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beta version, 29th April 2009 Karsten Schlesier (Dipl.Ing.)
for use at Addis Abeba University only!
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Faculty of Technology
Department of Civil Engineering
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Faculty of Technology
Department of Civil Engineering Strength of Materials 2009
Calendar Semester II 2009
week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Date 13.04. – 17.04. 20.04. – 24.04. 27.04. – 01.05. 04.05. – 08.05. 11.05. – 15.05. 18.05. – 22.05. 25.05. – 29.05. 01.06. – 05.06. 08.06. – 12.06. 15.06. – 19.06. 22.06. – 26.06. 29.06. – 03.07. 06.07. – 10.07. 13.07. – 17.07. 20.07. – 24.07. 27.07. – 31.07. Chapter Content Introduction to SOM Stress  Axial Load Stress / Strain  Axial Load Strain  Axial Load Bending of Beams Bending of Beams Lab Sessions / videos MidSemester Exam Shear in Beams Torsion Analysis of plane Stress Deflection of Beams Stability of Compression Members Final Exam
1 1/2 2 3 3
4 5 6 7 8
Course Outline
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Stress – Axial Loads Normal Stress, Shearing Stress, Transformation of Stress, Concept of Design Strain – Axial Loads Strain, StressStrain Diagram, Hooke’s Law, Deflection under Axial Load, Material Properties Bending of Beams Stress due to pure Bending, Moment of Inertia, Stress Distribution, Design of Beams Shear in Beams Shearing Stress in members due to Bending Torsion Moment of Torsion, Shearing Stresses and Deformations of Circular Shafts Analysis of plane Stress Compound Stresses, Combined Stresses, Transformation of Stress, Mohr’s Circle Deflection of Beams Deflection of members due to Bending Stability of Compression Members Euler Formula, Buckling Load, Buckling Analysis
Assessment / Requirements
Attendance is compulsory during lecture hours, tutorials and practical work sessions (except for unpredicted mishaps). Quota of Total Course Credit: 40% midsemester examination 60% finalsemester examination
Literature / Teaching Material
Popov, E.P., Mechanics of Materials; Beer and Johnson, Mechanics of Materials, 2001; Gere and Timoshenko, Mechanics of Materials, 1990 Course Information: www.elboon.net elearning board online
1
Strength of Materials
Lecture Notes
Index
1 Stress – Axial Loads Normal Stress, Shearing Stress, Transformation of Stress, Concept of Design 2 Strain – Axial Loads Strain, StressStrain Diagram, Hooke’s Law, Deflection under Axial Load, Material Properties 3 Bending of Beams Stress due to pure Bending, Moment of Inertia, Stress Distribution, Design of Beams 4 Shear in Beams Shearing Stress in members due to Bending 5 Torsion Moment of Torsion, Shearing Stresses and Deformations of Circular Shafts 6 Analysis of plane Stress Compound Stresses, Combined Stresses, Transformation of Stress, Mohr’s Circle 7 Deflection of Beams Deflection of members due to Bending 8 Stability of Compression Members Euler Formula, Buckling Load, Buckling Analysis
2
11
22
31
38
46
56
60
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Strength of Materials
1 Stress
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1 Stress
By setting up the equilibrium conditions, the inner forces of a member subjected to an external load situation can be determined. So far neither the material nor the type of cross section applied for the member are being taken into account. But both material and type of cross section obviously have an impact on the behaviour of the member subjected to load. To design the member therefore a closer look on how the internal forces act along its cross section needs to be taken. 1.1 Normal Stress – Axial Loading Within this part of the chapter the internal forces are limited to only axial forces (normal forces) acting along the centroidal axis of a member.
F
F
plane of cut
ΔF A
ΔA
σ
A
A
a)
F
b)
F
c)
d)
F
fig 1.11: axially loaded rod
A suspended rod is subjected to an axial load. The free body diagram in external equilibrium is shown in fig. 1.11a. The rod is cut perpendicular to its axis at any arbitrary distance from its ends and the equations of equilibrium are applied on the part. Thus the internal force found acting normal to the cut surface (area A) is of equal amount but opposite direction of the applied external force (fig. 1.11b). Consider the normal force to equally act on any particle ΔA of the cut surface A (fig. 1.11c). F ΔF = A ΔA
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The intensity of a normal force acting on a surface at a certain point is described as the normal stress, denoted by the Greek letter σ (fig.1.1d).
σ = lim
ΔF ΔA→ 0 ΔA
σ=
amount of internal force unit area
kN cm2
Considering a uniform distribution the normal stress is defined as:
σ=
F A
and
F = ∫ σ ⋅ dA
A
(1.1), (1.2)
conclusion: the normal stress acting along a section of a member only depends on the external load applied (e.g. a normal force F) and the geometry of its cross section A (true for statically determinant systems).
example 1.1  stress Fig 1.12 shows a typical specimen used for uniaxial tensile testing for materials like timber or plastic. question: At which position will the specimen break if the applied force F is increased up to failure?
σ1 =
F ; A1
σ2 =
F Α2
A2 < A1,
hence
σ2 > σ1
linear correlation!
answer:
the specimen breaks at the maximum normal stress σ2 along the plane with the minimum cross sectional area A2.
F A2 A1
F
fig 1.12: specimen for tensile test subjected to axial load
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1.2 Average Shearing Stress – Transverse Loading So far the discussion focussed on normal stress, oriented perpendicular to the cutting plane or in direction of the main axis of the member. Stress can also act in the cutting plane thus perpendicular to the main axis of the member. This occurs if the member is subjected to a situation of transverse loads (fig. 1.21).
F
F fig 1.21: transverse load situation
A situation like this is very common in a bolt or rivet connection (fig 1.22). Here the forces acting in the direction of the steel plates are transmitted by the bolt. In fig 1.23 the bolt is cut along the upper two connecting surfaces of the steel plates. To meet the equilibrium conditions, the force being transported along the cutting plane through the bolt is equal to the force being applied on the upper steel plate (F).
2F
F F F
F
fig 1.22: bolt connection
fig 1.23: plane of cut
Dividing the force by the cut area of the bolt, the stress in the plane of cut is determined (fig. 1.24). Assuming the stress is uniformly distributed, the stress is defined as the average shearing stress, denoted by the Greek letter τ:
τ=
fig 1.24: shearing stress in the plane of cut cross section through bolt
F A
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1.3 Stress Analysis and Concept of Design Every material has its individual properties. It can be ductile, flexible or brittle. It deforms under the influence of a temperature change. It may plastically deform at a certain stress (load) and break at another. Its properties according to perpendicular directions may be equal (isotropic) or different (orthotropic). To ensure a safe design, these specific material properties have to be taken into account. The essential information is collected by conducting different tests in a material testing laboratory. At the failure of the material its ultimate stress is reached. The point of plastic deformation of the material is indicated as the yield point, corresponding to the yield stress. Taking this into account, an allowable stress can be defined for each individual material to be used within the design analysis. These stresses such as further indications concerning the maximum allowable deformation (serviceability of a structure) can be found in the respective national codes. A secure design requires a certain safety clearance towards the failure of the employed material. This is ensured by applying a safety factor (in national codes usually denoted by the Greek letter γ). In the design analysis the existing stress due to the existing load increased by the factor of safety (the design stress) has to be proofed less or equal to the allowable stress. Since the applied material might be orthotropic (different properties in different directions, e.g. timber) different allowable stresses are defined for normal and shearing stresses depending on their orientation (parallel or perpendicular, σ║ or σ ┴, see example 1.4). ratio of safety: design analysis:
ultimate load allowable load
Fd = F ⋅ γ
σd = Fd Α
design load = existing load · factor of safety design normal stress, axial loaded design stress ≤ allowable stress
σ d ≤ σ allowed
Fd Α
τd =
design average shear stress design stress ≤ allowable stress
τ d ≤ τ allowed
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Strength of Materials example 1.2  design of axially loaded members
1 Stress
5/9
The lattice truss displayed in fig 1.3 is subjected to a vertical load of 100 kN at its lower chord. a) determine the normal forces of members S1, S2 and S3 b) carry out the design analysis for diagonal member S2, considering a solid square cross section 24 mm x 24 mm such as the given safety factor and the allowable stress c) design lower chord member S3 by choosing the appropriate diameter of a solid circular cross section 3.0 m given: load safety factor material steel: allowable stress γ = 1.5 σallow = 22 kN/cm2
S3 A 6.0 m S2 S1 3.0 m
100 kN 6.0 m
B
a)
external equilibrium:
fig 1.31: lattice girder
∑M = 0 ∑V = 0
A
6.0m 100 kN = 50kN 12.0m ⇒ FA = FB = 50kN ⇒ FB =
cutting plane  internal equilibrium at left part:
∑M
3
=0
∑M = 0 ∑V = 0
2
− 50kN ⋅ 6.0m = −100kN ⇒ S1 = 3.0m 50kN ⋅ 3.0m ⇒ S3 = = 50kN 3.0m 1 ⇒ S 2 ⋅ sin45 o = 50kN
2
S1 S2
4 3.0
FA 6.0
S3
3
⇒ S 2 = 70.71kN
b)
S 2,d = S 2 ⋅ γ = 70.71kN ⋅ 1.5 = 106.06kN
σd =
c)
S 2,d Α
=
106.06kN = 18.41kN/cm 2 2 2 (2.4) cm
≤ σ allow = 22 kN/cm 2
OK
S 3,d = S 3 ⋅ γ = 50kN ⋅ 1.5 = 75kN
σd = A=
S 3,d Α
≤ σ allow = 22kN/cm 2
⇒ A required ≥
S 3,d σ allow
=
75kN = 3.41cm 2 2 22kN/cm
chosen: d = 22 mm
π ⋅d2 ⇒ d required = 4
4 ⋅ 3.41cm 2 = 2.08cm π
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Strength of Materials example 1.3  design of a pin bolt connection
1 Stress
6/9
A hinge steel connection consisting of three butt straps and a bolt (fig. 1.32) is subjected to a tensile force Fd = 100 kN (design load). Design the steel bolt by choosing the appropriate diameter considering an allowable shearing stress of τallow = 33.6 kN/cm2 (steel 8.8).
