exist, the corresponding integral is said to be

divergent.

6/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, +∞), then

_

+∞

a

f (x) dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

a

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on (−∞, b], then

_

b

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

t→−∞

_

b

t

f (x) dx

The above equalities hold provided the limits exist.

In which case, the improper integrals are said to be

convergent.

If a limit does not exist, the corresponding integral is said to be

divergent.

6/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, +∞), then

_

+∞

a

f (x) dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

a

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on (−∞, b], then

_

b

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

t→−∞

_

b

t

f (x) dx

The above equalities hold provided the limits exist.

In which case, the improper integrals are said to be

convergent.

If a limit does not exist, the corresponding integral is said to be

divergent.

6/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, +∞), then

_

+∞

a

f (x) dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

a

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on (−∞, b], then

_

b

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

t→−∞

_

b

t

f (x) dx

The above equalities hold provided the limits exist.

In which case, the improper integrals are said to be

convergent.

If a limit does not exist, the corresponding integral is said to be

divergent.

6/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, +∞), then

_

+∞

a

f (x) dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

a

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on (−∞, b], then

_

b

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

t→−∞

_

b

t

f (x) dx

The above equalities hold provided the limits exist.

In which case, the improper integrals are said to be

convergent.

If a limit does not exist, the corresponding integral is said to be

divergent.

6/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, +∞), then

_

+∞

a

f (x) dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

a

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on (−∞, b], then

_

b

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

t→−∞

_

b

t

f (x) dx

The above equalities hold provided the limits exist.

In which case, the improper integrals are said to be

convergent.

If a limit does not exist, the corresponding integral is said to be

divergent.

6/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, +∞), then

_

+∞

a

f (x) dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

a

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on (−∞, b], then

_

b

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

t→−∞

_

b

t

f (x) dx

The above equalities hold provided the limits exist.

In which case, the improper integrals are said to be

convergent.

If a limit does not exist, the corresponding integral is said to be

divergent.

6/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, +∞), then

_

+∞

a

f (x) dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

a

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on (−∞, b], then

_

b

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

t→−∞

_

b

t

f (x) dx

The above equalities hold provided the limits exist.

In which case, the improper integrals are said to be

convergent.

If a limit does not exist, the corresponding integral is said to be

divergent.

6/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnition.

If f (x) is continuous everywhere, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx =

_

c

−∞

f (x) dx+

_

+∞

c

f (x) dx

for any c ∈ R, provided that both improper integrals on the

right converge. In which case, the improper integral is

convergent.

If either integral on the right is divergent, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx is

divergent.

Remark.

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

c→+∞

_

c

−c

f (x) dx.

7/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnition.

If f (x) is continuous everywhere, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx =

_

c

−∞

f (x) dx+

_

+∞

c

f (x) dx

for any c ∈ R, provided that both improper integrals on the

right converge. In which case, the improper integral is

convergent.

If either integral on the right is divergent, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx is

divergent.

Remark.

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

c→+∞

_

c

−c

f (x) dx.

7/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnition.

If f (x) is continuous everywhere, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx =

_

c

−∞

f (x) dx+

_

+∞

c

f (x) dx

for any c ∈ R, provided that both improper integrals on the

right converge.

In which case, the improper integral is

convergent.

If either integral on the right is divergent, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx is

divergent.

Remark.

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

c→+∞

_

c

−c

f (x) dx.

7/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnition.

If f (x) is continuous everywhere, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx =

_

c

−∞

f (x) dx+

_

+∞

c

f (x) dx

for any c ∈ R, provided that both improper integrals on the

right converge. In which case, the improper integral is

convergent.

If either integral on the right is divergent, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx is

divergent.

Remark.

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

c→+∞

_

c

−c

f (x) dx.

7/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnition.

If f (x) is continuous everywhere, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx =

_

c

−∞

f (x) dx+

_

+∞

c

f (x) dx

for any c ∈ R, provided that both improper integrals on the

right converge. In which case, the improper integral is

convergent.

If either integral on the right is divergent, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx is

divergent.

Remark.

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

c→+∞

_

c

−c

f (x) dx.

7/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnition.

If f (x) is continuous everywhere, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx =

_

c

−∞

f (x) dx+

_

+∞

c

f (x) dx

for any c ∈ R, provided that both improper integrals on the

right converge. In which case, the improper integral is

convergent.

