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FLEXIBLE, DYNAMIC & RESPONSIVE
Department of Skills Development (DSD) MINISTRY OF HUMAN RESOURCES (MOHR)
Version 1.01, 27th June 2012
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................................................... iii LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................................................................ iv LIST OF TABLES & FLOWCHART ................................................................................................................................. iv GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................................................................ v - vii ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................................... viii - ix 1. 2. 3. 4. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................1 - 3 NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS STANDARD (NOSS) DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY.....................4 - 5 NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS STANDARD (NOSS) DEVELOPMENT PROCESS ..............................6 - 23 NOSS DOCUMENT STRUCTURE ...................................................................................................................24
INDEX 1: TYPES OF TRAINING MODE DELIVERY ................................................................................................25 - 26 INDEX 2: LIST OF CORE ABILITIES ......................................................................................................................27 - 29 INDEX 3: LIST OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS PRESENTING- CRITERIA AND RESPONSIBILITIES ....................................30 INDEX 4: APPRECIATING ROLE OF THE FACILITATOR ...............................................................................................31 INDEX 5: TIPS FOR PROOFREADING .........................................................................................................................32 INDEX 6: LIST OF NOSS GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT MEMBERS ...............................................................................33 INDEX 7: NOSS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FLOWCHART ....................................................................................34 - 35 INDEX 8: SAMPLE OF STANDARD PRACTICE ......................................................................................................36 - 45 INDEX 9: COMPETENCY PROFILE CHART (CPC) ........................................................................................................46 INDEX 10: COMPETENCY PROFILE (CP) .............................................................................................................47 - 48 INDEX 11: CURRICULUM of COMPETENCY UNIT (CoCU)..........................................................................................47 INDEX 12: LIST OF DOCUMENT CHANGES…………………………………………………………………………………….…………………….66
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT As custodians to the development of NOSS, the NOSS division would like to extend its wish to thank the EWG Group for efforts they have exerted in working out the designs of the new NOSS format. For without the initiation, all of this has not been possible. This division would like to express sincere appreciation to the team of experts invited during development of this guideline for their contribution, perseverance and support until completion. Their experience and technical assistance has enhanced the capabilities of the guideline in hopes of alleviating the methodology and process of NOSS development. Great deals appreciated go to our beloved families and friends whose kindness and understanding kept the guideline development team spirited and aspired. Not forget, great appreciation go to the rest of DSD’s staff that help, shared their experience and concern from time to time during the guideline development. The whole program really brought us together to appreciate the true value of friendship and respect of each other. Above all, the authors are very much thankful to the Great God Almighty for carrying them through all the difficulties in the completion and preparation of this guideline.
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: NOSS Development Process Flowchart ......................................................................................6 Figure 2: Identify tasks, levelling and segregate the task according to level ..............................................9 Figure 3: Tasks clustering and naming CU title ........................................................................................10 Figure 4: Sequencing the CU’s from top left to bottom right in the CPC .................................................11 Figure 5: Tasks clustered and arrange in form of work activity ...............................................................12 Figure 6: Identifying related skills and related knowledge examples .......................................................17 Figure 7: Identifying attitude, safety and environment example...............................................................18 Figure 8: TEC Validation Session arrangement ........................................................................................23 Figure 11: NOSS Development Process Flowchart .......................................................................... 34 - 35 Figure 12: Sample of a Competency Profile Chart ...................................................................................46
LIST OF TABLES & FLOWCHART
Table 1: Example OS for Front office .........................................................................................................7 Table 2: Example OAS for Front office ......................................................................................................8 Table 3: Developing performance criteria .................................................................................................13 Table 4: Developing Competency Unit (CU) descriptor...........................................................................14 Table 5: List of Standard Practice Contents ...................................................................................... 15 - 15 Table 6: Minimum total training program hours based on level ...............................................................19 Table 7: References Criteria ......................................................................................................................20 Table 8: Training hour summary ...............................................................................................................22
i) National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) is defined as a specification of the competencies expected of a skilled worker who is gainfully employed in Malaysia for an occupational area, level and the pathway to achieve the competencies. NOSS Document The NOSS document covers the Standard Practice (SP) and the Standard Content (SC) a) Standard Practice (SP) The SP provides an occupational overview for a particular profession. b) Standard Content (SC) The SC specifies the competencies of the occupation which consist of the Competency Profile Chart (CPC) and Competency Profile (CP). i. CPC consist of core and elective competency units. A Competency Unit (CU) is an independent meaningful unit of work, which contains several activities to complete a work cycle. Core Competency Unit Core Competency unit is classified as generic and essential competencies required for a particular occupation. Elective Competency Unit Elective Competency unit is classified as related additional competencies and relevant to the particular occupation.
ii. CP consists of the CU descriptor, work activities and performance criteria CU Descriptor The CU Descriptor describes the synopsis of the competency unit on the outcomes/ objectives; process; condition/ range; standards; and/or regulation; and/or manual; pre-requisite; etc in order to carry out the competency successfully. Work Activities Work Activities represents a complete cycle of work activities to produce an outcome with its starting point and ending point which result in a product; service; or decision. Performance Criteria Performance Criteria tells someone how well he/she must perform the work activities with regard to process criteria and product criteria that meet the standard quality requirement.
NOSS Package The NOSS Package consists of the NOSS document and Curriculum of Competency Unit (CoCU). Curriculum of Competency Unit (CoCU) The CoCU is the training curriculum for the competency unit for the purpose of learning and teaching.
Developing A Curriculum (DACUM) DACUM is an acronym for Developing A Curriculum. It is a job analysis approach to develop an occupational standard using brainstorming techniques conducted by a facilitator with participation from subject matter experts of the occupational area. Developing a Standard and Curriculum (DESCUM) DESCUM is an acronym for Developing a Standard and Curriculum. It is a job analysis approach to develop a NOSS document and CoCU using brainstorming techniques conducted by a facilitator with participation from subject matter experts of the occupational area. Occupational Analysis (OA) OA is a process of identifying the Sector, Sub-sector, Job Area, Job Title and Level of an occupation based on information gathered from needs analysis or industries input. The product of this process is an Occupational Structure (OS) and Occupational Definition. Occupational Area Analysis (OAA) OAA is a process of reviewing the OS in identifying the occupation, level and career path to produce Occupational Area Structure (OAS). Job Analysis (JA) JA is a process of identifying the duties, tasks, job functions and responsibilities of an occupation. Competency Competency is a combination of necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and safety which is required for an individual in order to perform a job successfully and efficiently based on performance criteria set in the Standard. Competency Profile Analysis (CPA) CPA is a process of identifying work activities, performance criteria and constructing CU descriptor statement. The product of this process is the Competency Profile (CP). Learning Outcomes Learning Outcomes describe what students are able to demonstrate in term of knowledge, skills and values upon completion of a course, a span of several courses, or a program. Clear articulation of learning outcomes serve as the foundation to evaluate the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process. Related Knowledge Related Knowledge refer to the information that is needed to perform the Work Activities (what do you need to know in order to perform the Work Activities?). vi
Related Skills Related Skills refer to the abilities of workers which are required to complete the Work Activities (what skills do you need to perform the Work Activities?). Attitude / Safety Attitude Attitude involves how people react to certain situation and how they behave in general. It’s should include awareness on environmental issue, government policies, etc. Example: being able to get along with other people, being optimistic, concern on environmental friendly issues Safety Safety includes behaviour and safety precautions to be complied with when performing the CU. Example: handle hazardous materials with caution, display safety signage during repairing works
Assessment Criteria Assessment criteria describe how well a student has to be able to achieve the learning outcome. Training hour(s) Training Hour(s) is the number of hours required for an average person to achieve a complete learning outcome by guided training (such as lecture, workshop training, laboratory training or field work), self learning (such as self reading, individual assignment, report writing) and assessment (theory and practical module assessment). Credit Value(s) The amount of credit received for completing a specific Competency Unit (CU). Generally the number of training hours determines its worth in credit hours. It may include theory, practical, self-learning and assessment contact hours for each CU which stated in Curriculum of Competency Unit (CoCU). The ratio for training hours to credit hours is 10 to 1 (10:1). Tools, Equipment and Materials (TEM) TEM refers to a listing of tools, equipment and materials required to complete the CU successfully. It should include materials/supplies, special tools, equipment, safety gear, safety apparatus, SOP, Companies and Government Policies and regulations, manual, log and reports, etc. Core Abilities Core abilities are essential workplace skills that cut across occupational and academic titles. They are broad, common abilities that trainees must possess to be prepared for the working environment.
ABSTRACT In the late Eighties Malaysia experienced a rapid economic growth which was propelled by its expanding manufacturing sector. However, the increased demand for skilled labour was not being met by the supply side – neither in the public nor the private training sector. As a result of this increasing skill shortage, a report of the Malaysian Cabinet Committee on Training was prepared in 1991. Based on these recommendations, the Malaysian Vocational Training System began to change dramatically in the early Nineties. The newly restructured National Vocational Training Council (NVTC) established under the Ministry of Human Resources was given the task to implement the necessary changes. The role and achievements of the NVTC put forward for the development of a more flexible and industry-driven system for vocational training and education and to the approach in the development of National Occupational Skill Standards (NOSS). In response to the recommendations of the Cabinet Committee, a task force was established to revise the NOSS and to further the development of a more flexible Skill Certification System. 71 National Trade Standards (NTS) had been developed from 1971 until 1991. The old format focused mostly on the knowledge-based approach adopted from Europe. In 1991 the format and the procedures were changed to reflect the needs of industry and to meet the requirements of Competency-based Training and Education (CBTE/ CBT). During that time, NVTC studied the vocational training systems of Japan, Germany, UK, Canada, USA and Australia. The decision was made to adopt a modular system, suitable for both the private and public training sector, which followed the trends in the USA and Canada for Competency Based Training and Education (CBTE). CBTE is concentrated on the end product (What people can do as a result of training?) By 1993, the first NOSS was published to the public. At its height of implementation, in 2006, NOSS an occupational standard was established under Part IV of the National Skills Development Act 2006 [Act 652]. In a strategy to attract broaden industry involvement in the skills development sector and heighten the development of NOSS, in 2007, outsourcing of NOSS development is established. At 2010 a total 1585 NOSS was published with 1291 NOSS declared active in the NOSS directory. NVTC has adopted the DACUM, a process of Occupational and Job Analysis as the most appropriate tool to identify Workplace Competencies. The DACUM process for occupational analysis involves local men and women with reputations for being the "top performers" at their jobs, working on a
committee assignment with a qualified DACUM facilitator. These workers / professionals are recruited directly from business and industry and become the panel of experts who collectively and cooperatively describe the occupation in the language of the occupation. On contemporary, the Department of Skills Development (DSD, formerly known as NVTC) have introduced new formatting and development process to NOSS as a bid to attract industry and training sectors towards a flexible, dynamic and responsive skills accreditation system. Revolutionising the NOSS philosophy and development, in 2010, the DESCUM approach was formulated by NOSS Expert Work Group (NOSS EWG) as to complement the new NOSS formatting. DESCUM is modified from DACUM approach to develop the NOSS and curriculum. By 2011, the new NOSS structure was introduced and pilot tested. Starting the year 2012, the NOSS division has taken the overall responsibility in fine-tuning the new NOSS structure in hopes of perfecting the system of a new flexible, dynamic and responsive skills accreditation system.