F
F
fig 1.32: bolt connection
average shear stress per shear plane in the bolt:
τ average,d
F = d 2⋅A
F/2 F A F/2
condition from design analysis: F τ average, d = d ≤ τ allow 2⋅A
⇒A≥
Fd 100kN = = 1.49cm 2 2 2 ⋅ τ allow 2 ⋅ 33.6kN/cm
⇒ d ≥ 1.38cm ⇒ chosen : d = 14mm
A=
π ⋅d2 4
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Strength of Materials example 1.4  orthotropic properties, design of a timber connection
1 Stress
7/9
A diagonal member made of timber is connected to a support beam as shown in fig. 1.33. The orientation of the grain is indicated by the hooked lines. The diagonal element is subjected to a negative normal force along its axis of symmetry (centroidal axis). Carry out the design stress analysis for the timber beam (bottom element). Consider all relevant stresses and the load safety factor.
F
given: applied load load safety factor F = 500 N γ = 1.5
30 mm 30 mm 20 mm fig 1.33: timber connection 10 mm 30˚
material timber: allowable stresses σ║,allow = 6.0 N/mm2 σ┴,allow = 2.0 N/mm2 τallow = 0.9 N/mm2
resolution of force F: F┴,d = (sin 30˚ F) 1.5 = (0.5 500 N) 1.5 = 375.0 N F║,d = (cos 30˚ F) 1.5 = (0.87 500 N) 1.5 = 652.5 N areas of bearing planes for respective force components: A1 = 600 mm2 plane for vertical force (F┴) A2 = 300 mm2 plane for horizontal force (F║) A3 = 900 mm2 shear plane (F║) design analysis: σ⊥,d = F┴,d / A1 = 375.0 N / 600 mm2 = 0.625 N/mm² < σ⊥ allow = 2.0 N/mm² σ ,d = F║,d / A2 = 652.5 N / 300 mm2 = 2.175 N/mm² < σ  allow = 6.0 N/mm² τd = F║,d / A3 = 652.5 N / 900 mm2 = 0.725 N/mm² < τallow = 0.9 N/mm² OK OK OK
A2 A3 A1 F F║ F┴
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1.4 Transformation of Stress – Oblique Plane under Axial Loading Normal and shearing stresses, thus stress acting perpendicular and parallel to the axis of symmetry of the member have been analysed in the previous parts of this chapter. The plane of cut being used to isolate a part of the member was perpendicularly oriented in all the situations regarded so far. How about the situation of stress on an oblique plane of cut? Fig. 1.41 shows a member subjected to an axial load. A part of the member is isolated by a plane of cut, inclined by the angle φ towards the axis of the member. Setting up the free body diagram and the conditions of equilibrium the stress components acting normal to or within the plane of cut are determined.
plane of cut
F φ a)
A
F
x
N F φ V b) fig 1.41: axially loaded member, oblique plane of cut c) F
σN τ
σx =
F A
initial situation, normal stress
N = cos φ · F V = sin φ · F
resolution of force F
normal force N shear force V
Aϕ =
A cosϕ
area of oblique plane
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σN =
N F = cos 2ϕ Aϕ A
normal stress acting on oblique plane
σ N = σ x cos 2ϕ τ=
V F = sinϕ ⋅ cosϕ = σ x sinϕ ⋅ cosϕ Aϕ A
using angle function (2 sinφ cosφ = 2 sinφ):
τ=
σx sin2ϕ 2
shear stress acting on oblique plane
conclusion:
max σ N = σ x max τ = σx 2
ϕ = 0o ϕ = 45 o
[π 4]
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Strength of Materials
2 Strain
1/11
2 Strain
Any object being subjected to load is deformed, changing its initial shape. This is true for any load and any material. It is easily visualised on objects consisting of soft and flexible materials like rubber or foam but also applies for hard materials like steel or rock. Within a certain load limit the object will return to its initial shape again after the load is released. This is called the elastic behaviour of a material. Exceeding the load above a certain limit, the object will not fully return to its initial shape. Some residual deformation is left, being called the plastic behaviour of a material. A further increase of load leads to the break of the object at a certain point. This is also indicated as the rupture or the failure of the material. 2.1 Strain – Axial Loading A suspended rod of an elastic material and of length L is subjected to axial loading situations. The load is not exceeding the elastic limit of the material. The deformations shown in fig. 2.11 can be proven by uniaxial tests.
A
A
2A
ΔL F F a) fig. 2.11: axially loaded rod 2F b) 2F
ΔL/2 2·ΔL F F c)
The rod of cross section A is subjected to an axial load F, fig. 2.11 a). Due to the load, the rod is extended by ΔL in its axial direction. Increasing the load F by factor 2, the elongation of the rod amounts to 2·ΔL, fig. 2.11 b). Fig. 2.11 c) shows a situation of a rod of twice the cross section of system a) and b), being equal to two rods of cross section A. The rod again is subjected to the axial load F. The elongation due to the load found on this system amounts to ΔL/2.
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Strength of Materials The results are summarised in tab. 2.11. situation load cross section stress elongation
tab. 2.11
2 Strain
2/11
a) F A σa) * ΔL
b) 2·F A 2·σa) 2·ΔL
c) F 2·A σa)/2 ΔL/2
*
σ a) =
F A
Like the stress for a member of a certain cross section subjected to a certain load also the elongation of the member can be expressed as a generalised term. The strain is equal to the amount of elongation ΔL under the applied load divided by the initial length L of the member. It is denoted by the Greek letter ε. strain:
ε=
ΔL L
= deformation of member per unit length [unitless]
(2.11)
The results of the stress and strain analysis are plotted in a coordinate system of abscissa strain and ordinate stress, the so called stressstrain diagram (fig. 2.12). The graph connecting the origin and the points of results is a straight line. The correlation between stress and strain is linear within the elastic limit of the material.
σ
b)
σa)
c)
a)
0
εa)
= ΔL/L
ε
fig. 2.12: stressstrain diagram, Hooke’s Law
The slope (gradient) of the stressstraingraph represents the correlation between stress and strain. It is a specific property of a material, indicating its elastic behaviour. It is called the Modulus of Elasticity or the Young’s Modulus of a material denoted by E. Elastic Modulus:
E=
σ ε
⎡ kN ⎤ ⎢ cm 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(2.12)
A high Modulus of Elasticity therefore represents a hard, rigid material like steel, a low Modulus of Elasticity a soft, deformable material like rubber.
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Precondition to determine a constant Elastic Modulus is the proportional correlation between stress and strain, the linear elastic range of a material. It is represented by a straight curve on the stressstrain diagram (fig.2.12). This is known as Hooke’s Law (Robert Hooke, English Scientist). Transforming equation (2.12), it can also be expressed as:
σ = E⋅ε
or
ε=
σ F = E AE
Hooke’s Law is not only applicable for members consisting of a constant cross section. Fig. 2.13 is showing a general situation of a member consisting of a variable cross section. Generalized equations for Hooke’s Law (see finite element fig 2.13):
ε=
δx dx
x x
strain, factor of elongation of finite element
x σx F ΔL = ∫ ε x ⋅ dx = ∫ ⋅ dx = ∫ x ⋅ dx Ex AxEx 0 0 0
ΔL =
FL AE
Fi ⋅ L i Ai ⋅ Ei
total elongation of a member consisting of a constant section total elongation of a member consisting of multiple constant sections
ΔL = ∑
F dx x
a)
F dx L
b)
ε(x)
c)
dx+δx
x
fig 2.13: specimen for tensile test subjected to axial load
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example 2.1  strain An aluminium bar is consisting of two different square cross sections is subjected to an axial load situation fig.2.14. question: given: Determine the total amount of displacement of the member. AI,II = 20 cm2; AIII = 10 cm2 Ealuminium = 70 000 N/mm2
I F1=60kN II F2=20kN III F3=100kN
answer:
100 cm 200 cm fig. 2.14 200 cm
horizontal equilibrium:
NIII = 100 kN NII = 80 kN NI = 20 kN
for part III for part II for part I
ΔL total = ∑
ΔL III =
Fi ⋅ L i Ai ⋅ Ei
100kN ⋅ 200cm = 0.286cm 10cm 2 ⋅ 7000kN / cm 2 80kN ⋅ 100cm ΔL II = = 0.057cm 20cm 2 ⋅ 7000kN / cm 2 20kN ⋅ 100cm ΔL I = = 0.014cm 20cm 2 ⋅ 7000kN / cm 2
ΔL total = 0.286 + 0.057 + 0.014 = 0.357cm
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2.2 StressStrain Diagram Looking at a member of a certain cross section deforming to a certain extent under a certain load reflects an individual situation. Using stress and strain (σ and ε), the situation is generalised. The correlation between stress and strain depends on the applied material and is represented by the Elastic Modulus, E. The established method to determine the Elastic Modulus of a material is to conduct tensile tests in a laboratory. The results of this test are plotted on the stressstrain diagram. Fig. 2.21 shows a typical stressstrain curve of mild steel, being a ductile material. A ductile material shows considerably large deformation before it fails. Up to the yield point the correlation between stress and strain is proportional, the curve is represented by a straight line. It is the linear elastic range of the material. At the yield point, the proportional limit is reached and plastic deformation occurs. Without an increase of stress, a certain amount of deflection takes places (the curve develops parallel to the abscissa). The ultimate stress (highest stress) lies beyond the yield point, correlating to relatively large deflections. Finally the material breaks at the point of rupture.