If either integral on the right is divergent, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx is

divergent.

Remark.

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

c→+∞

_

c

−c

f (x) dx.

7/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Inﬁnite Interval of Integration

Deﬁnition.

If f (x) is continuous everywhere, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx =

_

c

−∞

f (x) dx+

_

+∞

c

f (x) dx

for any c ∈ R, provided that both improper integrals on the

right converge. In which case, the improper integral is

convergent.

If either integral on the right is divergent, then

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx is

divergent.

Remark.

_

+∞

−∞

f (x) dx = lim

c→+∞

_

c

−c

f (x) dx.

7/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

0

e

−x

dx

= lim

k→+∞

_

−e

−x

__

k

0

= lim

k→+∞

_

−

1

e

k

+1

_

= 1(convergent).

8/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx

= lim

k→+∞

_

k

0

e

−x

dx

= lim

k→+∞

_

−e

−x

__

k

0

= lim

k→+∞

_

−

1

e

k

+1

_

= 1(convergent).

8/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

0

e

−x

dx

= lim

k→+∞

_

−e

−x

__

k

0

= lim

k→+∞

_

−

1

e

k

+1

_

= 1(convergent).

8/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

0

e

−x

dx

= lim

k→+∞

_

−e

−x

__

k

0

= lim

k→+∞

_

−

1

e

k

+1

_

= 1(convergent).

8/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

0

e

−x

dx

= lim

k→+∞

_

−e

−x

__

k

0

= lim

k→+∞

_

−

1

e

k

+1

_

= 1(convergent).

8/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

0

e

−x

dx

= lim

k→+∞

_

−e

−x

__

k

0

= lim

k→+∞

_

−

1

e

k

+1

_

= 1

(convergent).

8/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx.

_

+∞

0

e

−x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

0

e

−x

dx

= lim

k→+∞

_

−e

−x

__

k

0

= lim

k→+∞

_

−

1

e

k

+1

_

= 1(convergent).

8/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

= lim

t→−∞

_

−3

t

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

let u =x

2

−4, du =2xdx, the form is

1

2

_

u

−2

du =−

1

2u

= lim

t→−∞

−1

2(x

2

−4)

_

−3

t

= lim

t→−∞

_

−1

2· 5

+

−1

2(t

2

−4)

_

=

−1

10

(convergent).

9/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

= lim

t→−∞

_

−3

t

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

let u =x

2

−4, du =2xdx, the form is

1

2

_

u

−2

du =−

1

2u

= lim

t→−∞

−1

2(x

2

−4)

_

−3

t

= lim

t→−∞

_

−1

2· 5

+

−1

2(t

2

−4)

_

=

−1

10

(convergent).

9/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

= lim

t→−∞

_

−3

t

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

let u =x

2

−4, du =2xdx, the form is

1

2

_

u

−2

du =−

1

2u

= lim

t→−∞

−1

2(x

2

−4)

_

−3

t

= lim

t→−∞

_

−1

2· 5

+

−1

2(t

2

−4)

_

=

−1

10

(convergent).

9/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

= lim

t→−∞

_

−3

t

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

let u =x

2

−4, du =2xdx,

the form is

1

2

_

u

−2

du =−

1

2u

= lim

t→−∞

−1

2(x

2

−4)

_

−3

t

= lim

t→−∞

_

−1

2· 5

+

−1

2(t

2

−4)

_

=

−1

10

(convergent).

9/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

= lim

t→−∞

_

−3

t

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

let u =x

2

−4, du =2xdx, the form is

1

2

_

u

−2

du =−

1

2u

= lim

t→−∞

−1

2(x

2

−4)

_

−3

t

= lim

t→−∞

_

−1

2· 5

+

−1

2(t

2

−4)

_

=

−1

10

(convergent).

9/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

= lim

t→−∞

_

−3

t

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

let u =x

2

−4, du =2xdx, the form is

1

2

_

u

−2

du =−

1

2u

= lim

t→−∞

−1

2(x

2

−4)

_

−3

t

= lim

t→−∞

_

−1

2· 5

+

−1

2(t

2

−4)

_

=

−1

10

(convergent).