The National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) is a Standard established under Part IV of the National Skills Development Act 2006 [Act 652]. NOSS is a performance specification expected of competent personnel who are qualified for the profession in an occupational area. It reflects the occupational structure for each level and the career path of the occupation. NOSS consists of competency units identified by industrial experts and practitioners, comprising of knowledge, skills, attitude, and employability skills required in the related occupation. The National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) outlines the minimum requirement of knowledge and ability in terms of competencies to perform roles and functions of an expert worker according to their profession. Role of Skill Standards In general, skill standards are performance specifications that identify the knowledge, skills and attitude an individual needs to succeed in the workplace. They are critical to improving workforce skills, raising living standards, and improving the competitiveness of the Malaysian economy. To be effective, skill standards must reflect the consensus of any skills professional. Skill standards provide measurable benchmarks of skill and performance achievement. They answer two critical questions: What do workers need to know and be able to do to succeed in today’s workplace? How do we know when workers are performing well? With Skills Standard:Employers know whom to hire or where to focus their limited training dollars; Employees and new entrants to the workforce know what they need to do to improve their performance; Educators/ trainers know how to prepare students for the challenge of the workplace. Importance of Skill Standards In today’s workplaces, the only constant is change. Jobs that once were relatively simple now require high performance work processes and enhanced skills. Because skill standards reflect changing workplace realities, they are a tool that can be used by applicants and employees to access greater career opportunities. Updating skills and knowledge is now a lifelong endeavour, causing many employers and employees to spend more effort, time, and money on education and training. Skill standards provide benchmarks for making education and training decisions, shaping curricula, and directing funds toward highest value education and training investments.
The Benefits and Uses of Skills Standards Skill standards benefit all the stakeholders. The success of a skill standards development project and its usefulness to the community is dependent on the full participation and commitment of all stakeholders. These benefits can be used as a benchmark for evaluating the effectiveness of collaborative efforts. Benefit of Skill Standards to Employers
i. Employers can use skill standards to establish personnel qualification requirements. ii. Interviews, performance reviews, and productivity can be evaluated and assessed to
a higher degree of accuracy and efficacy. iii. Employers are also able to identify core competencies and workers’ abilities to demonstrate competencies. iv. By matching competencies to critical work functions and key activities, employers can significantly improve efficiencies and productivity. v. Performance-based skill standards also provide a vehicle for varying degrees of job certainty and the structure for establishing competency-based pay scales. vi. Align personnel qualification requirements with nationally adopted certificates of competence (SKM, DKM,DLKM). vii. Modify employee training. viii. Simplify measurement of employee training effectiveness. ix. Assess employee skill levels based on industry standards. x. Match employee skills to the work needed. xi. Align personnel qualification requirements with nationally adopted certificates of competence. xii. Modify employee training. xiii. Simplify measurement of employee training effectiveness. xiv. Assess employee skill levels based on industry standards. xv. Match employee skills to the work needed. Benefit of Skill Standards to Workers
i. ii. iii. iv.
Skill standards assist workers in making career choices by providing industry expectations for success in the workplace. In addition, standards-based curriculum and assessments provide workers with credentials that certify work-readiness. Workers can accurately assess their skills against those required for career advancement and plan effectively for their career pathways. They can determine the skills and abilities needed for advancement or transfer within industries, and determine the continuous learning and training they need to upgrade their skills. Achieve clarity regarding what they are expected to learn and how to prepare for work.
vi. Enter and re-enter the workforce with better control of their choices of high paying
jobs requiring high skills. vii. Accurately assess business expectations of the skills needed for positions and careers of their choice. viii. Improve mobility and portability of their credentials. ix. Enhance their performance and achievement by self-evaluation against known standards. x. Be active contributors to the activities that make their organizations successful. Benefit of Skill Standards to Trainers Trainers can identify core competencies and assessments based on the skill standards and implement them in their curricula. ii. Students can then be required to demonstrate competency throughout their coursework. iii. Academia and industry can build a cohesive relationship through a like-minded expectation of student competencies and work readiness. iv. This enhances a trainer’s ability to teach information consistent with industry's entry level expectations and needs. v. Partner with business and labour in developing school-to-work initiatives. vi. Provide effective, targeted instruction. vii. Communicate what companies expect of employees. viii. Develop new and evaluate existing curriculum and programs based on industry needs. ix. Develop assessments to evaluate skills, knowledge, and abilities in classrooms and practical. x. Develop a common language on workforce preparation with business and labour. xi. Improve relationships with local businesses, labour unions, other educators and agencies. xii. Provide students with relevant career education and counselling.
NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS STANDARD (NOSS) DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY DESCUM approach allows the facilitator to obtain and solicit information using various sources and methodology. The facilitator is to understand their part in the NOSS development.
2.1 Review of the Occupational Area DESCUM approach starts with an occupational area review on the industry to gain insight on scope, policy, program and activities in the context of the Malaysian job market scenario. The scope covered under this activity includes definitions, review of current Occupational Analysis (OA) structure of the industrial sector/sub sector, current trend of the industry, skilled workers supply and demand in the local sector and the industrial competitiveness at international level. In order to complete an occupational review several information gathering method can be used. Literature report must be produced for each of the occupational review activity. 2.2 Developing the Content Statement a. The Competency Unit (CU) title is formulated according to the following: Qualifier + Object A Qualifier, as defined in the Oxford Dictionary, is an adjective or adverb that describes another word in a particular way. An Object, as defined in the Oxford Dictionary, is a noun, noun phrase or pronoun that refers to a person or thing that is affected. For example: Battery System Installation (Object + Qualifier) CU Title : Battery System Installation *Remarks - Install In order to avoid redundancy of the identified Competency Units (CU), the availability of the CU is checked in the existing Department of Skills Development NOSS database. b. The CU’s Work Activity statement in Competency Profile (CP) and Related Knowledge, Related Skill in The Curriculum of Competency Unit (CoCU) is developed using the composition of Verb, Object and Qualifier. To describe clearly, the statement must consist of a Verb, Object and Qualifier. Below is an explanation of each element:
Object Firstly, the object is determined before the other two (2) attributes. The object of any job is the main determinant of distinguishing one job to the other.
Verb The Verb is then determined based on the level of competency. Hence, the final Work Activity statement will be as below: Prepare standalone photovoltaic + (qualifier) Analyse standalone photovoltaic + (qualifier) Evaluate standalone photovoltaic + (qualifier)
Based on the nature of work, the Verbs selected can either be generic verbs such as Execute, Carry Out or Prepare or more specific verbs by trade such as Cook, Sew, Install and etc. iii. Qualifier Based on the example above, the statement is not clear as there is no qualifier for the object, therefore a qualifier must be added to further clarify it.
NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS STANDARD (NOSS) DEVELOPMENT PROCESS The NOSS Development activities are shown in Figure 1 below. The details of the flowchart can be referred in Index 7. Process Product
Start Occupational Analysis (OA) Occupational Area Analysis (OAA) Job Analysis (JA) + Competency Analysis Competency Profile Analysis (CPA) SP Development Proofread and validation Develop CoCU CoCU Occupational Structure (OS) Occupational Area Structure (OAS) Competency Profile Chart (CPC) Competency Profile (CP) Standard Practice (SP)
Activity A: Activity B: Activity C: Activity D: Activity E: Activity F: Activity G: Activity H:
Proofread and validation
MPKK Approval End
Figure 1: NOSS Development Process Flowchart
3.1 Activity A – Occupational Analysis (OA) OA is a process of identifying the Industry Sector, Sub-sector, Job Area, Job Title and Level of an occupation based on information gathered from needs analysis or industries input. The product of this process is an Occupational Structure (OS) and Occupational Definition. Table 1 show the outcome of the OA activity which will be used for review in Standard development. Table 1: Example OS for Front office
SECTOR SUB SECTOR JOB AREA LEVEL LEVEL 5 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 3 GUEST SERVICE TELEPHONE OPERATION HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM FRONT OFFICE FRONT OFFICE SERVICE CONCIERGE RESERVATION
FRONT OFFICE MANAGER (FOM) ASSISTANT FRONT OFFICE MANAGER (AFOM) GUEST SERVICE OFFICER GUEST SERVICE ASSISTANT NO LEVEL TELEPHONIST SUPERVISOR TELEPHONIST NO LEVEL FRONT OFFICE SUPERVISOR FRONT OFFICE ASSISTANT NO LEVEL CONCIERGE MANAGER BELL SUPERVISOR BELL CAPTAIN DOORMAN RESERVATION MANAGER RESERVATION OFFICER RESERVATION CLERK NO LEVEL
LEVEL 2 LEVEL 1
3.2 Activity B – Occupational Area Analysis (OAA) OAA is a process of reviewing the Occupational Area from the OS to produce Occupational Area Structure (OAS) as illustrated in Table 2. The objective of OAA is to confirm the area which have similar in the competency’s among the Job titles. The outcome of the OAA is the merging of areas (horizontally) and levels (vertically) within the sector as shown in Table 2. This eventually results an effect of multi-skilling and multi-tasking due to sharing of competencies between areas and levels. Nevertheless in certain cases, due to requirement of industry or regulation, merging is not necessarily required. The following are example frequently ask questions that should be confirmed during the OAA session:1. For each job title identified, how the jobs can be clustered within the job area? 2. Determine the scope and parameter of each job area competencies. During OAA, job functions from related job title are being clustered base on the following factors;1. Current industry needs 2. Regulatory/ statutory body 3. Industry recognition 4. Relevancy between job area 5. Employability opportunity Table 2: Example OAS for Front office
SECTOR SUB SECTOR JOB AREA LEVEL LEVEL 5 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 1 GUEST SERVICE TELEPHONE OPERATION HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM FRONT OFFICE FRONT OFFICE SERVICE CONCIERGE RESERVATION
GUEST SERVICES MANAGEMENT GUEST SERVICES MANAGEMENT GUEST SERVICES OPERATION NO LEVEL NO LEVEL
Activity C - Job Analysis and Competency Analysis Session Job Analysis (JA) is a process of identifying the duties, tasks, job functions and responsibilities of an occupation. Then related tasks identified in JA are then being clustered to form the Competency Units (CU) in Competency Analysis session. A CU reflects a meaningful unit of work, which contains several activities to complete a work cycle. The outcome of the session is a list of CU’s to make the Competency Profile Chart (CPC). In normal practice, brainstorming technique among subject matter experts or practitioners is being applied. The outcome of the brainstorming session is best written on cards or printed paper and posted on walls to allow the panel members to have an overall visualisation of the competencies. Ensure exhaustive analysis of job profile has been done in order to ensure all related tasks are covered. In this guideline we present the development approach of building the Competency Profile Chart (CPC) for NOSS area of Beauty and Aesthetics Level 1. Figure 2 shows the task identified for a beautician to perform tasks in the area of Beauty and Aesthetics. Stage 1: List all duties, tasks, job functions and responsibilities of an occupation. CARRY OUT HAND AND NAIL ANALYSIS CARRY OUT WATER MANICURE CARRY OUT HOT OIL MANICURE CARRY OUT FINGER NAILS VARNISHING VERIFY MANICURE WORKS CARRY OUT FOOT AND NAIL ANALYSIS CARRY OUT WATER PEDICURE CARRY OUT HOT OIL PEDICURE CARRY OUT TOE NAILS VARNISHING VERIFY PEDICURE WORKS Stage 2: Cluster list duties, tasks, job functions and responsibilities of an occupation by similarity in process flow, complete work cycle, procedures, tools and equipment etc, according to level of complexity and responsibility as shown in Figure 2.