σ
yield point
rupture ultimate stress
σ
rupture 0.2% offset yield point
0
linear elastic plastic range range
ε
0
ε
fig. 2.21: stressstrain diagram for mild steel
fig. 2.22: stressstrain diagram for a brittle material
Fig. 2.22 shows a typical stressstrain curve of a brittle material. Relatively small deformation takes place up to its point of rupture. Also it does not possess a well defined yield point indicating the proportional limit. Here the offset method is used to determine an artificial yield point, thus the linear elastic range for the material. Typical Elastic Moduli of materials being common in the field of construction: Steel: 210 000 N/mm2 Aluminium: 70 000 N/mm2 Timber║: 10 000 N/mm2
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2.3 Thermal Strain Any change of temperature has an impact on the shape of an object. It shrinks at a thermal decline and expands at a thermal increase. The amount of strain is a property being specific to a certain material. It is represented by the coefficient of thermal expansion denoted by αT. coefficient of thermal expansion: thermal strain: thermal expansion: steel: concrete: aluminium: αT εT ΔL αT αT αT [1/˚C] = αT · ΔT = αT · ΔT · L = 12 · 106 · 1/˚C = 12 · 106 · 1/˚C = 23 · 106 · 1/˚C
example 2.2 – thermal strain A rod with fixed ends and no external loads, fig 2.31, is subjected to a thermal increase of ΔT. question: given: Determine the compressive stress in the rod caused by that impact. cross section material A E, αT
fig. 2.31 L ΔL
answer: ΔLT = αT · ΔT · L free expansion of rod
ΔL P = −
PL AE
compression of rod caused by a negative support force
ΔLT = ΔLP αT · ΔT · L = 
PA ()
PB ()
PL AE
P =  αT · ΔT·AE σ =  αT · ΔT·E
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Strength of Materials example 2.3
2 Strain
7/11
A steel cable (Ø 8 mm, A = 45 mm2, E = 170 000 N/mm2) is to be tensioned by a pretensile force of 10.0 kN to a length of 10.0 m at a temperature of 20 ˚C. a) Determine the initial fabrication length of the cable. b) Determine the remaining pretension in the cable if the temperature is increased to 60 ˚C.
fig. 2.32
10.0 m
a) Li + ΔL = 10.0 m PL i ΔL = AE P ⎞ ⎛ ⇒ L i ⎜1 + ⎟ = 10.0m ⎝ AE ⎠
10000N ⎛ ⇒ L i ⎜1 + 2 2 ⎝ 45mm ⋅ 170000 N / mm
fabrication length
⎞ ⎟ = 10000mm ⎠
⇒ L i = 9986.95mm
b) αT,steel ΔT PT PT P60°
= 12 · 106 · 1/˚C = 60 – 20 = 40 ˚C =  αT · ΔT·AE = 12 · 106 · 1/˚C · 40 ˚C · 45 mm2 · 170 000 N/mm2 =  3672 N = 10.0 – 3.67 = 6.33 kN remaining pretension
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2.4 Generalised Hooke’s Law – Poisson’s Ratio An object being subjected to an axial force not only deforms in axial direction. It also deforms in its lateral direction, the directions acting perpendicular to the applied load (fig. 2.41). This phenomena is another property of a specific material. It is known as the Poisson’s Ratio, denoted by the Greek letter ν. ν =
lateral strain axial strain
(ratio)
lateral expansion and compression of a solid body subjected to an axial force precondition: material is homogenous, isotropic and remains elastic
initial shape initial shape deformed shape
F
F
fig. 2.41: element subjected to an axial force
Generalised Hooke’s Law of Strain: General strain of an element in an multiaxial state of stress: precondition: material is homogenous, isotropic and remains elastic, strain is independent of small shearing deformations σy σz σx
σy σx σ −ν −ν z E E E σy σ σ −ν z ε y = −ν x + E E E σy σz σ + ε z = −ν x − ν E E E εx =
y σx z x σz σy
fig. 2.42: orientation of stress on a 3D element
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Strength of Materials example 2.4
2 Strain
9/11
A solid rectangular steel block is subjected to uniform pressure acting along its surface. If edge AB is compressed by 1.2 · 102 mm determine y a) the deformation of all other edges b) the pressure p acting on the block
20 mm 40 mm
given:
steel: E = 210 000 N/mm ; ν = 0.29
2
z
C A B
D 30 mm
x
fig. 2.43: rectangular steel block
answer: a) σx = σy = σz = – p εx = ε y = ε z = − uniform pressure uniform strain strain in x, y and zdirection total compression in ydirection total compression in zdirection
p p p p + ν + ν = − (1 − 2ν ) E E E E 2 1.2 ⋅ 10 mm Δx =− = −3 ⋅ 10 − 4 = εy = εz εx = − 40mm AB
Δy = ε y ⋅ BC = −3 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ 20mm = −6 ⋅ 10 −3 mm
Δz = ε z ⋅ BD = −3 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ 30mm = −9 ⋅ 10 −3 mm p (1 − 2ν ) E ε ⋅E (−3 ⋅ 10 −4 ) ⋅ 210000N/mm 2 =− ⇒p=− x 1 − 2ν 1 − 2 ⋅ 0.29
b) εx = −
p = −150N/mm 2
(= 150 MPa)
pressure acting on the block
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2.5 Shearing Strain 2.5.1 General situation for Shearing Stress To analyse the strain caused by shearing stress, a closer look is to be taken at the general situation for shearing stress first. precondition: material is homogenous, isotropic and remains elastic
Fig. 2.51 shows the shearing stresses and their directions acting on mutually perpendicular planes. Equal assumptions can be made for the xz and yz directions. τyx
dy
y x
dz
τxy
τxy τyx
z
dx
fig. 2.51: shearing stress acting on a finite element
Equations of equilibrium:
∑F = 0 ∑M
0
: :
τ xy = τ xy τ xy = τ yx
=0
τ xy (dy ⋅ dz ) ⋅ dx = τ yx (dx ⋅ dz ) ⋅ dy
area · lever arm
conclusion:
All shearing stresses on mutually perpendicular planes of an infinitesimal element are numerically equal this is also shown on Mohr’s Circle – see chapter 6
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Strength of Materials
2 Strain
11/11
2.5.1 Distortion of an element in pure shear
τ τ τ τ
γ/2
0
γ/2
fig. 2.52: element in pure shear
Fig. 2.52 shows an element being distorted by pure shear stress acting along its edges. As shearing stresses on mutually perpendicular planes are equal, the indication of the shearing stresses is simplified to τ. The total angle of distortion of the element is denoted by the Greek letter γ. Like stress and strain, σ and ε, also shearing stress and shearing strain, τ and γ, are in linear relationship (proportional correlation). This can be proven experimentally. Hence the same rules can be applied and another material property, the Shearing Modulus is found, denoted by G. Hooke’s Law for shearing strain: Shearing Modulus:
τ=G·γ
(2.51)
G=
τ γ
⎡ kN ⎤ ⎢ cm 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
(2.52)
The material properties E, G and ν are not independent. At this stage the correlation shall be given without derivation as:
G=
E 2(1 + ν )
(2.53)
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3 Pure Bending of Beams
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3 Pure Bending of Beams
A beam consisting of a certain cross section and material will react in a certain way (deflection) and have a certain resistance towards applied bending loads. A beam can be subjected to bending in various ways. In many of these situations also shear forces will be present. Shear forces coexist with shear stresses causing additional deflection. To analyse the impact of bending loads on a beam element we therefore focus on a situation being free of shear forces. Lets take into account the statical correlation of the shear force function along a beam being a derivation function of the bending moment. Hence it is concluded that a part of a beam showing a linear constant moment diagram (horizontal line) is free of shearing forces. This internal load situation is called pure bending (M = constant, V = N = 0). Fig. 3.11 a) is illustrating such a situation. 3.1 Normal Stress Fig. 3.11 a) shows a beam subjected to pure bending. To investigate the stresses being caused along the plane of cut by the internal moment, a closer look is to be taken at an isolated element, shown in fig. 3.11 b). All possible stresses acting along the plane of cut are indicated in the figure since so far there is no evidence of the plane being totally free of shearing stresses.
y + τxz·dA z a) fig 3.11: beam subjected to pure bending b) τxz·dA τxy·dA σx·dA + x τxy·dA σx·dA

Mz Mz Mz
To find the isolated element of fig. 3.11 b) in equilibrium, the stresses acting along the plane of cut on the right face have to equal the internal moment Mz on the left face. Any bending moment can be expressed by a couple of forces acting at a certain distance from another. Looking at the orientation of the stress vectors it becomes obvious that both τxy and τxz are irrelevant for the solution. Since both of them act in the plane of cut neither of them acts in a lever arm towards the applied moment. Therefore they are neglected in the following derivation.
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Strength of Materials Equations of equilibrium concerning σx:
3 Pure Bending of Beams
2/9
∑F = 0 ∑M = 0 ∑M = 0
x
: : :
y
z
∫ σ ⋅ dA = 0 ∫ z ⋅ σ ⋅ dA = 0 ∫  y ⋅ σ ⋅ dA = M
x
x
x
z
(3.11)
3.2 Normal Strain The following geometric derivations are based on the assumption that any cross section of a beam remains plane after being subjected to bending. This is known as the theory of elasticity for slender members undergoing small deflections established by Jacob Bernoulli (16451705). A beam member possessing a plane of symmetry is subjected to a situation of pure bending, fig 3.21. The member will deflect uniformly since the internal moment along the member is constant. By deflection the edges of the element (line AB) are transformed into a circular curve. The upper edge AB of the element is decreased in length whereas the lower edge A1B1 is increased. The middle plane, representing the plane of symmetry, remains original in length and is therefore known as the neutral plane (or neutral axis). Fig 3.21 b) shows the situation on an isolated element. ρ represents the radius of curvature of the neutral axis. dx is the original length of the free upper and lower edges. Both decrease and increase in length of the upper and the lower edge are denoted by δx. Since the member is considered to undertake small deflections only, the curvature of the upper and lower edge is neglected. Furthermore the inclined left and right edges of the deformed element are considered to remain original in length.