9/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

= lim

t→−∞

_

−3

t

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

let u =x

2

−4, du =2xdx, the form is

1

2

_

u

−2

du =−

1

2u

= lim

t→−∞

−1

2(x

2

−4)

_

−3

t

= lim

t→−∞

_

−1

2· 5

+

−1

2(t

2

−4)

_

=

−1

10

(convergent).

9/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

= lim

t→−∞

_

−3

t

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

let u =x

2

−4, du =2xdx, the form is

1

2

_

u

−2

du =−

1

2u

= lim

t→−∞

−1

2(x

2

−4)

_

−3

t

= lim

t→−∞

_

−1

2· 5

+

−1

2(t

2

−4)

_

=

−1

10

(convergent).

9/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

.

_

−3

−∞

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

= lim

t→−∞

_

−3

t

x dx

(x

2

−4)

2

let u =x

2

−4, du =2xdx, the form is

1

2

_

u

−2

du =−

1

2u

= lim

t→−∞

−1

2(x

2

−4)

_

−3

t

= lim

t→−∞

_

−1

2· 5

+

−1

2(t

2

−4)

_

=

−1

10

(convergent).

9/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

1

lnx

x

dx

let u =lnx, du =

1

x

dx, the form is

_

udu =

1

2

u

2

= lim

k→+∞

ln

2

x

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→+∞

_

ln

2

k

2

−0

_

=+∞(divergent).

10/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx

= lim

k→+∞

_

k

1

lnx

x

dx

let u =lnx, du =

1

x

dx, the form is

_

udu =

1

2

u

2

= lim

k→+∞

ln

2

x

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→+∞

_

ln

2

k

2

−0

_

=+∞(divergent).

10/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

1

lnx

x

dx

let u =lnx, du =

1

x

dx, the form is

_

udu =

1

2

u

2

= lim

k→+∞

ln

2

x

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→+∞

_

ln

2

k

2

−0

_

=+∞(divergent).

10/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

1

lnx

x

dx

let u =lnx, du =

1

x

dx,

the form is

_

udu =

1

2

u

2

= lim

k→+∞

ln

2

x

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→+∞

_

ln

2

k

2

−0

_

=+∞(divergent).

10/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

1

lnx

x

dx

let u =lnx, du =

1

x

dx, the form is

_

udu =

1

2

u

2

= lim

k→+∞

ln

2

x

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→+∞

_

ln

2

k

2

−0

_

=+∞(divergent).

10/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

1

lnx

x

dx

let u =lnx, du =

1

x

dx, the form is

_

udu =

1

2

u

2

= lim

k→+∞

ln

2

x

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→+∞

_

ln

2

k

2

−0

_

=+∞(divergent).

10/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

1

lnx

x

dx

let u =lnx, du =

1

x

dx, the form is

_

udu =

1

2

u

2

= lim

k→+∞

ln

2

x

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→+∞

_

ln

2

k

2

−0

_

=+∞(divergent).

10/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

1

lnx

x

dx

let u =lnx, du =

1

x

dx, the form is

_

udu =

1

2

u

2

= lim

k→+∞

ln

2

x

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→+∞

_

ln

2

k

2

−0

_

=+∞

(divergent).

10/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx.

_

+∞

1

lnx

x

dx = lim

k→+∞

_

k

1

lnx

x

dx

let u =lnx, du =

1

x

dx, the form is

_

udu =

1

2

u

2

= lim

k→+∞

ln

2

x

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→+∞

_

ln

2

k

2

−0

_

=+∞(divergent).

10/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Example 4.

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

Note:

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

+

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

, (take c =1)

Meanwhile,

_

1

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

t→−∞

_

1

t

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

1

t

= lim

t→−∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

(1) −tan

−1

t +1

2

_

=

1

2

_

π

4

−

_

−

π

2

__

=

3π

8

_

+∞

1

dx

x

2

+2x+5

= lim

k→∞

_

k

1

dx

(x+1)

2

+4

= lim

k→∞

1

2

tan

−1

x+1

2

_

k

1

= lim

k→∞

1

2

_

tan

−1

k+1

2

−tan

−1

(1)

_

=

1

2

_

π

2

−

π

4

_

=

π

8

Therefore,

_

+∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+2x+5

=

3π

8

+

π

8

=

π

2

.

