1

INTRODUCTION TO TURBO MACHINES

Turbomachine is defined as a device in which energy transfer takes place between a
flowing fluid and a rotating element resulting in a change of pressure and momentum of
the fluid. Energy is transferred into or out of the turbomachine mechanically by means of
input/output shafts.

PRINCIPAL PARTS OF A TURBO MACHINE
1. Rotating element consisting of a rotor on which are mounted blades.
2. Stationary element in the form of guide blades, nozzles, etc.
3. Input/output shafts.
4. Housing


Schematic cross sectional view of a steam turbine showing the principal parts of a turbo
machine.


Functions:
1. The rotor functions to absorb / deliver energy to the flowing fluid.
2. The stator is a stationary element which may be of many types:-
a. Guide blades which function to direct the flowing fluid in such a way that
energy transfer is maximized.
b. Nozzles which function to convert pressure energy of the fluid to kinetic
energy
c. Diffusers which function to convert kinetic energy to pressure energy of
the fluid.

3. The input /output shafts function to deliver / receive mechanical energy to or from
the machine.
4. The housing is a protective enclosure which also functions to provide a path of
flowing fluid.

While a rotor & input /output shaft are essential parts of all turbo machines, the stator
& the housing are optional.

2
CLASSIFICATION OF TURBO MACHINES:

1. According to the nature of energy transfer:

(a)Power generating turbo machines:
In this, energy is transferred from the flowing fluid to the rotor. Hence, enthalpy of the
flowing fluid decreases as it flows across. There is a need for an output shaft.
Ex: Hydraulic turbines such as Francis turbine, Pelton wheel turbine, Kaplan turbine,
steam turbine such as De-Laval turbine, Parsons Turbine etc, Gas turbines etc,

(b)Power absorbing Turbo machines:
In this, energy is transferred from the rotor to the flowing fluid. The enthalpy of the fluid
increases as it flows there is a need for an input shaft.
Ex: Centrifugal pump, Compressor, blower, fan etc,

(c)Power transmitting turbo machines:
In this energy is transferred from one rotor to another by means of a flowing fluid. There
is a need for an input / output shafts. The transfer of energy occurs due to fluid action.
Ex: Hydraulic coupling, torque converter etc,







Schematic representation of different types of turbo machine based on fluid flow.
(a) Axial flow fan. (b) Radial outward flow fan.
(c) Mixed flow hydraulic turbine.
3
2. Based on the type of fluid flow:

(a) Tangential flow in which fluid flows tangential to the rotor
Ex: Pelton wheel etc,

(b)Axial flow in which the fluid flows more or less parallel to the the axes of the shafts
/rotors.
Ex: Kaplan turbine, Axial flow compressor.

(c)Radial flow in which fluid flows along the radius of the rotor this is again classified as:
+ Radially inward flow. Ex: Old fancies turbine.
+ Radially outward flow. Ex: Centrifugal Pump

(d) Mixed flow which involves radius entry & axial exit or vise-versa.
Ex: Modern francises turbine & Centrifugal Pump.

3. Based on the type of Head:

(a)High head &low discharge .Ex: Pelton wheel.
(b)Medium head &medium discharge. Ex: Francis turbine.
(c)Low head & high discharge. Ex: Kaplan turbine.


Differentiate between a turbo machine &a positive displacements machine.

Sl.n Particulars Positive displacements machine Turbo machine
1. Action In this class of machine, energy transfer
takes place between a moving surface & a
near static fluid. There is positive
entrapment of the fluid involving a change
in its specific volume during energy
transfer.
In this class of machine, energy
transfer takes place between a
rotating elements &flowing
fluid.there is no entrapment of the
fluid & during energy transfer the
fluid pressure & momentum
change.

2.
Operation In this type, we generally come across,
reciprocating motion &the energy transfer
happens in an unsteady process. As a
result stopping the machine at any instant
will leave a certain amount of fluid in a
machine in a state different to that of the
surroundings.
Note: positive displacements machine with
rotary action are also possible.
Ex: gear pump, screw pump.

In this type, there is only rotary
motion & energy transfer takes
place in a steady process. Since
there is no entrapment, stopping
the machine at any instant would
lead to the fluid quickly attaining
the state of the surroundings.
3. Mechanical This is characterized by complex
mechanical features involving the presence
This characterized by a simple
mechanical design & does not
4
of many mechanical links parts such as
valves, push rods, connecting rods, cranks
etc, are common in this type. Due to
numerous mechanical parts the weight of
the machine is more & hence this would
need a heavier foundation.
involve too many mechanical
linkages. Hence, this is lighter &
would also need a lighter
foundation.
4 Conversion
efficiency
Due to positive entrapment during energy
transfer conversion efficiency is high.
In the absence of positive
entrapment, energy transfer
happens in a dynamic process
&hence conversion efficiency is
comparatively low.
5. Mechanical
efficiency
Due to numerous mechanical links, losses
are considerable & mechanical efficiency
is low.
In the absence of too many links,
mechanical efficiency is low.
6. Volumetric
efficiency
Since, the fluid as to pass ,through valves
the actual volume of the fluid passing
through the machine is significantly less
than the maximum value possible . Hence
volumetric efficiency is low.
In the absence of valves
volumetric efficiency is very high
&close to 100%.
7. Power to
weight ratio
The presence of too many mechanical
elements & a heavy foundation resulting
power to weight ratio being comparatively
lower for the same capacity.
In the absence of too many
mechanical parts the power to
weight ratio is significantly higher
(almost 10-15 times higher for the
same capacity)

8 Surging
&Cavitations
In the absence of face change during the
energy transfer process cavitations
problems are negligible .surging is not
encountered since there is no rotary
motion.
Face change during energy
transfer is a distinct possibility &
hence cavitations possibility is a
problem encountered .surging &
choking is a phenomenon
associated with centrifugal
compressors leading to
instabilities in flow & high
vibration which may lead to
failure of the machine.


5
Static & Stagnation state:

Static state:
Fluid at rest is said to be in a static state properties measured of fluid at rest are called
static properties but in a turbo machine we only deal with moving fluid. Hence static
property incase of a moving fluid would be measured by an instrument which is at rest
relative to the fluid. In other words static temperature of moving fluid particles would be
measured by a thermometer moving with the same speed as that of the fluid particles.

Stagnation state:
Stagnation state is defined as the end state of a fititous, work free, isentropic process
during the course of which the macroscopic potential & kinetic energies of the fluid are
reduced to zero.
Even though stagnation state can never be achieved by any real process, it is very
important concept in the analysis of turbo machine, if due care is taken & errors are
properly accounted for the instruments such as Pitot tube, thermocouple etc, gives
stagnation properties.

1
st
law of Thermodynamics for a steady flow machine and determination of stagnation
properties
) (
2
) (
) (
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
z z g
V V
h h w q ÷ +
÷
+ ÷ = ÷
Applying this for the analysis of turbo machine, we arrive at stagnation state. We may
write,
) (
2
) (
) (
0
2 2
0
0
z z g
V V
h h w q ÷ +
÷
+ ÷ = ÷
Where the subscript ‘0’ refers to the stagnation state. It is implicit that just before the
process to arrive at stagnation state starts, the fluid is in static state. Hence, we have h
0
,
V
0
, z
0
are the stagnation properties, h, V, and z are the static properties. But we know that
in this process 0 , 0 , 0 , 0
0 0
= = = = gz V w q

gz
V
h h ÷ ÷ ÷ =
2
0
2
0









We have
T C h
T C h
P
P
=
=
0 0

gz
V
h h + + =
2
enthalpy stagnation Thus
2
0

Stagnation entropy s s =
0
(Since the process is isentropic)

6
Substituting in expression for stagnation enthalpy and rearranging





The term
P
C
gz
which may be called temperature equivalent of height is negligible
compared to other terms and may be neglected.




We have the relation
vdp dh Tds ÷ = (For a closed system)
0 = ds
There fore,

}
= ÷
=
0
0
p
p
vdp h h
vdp dh

r.h.s.may be integrated only if the relationship between ‘v’&’p’ is known.

For an incompressible fluid,
] )
2
[(
) (
) (
) (
2
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
h gz
V
h p p
h h p p
h h p p
p p v h h
÷ + + + =
÷ + =
÷ = ÷
÷ = ÷
µ
µ
µ




The term
2
2
v µ
is the pressure equivalent of velocity. ‘ρgz’ which is the pressure
equivalent of height can be neglected since it is very small compared to other terms.
Hence we can write,




Cp
gz
C
V
T T
P
+ + =
2
2
0

Cp
V
T T
2
re temperatu Stagnation
2
0
+ =
gz
v
p p µ
µ
+ + =
2
2
0

2
pressure Stagnation
2
0
v
p p
µ
+ =
7
Application of 1
st
&2
nd
law of thermodynamics of turbo machines:

In a turbo machine, the fluctuations in the properties when observed over a period of time
are found to be negligible. Hence, a turbo machine may be treated as a steady flow
machine with reasonable accuracy & hence, we may apply the steady flow energy
equation for the analysis of turbo machine.
Hence we may write
) (
2
) (
1 2
2
1
2
2
1 2
z z g
V V
h h w q ÷ +
÷
+ ÷ = ÷
Where, subscript ‘1’ is at the point of entry & subscript ‘2’ is at point of exit.
It is also true that, thermal loses are minimal compared to the amount of work transferred
& hence may be neglected. Hence we may write,

) (
)
2
( )
2
(
1 2
0 0
1
2
1
1 2
2
2
2
h h w
gz
V
h gz
V
h w
÷ = ÷
+ + ÷ + + =


Where, h
02
& h
01
are stagnation exit & entry respectively.
- w = ∆h
0.