A M A1
a)
initial shape
B M B1
b)
v
deflected shape
ρ
initial shape neutral axis
fig 3.21: deflection of beam subjected to pure bending
x c y y
δx c = By geometry: ε x, max = (similar triangles) dx ρ y y ε x = = ε x,max (3.12) ρ c
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Strength of Materials 3.3 Normal Stress Using the proportional correlation of stress and strain:
3 Pure Bending of Beams
3/9
σmax
neutral axis
σx =
y σ x, max c
(3.13)
Mz
x y +σmax
c
(3.13) in (3.11):
fig 3.22: stress distribution along section of beam
∑F
x
=0:
σ y σ x ⋅ dA = ∫ σ max ⋅ dA = max ∫ y ⋅ dA =0 ∫ c c first moment of cross section (statical moment) ∫ y dA :
→ about the neutral axis =0 → neutral axis = centroidal axis
∑M
z
= 0:
∫ y⋅σ
x
⋅ dA = ∫
σ max 2 y ⋅ dA = M z c
σ max 2 (3.14) ∫ y ⋅ dA = M z c I = ∫ y 2 ⋅ dA : second moment of cross section (moment of inertia)
Transformation of (3.14): (3.13) in (3.15):
σ max =
M zc Iz M y σx = z Iz
flexual stress (linear elastic) elastic flecture formulas
(3.15) (3.16)
Introducing: (3.15) becomes:
S=
I c
Mz Sz
→ ε=
elastic section modulus (3.17)
σ max = M⋅y I
since recalling (3.12): in (3.18):
σ = E ⋅ε = ε= y ρ
M⋅y E⋅I
(3.18)
1 M = =κ ρ E⋅I
curvature of neutral axis EI = bending or flexual stiffness
(3.19)
(continued in chapter 7, deflection of beams)
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example 3.1 Discuss the maximum stresses σ and deflections y that will occur on beams subjected to an equal bending moment consisting of the cross sections given in the table below. note: all cross sections have an equal consumption of material (almost equal areas) cross section [mm2]
100 200 100 50 200
t=13 200 t=10 t=19.5
400
360
t=13
I360
100
143
A [cm2] I [cm4] S [cm3] σ factor y factor
tab. 3.31
100 833 167 100% 100%
100 3333 333 50% 25%
97 ... ... ... ...
96 ... ... ... ...
97 ... ... ... ...
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Strength of Materials example 3.2
3 Pure Bending of Beams
5/9
A beam consisting of a rectangular cross section is subjected to pure bending. Replace the linear stress distribution along the cross section by its respective force couple. Set up the equation for the maximum stress. y
M
σmax z
R R
h z y b
a
+σmax
a = (2 ⋅ 2 3 ⋅ 1 2 ⋅ h ) =
∑M = 0 :
2 h 3 1⎛h ⎞ bh R = ⎜ b σ max ⎟ = σ max 2⎝ 2 ⎠ 4 bh 2 R ⋅a = σ max = M 6 M M σ max = = flexure formula, linear elastic 2 S bh 6 σ max ⋅ γ safety ≤ σ allow e.g. design of beam
→
excursion on inelastic bending, rect. cross section ( S pl = 1.5 ⋅ S el )
3.3 Unsymmetrical bending
3.3.1 Superposition of stresses
Principle of superposition (also see chapter 6): Superposition of normal stresses design analysis
σx = ±
F ± Mz ⋅ y ± My ⋅ z − + A Iz Iy
σ max ≤ σ allow
For algebraic sign convention, see chapter 6.
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Strength of Materials example 3.3
3 Pure Bending of Beams
6/9
A beam is being subjected to a load situation of two concentrated loads (see below). Given loads are design loads. Determine the maximum and minimum internal forces. Carry out the design analysis for a) A rectangular timber cross section 100 x 200 mm, σ║,allow = 0.85 kN/cm2 b) A standard T100 steel section (oriented flange down), A = 20.0 cm2, Iz = 179 cm4, position of centroidal axis see sketch below 5 kN 10 kN
2.0m Internal force diagrams:
M [kNm]
1.0m
N [kN] 10.0 5.0
V [kN] 5 2.5
a) rect. timber cross section 100 x 200 mm σ║,allow = 8.5 kN/cm2 A = 200 cm bh 3 Iz = = 6666.7 cm 4 12 bh 2 I z Sz = = = 666.7 cm 3 6 c
2
y z
200
100
σ x, N =
σ x,M
N = 0.05 kN cm 2 A 500 kNcm M =± z =± = ±0.75 kN cm 2 3 Sz 666.7 cm
+σ M
N M
Superposition:
+σN
+0.8
 σM
0.7
σ max = 0.05 + 0.75 = 0.8 kN/cm 2 ≤ 0.85 kN/cm 2 = σ allow
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b) steel cross section T100 σ║,allow = 21.8 kN/cm2 A = 20.9 cm2 I z = 179 cm 4
100
y
100
72.6
z
z
27.4
σ x, N =
σ x,M, top
N y = 0.48 kN cm 2 A 50  500 kNcm Mzy = =− 7.26 cm = 20.27 kN cm 2 (see sign convention) 4 Iz 179 cm
 500 kNcm Mzy =−  2.74 cm = 7.65 kN cm 2 4 Iz 179 cm
σ x,M, bottom = −
Superposition:
σ max = 0.48 + 20.27 = 20.75 kN/cm 2 ≤ 21.8 kN/cm 2 = σ allow
OK
3.3.2 Position of neutral surface
Position of neutral axis demands:
MP θ
=cosθ MP
σx = 0
→
y
My
=sinθ MP
P
−
Mzy M yz + =0 Iz Iy M y ⋅ z ⋅ Iz MzIy = tanθ ⋅ z ⋅ Iz Iy
z
Mz
z
φ
→ → →
y=
y
fig 3.31: position of neutral axis
y Iz = tanθ z Iy I tanϕ = z tanθ Iy
(3.20)
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3.4 Cross sections of different materials In the construction industry many structural members consist of more than only one material. Due to their properties some materials cope better with tensile stress whereas others deal well with compression (or are more cost effective). The most commonly composite material being implemented in the construction sector is steel reinforced concrete. To design a cross section consisting of more than one material it is necessary to develop a procedure to determine the stresses in each of the applied materials due to the given load situation. In this part of this chapter cross sections of two different materials are being investigated. The procedure developed can be projected on composite members consisting of even more than two materials. A cross section consisting of two different materials is shown in fig. 3.41a). Both of the applied materials have different elastic moduli (E1 and E2). At their surface of contact both materials are tightly fixed to one another, thus along this surface both materials develop an equal strain under the given load (ε1 = ε2), see fig. 3.41c). Since the elastic moduli are different, a break along the stress distribution is found at the surface of contact (σ = ε E), see fig. 3.41d). y y σ
1
mat. 1
z
mat. 2
z
σ2 z y
bII = bI n n = E2/E1
z ε1 (E1) σ2 σ2 = n σ1
y
bI
fig 3.41a) – d): determination of stress for composite cross sections
To determine the stresses existing in both materials a virtual cross section of one homogenous material is being constructed. For this the ratio n = E2/E1 is determined. The transformed cross section consists of an equal area of material 1 (unchanged). The area of material 2 is extruded parallel to the neutral axis by factor n, see fig. 3.41b). On the next step the centroidal axis of the transformed cross section is computed and the moment of inertia is determined. Now the stresses occurring along the cross section of the homogenous material (material 1) are calculated (e.g. σ1 = ε1 E1 = M/S). To determine the stresses existing along material 2, the respective results for material one are multiplied by factor n (σ2 = ε2 E2 = σ1 n). The same procedure can be used to determine the curvature of a composite cross section. In equation (3.19) the moment of inertia of the transformed cross section is applied.