CARRY OUT FOOT AND NAIL ANALYSIS S CARRY OUT t HAND AND NAIL ANALYSIS a CARRY OUT WATER PEDICURE CARRY OUT WATER MANICURE CARRY OUT HOT OIL PEDICURE CARRY OUT HOT OIL MANICURE CARRY OUT TOE NAILS VARNISHING CARRY OUT FINGER NAILS VARNISHING VERIFY PEDICURE WORKS VERIFY MANICURE WORKS
Identified related tasks Not related tasks
Figure 2: Identify tasks, levelling and segregate the task according to level
Stage 3: Sequencing of the clustered duties, tasks, job functions and responsibilities of an occupation is shown in Figure 3.
CARRY OUT HAND AND NAIL ANALYSIS CARRY OUT WATER MANICURE CARRY OUT FINGER NAILS VARNISHING CARRY OUT FOOT AND NAIL ANALYSIS CARRY OUT WATER PEDICURE CARRY OUT TOE NAILS VARNISHING
MANICURE & PEDICURE SERVICES HT-050-4:2011-C01
Figure 3: Tasks clustering and naming CU title Stage 4: Determine the CU title as shown in Figure 3. Naming of CU title should reflect the overall clustered duties, tasks, job functions and responsibilities within the competency unit. Sort the CU into sequence from most important to less important competency for each group and level. The sequence the CU based on the following priority:i. Fundamentals of the CU in relative to other CU’s. Some CU’s within the CPC forms the basic competency to be trained. Thus, should be arranged first before followed up by more increasingly complex CU’s. This is in view to support continuity in training which start from basic competency before ongoing to the next more advance competency. Priority of the CU to job area CU’s which forms the most essential part of the job area is to be arrange first. Of such without the training of the CU conducted first, the overall training of other subsequent of CU will hamper overall training objectives. Such example are CU’s which are related to safety issues. This is in view to highlight safety practices first within the training before proceeding to other CU’s.
In sequencing the CU’s, arrange the CU’s from top left to bottom right as illustrated in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Sequencing the CU’s from top left to bottom right in the CPC Upon completing the list, the CU’s are then categorised into core and elective competency based on industrial needs. A full format of the CPC is shown in Index 9. CPC consist of core and elective competency units. Below are the definition of Core and Elective Competency Units: Core Competency Unit Core Competency unit is classified as generic and essential competencies required for a particular occupation. Elective Competency Unit Elective Competency unit is classified as related additional competencies and relevant to the particular occupation.
Activity D – COMPETENCY PROFILE ANALYSIS a. Developing work activities
Work Activities should fulfil the following criteria:Represents a complete cycle of work activities to produce an outcome with its starting point and ending point. The outcome maybe a product; service; or decision. Each work activity is observable and measurable which can be determined by the performance criteria’s. Work activities should follow work process sequence. In certain isolated cases, functional activities may be applied. Work activity statement consists of Verb, Object and Qualifier.
CARRY OUT HAND AND NAIL ANALYSIS
CARRY OUT WATER MANICURE
CARRY OUT FINGER NAILS VARNISHING
CARRY OUT FOOT AND NAIL ANALYSIS
CARRY OUT WATER PEDICURE
CARRY OUT TOE NAILS VARNISHING
Figure 5a: Tasks clustered and arrange in form of work activity
2. PREPARE MANICURE AND PEDICURE WORK AREA
Complete Work Cycle
3. EXECUTE MANICURE PROCEDURE 4. EXECUTE PEDICURE PROCEDURE 5. PERFOR M FINGERNAIL VARNISH 6. PERFORM TOE NAIL VARNISH 7. CHECK MANICURE AND PEDICURE ADVERSE REACTION 8. RECORD CLIENT SERVICE CARD
1. ANALYZE CLIENT NAIL & TOE NAIL CONDITION
Figure 5b: Tasks clustered is refined and reviewed with NOSS development panel experts to create sets of work activities which are dependent to form a process with start point and end point.
Performance Criteria Characteristic of Performance Criteria:Are explicit parts of objectives Should be based on specific performance targets Should be objective (verifiable by outside sources) Should indicate degrees of accomplishment Should be agreed to by major actors involved in the programme – managers, supervisor, field personal Performance Criteria explain how do we know when the work activities are performed well? The Performance Criteria must reflect the ability of the competency being done in a measurable or observable method. This is to ensure it can be used for work performance evaluation. The Performance Criteria is developed as shown in Table 3: Work activities Performance Criteria 1.1 The timing and sequence of individual survival actions are 1. Practice survival appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and techniques 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7
conditions of the emergency and minimize potential dangers and threats to other survivors Initial actions when boarding survival craft enhance chance of survival Jumps safely from a height into the water in accordance with established survival practice Swims while wearing a life-jacket and floats without a lifejacket in accordance with established survival practice Inverted life raft is righted while wearing a life-jacket in accordance with established survival practice Appropriate handling strategies are applied to maneuver survival craft in rough weather and sea conditions Sea anchors and drogues are deployed in accordance with accepted nautical practice
1.8 Signs of hypothermia are identified and treated in accordance with accepted survival medical practice 1.9 (Where applicable) exposure cover is deployed on survival craft in accordance with accepted survival practice and manufacturer's instructions 1.10 Relevant first aid is administered in survival craft 1.11 Rationing of food is in accordance with accepted survival practice Guide: . . Performance to measure . . Standard quality requirement Table 3: Developing Performance Criteria
Developing Competency Unit (CU) descriptor The CU Descriptor describes the synopsis of the competency unit on the outcomes/ objectives; process; condition/ range; standards; and/or regulation; and/or manual; pre-requisite; etc in order to carry out the competency successfully. The contents CU Descriptor must be elaborated as follows: Table 4: Developing Competency Unit (CU) descriptor
CU Descriptor Contents 1. CU Title (Extract from CU title)
CU Descriptor Template The CU title describes the competency in [CU Title].
Example The CU title describes the competency in Reception Activities Handling. He or She is the first person at the front office to greet, respond and direct a visitor, client or patient.
2. CU Definition (Define whole work process of competency unit) 3. Process/ work activity (Extract from unit works activities)
He or She [CU Definition]
The person who is competent in this CU shall be able to [Process/ work activity]
The person who is competent in this CU shall be able to carry out guest arrival activities, attend guest enquiries and needs, carry out bill settlement activities, carry out product sales activities, attend reservation needs, carry out filing arrangement and perform telephonist function to meet establishment requirement. The outcome of this competency is to provide excellent reception services to ensure guest satisfaction guaranteed, prompt action taken in accordance with company’s policy rules and regulation.
4. Objectives/ goal/ Standards; and/or regulation; and/or manual; 5. CU training prerequisite (If any)
The outcome of this competency is to [Objectives/ goal] in accordance with [Standards and/or regulation and/or manual] The personnel who are to be competent in this competency must in prior have the following competencies:i. [CU training pre-requisite]. 14
Activity E – STANDARD PRACTICE DEVELOPMENT The Standard Practice (SP) is an essential part before the standard can be run though the first phase of proofreading and validation. This is because NOSS consist of SP, CPC and CP to form the complete occupational Standard. The lists of SP content are as follows: Table 5: List of Standard Practice Contents Bil 1 Sub titles Introduction Contents 1.1 Occupation overview 1.2 Justification and rational of NOSS development 1.3 Regulatory / statutory body requirements for employment 1.4 Training programme pre-requisite 2.1 Occupational Structure 2.2 Occupational Area Structure 2.3 NOSS Occupational Area Structure and level justification 3.1 Competency level as defined by DSD (refer DSD to update as necessary) (Please refer Index 3 for format and definition) 4.1 Certification requirements award 5.1 List of core competencies 5.2 List of elective competencies 6.1 Working environment 6.2 Issues related to area of work (such as safety, environment) Malaysian market 7.1 Growth of sector/ sub sector/ area/ sub area in Malaysia 7.2 Employment opportunities in Malaysia 7.3 List of industry sector employers 7.4 Codes, standards and practices in area/ sub area in Malaysia International market (optional) 7.5 Growth of sector/ sub sector/ area/ sub area internationally 7.6 Employment opportunities internationally 15
Definition of competency level Malaysian Skill Certification Job competencies Work conditions
4 5 6
Training, industrial recognition, other qualification and advancement Sources of additional information Acknowledgement List of committee members
Contents 7.7 Codes, standards and practices in area/ sub area internationally 8.1 Industrial recognition/ professional qualification 8.2 Other prominent qualification recognised (in Malaysia or international) 8.3 Types of occupation for career advancement 8.4 Related industries 9.1 Local organisation (excluding DSD) 9.2 International organisation 10.1 List of organisation acknowledge 10.2 List of individual acknowledge 12.1 List of NOSS development panel expert, program manager, facilitator and secretariat
Note: Please refer SP example in Index 8.
Activity G - CURRICULUM OF COMPETENCY UNIT (COCU) DEVELOPMENT The development of the Curriculum of Competency Unit (CoCU) will be conducted based on the information in the CP. CoCU will detail out work activities into Related Knowledge; Related Skills; Attitude/ Safety/ Environmental; Delivery Mode; Training Duration; Assessment Criteria; Tools, Equipment and Material (TEM); References; also related Core Abilities and Social Skills. During development of CoCU, ensure exhaustive analysis has been done in order to ensure main elements of Related Knowledge, Applied Skills, Attitude/ Safety/ Environmental are covered. CoCU will standardise curriculum throughout different training organisations accredited by DSD. It will further guide the development of Written Instructional Material (WIM) and Assessment Material.