In a power generating turbo machine, ∆h
0
is negative (since h
02
<h
01
) & hence w is
positive.
On the same line, for a power absorbing turbo machine, ∆h
0
is positive (since h
02
>h
01
)
&hence w is negative.


From the 2
nd
law of Thermodynamics:
} }
÷ ÷ =
+ = ÷
÷ =
Tds vdp w
Tds vdp dw
vdp dh Tds
2
1

In the above relation, we note that vdp would be a negative quantity for a power
generating turbo machine & positive for power absorbing turbo machine.
Hence Tds which is always a positive quantity would reduce the amount of work
generated in the former case & increase the work absorbed in the later case.

Efficiency of a turbo machine:
Generally, we define 2 types of turbo machine .in case of turbo machine to account for
various losses 2 type of efficiency is considered:

1. Hydraulic efficiency/isentropic efficiency
2. Mechanical efficiency.

1. Hydraulic efficiency/isentropic efficiency:
To account for the energy loss between the fluid & the rotor

8

isen
)
power generating machine =
fluid
rotor
W
W



.


isen
)
power absorbing machine =
rotor
fluid
W
W





2. Mechanical efficiency:
To account for the energy loss between the rotor & the shaft.


mechanical
)
power generating machine =
rotor
shaft
W
W





mechanical
)
power absorbing machine =
shaft
rotor
W
W





When we talk about isentropic efficiency in turbo machine, it is necessary to take into
account the values of velocity & heights to determine by what extent stagnation
properties deviate from static properties.
In the turbo machine, developed 1
st
the velocities were minimal & hence the static &
stagnation properties were more / less same. But in the modern day turbo machines, the
velocities are appreciable & hence, the static & stagnation states are different.

9
Plotting on the h-s diagram for the turbo machine

Schematic representation of Compression & Expansion process.
(a) Power absorbing machine. (b) Power generating machine.




1
02 1
02
1
01
02
1
01
02 01
) 1 (
h h W
h h W
h h W W
h h W
machine generating power
t s
s t
t t isen
act
÷ =
÷ =
÷ = =
÷ =
÷
÷
÷



1
2 1
02 01
1
02 1
02 01
1
2 01
02 01
1
02 01
02 01
1
2 1
h h
h h
W
W
h h
h h
t Ws
Wact
h h
h h
W
W
h h
h h
W
W
h h W
s s
act
s s
t s
s t
act
s t
t t
act
t t
s s
÷
÷
= =
÷
÷
=
÷
=
÷
÷
= =
÷
÷
= =
÷ =
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
q
q
q
q

10
1
1
2
01
1
2
1
1
02
01
1
02
01 02
: ). 2 (
h h W
h h W
h h W
h h W W
h h W
ne turbomachi absorbing power
s s
t s
s t
t t isen
act
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
÷ = =
÷ =
÷
÷
÷
÷
01 02
1
2
1
01 02
01
2
1
1
2 01
1
02
1
01 02
01
1
02
h h
h h
W
W
h h
h h
Wact
t Ws
h h
h h
W
W
h h
h h
Wact
W
s s
act
s s
t s
act
s t
s t
t t
t t
÷
÷
= =
÷
÷
=
÷
=
÷
÷
= =
÷
÷
= =
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
q
q
q
q



Problems:

1. For a turbo machine handling water, the total – total efficiency is 0.7 during flow
through the turbo machine, the stagnation pressure increases by 3.5 bar. Determine
b. Ideal energy input.
c. Actual mechanical energy input. Assuming a mechanical efficiency is 0.09
d. Actual power input for a flow of 3.25 lts/sec.
e. Rise in a temperature due to irreversibilities. Assume C
v
= 4.187 kJ/kg-K
Answer:
Given:

η
t-t
= 0.07 P
0
=3.5 bar = 3500 kPa η
mech
=0.9 Cv=4.187 kJ/kg-K

Q=3.25 lts/sec

Wisen=-∫vdp=-v∆p/ρ = -3500/1000 =-0.35 kJ/kg

W
act
= W
isen
/ (ηt-t) = -0.35/0.07 = -5 kJ/kg


du =W
act
- W
isen


C
v
dT = W
act
-W
isen


C dT
C
W W
dT
v
isen act
1105 . 1
) (
=
÷
=



11
2. The initial & final total pressure of a fluid are 1 bar & 10 bar respectively.
The initial total temperature is 10 C. What is the work of compression for adiabatic
steady flow with a total –total efficiency of 70%. Consider the fluid as air & assume that
it behaves like an ideal gas.
Answer:
Given:
P
01
=1bar; P
02
=10bar; T
01
=283K; ηt-t=0.75


¸ ¸
02 02 02 01
v p v p =

( ) ( )
Kg
m
W
Kg
m
v
p
p
mRT T T mR W
v
v
p
p
ideal
ideal
3
3
02
1
01
02
01 01 02
01
02
1
02
01
57 . 264
1568 . 0
1
1 1
=
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
÷
= ÷
÷
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸


Kg
Kj W
W
W
W
t t
ideal
act
act
ideal
t t
94 . 377
75 . 0
57 . 264
÷ = ÷ = =
=
÷
÷
q
q



12
Dimensional analysis:

Model analysis of a turbo machine:
It is a regular procedure adopted to explore the various factors affecting the performance
of the turbo machine. The 1
st
step would be to examine the different variables involved &
segregating them into groups.

The 1
st
group involves geometric variables such as length, width, span, and chord length
etc, of the turbo machine.

The 2
nd
group involves kinematics variables such as linear velocity ‘v’, angular velocity
‘ω’, acceleration (a), rpm (N), mass flow rate, volume flow rate (Q), etc,

The 3
rd
group involves dynamic variables which are again segregated into 2 types:
1. Fluid variables such as density, specific weight, viscosity, elasticity, surface tension
etc,
2. Performance variables such as pressure drop, power input /output, torque, shear force,
drag, lift, etc,
The choice of the different variables warrants carefull consideration. Similar variables
need to be avoided.
For example density & specific weight may not be chosen generally Buckingham’s
theorem is adapted to determine the various dimensionless groups involved in the group.

Problem:
(1).A partially submerged body of length L is towed in water of density ρ & viscosity μ at
a velocity ‘V’.show that the total resistance R experienced by the body is given as
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2 2
,
V
Lg
LV
f V L R
µ
µ
µ
Ans:

RαρLVgμ

Π1=ρ
a1
L
b1
V
c1
R

M
0
L
0
T
0
=L
a1
(LT)
b1
(ML
-3
)
c1
(MLT
-2
)

a1=-2; b1=-2; c1=-2

π1 =R/(L
2
V
2
ρ)

Π2=ρ
a2
L
b2
V
c2
μ

M
0
L
0
T
0
=L
a2
(LT
-1
)
b2
(ML
-3
)
c2
(ML
-1
T
-2
)

a2=-1; b2=-1; c2=-1;

13
π2=μ/ρLV

Π3=ρ
a3
L
b3
V
c3
g

M
0
L
0
T
0
=L
a3
(LT
-1
)
b3
(ML
-3
)
c3
(LT
-2
)

a 3= 1; b3= -1; c3= 0;

π3=Lg/V
2


|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
2 2
2 2 2
,
0
V
Lg
LV
f V L R
V
Lg
LV V L
R
f
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ



The operating characteristics of a gas turbine are presumed to depend on the following
physical variables:
mass flow rate, initial temperature, initial pressure, temperature drop across the turbine,
turbine rotor diameter & speed of the rotor using the 3 functional dimensions of length,
mass, &time only.
Find the dimensionless parameters which will express the performance of the gas turbine.
Note: Since the dimensionless parameters have to be obtained using only the 3 functional
dimensions of length, mass & the variables initial temperature & initial drop across the
turbine have to be expressed in terms of other variables whose dimensions can be
expressed in terms of length, mass & time. This is done as follows:

Assuming that the gas behaves like a perfect gas, we may write
Intial pressure:
i i
RT P µ =
R
P
T
i
i
i
µ
=
Since Pi has already been taken into account as one of the variables affecting the
performance, we may express Ti in terms of ρ
i
as follows:
Work output per unit mass = -∆h= -∆ Cp∆T

∆T= - (W/mass)/Cp
Hence, we may go head & express temperature drop interms of work output interms of
per unit mass. Thus, the different variable affecting the performance & then MLT form as
follows:
Sl.no Variable Units MLT form
1. Mass flow rate (m) Kg/s MT
-1

2. Initial temperature & initial
density(ρi)
Kg/m
3
ML
-3

14
3. initial pressure(Pi) N/m
2
or Kg/m-s
2
ML
-1
T
-2

4. Final pressure(Pf) N/m
2
ML
-1
T
-2

5. Temperature drop N-m/Kg of m
2
/s
2
L
2
T
-2

6. Rotor diameter(D) m L
7. Speed(N) s
-1
T
-1











Dimensional analysis in practical situation:
Considering a practical situation such as steady flow through a pipe, the performance
variables would be pressure drop ∆P.
The variables affecting the performance would be as follows:
1. Geometric variable –pipe length L, diameter D
2. Kinematic variable –velocity V
3. Fluid variable-density ρ, viscosity μ, bulk viscosity K, surface tension σ, we may write,
∆P=f (L, D, V, g, ρ, μ, K,σ)
Choosing ρ, V, D as the repeating variables
Dg
V
K
V
D
V
VD
V
P
D
L
2
6
2
5
2
4
3
2
2
1
= H
|
|
.
|

\
|
= H
|
|
.
|

\
|
= H
= H
A
= H
= H
µ
µ
o
µ
µ
µ




15
Physical significance:
To study the physical significance, we need to analyze the different types of forces that
affect fluid flow.