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example 3.4 A beam consists of a composite cross section of timber and steel. Determine the maximum stresses that develop in each of the materials under the given internal bending moment. given:
timber 250 10 150
Mz = 30 kNm ET║ = 10000 N/mm2; ES = 200000 N/mm2
steel
choice: transformation into equal section of timber E ratio n = s = 20 ET transformed dimension:
150
b II = n b I = 20 15 = 300 cm
183 58 72 3000 77
250 10
new centroidal axis (from top):
∑A ⋅y y= ∑A
i i
i
:
(15 ⋅ 25)12.5 + (1 ⋅ 300)25.5 y= = 18.3 cm 15 ⋅ 25 + 1 ⋅ 300
moment of inertia:
I = ∑ (I i + A i ⋅ y i2 ) : I z =
15 ⋅ 25 3 300 ⋅ 13 + (15 ⋅ 25)5.8 2 + + (1 ⋅ 300 )7.2 2 12 12 4 I z = 47723 cm
stress timber (top): M c 30000 kNcm ⋅ 18.3 cm σ t,max = − =− = −1.15 kN/cm 2 4 I 47723 cm stress steel (bottom): 30000 kNcm ⋅ 7.7 cm σ s, max = n ⋅ σ I = 20 = 9.68 kN/cm 2 4 47723 cm
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Strength of Materials
4 Shear in Beams
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4 Shear Stress in Beams
Situation: 3 vertically allocated beams, not fixed along the joint surfaces
Pure bending, no shear
M
σ
M
internal load – force diagram:
M +M
V 0
Bending with shear
P σ
internal load – force diagram:
M Mmax=Pl²/4
V
+P/2 P/2
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Strength of Materials Derivation of Shearing Stresses in a Beam Shear Flow (along the horizontal plane y in the direction of x) segment of beam subjected to bending
4 Shear in Beams
2/7
Δx y x z ΔA
y y ¯
equilibrium at particle
p(x) σA = MA VA ΔH
My I
σB VB = MB
∑Fx = 0 :
ΔH +
ΔA
∫ (σ
= =
A
− σB) ⋅ dA = 0
σ=
ΔH ΔH
MB−MC y ⋅dA ∫ I
ΔM Q I
[kN]
Q=
∫ y ⋅dA = ΔA ⋅ y
Statical Moment
q
=
ΔH ΔM Q = dx Δx I
VQ I
[kN/cm]
dM = V dx
Shear Flow per unit length
lim Δx→0
q
=
[kN/cm]
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Strength of Materials example 4.1
4 Shear in Beams
3/7
A beam consists of 3 wooden planks being fixed by nails. Determine the shear force per nail. given: nail spacing e = 25 mm Vd = 500 N Iz = 1620 cm4 Q = ΔA ⋅ y = (2 ⋅ 10 ) ⋅ 6 = 120cm ³ q F =
ΔA
100
y
20
VQ 500 N ⋅ 120 cm ³ = = 37.04 N / cm I 1620 cm 4
z
¯ y
100 20 20
= 37.04 N / cm ⋅ 2.5cm = 92.6 N / Nail
Shearing Stress Formula at particle
t Δx τ
=
τ
ΔH
VQ q = t It
[kN/cm²]
Shear Stress per area
τyx
τxy τyx
= τxy
equal shearing stresses on mutually perpendicular planes
design:
τmax,d ≤
τallowed
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Strength of Materials Distribution of Shear Stress example: Rectangular Cross Section
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y ΔA h z y1
b
V VQ V = τ (y1) = ∫Ay ⋅ dA = Ib It Ib Δ
h/2
V y² ∫1 yb ⋅ dy = I 2 y
h/2
y1
2 ⎤ V ⎡⎛ h ⎞ = ⎢⎜ ⎟ − y1² ⎥ 2I ⎢⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦
distribution parabolically
τave
A
∫ τ ⋅ dA = V
→ → →
τave =
V A
h τmax
min τ at y1 = h/2 max τ at y1 = 0
τmin = 0
3V τmax = Vh ² = 8I 2A
for narrow rectangular cross sections
example: Shear stress distribution in an Ibeam standard section t y y
q = Q⋅ V
I
τ=
q t
approximation:
τave =
V Aweb
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Strength of Materials Shear Flow (along the vertical plane z in the direction of x) regarding a particle with an arbitrary curved cutting surface
4 Shear in Beams
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y ΔA z y ¯
∑Fx = 0 :
q
=
VQ I
[kN/cm]
Shear Flow per unit length
conclusion: shear flow along the vertical plane z will be derived equivalently to the shear flow along the horizontal plane x
Shearing Stress (along the vertical plane z in the direction of x) at particle
τ
=
VQ q = It t
[kN/cm²]
Shear Stress per area
τzy
= τxz
equal shearing stresses on mutually perpendicular planes
τzx
τxz
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Strength of Materials example 4.2
4 Shear in Beams
6/7
Determine the shear stress along the zplane of the welding seams in the edges of the rectangular cross section. given: h = 120 mm b = 60 mm t = 5 mm Vd = 10.0 kN
y z t b y
ΔA
h
6 ⋅ 12³ 5 ⋅ 11³ Iz = − = 309.4cm 4 12 12
Q = ΔA ⋅ y = 0.5 ⋅ 5.0 ⋅ 5.75 = 14.38cm ³ q =
VQ 10.0kN ⋅ 14.38cm ³ = = 0.465 kN / cm I 309 .4cm 4
z
y ¯
(q is the total shear flow acting on the particle with two cutting planes)
τ
=
1 q 1 0.465 kN / cm = = 0.465 kN / cm ² 2 t 2 0.5cm
Shearing Stress in thin walled members variation and orientation of the shear flow q on a member subjected to a vertical shear force V:
V
V
V
q
q
q
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Strength of Materials Shear Center Thin walled members in unsymmetric loading problem:
4 Shear in Beams
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applying the vertical force V perpendicular to the centroidal axis causes a moment of torsion (twisting) around the xaxis of the member applying the vertical force V at a certain distance to web center axis of the member, the shear center
solution:
equilibrium: ∑ Fz = H − H = 0 ∑ Fy = V − V = 0
∑ Mx = H ⋅ h − V ⋅ e = 0
⇒e=
H⋅h V
external load (action) y z V e
=
internal load (reaction) b s H
=
q V t H h
VQ q= I
example 4.3: channel member (see figure above) determination of shear center:
H = ∫ q ⋅ds
0
b
V = ∫ q ⋅ds
0
h
q=
VQ I
b b
Q = A⋅y = s⋅t⋅
h 2
⇒q=
b
V ⋅s ⋅ t ⋅h 2⋅I
V ⋅s ⋅ t ⋅h V⋅t⋅h 1 V ⋅ t ⋅ h ⋅ b² H = ∫ q ⋅ds = ∫ ⋅ds = s² = 2⋅I 2⋅I 2 0 4⋅I 0 0
2 ⎛ b ⋅ t³ t ⋅ h³ ⎛h⎞ ⎞ + 2⎜ + b⋅ t ⋅⎜ ⎟ ⎟ I = ∑ (Ii + Ai ⋅ yi ² ) = ⎜ 12 12 ⎝2⎠ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝
t³ is very small, will be neglected
t ⋅ h³ 1 t ⋅ h² (h + 6b ) + b ⋅ t ⋅ h² = 12 2 12 H ⋅ h V ⋅ t ⋅ h ² ⋅ b² V ⋅ t ⋅ h ² ⋅ b ² ⋅ 12 3b ² ⇒e= = = = V 4⋅I⋅V 4 ⋅ V ⋅ t ⋅ h ² ⋅ (h + 6b ) h + 6b I=
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Strength of Materials
5 Torsion
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5 Torsion
5.1 Torsion of Circular Shafts Equilibrium equations at particle: internal moment = external moment ∑Mx = 0 Summation of Moments about the axis of the member (torque)
geometric assumptions for the derivation of the shear formula on a circular shaft member with a torque applied: • • • • a plane section perpendicular to the axis of the member remains plane within the elastic limit, Hooke’s Law is applied thus shear stress and strain (corresponding to the angle of twist Φ) are in proportional correlation shearing strains (thus shearing stress) vary linearly from the central axis parallel planes perpendicular to the axis of the member remain in a constant distance (L)
x Mx=T
τ= ρ τ max c
Φ L
c
ρ
τmax
dA
derivation of the torsion formula:
⎞ τ max ⎛ρ T = ∫ ⎜ τ max⋅ dA ⋅ ρ ⎟ = ⋅ ∫ ρ² ⋅ dA c c A ⎠ A⎝
Ip = ∫ ρ² ⋅ dA [cm4]
A
T = torsional moment, torque external moment = internal moment
polar moment of inertia (constant property of crosssectional area)
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elastic torsion formula
τ max =
T ⋅c Ip
maximum shear stress
τ=
T ⋅ρ ρ = τ max Ip c
general shear stress
polar moment of inertia Ip for a solid circular member:
c
c
τmax
ρ4 Ip = ∫ ρ² ⋅ dA = ∫ 2πρ³ ⋅ dρ = 2π 0 4 A
c
0
πc 4 πd 4 = = 2 32
for a hollow circular member:
ρ4 Ip = ∫ ρ² ⋅ dA = ∫ 2πρ³ ⋅ dρ = 2π b 4 A
c
c
=
b
π 4 c − b4 2
(
)
t
c b
τmax
Ip ≈ 2πc³t
(for b ≈ c)
example 5.1 A cantilever element with a hollow cross section with is subjected to 3 torques. Determine the maximum shearing stress. M3,d=10 kNm
M1,d=15 kNm
cross section: material:
Ø = 120 mm, t = 6 mm steel G = 81 000 N/mm²
M2,d=20 kNm
Ip =
π 4 π c − b 4 = 6 4 − 5.4 4 = 700.10cm 4 2 2
(
)
(
)
1.0 m
2.0 m 5
2.0 m
M [kNm]
τ max = T ⋅ c 1500 kNcm ⋅ 6cm = = 12.85kN / cm ² Ip 700 .1cm 4
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Strength of Materials Angle of Twist by Hooke’s Law for shearing strain:
5 Torsion
3/8
τ = γ ⋅G
T⋅c τ max = Ip τ max T ⋅ c γ max = = G Ip ⋅ G
by geometry:
c ΔΦ Δx γ
γ ⋅ Δx = ΔΦ ⋅ c
T⋅c ⋅ Δx = ΔΦ ⋅ c Ip ⋅ G ΔΦ =
Φ=
angles measured in radians [rad]
T ⋅ Δx Ip ⋅ G
Φ [rad ] ⋅ 360 = Φ [°] 2π
T⋅L Ip ⋅ G
example 5.2 Determine the rotation at the free end of the cantilever element of example 5.1.