11/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =−2(

5−t −2).

Letting t →5,

lim

t→5

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =lim

t→5

−2(

5−t −2) =4.

By letting t →5, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 4. We write its area as

_

5

1

1

5−x

dx =4

12/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =−2(

5−t −2).

Letting t →5,

lim

t→5

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =lim

t→5

−2(

5−t −2) =4.

By letting t →5, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 4. We write its area as

_

5

1

1

5−x

dx =4

12/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx

=−2(

5−t −2).

Letting t →5,

lim

t→5

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =lim

t→5

−2(

5−t −2) =4.

By letting t →5, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 4. We write its area as

_

5

1

1

5−x

dx =4

12/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =−2(

5−t −2).

Letting t →5,

lim

t→5

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =lim

t→5

−2(

By letting t →5, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 4. We write its area as

_

5

1

1

dx =4

12/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =−2(

5−t −2).

Letting t →5,

lim

t→5

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =lim

t→5

−2(

By letting t →5, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 4. We write its area as

_

5

1

1

dx =4

12/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =−2(

5−t −2).

Letting t →5,

lim

t→5

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx

=lim

t→5

−2(

By letting t →5, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 4. We write its area as

_

5

1

1

dx =4

12/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =−2(

5−t −2).

Letting t →5,

lim

t→5

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =lim

t→5

−2(

=4.

By letting t →5, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 4. We write its area as

_

5

1

1

dx =4

12/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =−2(

5−t −2).

Letting t →5,

lim

t→5

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =lim

t→5

−2(

By letting t →5, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 4. We write its area as

_

5

1

1

dx =4

12/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Consider the shaded region below.

Its area is

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =−2(

5−t −2).

Letting t →5,

lim

t→5

_

t

1

1

5−x

dx =lim

t→5

−2(

By letting t →5, the shaded region becomes inﬁnite. However, its

area is ﬁnite and is equal to 4. We write its area as

_

5

1

1

5−x

dx =4

12/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on (a, b], has an inﬁnite discontinuity at

x =a, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→a

+

_

b

t

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, b) and has an inﬁnite discontinuity

at x =b, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→b

−

_

t

a

f (x) dx.

The above equalities hold if the limits exist.

In which case, we say the improper integrals are convergent.

If a limit does not exist, then the corresponding integral is said

to be divergent.

13/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on (a, b], has an inﬁnite discontinuity at

x =a, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→a

+

_

b

t

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, b) and has an inﬁnite discontinuity

at x =b, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→b

−

_

t

a

f (x) dx.

The above equalities hold if the limits exist.

In which case, we say the improper integrals are convergent.

If a limit does not exist, then the corresponding integral is said

to be divergent.

13/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on (a, b], has an inﬁnite discontinuity at

x =a, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→a

+

_

b

t

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, b) and has an inﬁnite discontinuity

at x =b, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→b

−

_

t

a

f (x) dx.

The above equalities hold if the limits exist.

In which case, we say the improper integrals are convergent.

If a limit does not exist, then the corresponding integral is said

to be divergent.

13/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on (a, b], has an inﬁnite discontinuity at

x =a, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→a

+

_

b

t

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, b) and has an inﬁnite discontinuity

at x =b, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→b

−

_

t

a

f (x) dx.

The above equalities hold if the limits exist.

In which case, we say the improper integrals are convergent.

If a limit does not exist, then the corresponding integral is said

to be divergent.

13/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on (a, b], has an inﬁnite discontinuity at

x =a, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→a

+

_

b

t

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, b) and has an inﬁnite discontinuity

at x =b, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→b

−

_

t

a

f (x) dx.

The above equalities hold if the limits exist.

In which case, we say the improper integrals are convergent.

If a limit does not exist, then the corresponding integral is said

to be divergent.

13/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on (a, b], has an inﬁnite discontinuity at

x =a, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→a

+

_

b

t

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, b) and has an inﬁnite discontinuity

at x =b, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→b

−

_

t

a

f (x) dx.

The above equalities hold if the limits exist.

In which case, we say the improper integrals are convergent.

If a limit does not exist, then the corresponding integral is said

to be divergent.

