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Turbo-machinery

Fluid Machines.

There are two basic Fluid Machine designs. Positive Displacement Machines Positive displacement machines force uid into or out of the volume of a chamber by changing the volume of the chamber. Examples are bicycle pumps, the lungs, the heart, and the cylinders of an internal combustion engine (ICE). In a bicycle pump, the device does work on the uid. In an ICE, the uid does work on the piston head. Turbomachines Turbomachines involve blades, buckets, or passages arranged around an axis of rotation. The rotations will either add or subtract energy from the uid. Window fans, propellers, gas turbines. jet engines. The key feature is some sort of rotary motion is involved. It is more important to know about pumps than turbines since there are many more pumps in the world.

Turbomachinery

There are two dierent turbomachine functions. Pumps These are devices to add energy to a uid. Usually want to direct the uid to move to a given places. These can be pumps, fans, blowers or compressors. Turbines These are devices designed to extract energy from a uid ow. Gas and steam turbines.

Turbomachines

Turbo-machines can be characterized as radial-ow or axial ow. In a radial ow machine, the uid has a signicant velocity component around the axis of the machine.

Rotor Inlet Housing or casing (a) Radial flow fan

Outlet

In an axial ow machine, the uid has a signicant velocity component along the axis of the machine. There is a 3rd type of machine, the mixed-ow machine. These dierent machines can be used for dierent applications.

Rotor Inlet Outlet Stator Housing or casing (b) Axial-flow fan

Discharge Impeller Hub plate

Consists on an Impeller. The impeller is attached to the rotating shaft. Housing. The impeller is enclosed in a housing, casing or volute. The impeller has a number of rotating blades or vanes. As the impeller rotates, uid is sucked in the eye, the vanes add energy to the uid The vanes can be radial, forward inclined or backward inclined.

In an open impeller the blades are arranged on a hub or backing plate. In a enclosed impeller the blades are covered on the hub and also by a shroud on the inlet side.

Head Losses

The head-gain by a centrifugal pump is (R)2 R cot(2 )Q hl = g 2Rbg

R is distance to end of vane is angular velocity of shaft Q is volume ow-rate b is impeller blade height on rim 2 is angle of impeller at rim

Head Losses

The actual pressure increase for a real pump is slightly less than the ideal cases.

Actual head, ha

Flowrate

There are shock losses at entrance when uid does not enter impeller smoothly. Shock losses small near optimum ow rate. Friction losses increases as Q2 Loss of uid between impeller blades and casing.

The performance of a pump can be determined by measuring water pressure immediately before and after pump.

(2) z2 z1 (1)

The actual head rise ha = hs hL , depends on shaft head work hs , and head loss hL through the pipe and valves in pump.

2 2 p2 p1 v2 v1 ha = + z2 z1 + 2g

Typically, the changes in elevation and uid velocity are small so, p2 p1 ha

10

The power gained by the uid as it moves through the pump is Pf = Qha A measure of the overall eciency of the pump is = Pf Wshaf t = Qha /550 bhp

Sometimes the shaft power is given in terms of of the brake horsepower of the pump when using BG units (the 550 would be 746 for SI units). The eciency is eected by hydraulic (e.g. viscous) losses, mechanical losses (e.g. energy loss in bearings) and volumetric losses (e.g. loss of uids between end of impeller blade and casing)

11

The performance characteristics of a given pump are summarized in plots of ha , and bhp versus Q .

Shutoff head Head

Only two curves are really needed since ha , and bhp are closely related.

Efficiency

Brake horsepower

The design ow-rate is usually the point where the eciency is largest (best eciency point or BEP ).

12

50%

55

60

500 400

65

8 in. dia

63

65

NPSH R

10 5 0

40

80

280

320

NPSHR, ft

63

60

Head, ft

300 200

55

40 0 bhp 5

15

100

30 25

20

15

13

On the suction side of a pump one encounters low pressures. Leads to possibility of cavitation occurring at high speeds. Cavitation occurs when pf luid < pvp pvp = pvp (T ).