Φ=∑
T ⋅ L 1500 kNcm ⋅ 200 cm − 500 kNcm ⋅ 200 cm + 500 kNcm ⋅ 100 cm = Ip ⋅ G 700 .1cm 4 ⋅ 8100 kN / cm ²
Φ = 0.044 rad = 2.53 °
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5 Torsion
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5.2 Torsion of Thinwalled Members (closed sections) Hollow section of arbitrary shape with a varying wall thickness ti. assumption: shear stresses are evenly distributed across the wall thickness precondition: shear stresses on mutually perpendicular planes are equal τxy = τyx ; τxz = τzx particle
y
τ2 τ1
t1 dx F1
F2
t2 z 0 r
ds q ds
τ2 τ1
F1 = τ1 ⋅ t1 ⋅ dx
F2 = τ2 ⋅ t 2 ⋅ dx
F1 = F2
=q q = shear flow (shear force per meter of the perimeter) q = equal on all cutting planes of the respective element T = torque
∑ Fx = 0 :
⇒ τ1 ⋅ t1 = τ2 ⋅ t 2
T = ∫ rq ⋅ ds = q ⋅ ∫ r ⋅ ds
r ds = 2 Atriangle ⇒ r ⋅ ds = 2 ⋅ A
∫
)
) A = area to center line of perimeter
ds r
T = 2⋅A ⋅q
T q= ) 2⋅A
) A
τ=
T ) 2⋅A⋅t
τ max =
T ) 2 ⋅ A ⋅ t min
2
shear stress
T⋅L Φ= G ⋅ Ip
Ip
) (2 ⋅ A ) = ds ∫t
angle of twist
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Strength of Materials example 5.3
5 Torsion
5/8
The beam of a bridge structure consists of a hollow trapezium section. The structure is subjected to an unsymmetrical load situation causing a torque. Determinate the maximum shear stress due to torsion such as the maximum angle of twist at the free end.
F
2b 2t
F
L b
t
t
b
T=bF
constant torsional moment along L
) 1 3 A = (2b + b )b = b ² 2 2
tmin = t :
τ max =
T b⋅F F ) = = 2 ⋅ A ⋅ t 3 ⋅ b² ⋅ t 3 ⋅ b ⋅ t
2
additional shear stress due to bending is neglected in this example
⎛ 3 ⎞ ) 2 ⎜ 2 ⋅ b² ⎟ 9 ⋅ b³ ⋅ t 2⋅A ⎝ 2 ⎠ = = Ip = 1 2b b ds b 2+ 5 + + 2⋅ 5 ∫t 2 2t t t
(
)
Φ=
T ⋅L b⋅F⋅L 2 + 5 2 + 5 F⋅L = = G ⋅ Ip G ⋅ 9 ⋅ b³ ⋅ t 9 G ⋅ b² ⋅ t
(
)
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Strength of Materials
5 Torsion
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5.3 Torsion of Noncircular Members (open sections) Distribution of shear stress in a rectangular member subjected to a torque: Distribution of shear stress in a thinwalled rectangular member subjected to a torque:
t
τ L
τmax
T ⋅ t max Ip
τ max =
shear stress formula
1 Ip ≈ ⋅ ∑ h i t 3 i 3
polar moment of inertia
Members of same behaviour towards an applied torque:
L
wall thickness : t
L
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Strength of Materials example 5.4
5 Torsion
7/8
Compare the torsional strength and stiffness of a thinwalled tube of circular cross section with and without a longitudinal slot.
a) closed section:
Ip ≈ 2πc³ t = 2πR ³t T ⋅c T τ max = = Ip 2πR ² t
t
R
b) open section (slotted):
L = 2πR
1 2 Ip ≈ ⋅ ∑ h i t 3 = πRt ³ i 3 3 T ⋅ t max 3T τ max = = Ip 2πRt ²
ratio of shear stress a) to b):
1
:
3R t
(ratio of τ max )
ratio of stiffness a) to b)
1
:
1⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 3⎝ R ⎠
3
(ratio of Ip )
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5 Torsion
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table 5.1: summery of formulas related to torsion Torsion Circular Shafts
Shear Stress Angle of Twist Polar Moment of Inertia
τ max =
c
τmax
ρ
T ⋅c Ip
τ=
Φ=
T ⋅ρ ρ = τ max Ip c
T⋅L G ⋅ Ip
Ip =
πc 4 πd 4 = 2 32
τ max =
t c b
τmax
τ=
Φ=
T ⋅c Ip
Ip =
T ⋅ρ ρ = τ max Ip c
T⋅L G ⋅ Ip
π 4 (c − b 4 ) 2
(for b ≈ c)
Ip ≈ 2πc³ t
Thin Walled Members (closed sections)
τ max =
r t
) A
T ) 2 ⋅ A ⋅ t min T τ= ) 2⋅A⋅t
Φ= T⋅L G ⋅ Ip
Ip
) (2 ⋅ A ) =
2
∫
ds t
Non Circular Members (open sections)
h
h wall thickness : t
T ⋅ t max Ip T⋅t τ = Ip τ max =
Φ= T⋅L G ⋅ Ip
1 Ip ≈ ⋅ ∑ h i t 3 i 3
Φ [rad ] ⋅
360 = Φ [°] 2π
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Strength of Materials
6 Stress Analysis
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6 Stress Analysis
6.1 Compound Stresses, Superposition of Stresses Summery of formulas for the stress analysis (linearelastic): • normal stresses due to axial force: F σx = A normal stresses due to bending: Mz ⋅ y Mz σx = − =− Iz Sz My ⋅ z My σx = = Iy Sy shearing stresses due to shear force in a beam: Vy ⋅ Qy τxy = Iy ⋅ t Vz ⋅ Qz τxz = Iz ⋅ t shearing stresses due to torque: T ⋅ρ τ= circular shafts Ip
•
•
•
τ=
T ) 2⋅A⋅t
closed thin walled members
convention for algebraic sign ±
My (+)
Mz(+) y(+) σ() σ(+) z(+)
My(+)
y
σ(+) σ()
z
Mz (+)
x
’tensile fibre for Mz’
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Strength of Materials Superposition of stresses • • •
6 Stress Analysis
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considering single, individual load situations for each internal load reaction summation of stresses due to the algebraic sign convention (±) maximum and minimum stresses are found at the respective positions of a cross section
Limitation of superposition • considering internal reaction force results according to Theory 1st Order neglects the effect on internal reaction forces caused by deflection (e.g. beam subjected to bending plus axial force) design analysis
Superposition of normal stresses
σx = ±
F ± Mz ⋅ y ± My ⋅ z − + A Iz Iy
σ max ≤ σ allow
design analysis
Superposition of shearing stresses
τ = ±τV ± τT
τ max ≤ τ allow
Special problems concerning combined loading of bending moment and axial force how to avoid tension (open gap) in a member with an eccentric load (e.g. dam, masonry wall): P e condition:
σ=−
⇒e=
(P ⋅ e ) ⋅ 6 = 0 P M P + =− + b⋅h b ⋅ h² A S
h 6
zone of applicable resultant force to meet the condition
σ() σ() σ()
+ σ(+) =
h 3
b 3
b
h
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Strength of Materials example 6.1
6 Stress Analysis
3/10
A rectangular beam member is subjected to unsymmetrical bending and an eccentric compressive force. Determinate the maximum and minimum normal stresses within the section at the fixed support and indicate the position of the neutral plane. b = 50 mm h = 100 mm L = 1000 mm φ = 30° M = 1 kNm F = 10 kN
y
b M
z
h
φ
x
L 10 ⋅ 5 3 4 4 Iy = cm = 104 .17 cm 12 5 ⋅ 10 3 Iz = cm 4 = 416 .67 cm 4 12 1 M y = sin ϕ ⋅ M = M = 50 kNcm 2 h 1 M z = −cosϕ ⋅ M − F = − 3 ⋅ M − F ⋅ 5cm = −136.6kNcm 2 2
F
y A z C
B
σx = ±
F ± Mz ⋅ y ± My ⋅ z − + A Iz Iy
D
A: B: C: D:
10 kN − 136.6kNcm ⋅ 5cm 50 kNcm ⋅ 2.5cm + = 2.64 kN / cm ² − 50cm ² 416 .67 cm 4 104.17 cm 4 10 kN − 136 .6kNcm ⋅ 5cm 50 kNcm ⋅ −2.5cm σx = − − + = 0.24 kN / cm ² 50cm ² 416 .67 cm 4 104 .17 cm 4 10 kN − 136 .6kNcm ⋅ −5cm 50 kNcm ⋅ 2.5cm + = −0.64 kN / cm ² σx = − − 50cm ² 416.67 cm 4 104.17 cm 4 10 kN − 136 .6kNcm ⋅ −5cm 50 kNcm ⋅ −2.5cm σx = − − + = −3.04 kN / cm ² 50cm ² 416 .67 cm 4 104 .17 cm 4
σx = −
position of neutral plane, graphical solution: A + C D + B
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Strength of Materials example 6.2
6 Stress Analysis
4/10
The beam of a bridge structure consists of a hollow trapezium section. The structure is subjected to an unsymmetrical load by an applied vertical force F. Determinate the maximum shear stress due to the applied load. F 2b F 2t L b shear stress due to torque: T=bF t t b
) 1 3 A = (2b + b )b = b ² 2 2
constant torsional moment along L
tmin = t
τ T ,max = −
T b⋅F F ) =− =− 3 ⋅ b² ⋅ t 3⋅ b ⋅ t 2⋅A⋅t
largest shear stress occurs in the web
:
shear stress due to bending:
τ V ,ave =
V = A web
F ⎛ 5 ⎞ 2⋅⎜ ⋅b⋅t⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
=
F 5 ⋅b⋅t
approximation formula
superposition:
τ max = ± τ T ± τ V =
F F F + = ⋅ 0.78 3⋅ b ⋅ t 5 ⋅b⋅t b⋅t
shear flow due to applied shear force V(+) (maximum q in the web)
shear flow due to torsion T(+) (q evenly distributed)
τ max
+
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Strength of Materials
6 Stress Analysis
5/10
6.2 Analysis of plane stress Transformation of plane stress plane stress = stress components in all directions (σx, σy,τxy, τxy) of an isolated element (dx, dy, t)
Unlike the vector of a force (F [kN]), a stress vector (σ,τ [kN/cm²]) is to be multiplied by the respective area (dA) of a face to be applicable to mathematic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication).