1. Inertia force:
( )
2 2
2 2
2
4
V D F
V D
F
AV F
V
t
m
F
ma F
i
i
i
i
i
µ o
µ
o
µ o
o
o
H





2. Viscous force Fv:


VD F
D
V
A
F
D
V
V
V
µ o
µ
o
µ
o t


3. Pressure force Fp=PA
α PD
2


4. Gravity force: Fg=mg
=ρg
α ρD
3
g

5. Elastic force: Fe = KA
αKD
2


6. Surface tension force Fst=σL
α σD

16
DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS

1. Reynolds numbers Re=
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
C
VL DV
VD
V D
force viscous
force inertia
= = =
2 2

In the above expression, the area was expressed in terms of diameter ‘D’. If it is
expressed in terms of any other length dimension which may be called as
characteristic length Lc, then Reynolds number would be given by the expression
µ
µ
C
VL


2. fraud’s number Fr=
Dg
V
f orce gravity
f orce inertia
=
3. Weber number Wb =
f orce tension surf ace
f orce inertia
=
µ
o
D
V

4. Macchs number M=
µ
K
V
f orce ility compressib
f orce inertia
=
5. Eulers number =
µ
P
V
f orce pressure
f orce inertia
=

Dimensional analysis with specific reference to turbo machine:

When analysis is made to predict the performance of turbo machine, the following
observation are generally obtained.

1. Geometric Variable – rotor diameter D

2. Kinematic Variable – rotor speed N

3. Dynamic Variables –
a. Performance Variables
i. Flow rate Q
ii. Head H:-head in terms of energy per unit mass with units J/g or
head in terms of energy per unit weight with units J/N
iii. Power P

b. Fluid Variables - density ρ, viscosity μ, bulk viscosity K,

Choosing ρ, N, D, as the repeating variables & applying the Buckingham’s theorem,
we will get the following dimensionless terms:
17

1.
3
ND
Q
- this is referred to as the dimensionless flow rate also called as flow
coefficient or capacity coefficient or specific capacity.

2.
2 2
D N
He
– this is referred to as dimensionless head also called as head co efficient.
In the above expression H
e
is Head in J/Kg or kJ/kg

3.
5 3
D N
P
µ
– this is referred to as the power coefficient & represents power in
dimensionless form Power coefficient is essentially expressed as a product
of flow co efficient & head co efficient.

4.
2
ND µ
µ
– this is another form of Reynolds number. It may be shown that μ is
proportional to V.

5.
2 2
D N
K
µ
- which is another form of Mach Number.


Significance of the dimensionless terms

When a performance analysis of a turbo machine is made, the performance characteristic
curve in terms of head versus Q is to be plotted. We will get different characteristics
curves for different rotor speed as shown in the fig.







18



If a plots are made of H vs. Q for different speeds as shown in the fig, it is applicable for
only one turbo machine. As such if we need to do a performance analysis of other
geometrically similar turbo machine, the straight forward approach would be to plot a
graph of H vs Q for different speeds for each turbo machine which is a cumbersome task.
However if a plot is made for head coefficient versus flow co efficient, the
characteristics would be independent of N & D & hence would be applicable for all
geometrically similar turbomachines.


Simplified parameters:

For a given turbo machine of diameter D handling a fluid of density ρ
3
1
3
2
1
2
1
1
3
1
write and terms the from
it remove can e quantity w fixed a is diameter the since omachine given turb a For
t coefficien flow have
N
P
N
He
N
Q
ND
Q
we
= H
= H
= H
= H
t
These terms are referred to as simplified parameters.
Let us conduct a performance test on this turbo machine & a plot a graph of He vs. Q for
any speed say N
1
.



19
Consider a point on this characteristics curve for which the head & the flow rate are Q1
&He1 respectively. Knowing the values of He
1
, Q
1
, N
1
we can determine the values of
π
1
1
& π
2
1
.
Using the same values of π
1
1
& π
2
1
, we can determine similar points for the speeds N
2
, N
3
,
etc,
i.e,
... ..........
...... ..........
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1 1
2
3
3
2
1
1
1 1
1
= = = = H
= = = = H
N
He
N
He
N
He
N
Q
N
Q
N
Q

If these similar points are joined the loci is a parabolic curve which passes through the
origin. After this, we can choose one more point on the characteristic curve & repeat the
whole exercise to get one more locus of similar points. On the same line many such loci
may be drawn. If all such points obtained for a speed say N
2
are joined, then we get the
performance characteristic curve for sped N
2
without having to conduct the performance
test. On similar lines it is possible to draw performance characteristic curve for any
number of speeds with out having to conduct any performance test. This is the
significance & benefit of the simplified parameters.

Specific speed:
It is noticed that the dimensionless parameters defined for turbo machine contain one
geometric variable ‘D’. It would be of some benefit if we were to define a dimensionless
term i.e. independent of the geometric variable ‘D’. Such a term would be applicable for
all geometrically similar turbo machines for similar flow conditions. One method of
getting such a term would be the application of dimensional analysis &buckingam’s
theorem . The easier method would be to perform a mathematical operation on the Π-
terms already obtained so as to eliminate ‘D’. Proceeding on the same line, we get 2
terms of practical significance which do not have the variable D. the 1
st
term would have
variable Q, N, He. The 2
nd
term would have P, N & He.

4
3
4
3
2 2
2
1
3
4
3
2
2
1
1
*
He
Q N
He
D N
ND
Q
N
S
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
H
H
=


This is referred to as specific speed applicable for pumps. Since, speed flow rate & head
developed are of significance in pumps.

4
5
4
5
2 2
5 3
2
1
4
5
2
2
1
3
) (
* *
He
P N
He
D N
D N
P
N
S
µ
µ
= = H H =
20
The above term is defined as specific speed for turbines. Since speed power output
&head available are of importance to turbines.

Specific speed of a turbo machine would express similar values of the properties
involved i.e. N, Q, He, P which would given similar flow condition in all
geometrically similar turbo machine. It can be construed that in the plot He vs. Q any
one of the loci of similar points have the same value speed. Hence, for different loci
we have different values of specific speed. Therefore, in order to make this term
significant a condition needs to be imposed. This is taken as the conditions at which
the machine operates at maximum efficiency conditions the specific speed of all
geometrically similar machine falls in a narrow bandwidth as such we may say that
the value of the specific speed obtained would define the type of turbo machine for
example a specific speed of pelton wheel varies from 4-70 metric units. Francis
turbine from 70-430 units. Kaplan turbine 500-100 metric units. These values have
great practical significance. It is known that a pelton wheel is highly suitable for
conditions of high head &low discharge while a Kaplan turbine, has optimum
efficiency while working under low head & high head &high discharge condition
from the expression for specific speeds for turbines i.e.
4
5
He
P N
Ns
µ
=

It may be noticed that a high value of head would result in a low specific speed.

Units: Specific speed has given by the expression are dimensionless.
i.e., non –dimensional specific speed
4
3
He
Q N
n
s
=
N=rad /sec,
He=J/Kg,
Q=m
3
/sec,

4
5
He
P N
N
S
µ
=
N=rad/sec; P=watt=Kg/m
3
; He=J/Kg.

Suppose, head is in terms of meters of the flowing fluid, when we have
He=gH
Substituting He in ns &Ns, we have
4
3
) (gHe
Q N
n
s
=

&
4
5
) (gHe
P N
N
S
µ
=
Dimensional form of specific speed:

4
3
He
Q N
n
s
=

&
4
5
He
P N
N
S
µ
=

21

Metric S.I.units
N-rpm N-rpm
Q-m3/sec Q-m3/sec
H-m H-m
P-metric HP P-KW

Specific speed of a pump is defined as the speed of the geometrically similar pump
which would develop a head of 1m at a flow rate of 1m
3
/sec.

Specific speed of turbines is defined as the speed of geometrically similar turbines
which would develop 1Kw of power when working under a head of 1m.


Problems:

1. In an axial flow pump with a rotor diameter of 30 cm handles water at a rate of
2.7m
3
/min. while operating at 1500 rpm, the energy input is 125J/Kg, the total-to total
efficiency being 75%. If a second geometrically similar pump with a diameter of 20cm
operates at 3000rpm, what are its: (a)flow rate (b)change in total pressure and (c)input
power?

Answer:
D
1
=.3m D
2
=.2m Q
1
=2.7m3/min N
1
=1500rpm N
2
=3000rpm
He
1
=125J/Kg ηt-t=75%


3
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
3
3
3
2
3
2 2
2
3
1 1
1
6 . 1
3 . 0 * 1500
2 . 0 * 3000 * 7 . 2
D N
He
D N
He
kg
m
Q
D N
Q
D N
Q
=
= =
=


He
2

=222.2 J/Kg = -∆h
0
=V∆P
0
/ηt-t

∆P0 = -222.2*ηt-t*1000

∆P0 = 166665 pa=166.65 Kpa

P=mgH/t = m He = ρQgHe

P = ρQ
2
He
2
= 1000*1.6/60*222.2 = 5925.86 W = 5.926 KW

22
2. The quantity of water available for a hydro electric power is 260 m
3
/sec under a head
of 1.73 m. Assuming the speed of the turbine to be 50 rpm & there efficiency to be
82.5%. Find the number of turbines required. Assume Ns = 890 (metric units).

We have:
4
5
4
5
73 . 1
50
890
P
H
P N
N
S
=
=


P = 1247.255MHP = 917356.05W

P
0
=ηρQgH = .825*1000*260*9.81*1.73

P
0
=3640343.85 W

Number of turbines = P
0
/P = 3640343.85 / 917356.05 =3.9 =4



3. A maximum flow turbine with a total pressure ratio of 3:1 & inlet total temperature of
1000 K handles air. The impeller diameter & rotational speed are 30 cm &16000 rpm
with a total to total efficiency of 83%. Find the power output /Kg/sec of air flow if the
rotor diameter is reduced to 20 cm & the rotational speed is 2000 rpm.