13/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on (a, b], has an inﬁnite discontinuity at

x =a, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→a

+

_

b

t

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, b) and has an inﬁnite discontinuity

at x =b, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→b

−

_

t

a

f (x) dx.

The above equalities hold if the limits exist.

In which case, we say the improper integrals are convergent.

If a limit does not exist, then the corresponding integral is said

to be divergent.

13/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on (a, b], has an inﬁnite discontinuity at

x =a, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→a

+

_

b

t

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, b) and has an inﬁnite discontinuity

at x =b, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→b

−

_

t

a

f (x) dx.

The above equalities hold if the limits exist.

In which case, we say the improper integrals are convergent.

If a limit does not exist, then the corresponding integral is said

to be divergent.

13/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnitions.

If f (x) is continuous on (a, b], has an inﬁnite discontinuity at

x =a, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→a

+

_

b

t

f (x) dx.

If f (x) is continuous on [a, b) and has an inﬁnite discontinuity

at x =b, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx = lim

t→b

−

_

t

a

f (x) dx.

The above equalities hold if the limits exist.

In which case, we say the improper integrals are convergent.

If a limit does not exist, then the corresponding integral is said

to be divergent.

13/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnition.

If f (x) has an inﬁnite discontinuity at c, where a <c <b, then

we deﬁne

_

b

a

f (x) dx =

_

c

a

f (x) dx+

_

b

c

f (x) dx.

The above equality holds provided that both

_

c

a

f (x) dx and

_

b

c

f (x) dx are convergent. In which case,

_

b

a

f (x) dx is said to be

convergent.

If either integral on the right is divergent, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx is

divergent.

14/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnition.

If f (x) has an inﬁnite discontinuity at c, where a <c <b, then

we deﬁne

_

b

a

f (x) dx =

_

c

a

f (x) dx+

_

b

c

f (x) dx.

The above equality holds provided that both

_

c

a

f (x) dx and

_

b

c

f (x) dx are convergent. In which case,

_

b

a

f (x) dx is said to be

convergent.

If either integral on the right is divergent, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx is

divergent.

14/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnition.

If f (x) has an inﬁnite discontinuity at c, where a <c <b, then

we deﬁne

_

b

a

f (x) dx =

_

c

a

f (x) dx+

_

b

c

f (x) dx.

The above equality holds provided that both

_

c

a

f (x) dx and

_

b

c

f (x) dx are convergent. In which case,

_

b

a

f (x) dx is said to be

convergent.

If either integral on the right is divergent, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx is

divergent.

14/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Deﬁnition.

If f (x) has an inﬁnite discontinuity at c, where a <c <b, then

we deﬁne

_

b

a

f (x) dx =

_

c

a

f (x) dx+

_

b

c

f (x) dx.

The above equality holds provided that both

_

c

a

f (x) dx and

_

b

c

f (x) dx are convergent. In which case,

_

b

a

f (x) dx is said to be

convergent.

If either integral on the right is divergent, then

_

b

a

f (x) dx is

divergent.

14/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0) =

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0) =

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0) =

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0) =

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0) =

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0) =

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0) =

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0) =

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0) =

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0)

=

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0) =

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 1.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

.

Note: f (x) =

1

16−x

2

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =±4.

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

_

t

0

dx

16−x

2

_

Verify that

_

dx

16−x

2

=sin

−1

_

x

4

_

_

_

4

0

dx

16−x

2

= lim

t→4

−

sin

−1

_

x

4

__

t

0

= lim

t→4

−

_

sin

−1

_

t

4

_

−sin

−1

(0)

_

= sin

−1

(1) −sin

−1

(0) =

π

2

(convergent).

15/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_π

2

0

tanx dx.

Note: The graph of y =tanx has a vertical asymptote at x =

π

2

.

_π

2

0

tanx dx = lim

t→

π

2

−

_

t

0

tanx dx

= lim

t→

π

2

−

ln| secx|]

t

0

= lim

t→

π

2

−

(ln| sect| −ln| sec0|)

=+∞(divergent).

16/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_π

2

0

tanx dx.

Note: The graph of y =tanx has a vertical asymptote at x =

π

2

.