y
+ σy τyx τxy σx σx
y θ y' σx τxy τyx σy x
y
C
τx'y'
+ x
τxy
A
σx' θ x
x'
τyx
B
σy
Equations of equilibrium on an isolated wedge of an infinitesimal element (dx, dy, t): definition: area of the inclined plane BC = dA, area AB = sinθ dA, area AC = cosθ dA
∑F
∑F
x'
=0:
σ x ' ⋅ dA = (σ x ⋅ dA cos θ )cos θ + (τ xy ⋅ dA cos θ )sin θ
+ (σ y ⋅ dA sin θ )sin θ + (τ yx ⋅ dA sin θ )cos θ
y'
= 0:
τ x 'y ' ⋅ dA = − (σ x ⋅ dA cos θ )sin θ + (τ xy ⋅ dA cos θ )cos θ
+ (σ y ⋅ dA sin θ )cos θ − (τ yx ⋅ dA sin θ )sin θ
applying the same procedure to an inclined plane at an angle of θ+π/2, the normal stress σy' is derived. Using the correlations
τxy = τxy , cos ² θ = (1 + cos 2θ ) , sin ² θ = (1 − cos 2θ ) ,
1 1 2 2 2 sin θ cos θ = sin 2θ , cos ² θ − sin ² θ = cos 2θ
the equations for the transformation of plane stress are obtained:
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Strength of Materials equations for the transformation of plane stress
6 Stress Analysis
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σx' =
1 (σ x + σ y ) + 1 (σ x − σ y )cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 1 1 σ y ' = (σ x + σ y ) − (σ x − σ y )cos 2θ − τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 1 τ x 'y ' = − (σ x − σ y )sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 2
(6.1) (6.2) (6.3)
y
σy τyx τxy σx
y'
σy' τy'x'
τx'y'
σx’ x'
θ x
adding equation (6.1) and (6.2):
σ x ' + σ y' = σ x + σ y
= constant
Principal Stresses The plane of maximum and minimum normal stress is found by differentiating the equations for transformation (6.1) with respect to θ and equalizing the derivative set to zero:
σ x' 1 = − (σ x − σ y )2 sin 2θ + τ xy 2 cos 2θ = 0 2 dθ
tan 2θ1 = 2τ xy σx − σy
(6.4)
hence
(6.5)
Both angels of incline, θ1 and θ1 + π/2, meeting above condition are denoted by the principal directions indicating the principal planes. Applying the angle functions the principal stresses are simplified:
σ1, 2 =
σx + σy 2
⎛ σx − σy ± ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝
⎞ ⎟ + τ2 xy ⎟ ⎠
2
(6.6)
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Equation (6.4) is equal to equation (6.3). Since the principal directions (θ1) are obtained by equalizing equation (6.4) to zero it is concluded that: on planes on which maximum and minimum normal stresses occur (principal stresses), no shearing stresses are existent (σ1 = max, σ2 = min, τx'y' = 0). Maximum Shearing Stresses Differentiating equation 5.3 and equalizing the derivate to zero:
τ x 'y ' dθ
= −(σ x − σ y )cos 2θ + τ xy 2 sin 2θ = 0
σx − σy 2τ xy ⎞ ⎟ + τ2 xy ⎟ ⎠
2
(6.7)
hence
tan 2θ2 = −
(6.8)
τ max
⎛ σx − σy =± ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ 1 (σ1 − σ 2 ) 2
or with (6.6):
τ max = ±
(6.9)
substitution of (6.8) into (6.1) or (6.2):
σ' =
1 (σ x + σ y ) 2
(6.10)
Thus maximum shearing stresses occur on planes that are not necessarily free of normal stress, σ' = σx' = σy'.
tan 2θ2 = −
1 tan 2θ1
hence directions of 2θ2 and 2θ1 are perpendicular, or directions of maximum normal (θ1) and maximum shearing stresses (θ2) are 45° apart. example: a state of pure shear can be transformed in a state of equal but opposite principle normal stresses under an incline of θ = 45°
τyx τxy
σ2 = τxy
σ1 = τxy
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Strength of Materials 6.3 Mohr’s Circle
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Equations (6.1) or (6.2) and (6.3) can be represented graphically. Transforming the equations:
σx' − τ x 'y '
1 (σ x + σ y ) = + 1 (σ x − σ y )cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 1 = − (σ x − σ y )sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 2
squaring and adding both equations and simplifying:
2 ⎛ σx − σy 1 ⎡ ⎤ 2 ⎜ ⎢σ x ' − 2 (σ x + σ y )⎥ + τ x 'y ' = ⎜ 2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎝
⎞ ⎟ + τ2 xy ⎟ ⎠
2
(6.11)
since σx, σy and τxy are given constants in a problem they are summarised as:
⎞ ⎟ + τ2 xy ⎟ ⎠ 1 with (5.10), σ' = (σ x + σ y ), equation (5.11) is written as: 2 2 (σ x ' − σ')² + τ x 'y ' = r ²
⎛ σx − σy r² = ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝
2
(6.12)
Equation (5.12) is representing a circle or radius r in the σ,τplane, having its center at (σ',0). The ordinate of a point on the circle is the shearing stress τx'y', the abscissa is the normal stress σx'. The circle is called Mohr’s Circle of stress. The state of stress under any arbitrary plane of incline is represented graphically. Constructing Mohr’s Circle of Stress with σx, σy and τxy as given values: • • • • set up a coordinate system, horizontal axis = σ, vertical axis = τ plot both stresses for σx and σy on the σaxis respecting the algebraic sign (+/) plot the shearing stresses τxy using the opposite sign at σx (e.g. (), below the σaxis, for τxy being positive) and the correct sign at σy (e.g. (+) for for τxy (+)) connect both points by a straight line, the point of intersection with the abscissa is the center of the circle, now the circle can be drawn
The state of plane stress of an element is represented by the drawn circle. Any plane of incline is represented by a point on the circle. The angle of incline of the respected plane towards the initial x,ysystem is equal to half of the value of the counterclockwise rotation (2θ) on the circle. τ (+) τxy σy () σ' τxy (+)
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(+) 2θ σx σ
σ' =
1 (σ x + σ y ) 2
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Strength of Materials Special states of stress on Mohr’s Circle: a) b) c) state of axial tension state of pure shear hydrostatic state of stress σ' = σ0/2 τmax = σ0/2 σ x = τ0 σy= τ0 σx = σy = σ' τ = 0
6 Stress Analysis
9/10
σ' =
1 (σ x + σ y ) 2
a)
τ
τmax
σ' = σ0/2 σx = σ0 (=σ1) σ σ0 τmax = σ0/2
45°
σy = 0
σ'
b)
τ
τ0 σ x = τ0 σ
τ0
σy= τ0
σ x = τ0
σy= τ0
σ'
45°
c)
τ
σ' σ' σ
σ' σ'
σ'
θ
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Strength of Materials 6.4 Failure Theories
6 Stress Analysis
10/10
A member of a certain material subjected to an axial load can be easily tested in a tensile test. Thus the yield load and the ultimate load can be obtained. An allowed tension is defined to ensure a safe design. For any member in an bi or triaxial state of stress determining its load capacity and the parameter for a safe design is not that easy. A material specimen in a tensile test might well break along its shearing plane (45° incline, τmax = σ/2) and not along the plane of normal stress (perpendicular). Materials that are weak in shearing strength are expected to fail along the shearing planes (45° in pure tension or compression, 90° in pure torsion). Examples for materials showing such behaviour: mild steel, concrete or loam (in compression). Materials being weak in tensile strength will fail along the planes of normal stress (90° in pure tension or compression, 45° in pure torsion). Examples for materials showing such behaviour: sandstone, chalk. To enable a safe design, a certain stress limit condition has to be defined to be compared to the allowable stress being obtained by the tensile test. Only the maximum distortion energy theory will be mentioned here without indicating its derivation. It is denoted as the von Mises yield condition:
2 σ x + σ 2 − σ x σ y + 3τ 2 ≤ σ allow y xy
Principle stress trajectories and crack pattern for a rectangular beam subjected to bending:
F F
45°
compression tension
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Strength of Materials
7 Deflection of Beams
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7 Deflection of Beams
7.1 Sequence of Equations for the Deflection of elastic Beams Geometric relations, static and equilibrium conditions are taken into account to set up a sequence of equations. Recalling the image and relations for small deflections
A M A1
initial shape
B M B1
initial shape neutral axis
ρ
v
deflected shape
x c y y
geometry:
ε x, max = y εx = ρ
δx c = dx ρ
(7.1)
deflected shape
dx dx+δx
since
σ=
M⋅y M⋅y = E⋅ε , ε = I E⋅I
(7.2)
(6.1)=(6.2):
1 M = =κ ρ E⋅I
curvature
due to analytic geometry, curvature is defined as:
1 = ρ
v' '
[1 + (v') ]
3 2 2
v' = θ = slope  since v' is very small: v = deflection  due to M being
1 d²v M = v' ' = = ρ dx ² E ⋅ I
positive if oriented downward, hence:
v' ' = −
M E⋅I
initial shape
x v
considering small deflections only:
v' = −θ
deflected shape
v'
θ
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Strength of Materials Recalling the static differential relations
7 Deflection of Beams
2/4
M' =
summery:
dM dV = V and V ' = = −q ( x ) dx dx
Sequence of equations for the deflection of beams (linearelastic): v(x) θ(x) =  v'(x) M(x) =  v''(x)EI = κ(x) EI = θ'(x)EI V(x) =  v'''(x)EI = M'(x) q(x) = v'v(x)EI = V'(x) deflection of elastic curve slope of elastic curve moment – curvature relation shear force lateral load per unit length
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Strength of Materials
7 Deflection of Beams
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7.2 Table of Deflections and Slopes for common situations
system & load P
max deflection v
slope at end θ
L/2 L P
L/2
v max = v(L / 2) =
PL3 48 ⋅ EI
θ(0) = −θ(L) =
PL² 16 ⋅ EI
a L
b
Pb ⋅ 6 ⋅ EIL [(L² − b² )x − x ³] v max =
q
v max = v(L / 2) =
L
5 ⋅ qL4 384 ⋅ EI
θ(0) = −θ(L) =
qL³ 24 ⋅ EI
P
L
v max = v(L) =
PL³ 3 ⋅ EI
θ(L) =
PL² 2 ⋅ EI
q
v max = v(L) =
L
qL4 8 ⋅ EI
θ(L) =
qL³ 6 ⋅ EI
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Strength of Materials example 7.1
7 Deflection of Beams
4/4
A steel beam, consisting of a standard Isection is subjected to a dead load of g = 8 kN/m² and a traffic load of p = 5 kN/m². The spacing between the beams is 3.0 m. The total allowed deflection equals to L/300. a) Determine whether the maximum vertical deflection of the beam is within the allowed range b) Determine the vertical camber to be applied to the beam to achieve a plane system due to pure self weight of the structure. Does the system now meet the required criterion? c) The camber of the beam is to be replaced by a suspension cable at the centre of the system. Determine the pretension force in the cable.