Given:

P
01
/P
02
= 3/1 T
01
= 1000K D
1
= .3m N
1
=16000rpm ηt-t = 83%

D
2
= 0.2m N
2
= 2000 rpm

He
1
= Cp (T
01
– T
02
)


T T P
T T P
T T
P
P
T C
T
T
T C
T T Cp
÷
÷
÷
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
÷
q
q
q
¸
¸
* 1
* ) 1 (
* ) (
1
01
02
01
01
02
01
02 01


=1005*1000*(1-(1/3).4/1.4)*.83
23
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
1
4 . 1
4 . 0
sec
047 . 224720
83 . 0 *
3
1
1 * 1000 * 1005
D N
He
D N
He
Kg
W
=
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =


He
2
= 1560.55 J/ kg

4. Liquid water of standard density flows at a temperature of 20 C .A static pressure of 10
atm &a velocity of 20 cm/sec. Evaluate the total temperature & total pressure of water.

We have:
atm P
V
P P
K T
C
V
T T
P
97 . 11
2
20 * 1000
1013250
2
047 . 293
4187 * 2
20
293
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
`
2
0
= + =
+ =
= + =
+ =
µ




5. Air as a perfect gas flows in a duct at a velocity of 60 m/sec. a static pressure of 2 atm.
& a static temperature of 300 K. Evaluate the total temperature & total pressure of the air
at this point. Assume γ =1.4.

Given: V=60 m/sec. T= 300 K P = 2 atm. = 202650 Pa

PV = RT


P=ρRT

I.e. ρ = P/ (RT) =202650/ (287*300) = 2353.65 g/m3



24

atm KPa
V
P P
K
C
V
T T
P
11 . 2 95 . 202
2
429 . 300
4187 * 2
60
300
2
2
0
2 2
0
= = + =
= + = + =
µ


6. At a stagnation temperature of 400 K & at a stagnation pressure of 8 atm. The outlet
total pressure is 1 atm. If the expansion process through the turbine is assumed to be
Adiabatic & loss free. Evaluate (1).Work done per Kg of fluid. Assuming it to be
incompressible with a specific with a specific weight of 1g/cc.(2) work done per Kg of
fluid assuming it to be air behaving as a perfect gas with γ = 1.4

Given:

T
01
= 400 K P
01
=8atm. =810600Pa. P
02
= 1 atm. = 101325 Pa


kg
kj
P
P
T C T T C W
kg
kj p
p v vdp W
P P
isen
0078 . 180078 1 ) ( ) 2 (
709
1000
) 8 1 (
) 1 (
1
01
02
01 02 01
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = ÷ =
=
÷ ÷
=
A
÷ = A ÷ = ÷ =
÷
}
¸
¸
µ

25
7. Air as a perfect gas undergoes an increase in total pressure of 180mm. of water during
passage through a blower. The inlet static pressure is 1 atm temperature is 25 C & the
velocity is 50 m/sec. Evaluate the exit total temperature if the process is isentropic.
Evaluate the energy added to the air by blower per Kg of air flow per sec. if the flow is
steady. If the exit velocity is 135 m/sec. find the exit static temperature &pressure.

Given:
S
Kg
W
T T Cp He W
Pa
V
P P
m
V
K T
m
V
atm P
Pa gh
mm P
T T
336 . 143 24 . 299 *
102805
8 . 104570
1 * 1005 * ) (
102805
2
50 * 184 . 1
101325
2
sec
135
298
sec
50
1
8 . 1765 18 . 0 * 81 . 9 * 1000
180
4 . 1
4 . 0
02 01
2 2
1 1
1 01
2
1
1
1
÷ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

÷ = ÷ = =
= + = + =
=
=
=
=
= = =
= A
÷
q
µ
µ

K
C
V
T T
M
Kg
RT
P
Pa
V
P P
K T
P
P
T
T
Pa P
P
622 . 291
2
2117 . 1
183 . 93529
2
69 . 300
102805
8 . 104570
* 24 . 299
8 . 104570 8 . 1765 1028025
2
02 2
3
02
02
2
02 2
4 . 1
4 . 0
02
4 . 1
4 . 0
01
02
01
02
02
= ÷ =
= =
= ÷ =
= |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= + =
µ
µ






26
8. The quantity of water available for a hydrostat ion is 310 cumecs water, the head of
1.8m. Assuming the speed of each turbine to be 60 rpm &efficiency to be 85%.find the
number of turbines required. The power produced by each. Take specific speed of turbine
to be 800metrics.
Cumecs=cubic meter per second=310m
3
/sec.
Given:

Q=310cumecs
H=1.8m
N=60rpm
Ns=800metric
η =.85

P
0
= η
0
ρgQH
=.85*1000*9.81*310*1.8
=4652883 W

W W MHP P
P
H
P N
N
S
43 . 568383 5 . 735 * 789 . 772 789 . 772
8 . 1
60
800
4
5
4
5
= = =
=
=

Number of turbines =P
0
/P=4652883/568383.43 =8.18=9



9. An output of 10KW was recorded on a turbine 0.5m diameter resolving at 800rpm
under head of 20m. What is the diameter & output of another turbine which works under
head of 180m at speed 200rpm.Assuming their efficiency are the same .also find the
specific speed & suggest the turbine that can be used.
Given:

P
0
=10KW=10/0.7533 = 13.6 MHP
D
1
=0.5m
N
1
=800rpm
H
1
=20m
H
2
=180m
N
2
=200rpm
η
1

2


We have:
27

m D
D
D N
He
D N
He
6
* 200
180
52 . 0 * 800
20
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
=
=
=

Specific speed:
KW MHP P
P
H
P N
N
S
38874 7355 . 0 * 89 . 52854 89 . 52854
180
* 200
4 . 69
2
4
5
2
4
5
2
2 2
= = =
=
=




Effect of Reynolds number
Most turbo machines use relatively low viscous fluids like air, water, steam, lightoils, etc;
as such the flow is generally turbulent in nature. viscous losses are minimal compared to
other losses such as shock losses at entry, turbulent losses, impact losses , impact losses&
leakage losses etc, Hence, Reynolds number is not an important parameter when analysis
of turbo machines are made for a model & a prototype. If the surfaces have the same
relative roughness then Reynolds number may not be a significant factor at all. But for
hydraulic machines, the prototype will have a larger value of roughness compared to the
model which is generally smooth & polished; they account for such dis similarities. An
equation has been suggested by moody to compare efficiencies of a model & a prototype.

( )
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ =
+2
1 1
D
p
m
m P
D
D
q q

Unit Quantities
They are parameters measured under conditions of unit head
(1)Unit flow:
H
Q
Q
U
=
It is defined as turbo machine working under a head of 1m.
(2)Unit Speed:
H
N
N
U
=
It is defined as speed of turbo machine working under a head of 1m.
(3)Unit Power:
2
3
H
P
P
U
=
28
It is defined as power produced by a turbo machine working under a head of 1m.

Problem:

1. A small scale model of hydraulic turbine, runs at a speed of 350 rpm under a head of
20m produces an output of 8KW.Determine
(1) Unit discharge, unit speed, unit power.
(2)Assuming a turbine efficiency of a turbine of 79%, determine the output power of
prototype which is 12 times the size of a model.
(3)Assuming their efficiency are related by Moody’s formula, suggest the type of turbine
to be used.

Given:
N=350rpm
H=20m
P=8KW

P
0

0
ρgQH
8*10 3= 0.79*9.81*10 3*Q*20
Q=0.0516 m3/sec

1. (1)
sec
0115 . 0
20
0516 . 0
3
m
H
Q
Q
U
= = =
(2) KW
H
P
P
U
08944 . 0
20
8
2
3
2
3
= = =
(3) rpm
H
N
N
U
26 . 78
20
350
= = =

2. ( )
metric
H
P N
N
D
D
S
P
m
P
29 . 27
20
7355 . 0
8
* 350
% 2 . 87
12
1
76 . 0 1 1
12
4
5
4
5
2 . 0
= = =
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ =
=
q

Pelton wheel turbine is suggested.





29














































30
ENERGY TRANSFER IN TURBO MACHINES


Analysis of Energy Transfer in turbo machines:
Analysis of energy transfer in turbo machines requires a consideration of the kinematics
and dynamic factors involved. The factors include changes in the fluid velocity, rotor
velocity and the forces caused due to change in the velocity.
We apply Newton’s second law of motion as applicable to rotary movement. i.e., Torque
is proportional to the rate of change of angular momentum.

dt
mVr d
T
) (
=
An another important consideration is the treatment of a turbo machine as a steady flow
machine.
This involves following assumptions:
(1)Mass-flow rate is constant.
(2)State of fluid at any given point does not change.
(3)Heat and Work transfer are constant.
(4)Leakage losses are negligible.
(5)Same steady mass of fluid flows through all section.
Velocity Components:



Fig. velocity components through a rotor

31

The fluid enter the rotor with an absolute velocity say V
1
and leaves with an absolute
velocity say V
2..

The absolute velocity of the fluid will have components in the axial, radial and tangential
direction which may be referred to as V
a
,V
w
and V
f
respectively.
The axial components do not participate in the energy transfer but cause a thrust which
is borne by the thrust bearings. The radial components also do not participate in the
energy transfer but cause a thrust which are borne by the journal bearings. The only
components which participate in the energy transfer is the tangential component Vw.