Cavitation leads to loss in eciency and structural damage. The Net Positive Suction Head required, NPSHR , is a plot of the pressure that must be maintained at the pump inlet to avoid cavitation vs Q.

(2) Reference plane z1 p1 = patm (1)

14

NPSHR

The NPSH is dened as NPSH =

2 pvp vs ps + 2g

This is the total (static + dynamic) pressure minus the vapour pressure. The required NPSH , or NPSHR is determined by the pump manufacturer. The NPSHR is a function of ow-rate. The NPSH is dened with the dynamic pressure included since this means NPSHR vs Q curve given by manufacturers builds in ow-rate eects.

(2) z1 p1 = patm (1)

Reference plane

15

The modied Bernoulli equation will be applied between (1) and (2) .

(2) Reference plane z1 p1 = patm (1)

At (1) , v1 = 0 , z1 = 0 and p1 = patm . Now apply Bernoulli equation (z1 in diagram is really z2 ) with hL head loss between tank and impeller inlet. patm hL = 2 v2 p2 + = 2g NPSHA =

2 p2 v2 + + z2 2g patm hL z2 pvp patm hL z2

16

NPSHA

pvp patm hL z2

NPSHA =

The NPSHA decreases as z2 (height of impeller above uid) is increased. There is a critical value of z2 . If z2 is too large then cavitation will occur.

50%

55

60

65

8 in. dia

63

65

63

60

55

40 b 5 0 hp

15

30

25

10 5 0 NPSHR, ft

20

100 0

NPSH R

15

40

80

280

320

The NPSHR increases as the ow-rate increases. Note, at zero ow-rate the NPSHR is only about 2 m ; local water speeds in pump can be much larger than water speeds in pipes.

17

18

The ow rates of pump/pipe systems are often controlled by placing control valves somewhere in the system. As a general rule it is best to place the valve on the downstream side of the pump. Placing the control valve before the pump will decrease the NPSHA and thus make cavitation more likely to occur. Note, using a control valve to adjust the ow rate is a bit like controlling the speed of a car by using the brake while maintaining constant accelerator pedal pressure!

19

Pump Selection

(2)

(1) z2

z1 Pump

Typical pump selection scenario. Water in a tank at one elevation needs to be pumped to a tank at another elevation. With modied Bernoulli equation

2 2 p1 v1 p2 v2 + + z1 + hP hL = + + z2 2g 2g

Now v1 = v2 = 0 and p1 = p2 = 0 , so z1 + hP hL = z2 hP = hL + z 2 z 1 The head supplied by the pump must be large enough to overcome head losses in the pipe and elevation changes.

20

Pump Selection

To a rst approximation, the head losses are proportional to Q2 (e.g. constant friction factor). hP hP = z2 z1 + hL

= z2 z1 + KQ2

This equation is called the system equation. The operating (duty) point of the pump is determined from the intersection of the system and pump curves. Solution of two simultaneous non-linear equations. Graphical solution may be easiest. The system curve can change over time, e.g. build-up of deposits in pipe walls.

Change in system equation Pump performance curve (B) Pump head, hp Elevation (static) head = z 2 z1 Flowrate, Q

(A)

Operating point

21

System curve Two pumps Head, ha Head, ha (B) (A) One pump P P P Flowrate, Q (a) P One pump Two pumps System curve (B) (A)

Flowrate, Q (b)

Connecting two pumps in series gives a larger pressure head. The uid can be raised to a higher elevation. Connecting two pumps in parallel results in a higher ow-rate.

22

Water is to be pumped from one large open tank to another. The pipe diameter is 0.50 ft and the pipe length is 200 ft . There are minor losses at the entrance, exit and throughout the pipe. The friction factor will be taken as 0.02 . What is the ow-rate and shaft-power needed?