Identify related skills and related knowledge Related Knowledge Related Knowledge refer to the information that is needed to perform the Work Activities (what do you need to know in order to perform the Work Activities?). Each related knowledge; there may be more than one related skill as shown in Figure 7, and vice versa. Related Skills Related Skills refer to the abilities of workers which are required to complete the Work Activities (what skills do you need to perform the Work Activities?).
CU title: Prepare Manicure and Pedicure Work Area
Determine work sequence / process flow Arrangement of products tools, and material for pedicure and menicure Position tools, equipment and material for easy accessibility Keep tools, equipment and material hygienically
Figure 6: Identifying related skills and related knowledge examples
Develop attitude/ safety In identifying attitude, safety and environmental, it is advise to look into each related knowledge and related skill as related to aspects of attitude, safety and environment which involve in performing the work activities. Attitude Attitude involves how people react to certain situation and how they behave in general. Example: being able to get along with other people, being optimistic, analytical in analysing reports, concern on environmental friendly issues Safety Safety includes behaviour and safety precautions to be complied with when performing the CU. Example: handle hazardous materials with caution, display safety signage during repairing works
Atitude/ Safety/ Environmental
Assure client comfort and modesty during analysis.
CU title: Prepare Manicure and Pedicure Work Area
Identify hand, foot and nail analysis tools and material (e.g: magnifier, magnifying lamp, etc).
Hand, foot and nail analysis tools and material
Avoid conducting services on client and advise clients to consult from doctor upon detection of infectious diseases. Ensure implements are sterilised before and after use.
Figure 7: Identifying attitude, safety and environment example
Identify training duration Training hour(s) is the number of hours required for an average person to achieve a complete learning outcome by guided training (such as lecture, workshop training, laboratory training or field work), self learning (such as self reading, individual assignment, report writing) and assessment (theory and practical module assessment). 18
The ratio of training hours varies from 30% to 50% for theory training and 70% to 50% for practical training respectively. As a guide, the range of total training program hours based on level is shown below:Table 6: Range of total training program hours based on level
No 1 2 3 4 5 Level Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Range of Total Training Program Hours 400 - 600 400 - 600 800 - 1200 ≥ 1000 ≥ 1800
Develop assessment criteria An assessment criterion is a list of critical elements / range to be assessed in order to ensure expected competencies achieved. It means to focus on specific expectations of work activities. It is intended to measure the outcome of the learning process which is categorised into three (3) learning domains that are defined by Bloom’s Taxonomy i.e, Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective Domain. The assessment criterion facilitates the curriculum delivery strategies and assessment procedures. The word structure for the assessment criteria is in form of simple past tense. The simple past is used to describe an action, an event, or condition that occurred in the past, sometime before the moment of speaking or writing. Some assessment criteria needs to be add with constructive verb to give emphasize on the type of criteria.
Determine delivery mode Training delivery can be in the form of one delivery mode or a combination of delivery modes. Each type of delivery mode is different for knowledge and skill. The list of delivery modes is shown in Index 1.
Select core abilities Core abilities are selected as listed in Index 2. The core abilities are categorised base on level of competency. Thus, core abilities are assigned to a CU base on the competency level of the CPC. 19
Identify Tools, Equipment & Materials (TEM) TEM refers to a listing of tools, equipment and materials required to complete the CU successfully. It should include materials/supplies, special tools, equipment, safety gear, safety apparatus, SOP, Companies and Government Policies and regulations, manual, log and reports, etc.
Determine references References determined during CoCU development are identified and selected based on credibility of the source to be used later in training. Such credibility of reference is based on the following criteria:Table 7: References Criteria No 1 Reference criteria Prominent reference for related industry 1. Guide Renown source of reference among industry practitioners or trainers (ex: published manufacturer’s operating standard) Established references recognized by industry regulators or statutory bodies (ex: publish acts) Commendable source of reference mandated to industry from reputable international industry organisation (ex: ASME IX, BS ) Available internationally or within Malaysia market Available in printed hardcopy or softcopy Accessible be obtain or purchased The newest version of the reference in market.
Must be available in market
1. 2. 3. 1.
List of references are such as:i. Books ii. Manuals iii. Journal iv. Standard Operation Procedure v. Web site vi. Audio Visual Materials vii. Acts and Statutory Regulations
Writing hardcopy references American Psychological Association (APA) Format: Author's last name, first initial. Publication year. Book title Edition Number (Publish Number). City of Publish: Publisher. ISBN-EAN 13 Number.
Author's last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Title of the book. City: Publisher.
e.g. Meyer, E., & Smith, L. Z. (1987). The practical tutor. New York: Oxford University Press. Example of writing hardcopy references : 1. Brown, R. 1988. Topology: A Geometric Account of General Topology, Homotopy Types and the Fundamental Groupoid 3 (3). Chichester: Ellis Horwood Limited. ISBN-13: 978-3540265627 2. Ibn Hazm, Abu Muhammad cAli ibn Ahmad ibn Sacid. 1403H/1983. Jamharat Ansabal-carab. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-CIlmiyyah. ISBN-13: 978-3161484100
Writing electronic references American Psychological Association (APA) Format: Author's last name, first initial. Publication date. Topic headline. Book title Edition Number (Publish Number): Range of reference page. Website address without underline. [Date accessed: Time accessed]. Example of writing electronic references : 1. Clark, J.K. 1999. Humidity sensor. Journal of Physics http://www.cit.edu/phys/sensor.html [20 Julai 1999: 20.06pm]. 2(2): 9-13
2. Kawasaki, J.L. 1996. Computer administered surveys in extension. Journal of Extension 33(3): 204-210. http://www.apa.orgljoumals/webref.html [18 November 1999: 09.11am].
Training Hour Summary The training hour summary is enclosed at the final page of the NOSS package. The format is shown as follows:Table 8: Training hour summary SECTOR SUB SECTOR JOB AREA JOB LEVEL CU ID HT-0504:2011-C01 HT-0504:2011-C02 HT-0504:2011-C03 HT-0504:2011-C04 HT-0504:2011-C05 HT-0504:2011-C06 HT-0504:2011-C07 HT-0504:2011-E01 : : : : HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM HOUSEKEEPING HOUSEKEEPING MANAGEMENT FOUR (4) Competency Unit HOUSEKEEPING STAFF DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT HOTEL DECO AND AESTHETIC MANAGEMENT HOUSEKEEPING INVENTORY MANAGEMENT HOUSEKEEPING VENDOR ADMINISTRATION HOUSEKEEPING SPECIAL PROJECT ADMINISTRATION HOUSEKEEPING STAFF PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REVIEW HOUSEKEEPING GUEST SERVICES FLORAL ARRANGEMENT Total Training Program Hours Training Hour 120 240 120 120 240 120 120 120 2200
Proofreading Objective of the proof reading session is:- To ensure technical language errors being sought through and rectified. - To ensure language errors are rectified. - To ensure typographical errors are rectified. - To ensure formatting are rectified. Tips for proofreading can be referred in Index 5.
Activity F and Activity H – STANDARD AND CURRICULUM VALIDATION TO TECHNICAL EVALUATION COMMITTEE (TEC) In order to ensure NOSS content meet the industrial requirement, a committee is formed to validate the drafted NOSS content for endorsement. The committee is represented by related industrial experts throughout the country. On the other preference, validation can be extended by circulating the aforesaid NOSS to related industry nationwide for feedback. Figure 8 illustrates the arrangement for the session.
Legend DSD officer Chairman ( from DSD) NOSS development panel expert JPPK or appointed industry experts Facilitator Minute taker Company representative (if any) Projector
Figure 8: TEC Validation Session arrangement 3.8 Activity I - MPKK APPROVAL The verified and validated drafted National Occupational Skills Standard (NOSS) must be presented to the Majlis Pembangunan Kemahiran Kebangsaan (MPKK) for approval. The approved document then will become a NOSS for the respective occupational area.
NOSS DOCUMENT STRUCTURE The NOSS package comprises of: a) Occupational Standard i. Standard Practice (SP); ii. Standard Content (SC): Job Profile Chart (JPC); Competency Profile (CP); Curriculum - Curriculum of Competency Unit (CoCU) Training Hour Summary
TYPES OF TRAINING MODE DELIVERY
Knowledge delivery mode 1 Lecture In-person lecture to a large group of learners (>10pax) on a particular topic with limited interaction and practice 2 Group discussion Instructor introduces a topic for discussion to a small group of learners. Learner participates by exchanging views on the topic and report individually or as a group to instructor. 3 E-learning, selfTraining delivered electronically (e.g., computer-based via the paced Internet or with CD-ROMs) in which learner sets own learning pace. 4 E-learning, Instruction delivered electronically with an instructor or facilitated facilitator who sets the pace and/or offers interaction (e.g., webcasts or scheduled Internet instruction). 5 Case study or A specific problem is specified by the course instructor. Students Problem based work individually or in teams independent of instructor by over a learning (PBL) period of time to develop solutions to the problem in form of a report. 6 Self-paced Learner follows a course of study, setting own learning pace learning, non(e.g., with printed materials such as books or manuals, not via electronic the Internet). 7 One-on-one tutorial Instructor provides individual lecture in form of instruction to one learner on a particular topic with personal guidance. 8 Shop talk The instructor delivers conversation to a small group of learners (4-10 pax) about matters on a particular topic with limited interaction and practice. 9 Seminar In-person lecture to a large group of learners (>10pax) on a particular topic with limited interaction but without practice.
Skills delivery mode 1 Demonstration 2 Simulation
Scenario based training (SBT)
On job training (OJT)
In-person demonstration on a particular topic with limited interaction and practice Training is conducted using a virtual or imitation of a real-life process, usually via a computer or other technological device, in order to provide a lifelike experience, with or without guidance of the instructor. Learners are given project assignments to practice. They have a great deal of control of the project they will work on and what they will do in the project. The project may or may not address a specific problem. The instructor creates a real life environment with specific scenario for the learners to train to achieve specific training objectives. Uses a highly structured script of real world experiences. Different scenarios of risk and contingency are introduced to rationalize decisions and actions. Employee training at the place of work while he or she is doing the actual job. Usually a professional trainer (or sometimes an experienced employee) serves as the course instructor using hands-on training often supported by formal classroom training. Role-playing may also refer to role training where people rehearse situations in preparation for a future performance and to improve their abilities within a role. Coaching is helping to identify the skills and capabilities that are within the learner, and enabling them to use them to the best of their ability. The instructor shows to the audience on a particular activity. The learner is constricted to limited interaction to instructor. Mentoring is showing people how the people who are really good at doing something do it.