V
a1
and V
a2
:Axial components of V
1
and V
2
respectively.
V
f1
and V
f2
: Radial components of V
1
and V
2
respectively.
V
w1
and V
w2
: Tangential components of V
1
and V
2
respectively referred to as whirl
velocity, flow velocity. Let the rotor move with an angular velocitye .


Velocity Triangles:
These are formed at the inlet and exit by the combination of rotor velocity of a fluid V,
and relative velocity Vr which is the vectorial difference of V and U.


Derivation of Euler’s Turbine equation:

By Newton’s second law, Torque on the turbo machine
2 2
1 1
2 2 1 1
,
*
sec
) (
) (
u r
u r
But
T P
t
W W
r V r V
t
m
T
dt
mVr d
T
w w
=
=
= = =
÷ =
=
e
e
e

32
Watt u V u V
t
m
P
w w
) (
2 2 1 1
÷ =
Is the Euler’s turbine equation.


Head form the Euler’s equation:


. ) (
1
2 2 1 1
fluid of m u V u V
g
H
w w
÷ =

Alternate form of Euler’s turbine equation:
Consider the velocity triangle, we may write,


)] ( [
2
1
) (
) 4 (
2
) 3 (
2
) 2 (
) 1 ( 2
) (
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 1 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
r r
w w
r
w
r
w
w f
w w r f
w r f
V U V V U V
t
m
P
U V U V
t
m
P
V U V
U V
V U V
U V
V V V
V U V U V V
V U V V
÷ + ÷ ÷ + =
÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ +
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ +
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =

(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
2 2 2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1 r r
actual
V V U U V V
t
m
W


Significance of the terms:

33
1.
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
2
2
2
1
V V
-This represents the energy transferred due to change in absolute velocity
of the fluid and is referred to as dynamic head.

2.
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
2
2
2
1
U U
-This represents the energy transferred due to movement of the fluid from
one radius to another which gives rise to centripetal / centrifugal action, This is referred
to as static head.

3.
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
2
2
2
1 r r
V V
-This represents the energy transferred due to change in relative velocity
alone. This also forms the part of static head.
The sum
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2 2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1 r r
V V U U
represents static energy transfer.

While
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
2
2
2
2
1
V V
represents dynamic energy transfer.



Impulse and Reaction Turbines:

Turbo machines are classified as impulse and reaction machines depending on the
relative proportions of the static and dynamic heads involved in the energy transfer. To
aid this, we define a term referred to as degree of reaction Rd.



Degree of reaction Rd can be defined as the ratio of static head to the total head in the
energy transfer.


) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
r r
r r
d
V V U U V V
V V U U
R
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
=




Degree of reaction can be zero, positive or negative.

Rd=0, characterizes a close turbo machine for which a static head is equal to zero.
In the most general case, this will happen if U
1
=U
2
and V
r1
=V
r2
.
34
These classes of turbo machines are referred to as impulse machines. In most practical
situations V
r2
may be less than V
r1
even though r
1
=r
2
.
This is generally due to frictional losses. Even then a machine is referred to as an axial
flow turbines and pumps would have r
1
=r2 and if V
r1
=V
r2
, then they become examples of
pure impulse machines.
Pelton Wheel, tangential flow hydraulic machines is also example of impulse machine.












Velocity Triangles for impulse machine:




Fig. Velocity triangle for axial flow impulse machine.


The velocity of whirl at exit is to be calculated by general expression,

2 2 2 2
cos|
r w
V U V ÷ =


If the value obtained is negative, then it suggests that
2 2 2
cos U V
r
> |

If Vw2 is positive, then OVT would appear as follows:
35


If V2=0, then the OVT would look like





Problems:
1. In an axial flow turbine, discharge blade angle are 20 degrees each for both the stator
and the rotor steam speed at the exit of the fixed blade is 140 m/sec.The ratio of 7 . 0 =
U
V
a

at the entry and 0.76 at exit. Find the inlet rotor blade angle for a mass flow rate of 2.6
Kg/sec.also determine the degree of reaction.



I V T
36

76 . 0
:
sec
3 . 79
) 4 . 68 6 . 131 ( 5 . 47 ) (
sec
4 . 68
7 . 0
5 . 47
7 . 0
7 . 0
.
sec
6 . 131 20 cos 140 20 cos
sec
5 . 47 20 sin
:
. , sin
76 . 0
7 . 0
sec
140
, 20 arg
, 20 arg
:
2
1
2 2 2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1 1
1 1
2 1
2
2
1
1
2
1
=
=
÷ + = ÷ + =
= = =
=
= = =
= =
=
=
=
= =
= =
= =
U
V
OVT
m
V
U V V V
m V
U
U
V
m
V V
m
V V
IVT
U U machines f low axial is turbine ce
U
V
U
V
m
V exit stator at Velocity
angle e disch rotor
angle e disch stator
Given
a
r
w a r
a
a
w
a
a
a




|
o




O V T Preferred:

37
59 . 0
) 140 3 . 79 ( ) 8 . 90 140 (
) 152 3 . 79 (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
6 . 36 ) 4 . 74 6 . 131 )( 4 . 68 ( 6 . 2
) ( ) (
22 . 37
3 . 79
5 . 47
sin
sin
sec
8 . 90
sec
43 . 74 20 cos 152 4 . 68
cos
sec
152
20 sin
52
sin
sec
52
76 . 0 * 4 . 68
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 1 2 2 1 1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
=
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
=
= + =
÷ = ÷ =
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
= + =
÷ = ÷ =
÷ =
= = =
=
=
÷
d
r r
r r
d
w w w w
r
a
w
w
r w
a
r
a
a
R
V V U U V V
V V U U
R
KW P
V V U
t
m
U V U V
t
m
P
V
V
m
V V V
m
V
V U V
m V
V
m
V
V



|
|
|
|









2. The axial component of air velocity at the exit of the nozzle of an axial flow reaction
state is 180 m/sec.The nozzle inclination to the direction of rotation being 27 degees.Find
the rotor blade angles at the inlet and outlet if the degrees should be 50% and the blade
speed is 80 m/sec.Also for the same blade speed axial velocity and nozzle angle. Find the
degree of reaction if the absolute velocity at the rotor outlet should be axial and equal to
38
the axial velocity at the inlet.

IVT OVT
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
] [ ] [ 5 . 0 ] [ 5 . 0
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
sec
180
27
5 . 0
sec
180
:
r r
r r r r
r r
r r
d
d
a
V V V V
V V V V V V
V V U U V V
V V U U
R
m
U
R
m
V
Given
÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
=
=
=
=
=

o

Note: It may be shown that for a 50% reaction turbine, the velocity triangles are
symmetrical and appear as shown.

018 . 0
) 5 . 254 9 . 249 ( ) 180 5 . 396 (
) 9 . 249 5 . 254 (
1 . 46
180 353
180
tan
sec
353
tan
2 2 2 2
2 2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2 1
2 1
=
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
=
=
=
=
÷
d
w
w
a
r
r
R
m
V
V
V
V V
V V

|
o

39
Note: Since the condition at the inlet i.e, Va1, o 1 and U1 have to remain the same, the
IVT does not change only the OVT changes.










Radial flow Pump and Compressors:
General analysis:



I V T


O V T (preferred)
40


.
, .) 3
0
.) 2
. , .
.) 1
2 2
2 2
1
1 1
1 2 1 2
1 1 2 2
f luid of m
g
U V
H
Watt U V
t
m
P
V
V V entry Axial
outward radially is f low r r or U U e i
U V U V
w
w
w
a
w w
=
=
=
=
> >
>

Most of the turbo machines belong to this class. In general, they have a restricted flow
area for a given rotor diameter and have low to medium specific speed.

Significant aspects:
1.) Flow is outwards from the smaller to larger radius the Euler’s turbine equation.
i.e., ) (
2 2 1 1
U V U V
t
m
P
w w
÷ = requires that
1 1 2 2
U V U V
w w
> for pumps and
compressors which are power absorbing machines. For this sake radial flow compressors
and pumps generally have fluid entering at a smaller radius and leaving at a larger radius.

2.) The absolute velocity at inlet is oriented parallel to the axes of the shaft i.e., V
a1
=V
1

and hence there is no whirl component at inlet i.e.,V
w1
=0.

3.) Since V
w1
=0, the energy transferred is purely a function of exit condition i.e.
.
,
2 2
2 2
fluid of m
g
U V
H
Watt U V
t
m
P
w
w
=
=

The velocity triangles appear as shown:










41


Head-capacity relationship:
| |
g
U
K
speed given a f or operating rotor g considerin Q K K H
Q
A g
U
g
U
H
A
Q
U
g
U
Q
V A Q
V U
g
U
H
g
U V
H
f
f
w
2
2
1
2 1
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
.) (
cot
cot
cot
=
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
= =
÷ =
=
|
|
|



vane
vane curved Forward vane Radial curved Backward
  
90 90 90 > = < | | |




From the velocity triangles for the 3 types of vanes it may be noticed that the whirl
component at exit is least for backward curved vane (

90 < | ) and most for a forward
42
curved vane. When operating under similar condition of speed and cross section area. But
from a practical view point a high value of exit velocity V2 is not desirable. This is
because it becomes necessary to construct a diffuser of unreasonably large dimensions
even for moderate sized rotors. Hence backward curved vane with
2
| in the range of 20-
25 degrees is preferred for radial flow pumps and compressors. Forward curved vanes are
not preferred while radial vanes (

90 = | ) are used in select applications requiring very
high pressure.