(2) Water KL = 1.5 10 ft Pump Diameter of pipe = 6 in. Total pipe length = 200 ft KL = 1.0

(1)

KL = 0.5 (a)

100

80

Head

Head, ft Efficiency, %

60

40 Efficiency

20

400

800

1200 ( b)

1600

2000

2400

Flowrate, gal/min

23

Apply the modied Bernoulli equation

2 2 p1 v1 p2 v2 + + z1 + hP hL = + + z2 2g 2g

where v = Q/A is uid velocity in pipe. Using numbers hL Q2 0.02 200Q2 + (0.5+1.0+1.5) = 2 2 0.5 32.2A 2 32.2A2 Q2 20Q2 + 3.0 = 2 32.2 0.19635 64.4 0.196352 = 4.43Q2

24

Since the pump curve is given in gal/min , need to do a conversion hP = 10 + 4.43Q2 hP = 10 + 2.2 105 Q2

100 Efficiency

What has to be done is to solve two simultaneous non-linear equations. Resort to graphical solution.

0 ( c)

2400

The point of interaction is the operating point for the pump and system. One nds a ow-rate of Q = 1600 gal/min = 3.56 ft3 /s

25

Finally, the power required is Qha gal/min Wshaf t = 62.4 3.56 66.5 = = 17000 ft lb/s 0.84

Wshaf t

26

The aim is to determine the groupings of variable that describe the important pump parameters. There are three parameters of interest The pump shaft-power, Wshaf t The actual head rise, ha The eciency of the pump, These parameters will depend on the following The characteristic diameter, D The surface roughness, The pump volumetric ow rate, Q The pump rotation speed, The uid viscosity, The uid density, Some characteristic lengths describing the pump geometry, li So Parameter = F (D, li , , Q, , , )

27

Parameter = F (D, li , , Q, , , ) Will choose , and D as the repeating variables. In a Buckingham analysis one nd li Q D2 (Parameter) = F , , , 3 D D D The dependent terms are Head rise coecient. This is the actual head rise per unit mass (i.e. gha ). CH gha = 2 2 = F1 D li Q D2 , , , 3 D D D li Q D2 , , , 3 D D D li Q D2 , , , D D D3

28

F3 li Q D2 , , , 3 D D D

D2

The last argument is a type of Reynolds number. Pumps are usually operated at high rotation speeds, so relative impact of viscous eects is not important. This term has little impact. The surface roughness term, D is unimportant since interiors of pumps are irregular with sharp bends. li For geometrically similar pumps, D does not change. So gha CH = 2 2 = = F1 D Wshaf t = F2 CP = 3 D5 gQha = F3 = shaf t W Q CQ = D3 Q D3 Q D3 Q D3

29

For equal ow coecients, Q D3 =

1

Q D3

1

gha 2 D2 Wshaf t 3 D5

=

1 1

= 2

100% Efficiency 80 60 80 70 Head, ft Head 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1000 2000 3000 Capacity, gal/min (a) 4000 Horsepower 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 5000 Brake horsepower CH 40 20 Efficiency

0.25

100%

0.20 CH 0.15

80 60 40 20 0

0 0 0.025 0.050 CQ

(b)

0.075

0 0.100

30

There are a number of special cases where the similitude relations collapse to give some very useful principles Same CQ and D1 = D2 (same pump) One nds Q1 Q2 ha1 ha2 Wshaf t1 Wshaf t2 = = = 1 2 2 1 2 2

3 1 3 2

So at a xed ow coecient, the ow-rate is proportional to speed, while the head varies as the square of the speed and the power varies as the cube of the speed,

31

3 D1 3 D2 2 D1 2 D2 5 D1 5 D2

The ow rate is proportional to the diameter cubed, the head generated is proportional to the square of the diameter and the amount of shaft work is proportional to the diameter to the fth power. Pump manufacturers often put dierent sized impellers in identical casings, so exact geometric similarity is not maintained. OK to using these scaling relations (pump anity laws) if impeller size does not change by more than 20% .

32

Specic speed

A dimensionless parameter that is useful in pump section is the specic speed. It is a combination of 3/4 1/2 two terms, namely CQ /CH . Ns = CQ

1/2

CH

3/4

Q = (gha )3/4

The specic speed at the ow coecient corresponding to peak eciency are listed for given pumps. It gives an indication of what type pump works most eciently for a given combination of Q and ha . Centrifugal pumps often have low-capacity and high-heads, so they have low specic speeds.