given: L = 5.0 m, Iz = 5740 cm4, Esteel = 21 000 kN/cm²
L
a) gbeam = 8 * 3.0 = 24.0 kN/m linear force bending moment deflection
Mg =
v max,g
gL ² = 15.63kNm 8 5 ⋅ gL4 5 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 10 −2 kN / cm ⋅ (500 cm ) 4 = = = 1.62cm 384 ⋅ EI 384 ⋅ 21000 kN / cm ² ⋅ 5740 cm 4
pbeam = 5 * 3.0 = 15.0 kN/m
Mp =
v max, p
pL ² = 25.0kNm 8 5 ⋅ pL4 5 ⋅ 15 ⋅ 10 −2 kN / cm ⋅ (500cm ) 4 = 1.01cm = = 384 ⋅ EI 384 ⋅ 21000 kN / cm ² ⋅ 5740 cm 4
not sufficient!
v max = v max,g + v max, p = 2.63cm > v allow = 500 / 300 = 1.67 cm
b) height of camber = v max,g = 1.62cm
v max = − v max,g + v max,g + v max, p = 1.01cm < v allow = 1.67 cm
c) v max, P =
OK
PL3 = 1.62cm = v max,g deflection due to force at L/2 48 ⋅ EI 48 ⋅ EI 48 ⋅ 21000 kN / cm ² ⋅ 5740 cm 4 P= v= 1.62cm L3 (500 cm ) 3 P = 74.98kN pretension force
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Strength of Materials
8 Buckling
1/5
8 Buckling
Buckling is a sudden loss of stability that occurs to a member subjected to a compressive load. The system failure is caused by infinitesimal small deflections due to small imperfections being inherent in each structure. It relates to the geometry of the system (dimensions, boundary conditions, type of cross section) and the material applied (elastic modulus). 8.1 Stability of Equilibrium A vertical rigid bar (no bending) having a torsional spring of stiffness k at its support is subjected to a vertical load P. The system is displaced by a small (infinitesimal) amount. P L sinθ ≈ P L θ kθ kθ=PLθ kθ> PLθ kθ< PLθ Pcr = k/L moment caused by vertical force (small displacement) restoring moment by torsional spring neutral stability  equilibrium condition stable unstable critical buckling load L θ P P
8.2 Euler Formula for the pinended column A column with a flexural rigidity of EI with pinned supports, being free to rotate about both ends is subjected to a vertical load P. An imperfection of the system causes bending of the column (M) and horizontal deflection at its centre (v). M = P v bending moment due to deflection differential equation for the elastic curve P
v' ' = −
λ² =
M P⋅v = EI EI
P EI
applying λ, transforming the equation: being equal to an equation for simple harmonic motion having the solution:
L
v
v' '+ λ ² v = 0
v = A sin λx + B cos λx
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8 Buckling
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v(0) = v(L) = 0
A and B are determined from the boundary condition hence B = 0 and
v(0) = 0 = A sin 0 + B cos 0
v(L) = 0 = A sin λL excluding the solution A = 0, the equation is satisfied by λL = nπ
Pcr = π² EI L²
hence
P /( EI) ⋅ L = nπ
and
Euler Formula, critical load for the pinended column
The Euler Formula for the pinended column is the fundamental case for the buckling analysis. Buckling will take place in direction of the least moment of inertia of the respective cross section. 8.3 Euler Formulas for various boundary conditions Due to the boundary conditions set for a member subjected to a compressive load, the differential equation v'' = M/(EI) has different solutions. The solutions can be generalised and transformed to resemble the fundamental case of the Euler Formula for pinended columns by introducing Le as the effective length. In the analysis the effective length Le is used instead of the actual column length L. Le = KL P K = effective length factor P P
Pcr = π² EI Le ²
1
2
3
4
P
L L = Le Le = 2L L Le = 0.7L L Le = 0.5L
K=2
Pcr = π² EI 4L ²
K=1
Pcr = π² EI L²
K = 0.7
Pcr = 2 π² EI L²
K = 0.5
Pcr = 4 π² EI L²
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Strength of Materials example 8.1
8 Buckling
3/5
A pinended steel column consists of a hollow rectangular cross section. At its top end the column is supported by horizontal bracings in y and zdirections. At a height of 6.0 m a horizontal bracing is attached in direction of the zaxis. a) Determine the critical buckling load Pcr of the system b) The support at the bottom of the column is changed to a fixed support. Determine Pcr of the new system. y P given: rectangular hollow section 200 x 100 x 5 [mm] Iz = 1522.42 cm4, Iy = 512.42 cm4 z x ESteel = 21000 kN/cm² a) buckling plane xy: L e = 1000cm
π² EI z π² ⋅ 21000kN / cm ² ⋅ 1522.42cm Pcr = = = 315.5kN Le ² (1000cm)²
4
z 4m y
buckling plane xz, upper part:
π² ⋅ 21000kN / cm ² ⋅ 512.42cm 4 Pcr = = = 663.8kN Le ² (400cm)² π² EI y
6m
buckling plane xz, lower part: L e = 600cm
Pcr = π² EI y Le ² = π² ⋅ 21000kN / cm ² ⋅ 512.42cm 4 = 295.0kN (600cm)²
min(Pcr) = 295.0 kN b) buckling plane xy: L e = 0.7 ⋅ 10.0m = 700.0cm
Pcr = π² EI z π² ⋅ 21000 kN / cm ² ⋅ 1522.42cm 4 = = 644.0kN Le ² (700cm)²
buckling plane xz, upper part: L e = 400cm
Pcr = π² EI y Le ² = π² ⋅ 21000kN / cm ² ⋅ 512.42cm 4 = 663.8kN (400cm)²
buckling plane xz, lower part: L e = 0.7 ⋅ 6.0m = 420cm
Pcr = π² EI y Le ² = π² ⋅ 21000 kN / cm ² ⋅ 512.42cm 4 = 602.0kN (420cm)²
min(Pcr) = 602.0 kN
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Faculty of Technology Department of Civil Engineering
material by Karsten Schlesier
63
Strength of Materials
8 Buckling
4/5
8.4 Limitations of the Euler Formulas The derivation of the Euler Formula is based on elastic material behaviour. Thus it is only applicable within the linearelastic range of the material. A closer look is to be taken at the stress caused by the applied vertical load of the column.
Pcr = π² EI Le ²
introducing a new definition: hence: radius of gyration, transforming Pcr:
I = A ⋅ r2
r= I A
π² EAr ² Le ² P π² E critical stress σ cr = cr = A (L e / r ) 2 Pcr = Le / r
slenderness ratio
Euler Hyperbola:
critical stress versus slenderness ratio, applicable within the linearelastic range
The Euler Hyperbola provides a general solution to determine the critical stress for any column according to its slenderness ratio. For long columns (large ratio of slenderness), the Euler Hyperbola can generally be applied. Exceeding the linear elastic range of the material, the proportional limit is reached, hence the Euler Hyperbola can no longer be used. The graph representing the critical stress therefore approaches the limit stress of the material (e.g. the yield point). Thus short column failure is not a failure due to stability but due to the strength of the applied material. Further criteria considering the buckling analysis of a column of a certain material can be found in the respective national codes.
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Faculty of Technology
material by Karsten Schlesier
Department of Civil Engineering
64
Strength of Materials
8 Buckling
5/5
σ
critical stress σcr limit stress of material e.g. σy.p., σult
proportional limit no buckling, material failure
yield point
Euler Hyperbola
unstable design stable design
σ cr =
π² E (L e / r ) 2
0
ε
short intermediate long column range column range column range buckling plastically
slenderness ratio Le/r
buckling elastically
figure 8.1: critical stress diagram, Euler Hyperbola
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY Faculty of Technology
material by Karsten Schlesier
Department of Civil Engineering
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