Axial flow pumps and compressors:




In axial flow machines, we recognize that the blade tips speed is same at the inlet and
exit. Hence, U
1
=U
2
.
In axial flow pumps and compressors, the energy transfer is achieved in the number of
stages involving stators and rotors. The first stage generally as a set of guide blades
which functions to act as a nozzle and directs the steam to the rotor in such a way that the
relative velocity is tangential to the blade as shown .The subsequent stages of stator
which function as diffusers. Hence, the last stage would end with the stator. The direction
of fluid flow is parallel to the shaft axes in a general sense and hence the term axial flow,
there is no radial component.
The stators after each subsequent stage function as diffusers and convert the exit kinetic
energy to useful pressure energy. A reasonable assumption is that the axial velocity
component V
a
is constant. i.e.V
a1
=V
a2
=V
a
.

While, this is generally true for incompressible fluids. It is a reasonable assumption for
compressible fluids too. Since the drop in the axial velocity component is around 5% in
each stage.

43



Derivation of expression for head developed in terms of rotor velocity U and rotor blade
angles :
2 1
| | and

From the Inlet Velocity Triangles, we may write
| |
| |
) 3 (
tan * tan 1
tan tan
) tan(
tan * tan
tan * tan 1
tan * tan
1
1 cot * cot 1
) 2 ( ] cot * cot 1 )[ tan(
; cot tan ; cot tan
90 ; 90
] tan * tan 1 )[ tan(
tan * tan 1
tan tan
) tan(
] tan [tan
] tan [tan
] [
) (
1
) 1 ( tan tan tan tan
tan tan tan tan
] tan [tan
,
] tan [tan
] tan [tan
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
0 3
1 2
2 2 1 1
0 3 2 1
3 2 1 0
3 2
1 0
1 0
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+
÷
= ÷
+
= + = +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
= =
÷ = ÷ =
+ ÷ =
+
÷
= ÷
+ =
+ =
÷ =
÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
+ = +
+ =
+ =
+ =
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| | | |
| ¸ | ¸
¸ | ¸ |
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
g
UV
H
g
UV
H
g
UV
H
g
UV
H
V V
g
U
H
u V u V
g
H
as written be may developed head The
V U
write may we Triangles Velocity Outlet the From
V U
V U
a
a
a
a
w w
w w
a
a
a


(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
=
2 1
2 1
tan * tan 1
tan tan
| |
| |
g
UV
H
a

44







Super position of Velocity triangles:
(1) Common Base:


(2)Common vertex:




2 w
V A Represents the change in the whirl component which directly contributes to the
generation of head pressure increases in an axial flow pump or compressors happens due
to the following reason:
(1)Relative velocity is reduced from Vr1 to Vr2 with a subsequent increase in pressure.
45
(2)It may be noticed that absolute velocity has increased from V1 to V2. A high exit
velocity is not desirable in pumps desirable in pumps and compressors. Hence, the
necessity of a stator at the exit of every stage that will convert velocity energy to pressure
energy.















Expression for Degree of reaction in terms of rotor velocity and rotor blade angles:

We know that, Degree of reaction is given by,
46
( ) ( ) | |
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 2 1 1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
2 2 2
1
2
2
1
2 2 2
1
2 2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
.
2 2
1
) (
1
' ,
) ( ) (
) tan (tan
) ( ) (
) (
deg
) tan (tan
) tan 1 ( ) tan (
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
r r
r r
d
r r
w w
r r
a
d
r r
r r
d
a r r
a a a r
r r
r r
d
r r
r r
d
V V V V
g
g
V V
R
as written be may which head total the to head suction of ratio the is reaction of Degree
V V V V
g
U
u V u V
g
U
as written be may pump a f or equation turbine s Euler that know we
V V V V
V
R
V V V V
V V
R
as reaction of ree write to acceptable generally is it pump a For
V V V
V V V V
V V V V
V V
R
V V U U V V
V V U U
R
÷ ÷ ÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
=
÷ = ÷
+ = + =
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
=
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸


a
a
d
a
a
d
w w
r r
d
UV
V
R
UV
V
R
U V U V
V V
R
2
] tan [tan
] tan [tan 2
] tan ][tan tan [tan
2
2 1
2
2 1
2 1 2 1
2
1 1 ` 2 2
2
2
2
1
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
+
=
÷
÷ +
=
÷
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=

1 2
2 1
tan tan
] tan [tan
2 | |
| | +
=
U
V
R
a
d





47

Turbines:

General analysis:

They are power generating turbo machines, which run on both incompressible fluids such
as water as well as compressible fluids such as gases.
The efficiency of turbines may be defined as the ratio of actual work output to the fluid
energy input.
This involves 2 types of efficiencies:
(1)Hydraulic efficiency /isentropic efficiency.
(2)Mechanical efficiency.

The mechanical efficiency takes care of all losses due to energy transfer between
mechanical elements. In the turbines, mechanical efficiency is very high and of the order
of 98 to 99%.

The hydraulic efficiency takes care of losses during flow.
We realize that, turbines must have a residual exit velocity so that flow is maintained.
However, this residual velocity so that flow is it represents a lot far as the rotor is
concerned. Hence, even if we have idealized friction free flow it is not possible to
transfer all the energy in the fluids due to the need to have the final residual exit velocity.

Hence, hydraulic efficiency is a product of 2 terms and is given by
V H
q c q * =

V
q -where is referred to as vane efficiency and takes care of frictional loss.











Utilization factor:
Utilization factor is defined as the ratio of the actual work transferred from the fluid to
the rotor in an ideal condition to the maximum possible work that could be transferred in
an ideal condition.

48
| |
]
2
) ( [(
2
) ( ) (
2
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
2 2 1 1
2
2
max
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
max
V
U V U V m W
V
t
m
W W
V V U U V
m
W
V V U U V V W
V V U U V
V V U U V V
W
W
w w actual
actual
r r actual
r r actual
r r
r r actual
+ ÷ =
+ =
÷ ÷ ÷ + =
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ +
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
= = c


2
) (
) (
2
2
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
V
U V U V
U V U V
w w
w w
+ ÷
÷
= c






Relationship between :
d
R and c

OR

Derive an expression for c in terms of Rd:

] [
2
1
)] ( ) [(
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
V V
g
H
V V U U
g
H
d
r r s
÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ =

d s
s
d
H H
H
R
+
=

) 1 (
] [
d
d d
s
s d d s d
s s d d
R
H R
H
H H R H R
H H H R
÷
=
= +
= +

Utilization factor may be written as
49
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 1
1
,
2
V R V
V V
g
V R
g
V
H R
g
V V
g
V R
g
V
H R
H
R V V g H R
H R H H R
g
V
R
H R
H
R
H R
have we H f or ng substituti
g
V
H
H H
d
d
D d
d
D d
D
d D d
D d D D d
D
D d
D
D
D d
s
s
d s
÷
÷
=
÷ + +
|
|
.
|

\
| ÷
=
÷ + +
=
÷ +
÷ +
=
+
÷
+
÷
=
+
+
=
c
c
c
c
c
c



This expression holds good for Rd values between 0 and 1. This cannot be used for Rd=1
(100% reaction). Since, the expression becomes equal to 1 suggesting 100% utilization
factor which could obviously lead to residual exit velocity V2 becoming zero.

















50






Problems:
1. At a stage in an impulse turbine, the mean blade diameter is 80cm. The rotor speed is
3000rpm. The absolute velocity of the fluid discharging from nozzle inclined at 20
degrees to the plane of the wheel is 300 m/sec. If the utilization factor is 0.85 and the
relative velocity at rotor exit equals that at the inlet. Find the inlet and exit rotor blade
angles and the power output for the stage for a mass flow rate of 1 Kg/sec.

IVT OVT
. sec / 1
8 . 0
85 . 0
20
3000
:
1
Kg
t
m
m d
rpm N
Given
=
=
=
=
=
c
o



51
watt P
m
V U V
U V U V
t
m
P
UV V U V
OVT
V
V
m
V
U V V V
V V
IVT
m
V V
m dN
U
m
V
V
V
V V
R
V V
U U turbine impulse an In
r w
w w
r r
r
a
r
w r
a
w
d
r r
3 . 38 ] 6 . 37 cos 96 . 186 9 . 281 [ * 6 . 125 * 1
sec
4 . 22 6 . 37 cos 96 . 186 66 . 125 cos
] [
6 . 37
cos 96 . 186 * 66 . 125 * 2 96 . 186 66 . 125 2 . 116
cos 2
:
33 . 33
96 . 186
6 . 102
sin
sec
96 . 186
) 66 . 125 9 . 281 ( 300 ) (
6 . 102 20 sin 300 sin
:
sec
90 . 281 20 cos 300 cos
sec
66 . 125
60
3000 * 8 . 0 *
60
sec
2 . 116
300
300
85 . 0
; 0
2 2 2 2
2 2 1 1
2
2
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2 2 2
1
2
1
2
1
1 1 1
1 1 1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 1
2 1
= ÷ =
÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
÷ =
=
÷ + =
÷ + =
=
= =
=
÷ + = ÷ + =
= = =
= = =
= = =
=
÷
=
÷
=
=
=
=



 

|
|
|
|
|
|
o
o
t t
c



2. Velocity of a steam outflow of a nozzle from a De-Laval turbine is 1200 m/sec. The
nozzle angle is 22 degrees. If rotor blades are equiangular and the rotor tangential speed
is 400 m/sec. Compute (1).rotor blade angle
(2).Tangential force on the blades.
(3).Power output. Assume Vr1=Vr2. Also determine utilization factor.
52