Specific speed, Nsd

9000 10000

15000

Impeller shrouds Impeller shrouds Hub Vanes Hub Vanes Radial flow Hub Hub Vanes Impeller shrouds

Impeller hub Vanes Mixed flow Vanes Axial flow Axis of rotation

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9 1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

20000 8.0

900 1000

1500

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

Specific speed, Ns

8000

500

600

700

800

33

Impulse Turbines

Impulse turbines use momentum transfer from a water jet to spin a turbine. One of the easiest to understand is the Pelton wheel (invented in 19th century by Lester Pelton, a mining engineer in California).

Rotor

Nozzle

Bucket

(a)

The energy of the water stream is partly converted to energy to drive the turbine. There is a nozzle to increase the velocity of the water stream.

34

Pelton Wheel

(b)

The water stream is split into two channels when it leaves the turbine. Sending the water backward gives a bigger momentum transfer and splitting it to either side redirects recoiling stream away from incoming stream.

35

Pelton Wheel

Water with a velocity of v1 strikes the Pelton wheel bucket. The Pelton wheel bucket is moving at a speed of U = rm .

Tangential

rm

Radial

V1 a V2

The redirected streams leaves the bucket in two equal sized streams moving at a velocity v2 .

36

Pelton Wheel

a b

a

W1 = V1 U

Tangential

W2 = W1 = V1 U

Axial

The velocity components in the axial direction do not contribute to the torque generated by the wheel. The relative velocity of the incoming stream in tangential direction is w1 = v1 U The relative velocity of the outgoing stream (tangential direction) is w2 cos = v2 U

37

Pelton Wheel

Force applied by the bucket to the water stream is Fjet = m(w2 cos w1 ) Assuming w2 w1 , (elastic collision in bucket ref. frame) F = m(w1 cos w1 ) = mw1 (cos 1) Force of water on bucket is equal and opposite so Fbucket = mw1 (1 cos ) Fbucket = m(v1 U )(1 cos ) The torque applied to the shaft is = Fbucket rm = mrm (v1 U )(1 cos ) The rate of shaft work being done (on the uid, note sign change) is Wshaf t = mU (U v1 )(1 cos )

38

Pelton Wheel

The rate of shaft work being done is Wshaf t = mU (U v1 )(1 cos ) Since v1 > U , shaft work being done is negative. The Pelton wheel extracts energy from the uid. At what speed should the Pelton wheel rotate to extract the maximum shaft power out of the water stream? Want as large as possible. Typically 165o so cos(165o ) = 0.966 . The (1 cos ) factor is 1.966 . The torque is a maximum when U = 0 , but now work is being done when wheel is not turning. The maximum power out occurs when U (U v1 ) is a maximum. Umaxpower v1 = 2

39

Pelton Wheel

Eciency of a Pelton wheel as a function of the rim rotation speed.

Tshaft

max

= mrmV1(1 cos )

Wshaft

max

Wshaft Wshaft

Tshaft

Actual torque U = power V1 0.5 max 0 0.2 V1 0.4 V1 0.6 V1 0.8 V1 1.0 V1

U = rm

You should note that U = v1 /2 corresponds to v2 0 (need v2 > 0 to get water out of way) . Most of the kinetic energy of the incoming water stream has been converted to the task of spinning the Pelton wheel.

40

Reaction Turbines

In a reaction turbine, water completely lls are the passageways in the turbine. Most useful for higher ow rates and low pressure heads.

Rotor blades

Rotor

Draft tube

(a)

(b)

The Francis turbine is a radial (or mixed) ow machine. At lowest ow rates the axial-ow or Kaplan turbine is most ecient.

41

Turbine eciencies

Impulse turbines Radial-flow Reaction turbines Mixed-flow Axial flow

10

20 Nsd

40

60

80 100

%

Kaplan

80

70

10

20 Nsd

40

60

80 100

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