LIST OF CORE ABILITIES
CORE ABILITY – LEVEL 1
01.01 01.02 01.03 02 02.01 02.02 02.03 02.04 02.05
ABILITIES LOCATE AND PROCESS INFORMATION
Identify and gather information Document information, procedures or processes Utilize basic IT applications EXCHANGE/COMMUNICATE INFORMATION Interpret and follow manuals, instructions and SOP’s Follow telephone/ telecommunication procedures Communicate clearly Prepare brief reports and checklists using standard forms Read/interpret flowcharts and pictorial information
03.01 03.02 03.03 03.04 03.05 03.06 03.07
WORK AND INTERACT WITH PEOPLE
Apply cultural requirements to the workplace Demonstrate integrity and apply ethical practices Accept responsibility for own work and work area Seek and act constructively upon feedback about performance Demonstrate safety skills Respond appropriately to people and situations Resolve interpersonal conflicts
06.01 06.02 06.03 06.04
WORK WITHIN AND WITH SYSTEM
Understand systems Comply with and follow chain of command Identify and highlight problems Adapt competencies to new situations / systems
CORE ABILITY – LEVEL 2
01.04 01.05 01.06 02 02.06 02.07 02.08
ABILITIES LOCATE AND PROCESS INFORMATION
Analyze information Utilize the internet to locate and gather information Utilize word processor to process information EXCHANGE/COMMUNICATE INFORMATION Write memos and letters Utilize Local Area Network (LAN)/Internet to exchange information Prepare pictorial and graphic information
ABILITIES WORK AND INTERACT WITH PEOPLE
Develop and maintain a cooperation within work group
04.01 04.02 04.03 04.04 04.05
PLAN AND ORGANIZE WORK ACTIVITIES
Organize own work activities Set and revise own objectives and goals Organize and maintain own workplace Apply problem solving strategies Demonstrate initiative and flexibility
WORK WITHIN AND WITH SYSTEMS
Analyse technical systems Monitor and correct performance of systems
CORE ABILITY – LEVEL 3
01.07 01.08 01.09 01.10 01.11 02 02.09 02.10 02.11
ABILITIES LOCATE AND PROCESS INFORMATION
Utilize database applications to locate and process information Utilize spreadsheets applications to locate and process information Utilize business graphic application to process information Apply a variety of mathematical techniques Apply thinking skills and creativity EXCHANGE/COMMUNICATE INFORMATION Prepare flowcharts Prepare reports and instructions Convey information and ideas to people
03.09 03.10 03.11 03.12 03.13 03.14 03.15 03.16 03.17
WORK AND INTERACT WITH PEOPLE
Manage and improve performance of individuals Provide consultation and counselling Monitor and evaluate performance of human resources Provide coaching/on-the job training Develop and maintain team harmony and resolve conflicts Facilitate and coordinate teams and ideas Liase to achieve identified outcomes Identify and assess client/customer needs Identify staff training needs and facilitate access to training
PLAN AND ORGANIZE WORK ACTIVITIES
Allocate work Negotiate acceptance and support for objectives and strategies
Implement project/work plans
Inspect and monitor work done and/or in progress
WORK WITHIN AND WITH SYSTEM
Develop and maintain networks
CORE ABILITY – LEVEL 4
04.08 04.09 04.10 05 05.03 05.04 05.05 06 06.08
ABILITIES PLAN AND ORGANIZE WORK ACTIVITIES
Develop and negotiate staffing plans Prepare project/work plans Utilize science and technology to achieve goals MANAGE RESOURCES Allocate and record usage of financial and physical resources Delegate responsibilities and/or authority Coordinate contract and tender activities WORK WITHIN AND WITH SYSTEMS Identify and analyse effect of technology on the environment
LIST OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS PRESENTING- CRITERIA AND RESPONSIBILITIES
Presenting committee members Company representative
Criteria and responsibilities Ability to represent the NOSS development company to make management and operational decision. The appointed personnel is the person incharge and responsible for managing of the NOSS project. The appointed personnel have attended trough DSD’s tender/ project briefing. The appointed personnel must understand the needs of developing the NOSS. Represents the group of NOSS development panel experts A minimum of 5 year experience related in the job area Actively plays the main role during NOSS development session (Activity A to D) The appointed personnel must understand the needs of developing the NOSS in order to justify every detail of the content to the STEC committee. Heavily experience within the sector of industry particularly in the needs of the NOSS area. Appointed by NOSS Development Company during tender submission. Any amendments to facilitator must be approved by DSD through submission to the Director NOSS. The facilitator is the person in-charge and responsible for development of the NOSS. Appointed by NOSS Development Company. Experience in taking meeting minute
No. Of person If any, 1 person only
NOSS development panel expert
Minimum 2 person
1 person only
If any, 1 person only
Note: The list excludes TEC evaluation committee members
APPRECIATING ROLE OF THE FACILITATOR A facilitator is someone who helps a group of people understand their common objectives and assists them to plan to achieve them without taking a particular position in the discussion. Nevertheless, although he or she may not be a subject matter expert, appreciation of the subject matter is essential. During NOSS development the role of the facilitator are as follows:a. The facilitator priority is to managing and maintaining a group process. Thus the facilitator appointed by DSD must ensure that all activities relating to NOSS development must be in agreement with DSD’s policy. b. The facilitator is to help the group adhere to their ground rules and guidelines that bound the process they have agreed to use to achieve some end result. In this case he or she must ensure the contents and format of NOSS are develop according to DSD’s requirement. c. The facilitator must assist the group in achieving a consensus on any disagreements that pre-exist or emerge in the meeting so that it has a strong basis for future action. This is to ensure that the NOSS develop can be widely accepted by the industry and training centre. d. The facilitator is to harness group cohesiveness and creativity through uses a variety of facilitation strategies to assist the group in working their way through the decisionmaking process. e. The facilitator is to clarify the group’s mental model so that the group’s perception, stereotype, prejudice and blind spot which arises due to group thinking is feasibly filtered and highlighted. The appointed facilitator must at all time avoid controversial issues such as the following to ensure proper conduct of NOSS development workshop:a. b. c. d. e. Racism issues Sexism issues Nationalism issues Classism issues Religious issues
The list of issues are not only limited to the following but cover areas which are prone to discrimination resulting in hindrance of group thinking. Commonly, the facilitator appointed by DSD, will perform the following activities:a) b) c) d) Facilitation of NOSS development workshop. Ensure compliance of NOSS to DSD’s content and format. Lead the presenting team during NOSS validation session. Convey any issues pertaining NOSS development to DSD without delay.
TIPS FOR PROOFREADING
The facilitator is to investigate between the NOSS panel expert’s whether that the competencies which have tabled out are common or specific within their job area. Such strategies to investigate are as follows:1. To identify core competencies, all consensuses from panel NOSS development panel experts are needed for the CU. 2. To identify elective competencies the voting method can be employed. Before Proofread Session 1. Be sure to revise the larger aspects of the text. Don't make corrections at the sentence and word level if the text still needs to work on the focus, organization, and development of the whole paper, of sections, or of paragraphs. 2. Set the text aside for a while between writing and proofing. Some distance from the text will help see mistakes more easily. 3. Eliminate unnecessary words before looking for mistakes. 4. Know what to look for (refer Objective of the proof reading session) and make a list of mistakes you need to watch for. During Proofread Session 1. Work from a printout, not the computer screen. Some language mistake cannot be found using computer only. 2. Read out loud. This is especially helpful for spotting run-on sentences. Hear other problems that may not be detected when reading silently. 3. Use a blank sheet of paper to cover up the lines below the one you're reading. This technique keeps you from skipping ahead of possible mistakes. 4. Use the search function of the computer (using word processor software’s) to find mistakes which are likely to make. 5. If tendency to make many mistakes, check separately for each kind of error, moving from the most to the least important, and following whatever technique works best to identify the kinds of mistake. 6. But remember that a spelling checker won't catch mistakes with homonyms (e.g., "they're," "their," "there") or certain typos (like "he" for "the").
LIST OF NOSS GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT MEMBERS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.
EN. MOHD YAZID BIN. MOHD SALLEH EN. ABDUL HALIM BIN. HASAN PN. SITI HASMAH BINTI MUSTAPHA EN. MOHD FAISAL BIN AHMAD PN. MASHITAH BINTI ABD KADIR PN. SHARIDA BIN MOHD SHARIF EN. MOHD KHAIRI BIN NAYAN TN. HJ. MAHAZRUL B. KAMARRUDIN TN. HJ. ZAHARUDIN BIN ABDUL LATIF EN. JAILANI B. ABDULLAH PN. ROGAYAH BINTI SUPIAN PN. NORAZURI BT. YUSOF EN. MOHD AIDIL FITRI BIN AB. RAZAK EN. YUSNI AMIR BIN DAHLAN PN. HJH. KHADIJAH BINTI MOHD NOOR EN. MOHD SHAHROL @ SHUKOR BIN SALLEH TN. SYED MAHATHIR BIN SYED AZMAN SHAH EN. AHMAD AZRAN BIN RANAAI CIK NORASMIZA BT. AZMI EN. FAIZAL B. ABDUL MAJID EN. JEFRIZAIN BIN ABDUL RASID EN. RAGHU A/L THIYAGARAJAN CIK SALINA BT. YAHYA TN. HJ. RAZALEE BIN CHE ROS PN. ZETI AKHTAR BT. MOHAMAD EN. MOHD LUTFI BIN MOHD DARJAK EN. MOHD DIN B. ISMAIL CIK EDAYU BINTI ABIDIN EN. ABDUL AZIZ B. ABDUL WAHAB PN. FALIZA BT. FUDZIL
NOSS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FLOWCHART
OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE (OS)
Activity A – OCCUPATIONAL ANALYSIS
DEVELOP WORK ACTIVTIES
DEVELOP PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
REVIEW JOB AREA DEVELOP CU DESCRIPTOR
Activity D – COMPETENCY PROFILE ANALYSIS
REVIEW JOB LEVEL OCCUPATIONAL AREA STRUCTURE (OAS)
Activity B – OCCUPATIONAL AREA ANALYSIS
IDENTIFY TASK COMPETENCIES
DEVELOP STANDARD PRACTICE COMPONENTS
IDENTIFY TASK LEVEL (OPTIONAL) SEGREGATE TASKS ACCORDING TO LEVEL
STANDARD PRACTICE (SP)
Activity E – STANDARD PRACTICE DEVELOPMENT
Activity C – JOB ANALYSIS
VALIDATION BY TECHNICAL EVALUATION COMMITTEE (TEC)
Activity F – STANDARD VALIDATION
Standard Not Accpeted CU Available ENDORSE STANDARD PICK COMPETENCY UNIT B
CHECK CU IN DATABASE CU Not Avaliable CREATE COMPETENCY UNIT (CU)
SEQUENCE ALL CU Standard Accepted
COMPETENCY PROFILE CHART (CPC)
Figure 11a: NOSS Development Process Flowchart
IDENTIFY APPLIED SKILLS
IDENTIFY RELATED KNOWLEDGE
VALIDATION BY TECHNICAL EVALUATION COMMITTEE (TEC)
Activity H – CURRICULUM VALIDATION
DEVELOP ATITUDE/ SAFETY/ ENVIRONMENT
Curriculum NOT endorsed ENDORSE CURRICULUM Curriculum endorsed PRESENT NOSS FOR MPKK APPROVAL
IDENTIFY TRAINING DURATION
Activity I – MPKK APPROVAL
DETERMINE DELIVERY MODE
DEVELOP ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
LIST SOCIAL SKILLS
Activity G – CoCU DEVELOPMENT
SELECT RELATED CORE ABILITIES
IDENTIFY TOOLS, EQUIPMENT & MATERIAL (TEM)
CURRICULUM OF COMPETENCY UNIT (CoCU)
Figure 11b: NOSS Development Process Flowchart
SAMPLE OF STANDARD PRACTICE
NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL SKILLS STANDARD (NOSS) FOR; FLUX CORE ARC WELDING (FCAW) TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 3