8 . 0
1200
85 . 547 1200
5 . 1425
400
10 * 2 . 570
10 * 2 . 570 ] 9 . 312 6 . 1112 [ * 400 * 1
] [
*
sec
85 . 547
2 . 32 cos * 400 * 5 . 842 * 2 400 5 . 842 cos * * 2
sec
9 . 312 cos
sec
5 . 842
2 . 32
5 . 842
5 . 449
sin
sec
5 . 842 ) 400 6 . 1112 ( 5 . 449 ) (
sec
5 . 449 22 sin 1200 sin
sec
6 . 112 22 cos 1200 cos
22
sec
400
sec
1200
. . .
:
2
2 2
2
1
2
2
2
1
3
3
2 1
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2 1
2 1
1
1
1
2 2 2 2 2
1
2
1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
2 1
1
1
2 1
=
÷
=
÷
=
= = =
= + =
÷ =
=
=
÷ + = ÷ + =
÷ = ÷ =
= =
= =
= =
= ÷ + = ÷ + =
= = =
= = =
=
=
=
=
= ÷
V
V V
N
U
P
F
Watts P
V V U
t
m
P
U F P
m
V
U V U V V
m
V U V
m
V V
V
V
m
U V V V
m
V V
m
V V
V V
m
U
m
V
U U e i turbine steam f low axial an f or example an is turbine Laval De
Given
T
w w
T
r r
r w
r r
r
a
w a r
a
w
r r
c
|
|
| |
|
o
o
o






3. At the nozzle exit of the certain stage in a steam turbine, absolute velocity is 300
m/sec. Rotor speed is 150 m/sec. at a point where the nozzle angle is 18 degrees. If the
rotor outlet blade angle. Determine the power output from the stage for a steam flow rate
of 8.5 Kg/sec.Assume Vr1=Vr2 and also determine the utilization factor.
53

I V T
164
7 . 92
sin
sec
164 ) 150 3 . 285 ( 300 ) (
sec
7 . 92 18 sin 300 sin
sec
3 . 285 18 cos 300 cos
:
] [
?
sec
5 . 8
5 . 3
18
sec
150
sec
300
:
1
1
1
2 2 2 2
1
2
1
2
1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
2 1
1 2
1
1
= =
= ÷ + = ÷ + =
= = =
= = =
÷ =
=
=
÷ =
=
=
=
r
a
w r
a
w
w w
V
V
m
U V V V
m
V V
m
V V
T V I
V V U
t
m
P
P
Kg
t
m
m
U
m
V
Given
|
o
o
| |
o






4 . 34
1
= |
54

O V T
9 . 0
300
7 . 84 300
sec
352 ] 2 . 9 3 . 285 [ * 150 * 5 . 8 ] [
sec
7 . 84
cos 2
sec
2 . 9 9 . 30 cos 164 150 cos
sec
164
9 . 30 5 . 3 4 . 34
:
2
2 2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 1
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2 2
1 2
2
=
÷
=
÷
=
= ÷ = ÷ =
=
÷ + =
= ÷ = ÷ =
= =
= ÷ ÷ =
V
V V
m
V V U
t
m
P
m
V
UV V U V
m
V U V
m
V V
OVT
w w
w r
r w
r r
c
|
|
|

















55
4. In a radial inward flow hydraulic turbine the degree of reaction is 0.866 and utilization
factor for the runner is 0.968. The tangential speed at inlet and outlet respectively are 11
m/sec and 5.5 m/sec. Draw the IVT and OVT. Assuming that radial velocity is the same
at all points on the runner and is equal to 5 m/sec. The absolute velocity at the runner
outlet is purely radial with the tangential component. Determine the power output for a
volume flow rate of 16m
3
/sec.

I V T

O V T
56
KW U V
t
Q
P
U V U V
t
m
P
U
V
V V
V
V
V
V
m
V
V
V
V R V
V V
m
Q
m
V V
m
V V
m
U
m
U
R
Given
w
w w
w
r
f
f
d
f
f f
d
4 . 176 11 * 02 . 6810 . 1 * 1000 ] [
] [
2 . 42
5 . 5
5
tan tan
02 . 10 5 . 26 cos 29 . 11 cos
08 . 101
sin 180
5 . 26
5
29 . 11
sin
sec
29 . 11
5 * 866 . 0
5
968 . 0
sec
16
sec
5
sec
5
sec
5 . 5
sec
11
968 . 0
866 . 0
:
1 1
2 2 1 1
1
2
2 1
2
1 1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2 2
1
2 2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
3
2 2
2 1
2
1
= = =
÷ =
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= = =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ÷
=
= =
=
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
=
=
= =
= =
=
=
=
=
÷ ÷
÷
µ
|
o
|
|
o
o
c
c

 









57







5. A hydraulic reaction turbine of radial inward flow type works under a head of 160 m of
water at the point fluid entry the rotor blade angle is 119 degrees and the diameter of the
runner is 3.65 m and at the exit is 2.45 m. if the absolute velocity at the wheel outlet is
radially directed with a magnitude of 15.5 m/sec and radial component of velocity at the
inlet is 10.3 m/sec. Determine the power developed by the machine. Assume that 88% of
the available head is converted into work and flow rate is 110 m3/sec. Also determine the
degree of reaction and the utilization factor.

I V T O V T
58
60
sec
7 . 11
sec
8 . 34
1 . 40
3 . 1381
sec
4 . 34 ,
sec
1 . 40
7 . 5
3 . 1381
sec
7 . 5
60 tan
3 . 10
61 tan
sec
3 . 1381
] [ ] [
0
10 * 9 . 151 160 * 81 . 9 * 10 * 100 * 88 . 0
88 . 0
sec
3 . 10
sec
110
sec
5 . 15
sec
65 . 3
119
45 . 2
160
:
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1
2 2 2
6
1
3
2
1
1
2
N d
U
m
V
m
V
m m
U
U
U
m
V
U V
m
U V
U V
t
Q
u V
t
m
P
V then V V If
W gH
t
Q
P
m
V
m
t
Q
m
V
m
d
m d
m H
Given
r
w
f
w
w
w w
w f
T
T
f
t
µ
µ q
q
|
=
=
= =
÷ =
= ÷
= = = ÷
=
= =
= =
= = =
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
 



59
92 . 0
875 . 527 ] 5 . 15 36 [
2
1
] [
2
1
49 . 855 )] 04 . 31 7 . 11 ( ) 9 . 26 1 . 40 [(
2
1
)] ( ) [(
2
1
sec
04 . 31 5 . 15 9 . 26
sec
9 . 26
60
210 * 45 . 2 *
60
210
45 . 2 *
60 * 1 . 40
sec
36 cos
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 2 2
2
2
1
2 2 2 2 2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
1 1 1
=
÷
÷
=
= ÷ = ÷ =
= ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= + = + =
= = =
= =
= =
V R V
V V
m V V H
m V V U U H
m
U V V
m N d
U
rpm N
m
V V
d
d
r r s
r
w
c
t t
t
o












6. In a radial flow Francis turbine the runner outer diameter (inlet) diameter is 75cm and
inner (outlet) diameter is 50 cm, the runner speed is 400rpm. Water enters wheel at a
speed of 15 m/sec at an angle of 15 degrees to the wheel tangent at the point of entry.
Discharge at the outlet is radial and absolute velocity is 5 m/sec.Find the runner blade
angle at the inlet and draw velocity triangles. What is the power output per unit mass
flow rate through the turbine? Find the degree of reaction, utilization factor and static
pressure at the turbine inlet. If the static pressure at the exit is 1 atmosphere.


I V T O V T
60
56 . 0
100
2
4 . 127
2
8 . 254
)] ( ) [(
2
1
6 . 227 ] 7 . 15 * 5 . 14 [ * 1 ] [
sec
6 . 11 5 5 . 10
46 . 25
tan
sec
4 ) 5 . 14 7 . 15 ( 8 . 3 ) (
2 . 107
5 . 14
01 . 6
tan tan 180
sec
8 . 3 sin
sec
5 . 14 15 cos 15 cos
sec
5 . 10
60
400 * 5 . 0 *
60
sec
7 . 15
60
400 * 75 . 0 *
60
:
1
sec
5
sec
15
400
5 . 0
75 . 0
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1 1
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2 2
1 1
2
1 1
1
1
1
1
1 1 1
1 1 1
2
2
1
1
2 2
1
2
1
=
+
=
=
÷
=
= = ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= = =
= + = + =
=
=
= ÷ + = ÷ + =
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= ÷
= =
= = =
= = =
= = =
=
= =
=
=
=
=
÷ ÷
d s
s
d
d
r r s
w
r
f
w f r
w
f
f
w
f
H H
H
R
Kg
j V V
H
Kg
Kj
V V U U H
Watts U V
t
m
P
m
V U V
U
V
m
V U V V
V U
V
m
V V
m
V V
m N d
U
m N d
U
IVT
atm P
m
V V
m
V
rpm N
m d
m d
Given



|
|
|
|
o
o
t t
t t

61
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
V R V
V V
d
÷
÷
= c =0.95
KPa
V
P P
KPa P
KPa P
V
P P
KPa P P
P P
P
T T Cp h W
9 . 228
2
15 * 1000
10 * 45 . 341
2
45 . 341 113 5 . 227
0 . 113
2
25 * 1000
101325
2
5 . 227
1000
65 . 227
] [
2
3
2
1
01 1
01
02
2
2
2 02
01 02
01 02
01 02
= ÷ = ÷ =
= + =
= + =
+ =
= ÷
÷
=
A
= ÷ = A ÷ =
µ
µ
µ




Axial flow turbines:

General analysis:

Most turbines involving compressible flow are axial turbines. Generally, steam and gas
turbines are axial flow machines.
We know that in all axial turbine machines, U
1
=U
2
=U.
And hence the alternative form of turbine equation reduces to
| | ) ( ) (
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1 r r
V V V V
t
m
P ÷ ÷ ÷ =

Degree of reaction,
) ( ) (
) (
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
r r
r r
d
V V V V
V V
R
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
Change of fluid pressure in the rotor happens only due to change in the relative velocity
component Vr, since, U remains constant.