_π

2

0

tanx dx = lim

t→

π

2

−

_

t

0

tanx dx

= lim

t→

π

2

−

ln| secx|]

t

0

= lim

t→

π

2

−

(ln| sect| −ln| sec0|)

=+∞(divergent).

16/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_π

2

0

tanx dx.

Note: The graph of y =tanx has a vertical asymptote at x =

π

2

.

_π

2

0

tanx dx = lim

t→

π

2

−

_

t

0

tanx dx

= lim

t→

π

2

−

ln| secx|]

t

0

= lim

t→

π

2

−

(ln| sect| −ln| sec0|)

=+∞(divergent).

16/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_π

2

0

tanx dx.

Note: The graph of y =tanx has a vertical asymptote at x =

π

2

.

_π

2

0

tanx dx

= lim

t→

π

2

−

_

t

0

tanx dx

= lim

t→

π

2

−

ln| secx|]

t

0

= lim

t→

π

2

−

(ln| sect| −ln| sec0|)

=+∞(divergent).

16/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_π

2

0

tanx dx.

Note: The graph of y =tanx has a vertical asymptote at x =

π

2

.

_π

2

0

tanx dx = lim

t→

π

2

−

_

t

0

tanx dx

= lim

t→

π

2

−

ln| secx|]

t

0

= lim

t→

π

2

−

(ln| sect| −ln| sec0|)

=+∞(divergent).

16/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_π

2

0

tanx dx.

Note: The graph of y =tanx has a vertical asymptote at x =

π

2

.

_π

2

0

tanx dx = lim

t→

π

2

−

_

t

0

tanx dx

= lim

t→

π

2

−

ln| secx|]

t

0

= lim

t→

π

2

−

(ln| sect| −ln| sec0|)

=+∞(divergent).

16/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_π

2

0

tanx dx.

Note: The graph of y =tanx has a vertical asymptote at x =

π

2

.

_π

2

0

tanx dx = lim

t→

π

2

−

_

t

0

tanx dx

= lim

t→

π

2

−

ln| secx|]

t

0

= lim

t→

π

2

−

(ln| sect| −ln| sec0|)

=+∞(divergent).

16/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 2.

_π

2

0

tanx dx.

Note: The graph of y =tanx has a vertical asymptote at x =

π

2

.

_π

2

0

tanx dx = lim

t→

π

2

−

_

t

0

tanx dx

= lim

t→

π

2

−

ln| secx|]

t

0

= lim

t→

π

2

−

(ln| sect| −ln| sec0|)

=+∞(divergent).

16/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx.

Note that f (x) =

e

−

x

x

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =0.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx =

_

1

0

e

−

x

x

dx+

_

+∞

1

e

−

x

x

dx

Let u =−

x, du =−

dx

2

x

, the form is

_

(−2e

u

) du =−2e

u

= lim

t→0

+

_

−2e

−

x

__

1

t

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

x

__

k

1

= lim

t→0

+

_

−

2

e

+2e

−

t

_

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

k

+

2

e

_

=2+0 =2(convergent).

17/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx.

Note that f (x) =

e

−

x

x

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =0.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx =

_

1

0

e

−

x

x

dx+

_

+∞

1

e

−

x

x

dx

Let u =−

x, du =−

dx

2

x

, the form is

_

(−2e

u

) du =−2e

u

= lim

t→0

+

_

−2e

−

x

__

1

t

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

x

__

k

1

= lim

t→0

+

_

−

2

e

+2e

−

t

_

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

k

+

2

e

_

=2+0 =2(convergent).

17/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx.

Note that f (x) =

e

−

x

x

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =0.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx =

_

1

0

e

−

x

x

dx+

_

+∞

1

e

−

x

x

dx

Let u =−

x, du =−

dx

2

x

, the form is

_

(−2e

u

) du =−2e

u

= lim

t→0

+

_

−2e

−

x

__

1

t

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

x

__

k

1

= lim

t→0

+

_

−

2

e

+2e

−

t

_

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

k

+

2

e

_

=2+0 =2(convergent).

17/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx.

Note that f (x) =

e

−

x

x

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =0.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx

=

_

1

0

e

−

x

x

dx+

_

+∞

1

e

−

x

x

dx

Let u =−

x, du =−

dx

2

x

, the form is

_

(−2e

u

) du =−2e

u

= lim

t→0

+

_

−2e

−

x

__

1

t

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

x

__

k

1

= lim

t→0

+

_

−

2

e

+2e

−

t

_

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

+

2

e

_

=2+0 =2(convergent).