1. INTRODUCTION Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals (such as steel, aluminium, brass, stainless steel etc.) or thermoplastics (plastic or polymer), by causing coalescence to form a permanent bond. The fabrication or sculptural process refers to building metal structures by cutting, bending, and assembling. They apply heat to metal pieces, melting and fusing them. They may work in a manual mode or in a semiautomatic mode, using machinery such as a wire feeder to help them perform tasks. In the domain of welding, arc welding is part of the welding types. Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct or alternating current and consumable or non- consumable electrode. The welding region is usually protected by some type of shielding gas, vapour, and/ or slag. Flux core arc welding (FCAW), are one of the many process in arc welding. Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW or FCA) is a semi-automatic or automatic arc welding process. FCAW requires a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode containing a flux and a constant-voltage or, less commonly, a constant-current welding power supply. An externally supplied shielding gas is sometimes used, but often the flux itself is relied upon to generate the necessary protection from the atmosphere. The process is widely used in construction because of its high welding speed and portability. A person who is competent in Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) is an individual who is trained in practising the core businesses of a welder and specializes in joining materials using FCAW process. This NOSS document shows the structured career path of Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel. It provides structured set of activities that enables a person who aspires to achieve competency in this particular occupation, ultimately enhancing him or her on a career in the welding industry. Standard Practice and Standard Content are part of NOSS document. The job areas being develop are based on the Occupational Area Analysis (OAA). This document covers the competency standard of Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) that is currently gaining priority in the welding industry. This is in support of the government initiatives for a higher income workforce towards making Malaysia a develop country
Pre-requisite Based on the workshop findings, it was decided that the minimum requirement for those interested to enrol this course are as follows: 17 years of age or older. Good eyesight. Medically and physically fit to meet strength, endurance and manual dexterity. Able to read, write and calculate. These pre-requisite is in line with minimum requirements set by Construction Industry development Board (CIDB) and Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH). With respect to the regulating bodies, the role is as follows: Construction Industry development Board (CIDB) As welding is an essential aspect of within the construction industry, the Board has taken the functions related to welding practices performed within the construction industry. Thus, functions of the Board as laid down under subsection 4 (1) of Act 520 are as follows: To promote and stimulate the development, improvement and expansion of construction industry; To advise and make recommendations to the Federal Government and the State Governments on matters affecting or connected with the construction industry; To promote, stimulate and undertake research into any matter related to the construction industry; To promote, stimulate and assist in the export of service related to the construction industry; To provide consultancy and advisory services with respect to the construction industry; To promote quality assurance in the construction industry; To initiate and maintain the construction industry information systems; To encourage the standardisation and improvement of construction techniques and materials; To provide, promote, review and coordinate training programmed organized by the public and private construction training centres for skilled construction workers and construction site supervisors; To accredit and register contractors and to cancel, suspend or reinstate the registration of any registered contractor; and To accredit and certify skilled construction workers and construction site supervisors. Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) As a regulatory body which enforces the occupational safety and health aspects in Malaysia, the role of DOSH is to study and review the policies and legislations of occupational safety and health. This in particular is enforced in risky occupations such as in the welding industry. The following acts are been enforced by DOSH: a) Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 and its regulations. b) Factories and Machinery Act 1967 and its regulations. c) Part of Petroleum Act 1984 (Safety Measures) and its regulations. d) Guidelines, codes of practice, circulars. With regard to the respective acts, DOSH comes forward to apply the functions as to: Conduct research and technical analysis on issues related to occupational safety and health at the workplace. Carry out promotional and publicity programs to employers, workers and the general public to foster and increase the awareness of occupational safety and health. Carry out promotional and publicity programs to employers, workers and the general public to foster and increase the awareness of occupational safety and health. Become a secretariat for the National Council regarding occupational safety and health
2. OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel comes under the sub-sector Welding Technology and Fabrication. Fig. 1.0 and Fig. 1.1 show the structured career path and area of Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel. The panel of experts had concluded that this job area starts from tier 3 due to requirement of significant range of varied work activities and performed in a variety of context, most of which are complex and non-routine. There is considerable responsibility and autonomy and control or guidance of others is often required. Where by some of the activities are non-routine and required individual responsibility and autonomy. To produce skilled workers in this industry, the needs for structured training are essential.
SECTOR SUB SECTOR JOB AREA JOB SUB AREA JOB LEVEL
L5 L4 L3 L2 L1 SMAW WELDER SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW)
MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT WELDING TECHNOLOGY AND FABRICATION ARC WELDING GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW) GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW)
WELDING ENGINEER WELDING COORDINATOR GMAW WELDER GTAW WELDER N/A N/A
Fig. 1.0 Occupational Structure for Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel
SECTOR SUB SECTOR JOB AREA JOB SUB AREA JOB LEVEL
L5 L4 L3 L2 L1 SMAW TECHNOLOGY SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW)
MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT WELDING TECHNOLOGY AND FABRICATION ARC WELDING GAS METAL ARC GAS TUNGSTEN WELDING ARC WELDING (GMAW) (GTAW) WELDING ENGINEERING WELDING COORDINATION GMAW TECHNOLOGY GTAW TECHNOLOGY N/A N/A FCAW TECHNOLOGY
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW)
Fig. 1.1 Occupational Area Structure for Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel
3. DEFINITION OF COMPETENCY LEVEL The NOSS is developed for various occupational areas. Candidates for certification must be assessed and trained at certain levels to substantiate competencies. Below is a guideline of each NOSS Level as defined by the Department of Skills Development, Ministry of Human Resources, Malaysia. Malaysia Skills Certificate Level 1: Competent in performing a range of varied work activities, most of which are routine and predictable. Competent in performing a significant range of varied work activities, performed in a variety of contexts. Some of the activities are non-routine and required individual responsibility and autonomy. Competent in performing a broad range of varied work activities, performed in a variety of contexts, most of which are complex and non-routine. There is considerable responsibility and autonomy and control or guidance of others is often required. Competent in performing a broad range of complex technical or professional work activities performed in a wide variety of contexts and with a substantial degree of personal responsibility and autonomy. Responsibility for the work of others and allocation of resources is often present. Competent in applying a significant range of fundamental principles and complex techniques across a wide and often unpredictable variety of contexts. Very substantial personal autonomy and often significant responsibility for the work of others and for the allocation of substantial resources features strongly, as do personal accountabilities for analysis, diagnosis, planning, execution and evaluation.
Malaysia Skills Certificate Level 2:
Malaysia Skills Certificate Level 3:
Malaysia Skills Diploma Level 4:
Malaysia Skills Advanced Diploma Level 5:
MALAYSIAN SKILL CERTIFICATION Candidates after being assessed and verified and fulfilled Malaysian Skill Certification requirements shall be awarded with Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia (SKM) for Level 3.
5. JOB COMPETENCIES The Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel are competent in performing the following core competencies:Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW)) For Fillet All Position, 1G And 2G Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) For 3G And 4G Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW)) For 5G And 6G Optionally, the Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology (Level 3) personnel are competent in performing the following elective competencies:Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) 1G Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) 6GR 6. WORKING CONDITIONS The Flux Core Arc Welding (FCAW) Technology personnelshould be able to concentrate on detailed work for long periods and be able to bend, stoop, and weld in awkward positions. They may work outdoors, and must wear special clothing—safety shoes, gloves, and goggles, face shields or hoods, dust mask—to protect self from the intense light created by arcs, hazardous fumes, and spark burns. The individual must obtain Permit To Work (PTW) from employers to ensure safe working condition. In order to be employed at work, the individual need to be qualified by the employer via Welder Qualification Test (WQT). Good eyesight is needed for visual inspection to check welding condition. 7. EMPLOYMENT PROSPECTS 7.1 Malaysian Market Ahead of 2011, the drive for Malaysian welding market is mainly driven by foreign investments and competition in the manufacturing industry spearheaded by various Government Link Company’s (GLC’s) with support from local welding and inspection contractors. Thus, markets for welding market in Malaysia are poised to grow in the near future. With the Government allowing 100 percent foreign investment, the country is set to become a manufacturing hotspot attracting a lot of foreign capital. As a result, increased manufacturing activities and construction-related projects are expected to bring about a rise in demand for competent welders. Nevertheless current practice shows appointments of competent welders within construction domain are dominantly appointed on project basis. This resulted in most competent welder’s personnel within the construction domain to practice freelancing. Major legislative changes and the ensuing flood of competition from foreign welders bode well for the Malaysian market. Local competent welders will need to upgrade their competencies to remain competitive,
while foreign companies are looking at establishing their manufacturing facilities and capabilities locally, as Malaysia promises to be a high-growth market. As opposed to the construction industry prospect, an increase in demand from the automotive sector which is the biggest end-user of welding equipment will harness sustainable employment demand for the job area. This is due to domestic car manufacturers modernize their production processes as well as increase capacity in a bid to overcome foreign competition. The spill over effects from other sectors benefiting from an increase in investment is also likely to boost the demand for welding equipment and consumables, says the analyst of this research service1. In return, this supports growth in demand for the competent welders. The growth brought about by an increase in foreign investment is also likely to encourage developments in welding technology as foreign companies are expected to have higher requirements for welding equipment. As in most emerging markets, product segments involving arc welding dominate the welding equipment and consumables markets in Malaysia, accounting for 74.0 percent of the total market revenues in 2005. This data presents that competencies in arc welding is the common process practiced within the welding industry in emerging markets such as Malaysia. Virtually every manufacturing industry needs welding expertise, with related industries with respect to employment opportunities are: Oil and Gas Boilers and Pressure vessels Shipbuilding Construction Heavy equipment Industrial machinery Aerospace Automotive Vocational training