Axial flow turbines are of 2 types:
(1) Impulse type for which Rd=0.since V
r1
=V
r2
and hence power output
| |
2
2
2
1
2
1
V V
t
m
P ÷ =

(2)Reaction type: Generally any turbine which is not purely an impulse turbine is referred
to as a reaction turbine. It is not a 100% reaction turbine. But, it is still referred to as a
reaction turbine. Most reaction turbines are designed for 50% reaction which is found to
62
be very advantageous from practical consideration. In the case of steam turbines it is
implicit that a reaction turbine is 50% reaction turbine called as parson’s reaction turbine.

Velocity diagrams for different values of Rd appear as shown below:


V
1
>V
2
, V
r1
>V
r2
V
r1
=V
r2
V
1
=V
r2
; V
r1
=V
2

R
d
<0(R
d
is negative) R
d
=0 R
d
=0.5

V
1
=V
2
V
2
>V
1
; V
r2
>V
r1

R
d
=100% R
d
>100%

We know that for utilization factor c to be maximum, the exit velocity V2 should be
minimum. For a given rotor speed U, the minimum value of V2 is obtained only if V22 is
axial and the velocity triangles would look as shown:



Velocity triangle for maximum utilization factor condition.:

63
1
2 2
1
2
1
1
2 2
1
2
1
max
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1 1 2
sin
sin
sin
o
o
c
c
o
V R V
V V
V R V
V V
V V
d
imum
d
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
=
=

1
2
1
2
max
sin 1
cos
o
o
c
d
imum
R ÷
=

Form the expression, it is clear that
imum max
c will have the highest value if
1
o =0.
But
1
o =0, results in V2=0 which is not a practically feasible condition. The zero angle
turbines which would have
1
o =0 appears as shown:



Though the zero angle turbines are not practically feasible it represents the ideal
condition to be aimed at. In a Pelton wheel, we arrive at a condition wherein the jet is
deflected through an angle of 165 to 170 degrees. Though an angle of 180 degrees would
be the ideal condition as in case of a zero angle turbine.

Impulse turbine designed for maximum utilization:



64

1
1
1
1
2
cos
2
cos
V
U
V
U
OA
AC
=
= =
o
o

The ratio
1
V
U
is referred to as a blade speed ratio | which will have limiting value of 0.5
for a zero angle turbine. But in practical situation,
1
o is in between 20 to 25 degrees. But
| varies from 0.45 to 0.47. The blade speed ratio is very useful performance parameter
and it may be noted that the closer its value is to 0.5, the better it is.


Expression for power output:
2
1 1 1
1
max 2
2 2 1 1
2
2 cos ,
. 0
) (
U P
U V V but
U V P
condition f or V
Kg
Kj
U V U V P
w
w
imum w
w w
=
= =
=
=
÷ =
o
c




Reaction turbine:

We know that,
1
2
1
2
max
sin 1
cos
o
o
c
d
imum
R ÷
=
For a fixed value of
1
o , as Rd increases
imum max
c .
But for Rd=1 (100% reaction turbine), this equation doesn’t holds good.
Let us examine how
imum max
c is affected by Rd.
Case (1): Rd=1,

65
) ( ) (
) (
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
r r
r r
d
V V V V
V V
R
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=


V
w1
=V
w2
Hence by Euler’s turbine equation
) (
2 2 1 1
U V U V P
w w
÷ =
] [
2 1 w w
V V U P ÷ =
1 1
2
2
1 1
2
2
1 1
1 1
2
1
1 1
1 1
1
2 2
cos 4
1
1
) cos 2 ( 2
1 cos 2
cos 2
2
cos 2
cos 2
cos 2
o
c
o
o
o
c
o
o
c
o
UV
V
UV
V
UV
UV
V
UV
UV
UV P
V U P
w
+
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
+
=
=
=

For maximum utilization V
2
needs to be axial. If V
2
is to be axial, then V
1
also should be
axial which means that the denominator of the expression becomes equal to infinity
which reduces toc to zero. This only means that
1
o should be as low as possible to get
meaning full values of
imum max
c . This represents contradicting condition and hence Rd=1 is
not preferred.

Case (2): Rd>1

V2>V1, Vr2>Vr1

2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
V R V
V V
d
÷
÷
= c
As Rd>c tends to zero.
66
In this case, V
2
>V
1a
nd hence V
2
can never be axial and hence the condition for
imum max
c
[An axial orientation for V2 can never be met]
The utilization factor c is given by
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
V R V
V V
d
÷
÷
= c
As Rd increases, c decreases.
This means that the stator has to function to not only diffuse V
2
to as low a value as
possible but also turn the fluid through a very large angle. This results in the poor flow
efficiency and hence Rd greater than 100% is not practically preferred.


Case (3): Rd<0 [negative Rd]


V
r1
>V
r2

) ( ) (
) (
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
r r
r r
d
V V V V
V V
R
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=



2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
V R V
V V
d
÷
÷
= c
For this condition, it is noticed that rd is negative denominator increases, c decreases.
V
r2
<V
r1
, also means that the pressure is increasing as fluid passes through the rotor.
i.e. the rotor is acting like a diffuser. This is not preferred since pressure always has to
decrease along the flow path for good flow efficiency. Hence, Rd<0 is not practically
preferred.



Case (4): Rd=0.5,
We know that for a 50% reaction turbine, velocity triangles are similar and for maximum
utilization condition the triangle would appear as shown.
67
We notice,
1 2
2 1
| o
| o
=
=





The angles are identical but reversed for the rotor and the stator. From the practical view
point, manufacturing of blades becomes simple. Since the same blade can be used for
either the stator or the rotor by merely reversing the direction. It can also be shown that in
a multistage turbines 50% reaction gives maximum stage efficiency. Since V
r2
>V
r1
,
pressure reduces along the flow path in the rotor resulting in high flow efficiency. In
general, n Rd value between 0 and 1 is preferred due to practical considerations.
From the velocity triangle it can be noted that V
w1
=U
] [
2 2 1 1
U V U V
t
m
P
w w
÷ =


2 w
V =0 (for maximum utilization factor condition)
2
U P =

Comparing the energy transfer achieved by 50% reaction turbine with an impulse turbine
when both are designed for
imum max
c condition and operating with the same rotor
velocities. We notice that an impulse turbine transfers twice as much energy as 50%
reaction turbine gives the better flow efficiencies.
If multi staging is attempted, the for a given value of energy transfer, a 50% reaction
turbine would need twice the number of stages as that of an impulse turbines. In actual
practice, when multistage is attempted, the initial stages are designed for an impulse
turbine when maximum fluid velocity is available. The subsequent stages are 50%
reaction stages.



(a)With velocity triangle, explain how degree of reaction affects utilization factor in axial
flow turbine and show that a 50% reaction turbine is the most preferred.
(b)With velocity triangles, show that axial flow turbines designed for an impulse
develops twice as much power as that of 50% reaction turbine when operating under
maximum utilization factor coordination.

68
Ans(b)

Impulse turbine

Expression for power output:
2
1 1 1
1
max 2
2 2 1 1
2
2 cos ,
. 0
) (
U P
U V V but
U V P
condition f or V
Kg
Kj
U V U V P
w
w
imum w
w w
=
= =
=
=
÷ =
o
c

We notice,
1 2
2 1
| o
| o
=
=


50% Reaction turbine



The angles are identical but reversed for the rotor and the stator. From the practical view
point, manufacturing of blades becomes simple. Since the same blade can be used for
either the stator or the rotor by merely reversing the direction. It can also be shown that in
a multistage turbines 50% reaction gives maximum stage efficiency. Since V
r2
>V
r1
,
pressure reduces along the flow path in the rotor resulting in high flow efficiency. In
general, n Rd value between 0 and 1 is preferred due to practical considerations.
From the velocity triangle it can be noted that V
w1
=U
] [
2 2 1 1
U V U V
t
m
P
w w
÷ =

69

2 w
V =0 (for maximum utilization factor condition)
2
U P =

50% Reaction Pump and compressors.


50% Reaction Turbine.


Radial flow turbines:
The general principles are similar to those of radial flow pumps and compressors. The
Euler turbine equation takes the form

] [
2 2 1 1
U V U V
t
m
P
w w
÷ =

| | ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1 r r
V V U U V V P ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ =

For positive work output
2 2 1 1
U V U V
w w
> .This is achieved practically by going in for
2 1
U U > which means r1>r2. This means that radius at inlet needs to be greater than
radius at exit .i.e., the flow should be radically inwards.
However, the earliest hydraulic turbines developed were radically outward flow turbines.
The first recorded type of such a turbine HERO’S turbine developed around 2000 years
ago.

70

In HERO’S turbine, steam is contained in the rotor itself which is provided with nozzles
as shown, when steam issues out of nozzles , a reaction force is experienced by the nozzle
due to which rotor moves in the opposite direction as indicated.
Similarly in principle is the Barker’s mill which is a hydraulic reaction turbine of the
radially outward flow type. This is more popular today in the form of lawn sprinkler.
The lawn sprinkler would have negligible inlet velocities compared to exit velocity
triangle is a straight line with V
2
and U
2
in opposite direction as shown.
It may be shown that lawn sprinkler has poor utilization factor and hence it is not an
effective turbine. However in actual practice, radial flow turbines are inward flow turbine
which may involve radial entry and exit. E.g.: Old Francis turbine or radial entry and
axial turbine or radial entry and axial exit. [Mixed flow], Modern Francis turbine.





Fig. Barker’s Mill
71




(a)Radial type (b) Mixed flow type

Fig. Hydraulic Turbine


Fig. Banki Turbine


******END******

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