17/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx.

Note that f (x) =

e

−

x

x

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =0.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx =

_

1

0

e

−

x

x

dx+

_

+∞

1

e

−

x

x

dx

Let u =−

x, du =−

dx

2

x

, the form is

_

(−2e

u

) du =−2e

u

= lim

t→0

+

_

−2e

−

x

__

1

t

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

x

__

k

1

= lim

t→0

+

_

−

2

e

+2e

−

t

_

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

+

2

e

_

=2+0 =2(convergent).

17/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx.

Note that f (x) =

e

−

x

x

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =0.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx =

_

1

0

e

−

x

x

dx+

_

+∞

1

e

−

x

x

dx

Let u =−

x, du =−

dx

2

x

,

the form is

_

(−2e

u

) du =−2e

u

= lim

t→0

+

_

−2e

−

x

__

1

t

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

x

__

k

1

= lim

t→0

+

_

−

2

e

+2e

−

t

_

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

+

2

e

_

=2+0 =2(convergent).

17/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx.

Note that f (x) =

e

−

x

x

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =0.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx =

_

1

0

e

−

x

x

dx+

_

+∞

1

e

−

x

x

dx

Let u =−

x, du =−

dx

2

x

, the form is

_

(−2e

u

) du =−2e

u

= lim

t→0

+

_

−2e

−

x

__

1

t

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

x

__

k

1

= lim

t→0

+

_

−

2

e

+2e

−

t

_

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

+

2

e

_

=2+0 =2(convergent).

17/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx.

Note that f (x) =

e

−

x

x

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =0.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx =

_

1

0

e

−

x

x

dx+

_

+∞

1

e

−

x

x

dx

Let u =−

x, du =−

dx

2

x

, the form is

_

(−2e

u

) du =−2e

u

= lim

t→0

+

_

−2e

−

x

__

1

t

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

x

__

k

1

= lim

t→0

+

_

−

2

e

+2e

−

t

_

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

+

2

e

_

=2+0 =2(convergent).

17/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx.

Note that f (x) =

e

−

x

x

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =0.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx =

_

1

0

e

−

x

x

dx+

_

+∞

1

e

−

x

x

dx

Let u =−

x, du =−

dx

2

x

, the form is

_

(−2e

u

) du =−2e

u

= lim

t→0

+

_

−2e

−

x

__

1

t

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

x

__

k

1

= lim

t→0

+

_

−

2

e

+2e

−

t

_

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

+

2

e

_

=2+0 =2(convergent).

17/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx.

Note that f (x) =

e

−

x

x

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =0.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx =

_

1

0

e

−

x

x

dx+

_

+∞

1

e

−

x

x

dx

Let u =−

x, du =−

dx

2

x

, the form is

_

(−2e

u

) du =−2e

u

= lim

t→0

+

_

−2e

−

x

__

1

t

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

x

__

k

1

= lim

t→0

+

_

−

2

e

+2e

−

t

_

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

+

2

e

_

=2+0

=2(convergent).

17/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Discontinuous Integrand

Example 3.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx.

Note that f (x) =

e

−

x

x

has an inﬁnite discontinuity at x =0.

_

+∞

0

e

−

x

x

dx =

_

1

0

e

−

x

x

dx+

_

+∞

1

e

−

x

x

dx

Let u =−

x, du =−

dx

2

x

, the form is

_

(−2e

u

) du =−2e

u

= lim

t→0

+

_

−2e

−

x

__

1

t

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

x

__

k

1

= lim

t→0

+

_

−

2

e

+2e

−

t

_

+ lim

k→+∞

_

−2e

−

k

+

2

e

_

=2+0 =2(convergent).

17/ 18

Introduction Inﬁnite Interval Discontinuous Integrand

Exercises

Evaluate the following:

1

_

0

−∞

dx

x

2

+16

2

_

+∞

e

dx

xln

5

x

3

_

+∞

−∞

1+x

1+x

2

dx

4

_

1

0

dx

e

−x

−e

x

5

_

2

0

dx

(2x−1)

2/3

18/ 18

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