Frost & Sullivan, [February 2006]
7.2 International Market The Malaysian welding equipment and consumables market is relatively small compared to the sheer market of Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and developed countries, registering only RM270.6 million2 in revenues in 2005. Analogously, this presents the limited job market for the competent welders for further carrier growth. Compared to the size of the country’s economy, this market is rather small, perhaps due to limited demand from traditional welding-intensive industries. Tense competition between local and foreign welders within the realm (especially construction) has result an out flux of local welding expertise to internationalise. Thus, the gaining of international standards and recognition through certification or other methods suitable is essential to the welding technology personnel to ensure future career growth. These custodians to the standards and recognition are such as: American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) American Welding Society (AWS) American Petroleum Institute (API) British Standard (BS) British Standard European Norm (BSEN) International Standards Organisation (ISO). 8. TRAINING, INDUSTRIAL/PROFESSIONAL RECOGNITION, OTHER QUALIFICATIONS AND ADVANCEMENT As for career advancement, most competent welders learn their craft on the job. They usually begin as qualified welders and gradually learn their new skills as they gain experience. Further certification may increase their chances of career advancement. Thus with additional formal training/education and certification, this experience competent welders can advance to become a certified welding inspector and welding engineer. 9. SOURCES OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 9.1. Local Construction Industry development Board (CIDB) Tingkat 7, Grand Seasons Avenue, 72, Jalan Pahang, 53000 Kuala Lumpur Tel: 603-2617 0200 Fax: 603-2617 0220 Email: email@example.com Web: http://www.cidb.gov.my Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) Ministry of Human Resource, Level 2, 3 & 4, Block D3, Complex D Federal Government Administrative Centre 62530 W. P. Putrajaya Tel: 603 - 8886 5000 Fax: 603 - 8889 2443 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.dosh.gov.my
3.7800, Bank Negara Exchange Rates Historical Lookup:1-3 http://www.bnm.gov.my [30 December 2005: 20.11pm]
Department of Standards Malaysia (Standards Malaysia) Century Square, Level 1 & 2, Block 2300, Jalan Usahawan, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia Tel: 603-8318 0002 Fax: 603-8319 3131 Email: email@example.com Web: http://www.standardsmalaysia.gov.my SIRIM Berhad No. 1, Persiaran Dato' Menteri, Seksyen 2, Peti Surat 7035, 40700 Shah Alam Selangor Darul Ehsan Tel: 603-55446000 Fax: 603-55108095 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.sirim.my 9.2. International American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Three Park Avenue New York, NY 10016-5990 United States of America Tel: 973-882-1170 Fax: 973-882-1717 Email: email@example.com Web: http://www.asme.org American Petroleum Institute (API) 1220 L Street, NW Washington, DC 20005-4070 United States of America Tel: 202-682-8000 Fax: Email: Web: http://www.api.org American Welding Society (AWS) 550 N.W. LeJeune Road, Miami, Florida 33126 United States of America Tel: 800-443-9353 Fax: Email: Web:http://awsnow.org American National Standard Institute (ANSI) 1899 L Street, NW, 11th Floor Washington, DC, 20036 United States of America Tel: 202-293-8020 Fax: 202-293-9287 Email: Web:http://www.ansi.org/
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, United States of America Tel: 610-832-9500 Fax: 610-832-9555 Email: Web: http://www.astm.org British Standards International (BSI) Group 389 Chiswick High Road, London, W4 4AL, United Kingdom Tel: 44-20-8996-9001 Fax: 44-20-8996-7001 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.bsigroup.com International Organization for Standardization ISO Central Secretariat, 1, ch. de la Voie-Creuse, CP 56, CH-1211, Geneva 20, Switzerland Tel: 41-22-749 01 11 Fax: 41-22-733 34 30 E-mail: email@example.com Web: http://www.iso.org International Labour Organisation (ILO) 4 route des, Morillons, CH-1211,Geneva 22, Switzerland Tel: 41-22-799-6111 Fax: 41-22-798-8685 Website: www.ilo.org E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The Director General of DSD would like to extend his gratitude to the organisations and individuals who have been involved in developing this standard.
COMMITTEE MEMBERS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD PRACTICE (SP), COMPETENCY PROFILE CHART (CPC), COMPETENCY PROFILE (CP) AND CURRICULUM OF COMPETENCY UNIT (CoCU)
FLUX CORE ARC WELDING (FCAW) TECHNOLOGY LEVEL 3
PANEL EXPERTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 En. Mohd Herman Bin Rosli En. Mansor Bin Ibrahim En. Awaldin Bin Mohd Arif En. Azaddin Bin A. Aziz En. Lokman Bin Zakaria En. Hamzah Bin Mohamed Kasa En. Zahidi Bin Zainuddin En. Wan Yusof Bin Wan Hasan En. Mohd Ali Bin Moh Salleh En. Mohd Sufie Bin Mohamed En. Mohd Ali Man Shah Bin Abu Samah Johor State Occupational Safety and Health officer Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) Technical Instructor Malaysia Marine And Heavy Engineering Sdn Bhd (MMHE) Managing Director Industrial Testing & engineering Inspection Sdn Bhd QA/QC and HSE Senior Manager 1 Sime Darby Engineering Sdn Bhd QA and Risk Manager MISC Sdn Bhd, Training Manager Welding Inspection TWI Training & Certification (S.E. Asia) Sdn. Bhd, Welding Operations Officer Akademi Bina Malaysia, CIDB Welding Operations Officer Akademi Bina Malaysia, CIDB Welding Specialist Time Temasek Sdn Bhd Welding Specialist Time Temasek Sdn Bhd Welding Specialist Time Temasek Sdn Bhd FACILITATORS 1 2 3 4 En. Syed Mahathir Bin Syed Azman Shah En. Ahmad Azran Bin Ranaai Tn. Hj. Razalee Bin Che Ros En. Mohd Lutfi Bin Mohd Darjak Assistant Director JPK, Cyberjaya, Selangor Assistant Director JPK, Cyberjaya, Selangor Senior Skills Development Officer JPK, Cyberjaya, Selangor Senior Skills Development Officer JPK, Cyberjaya, Selangor
COMPETENCY PROFILE CHART (CPC)
SECTOR SUB SECTOR JOB AREA JOB LEVEL
HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM HOUSEKEEPING HOUSEKEEPING MANAGEMENT FOUR (4) JOB AREA CODE
Sector of the Job Area Sub Sector of the Job Area Job Area describes Job Function Unique ID for Job Area Level of Competency
HOUSEKEEPING STAFF DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT
HOTEL DECO AND AESTHETIC MANAGEMENT
HOUSEKEEPING INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
HOUSEKEEPING VENDOR ADMINISTRATION
Competency Unit Type
HOUSEKEEPING SPECIAL PROJECT ADMINISTRATION
HOUSEKEEPING STAFF PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND REVIEW
HOUSEKEEPING GUEST SERVICES
Competency Unit ID [Sector Code-Subsector Code-Level-Year of Approval-Core/elective, CU Number]
46 Figure 12: Example of a Competency Profile Chart
COMPETENCY PROFILE (CP)
COMPETENCY PROFILE (CP)
Sub Sector Job Area Level CU Title
1. Reception activities handling
FRONT OFFICE GUEST SERVICES OPERATION Three (3) CU Code CU Descriptor CU Work Activities Performance Criteria
1.1 Reception activities are handled with guest preferences and in accordance with company policies. 2.1 Arrival activities prepared in accordance with rooming list. 3.1 Guest arrival activities are handled, Malaysian value and culture, grooming are applied accordance with company policies. 4.1 Guest enquiries and needs answered in accordance with company policies. 5.1 Bill settlement activities are managed as per payment term in accordance with company policies. 6.1 Product sales activities explained to guest in accordance with company policies.
The CU title describes the 1. Identify reception activities competency in Reception Activities handling requirement Handling. He or She is the first person at the front office to greet, respond and direct a visitor, client or patient. 2. Prepare arrival activities The person who is competent in this CU shall be able to carry out guest arrival activities, attend guest 3. Carry out guest arrival enquiries and needs, carry out bill activities settlement activities, carry out product sales activities, attend reservation needs, carry out filing arrangement and perform telephonist function to meet 4. Attend guest enquiries and establishment requirement. needs The outcome of this competency is to provide excellent reception 5. Carry out bill settlement services to ensure guest satisfaction activities guaranteed, prompt action taken.
6. Carry out product sales activities
CU Work Activities
7. Attend reservation needs
7.1 Reservation needs handled in accordance with company policies. 8.1 Filing arrangement managed in accordance with company policies. 9.1 Telephonist function performed in accordance with company policies. 10.1 Reception activities handling effectiveness evaluated in accordance with company policies.
8. Carry out filing arrangement
9. Perform telephonist function
10. Evaluate reception activities handling effectiveness 11. Produce
CURRICULUM OF COMPETENCY UNIT (CoCU) CURRICULUM of COMPETENCY UNIT (CoCU)
Sub Sector Job Area Competency Unit Title FRONT OFFICE GUEST SERVICES OPERATION RECEPTION ACTIVITIES HANDLING
The person who is competent in this CU shall be able to provide excellent reception services to ensure guest satisfaction guaranteed, prompt action taken. Upon completion of this competency unit, trainees will be able to:Identify reception activities handling requirement Prepare arrival activities Carry out guest arrival activities Attend guest enquiries and needs Learning Outcome Carry out bill settlement activities Attend reservation needs Carry out filing arrangement Perform telephonist function Evaluate reception activities handling effectiveness Produce reception activities report. Training Competency Unit ID Level 3 240 Hours Credit Hours Duration Attitude / Safety / Training Delivery Assessment Work Activities Related Knowledge Related Skills Environmental Hours Mode Criteria 1 Identify i. Definition of hospitable 4 hours Lecture i. Establishment/ reception and its elements such accommodation activities as: provider’s handling products and Grooming requirement services manual Body language interpreted Voice intonation ii. Reception ii. Establishment/accommo activities dation provider’s workflow products and services determined manual iii. Guest iii. Reception activities
Related Knowledge workflow iv. Types of guest such as: Frequent Independent Travellers (FIT) Corporate Group Independent Travellers (GIT) Meeting, Incentive, Convention and Exhibition (MICE) Royal/ public figures v. Types of products and services such as: Business centre F&B outlets Accommodations Health & Wellness Club Entertainment outlets Baby sitter Special need services (OKU) vi. Types of guest’s preferences Food preference (Vegetarian, Kosher) Smoking/Non Smoking floor Ladies floor Room views vii. Types of room rates Published/Rack
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
Assessment Criteria requirement & preferences determined
Related Knowledge Day use Corporate Government Travel Agent Convention Promotional Seasonal
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
i. Obtain establishment/accomm odation provider’s products and services manual ii. Interpret establishment/accomm odation provider’s products and services manual iii. Determine reception activities workflow iv. Determine guest requirement & preferences.
Attitude: i. Meticulous in identifying reception activities handling
Demonstration & Observation
Work Activities 2 Prepare arrival activities
Related Knowledge i. Types of Property Management System (PMS) such as Fidelio Opera IFCA ii. Function, features and usage of Property Management System iii. Types of room status/code such as Vacant Clean (VC) Vacant Dirty (VD) Vacant Clean Inspection (VCI) Occupied Clean (OC) Occupied Dirty (OD) Occupied Clean Inspection (OCI) Out of Order (OOO) Do Not Disturb (DND) Under Repair (UR) iv. Types of room such as Standard Superior Deluxe Junior/Executive/Pre sidential/Royal Suite Club Floor Studio Cabana One/Two/Three
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
Training Hours 7 hours
Delivery Mode Lecture
Assessment Criteria i. Individual password logged in ii. Room status and expected arrival against rooming list checked iii. Available room to expected guests assigned iv. Room rates against confirmed booking checked v. Mode of payment checked
Related Knowledge Bedroom Apartment v. Modes of payment Cash Credit/Debit Card Letter of Undertaking Local Order Purchase Order Letter of Authorisation Company’s Cheque Travellers Cheque
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
i. Log in individual password ii. Check room status and expected arrival against rooming list iii. Assign available room to expected guests iv. Check room rates against confirmed booking v. Check mode of payment Attitude: i. Knowledgeable and meticulous in preparing arrival activities
Demonstration & Observation
Work Activities 3 Carry out guest arrival activities
Related Knowledge i. Establishment’s meet and greet practice ii. Guest’s reservation profile verification process Reservation/ booking number Checking of passport/I.C Travel agent voucher iii. Method of deposit collection iv. Procedure of issuing room key/card
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
Training Hours 7 hours
Delivery Mode Lecture
i. Comply with establishment’s meet and greet practice ii. Verify guest’s reservation profile iii. Collect cash deposit/credit card verification iv. Issue room key/card and remind guest on standard departure time and establishment’s facilities. v. Rooming the guest Attitude: i. Hospitable in
Demonstration & Observation
Assessment Criteria Establishment’s meet and greet practice complied Guest’s reservation profile verified Cash deposit/credit card verification collected Room key/card and remind guest on standard departure time and establishment’s facilities issued
Attitude / Safety / Environmental meet and greet guest ii. Responsible and accountable in receiving guest deposit iii. Guest information confidentiality Safety: i. Adhere to safety requirement
Attend guest enquiries and needs
Types of guest enquiries and needs such as Direction/Location Online facilities Extra bed Baby cot Guest supplies Special request Techniques to respond and fulfil guest enquiries and needs i. Determine types of guest enquiries and needs ii. Respond to guest enquiries and fulfil
i. Types of guest enquiries and needs determined ii. Guest enquiries responded and guest needs fulfilled iii. Guest request followed up
Demonstration & Observation
Related Skills guest needs iii. Coordinate with related department on guest needs iv. Follow up with related department and guest on guest request
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
Attitude: i. Responsible and quick response in attending guest enquiries and needs ii. Diplomatic in attending guest enquiries and needs Safety: i. Adhere to safety requirement 5 Carry out bill settlement activities i. Verification of guest profile ii. Types of guest charges such as Early check-in/ late check-out Mini bar Laundry Room service Food and beverages Internet/Phone Business Centre Spa 7 hours Lecture i. Room key/card collected ii. Guest profile verified iii. Guest folio checked and guest charges confirmed iv. Deposit receipt requested v. Mode of payment confirmed and check out folio
Related Skills i. Collect room key/card ii. Verify guest profile iii. Check guest folio and confirm guest charges iv. Request for deposit receipt v. Confirm mode of payment and generate check out folio vi. Collect payment and refund guest’s deposit if any
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
Training Hours 17 hours
Delivery Assessment Mode Criteria Demonstration generated & vi. Payment Observation collected and guest’s deposit refunded if any
Attitude: i. Meticulous and detail in handling bill settlement activities ii. Responsible and accountable in handling bill settlement activities 6 Carry out product sales activities i. Up selling techniques of rooms’ category and other products and services such as Communication skills Product knowledge Selling techniques Willingness to sell 7 hours Lecture i. Room availability checked ii. Suggestive selling executed iii. Related department coordinated on confirmed suggested products or
Related Skills i. Check room availability ii. Up sell room category iii. Execute suggestive selling iv. Coordinate with related department on confirmed suggested products or services
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
Training Hours 17 hours
Delivery Mode Demonstration & Observation
Assessment Criteria services
Attitude: i. Creative and knowledgeable in up selling rooms and other services
Attend reservation needs
i. Types of reservation sources Phone calls Fax Email Internet booking Walk-in ii. Guest’s reservation needs check-in/check-out date room preference number of guest room rate iii. Guest’s personal details Guest’s name
i. Guest’s reservation needs obtained ii. Guest’s personal details obtained iii. Guest’s reservation status confirmed
Related Knowledge Contact details Contact person Company’s name Country of origin Address Nationality Gender iv. Confirmation of guest’s reservation status Guaranteed reservation Non-guaranteed reservation v. Types of reservation status Confirmed Definite Tentative No show Cancel
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
i. Determine reservation sources ii. Obtain guest’s reservation needs iii. Obtain guest’s personal details iv. Confirm guest’s reservation status Attitude: i. Hospitable in meet and greet guest ii. Responsible and
Attitude / Safety / Environmental accountable in attending reservation needs
Carry out filing arrangement
i. Filing system Online filing Manual filing ii. Filing index i. Determine filing system ii. Collate guest’s services documents iii. Store files according to index Attitude: i. Meticulous and detail in filing guest’s services documents Safety: i. Adhere to safety requirement
i. Filing system determined ii. Guest’s services documents collated iii. Files stored according to index
Perform telephonist function
i. Interpretation of caller’s request such as Enquiries Reservation Complain Prank calls Emergency ii. Communication skills iii. Techniques of answering phone call
i. Establishment’s meet and greet practice complied ii. Caller’s request interpreted iii. Internal/ external call transferred to respective department/ room
Related Skills i. Comply with establishment’s meet and greet practice ii. Interpret caller’s request iii. Transfer internal/ external call to respective department/ room
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
Training Hours 17 hours
Attitude: i. Hospitable in meet and greet guest ii. Knowledgeable and responsible in performing telephonist function
10 Evaluate reception activities handling effectiveness
i. Guest satisfaction level on delivered services ii. Numbers of complain on guest services handling iii. Product sales activities effectiveness iv. Numbers of sold product v. Payment accuracy i. Assess guest satisfaction level on delivered services ii. Check numbers of complain on guest services handling
Guest satisfaction level on delivered services assessed ii. Numbers of complaint on guest services handling checked iii. Product sales activities effectiveness assessed iv. Numbers of sold
Related Skills iii. Assess product sales activities effectiveness iv. Check numbers of sold product v. Assess payment accuracy
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
Assessment Criteria product checked v. Payment accuracy assessed
Attitude: i. Knowledgeable and meticulous in evaluating reception activities handling effectiveness
11 Produce reception activities report
i. Report writing skills ii. Procedures to write reception activities report iii. Format of reports iv. Communication and presentation skill i. Determine procedure to write reception activities report ii. Determine format of reports iii. Write reception activities report iv. Present reception
i. Procedure to write reception activities report determined ii. Format of reports determined iii. Reception activities report wrote iv. Reception activities report presented to superior
Related Skills activities report to superior
Attitude / Safety / Environmental
Attitude: i. Knowledgeable and meticulous in reporting reception activities
Employability Skills Core Abilities 01.01 01.02 01.03 02.01 02.02 02.03 02.04 02.05 03.01 03.02 03.03 03.04 Identify and gather information. Document information procedures or processes. Utilize basic IT applications. Interpret and follow manuals, instructions and SOP's. Follow telephone/telecommunication procedures. Communicate clearly. Prepare brief reports and checklist using standard forms. Read/Interpret flowcharts and pictorial information. Apply cultural requirement to the workplace. Demonstrate integrity and apply practical practices. Accept responsibility for own work and work area. Seek and act constructively upon feedback about work performance. Social Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Communication skills Conceptual skills Interpersonal skills Learning skills Leadership skills Multitasking and prioritizing Self-discipline Teamwork
Core Abilities 03.06 03.07 06.01 06.02 06.03 06.04 01.04 01.05 01.06 02.07 03.08 04.01 04.02 04.03 04.04 04.05 01.07 01.08 01.10 01.11 02.09 02.10 02.11 03.09 03.12 03.13 03.14 03.15 03.16 04.06 04.07 05.01 05.02 Respond appropriately to people and situations. Resolve interpersonal conflicts. Understand systems. Comply with and follow chain of command. Identify and highlight problems. Adapt competencies to new situations/systems. Analyse information. Utilize the Internet to locate and gather information. Utilize word processor to process information. Utilize Local Area Network (LAN)/Intranet to exchange information. Develop and maintain a cooperation within work group. Organize own work activities. Set and revise own objectives and goals. Organize and maintain own workplace. Apply problem solving strategies. Demonstrate initiative and flexibility. Utilize database applications to locate a process information. Utilize spreadsheets applications to locate and process information. Apply a variety of mathematical techniques. Apply thinking skills and creativity. Prepare flowcharts. Prepare reports and instructions. Convey information and ideas to people. Manage and improve performance of individuals. Provide coaching/on-the-job training. Develop and maintain team harmony and resolve conflicts. Facilitate and coordinate teams and ideas. Liase to achieve identified outcomes. Identify and assess client/customer needs. Allocate work. Negotiate acceptance and support for objectives and strategies. Implement project/work plans. Inspect and monitor work done and/or in progress.
Tools, Equipment and Materials (TEM) ITEMS 1. Reservation list 2. Rooming list 3. Room tariff list 4. Guest Profile 5. Room key/card 6. Guest request form 7. Credit card/ credit card terminal 8. Calculation tool 9. Computer 10. Printer 11. Property Management System (PMS) 12. Telephone system 13. Stationery 14. Front office SOP RATIO (TEM : Trainees) 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:5 1:5 1:30 1:30 1:1 1:1
REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sudhir Andrews (2009), Hotel Front Office Training Manual, Mc Graw Hill, ISBN:978-0-07-065570-6 Ahmad Ismail (2002), Front Office Operations & Management, Thomson Delmar, ISBN:0-7668-2343-1 James A. Bardi (2007), Hotel Front Office Management (5th Edition), John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 978-0-470-63752-4 Denney G.Rutherford & Michael J.O’Fallon (2007), Hotel Management & Operations, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 978-0471-47065-6 Sue Baker, Jeremy Huyton &Pam Bradley (2009), Principle of Hotel Front Office Operations, South Western Cengage Learning, ISBN: 978-1844480-090-2 Betty A.Kildow (2001), Front Desk Security & Safety, AMACOM, ISBN: 0-8144-0826-5
LIST OF DOCUMENT CHANGES
No Changes made since 1st Edition, Changes made April 2012 1 Version 1.01, 27 Jun 2012 1. Change content of “Table 3: Developing Performance Criteria”, update Performance Criteria writing method, Page 13. 2. Change content of “Table 4: Developing Competency Unit (CU) descriptor” ,update CU pre-requisite writing method, Page 14 3. Change content of “Table 6: Range of total training program hours based on level”, update word “Minimum of total training program hours” to “Range of total training program hours “, Page 19
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