#  All objects illuminated by radar will reflect energy to some extent.

cross section is a parameter denoted by σ, used to characterise the
scattering properties of a radar target. It represents the target’s size as seen
by the radar and has the dimensions of square metres. RCS area is not the
same as physical area, but a measure of a target’s ability to reflect radar
signals in the direction of the receiving antenna.
 RCS is defined as an area intercepting that amount of power which, when
scattered isotropically, produces at the receiver a density which is equal to
that scattered by the actual target. In general, the RCS of a target is a
function of the polarization of the incident wave, the angle of incidence, the
angle of observation, the geometry of the target, the electrical properties of
the target and the frequency of operation. Thus, two targets with the same
physical size and shape could have considerably different radar cross-
section.
 Larger RCS means that the target will be detected: at greater range, by lower
power radar sets, in poorer weather conditions, and more consistently.
Consistent detection is especially desirable for collision avoidance and other
undesirable circumstances defending.

 We have incident planner wave carrying certain power toward the Target having
certain power density. i.e QT

QT =

 The target being tracked will scattered the incident power. i.e. Pb

Pb =

 The total power in the Target will be:

Ptarget = QT.∑

inc
d
dP
|
¿
o u o + =
¿
. |
inc
d
dP
 We have incident planner wave carrying certain power toward the Target having
certain power density. i.e QT

QT =

 The target being tracked will scattered the incident power. i.e. Pb

Pb =

 The total power in the Target will be:

Ptarget = QT.∑

inc
d
dP
|
¿
o u o + =
¿
. |
inc
d
dP
The Radar sends an incident power
“QT” to the target, the target may
absorbs some of the power and
scatters the remaining power in
different direction, some of the
power is reflected back towards the
Radar i.e “Pb”. But it is very low, and
is in term of noise.
 The target may absorb some power due to
imaginary part of refractive index.
 So the total scattered power will be:

 Pscattering = =.∑ (1-α)

 σ is quantity that strikes the target & gives us
backscattered signal.
 So the σ can be derived from the back scattered power.
Pb = QT.

“σ”

Negligible
∑(1-α).GTarget
inc
d
dP
|
¿

 As the power being transmitted from the
obstacle point which behaves like an antenna is
Pscattering target.
 Pscattering target = “EIRP of the target”
 EIRP= Power scattered everywhere multiply by the gain
of the target.
EIRP= Pscattererd.Gtarget

 “EIRP of the target”=

Backscattered power of
isotrophically
i.e. Pb
¿
¿
÷
et T inc
G
d
dP
arg
). 1 ( . | o

 As the power being transmitted from the
obstacle point which behaves like an antenna is
Pscattering target.
 Pscattering target = “EIRP of the target”
 EIRP= Power scattered everywhere multiply by the gain
of the target.
EIRP= Pscattererd.Gtarget

 “EIRP of the target”=

Backscattered power of
isotrophically
i.e. Pb
Different Targets has different Gain,
depending upon its shape and structure as
we will see in the examples. The Target
“Gain” is multiplied with the “power being
scattered” in every direction ( as a
consequence of Radar incident power) which
is called EIRP. This is what we are interested
in.
(EIRP) is calculated In order to allow
assessment of the effective radiated power
in the main-radiation direction.This is equal
to the product of transmitted power Pt and
antenna gain G.

 σ = ∑(1-α)G.Target
 Let the target being tracked is supposed to
1. For ∂ >> λ ; (Sphere)
σb = ∑. GSphere
=
=
2
r t
1 .
2
r t
2. Round:

Gtarget =

σb = ∑.GTarget

2
r t =
¿
2
2 2
4
ì
t r
2
4 3
4
ì
t r
=
3. (Square) for a, b >> λ

∑ =a.b

Gtarget =

σb= ∑. GTarget

a.

b.
) . (
4
2
b a
ì
t
2
2
) . .(
4
b a
ì
t
=
3. (Square) for a, b >> λ

∑ =a.b

Gtarget =

σb= ∑. GTarget

a.

b.
If the object
dimension exceed λ
then this approach
could be used !!
) . (
4
2
b a
ì
t
2
2
) . .(
4
b a
ì
t
=
 4. Square Trihedral Reflector:
 Trihedral corner reflectors are a canonical radar
reflector frequently used to calibrate, or gauge the
 They offer the following desirable attributes:
• Fairly large Radar Cross Section (RCS) for its size.
• Fairly broad range of aspect angles with a large
RCS.
• Theoretical RCS easily calculated as a function of
aspect angle.

 4. Square Trihedral Reflector: Contd..

σb=
a
a
a
2
4
.
12
ì
t a
 5. Dumbbell Target: (R>>D)

D

θ
4
2
2
2
4
1
1
1
Pr
Pr
R
Kost
R
Kost
o
o
=
=
u
u
Sin
D R
R
Sin
D R
R
2
) (
2
) (
2
1
+
=
÷
=

4
2
2
2
4
1
1
1
Pr
Pr
R
Kost
R
Kost
o
o
=
=
u
u
Sin
D R
R
Sin
D R
R
2
) (
2
) (
2
1
+
=
÷
=
θ
D

4
2
2
2
4
1
1
1
Pr
Pr
R
Kost
R
Kost
o
o
=
=
u
u
Sin
D R
R
Sin
D R
R
2
) (
2
) (
2
1
+
=
÷
=
Range Equation:

Kost =

K
ost
 The total power received by the antenna is the sum of both the
scattered.

 Ptotal = PR1+PR2=

 The Radar is far from the target so R1≈R2≈R, therefore the total Power:

 PT = α

 Very usefull when targets are randomly distributed.
 Vtot are complex voltages ,ie Vtot = Vr1+Vr2
 The amount of complex voltages being received are:

Vr1=

Vr2=
)
2R - t
f( j 2
1
.
C
e
t
o
)
C
2R - t
f( j 2
2
.
t
o e
) ( ) Kost(
4
2
4
1
R
Kost
R
o o
+
2
| |
Tot
V ) (
4
R
Kost
Tot
o
 Evaluation of Vtot:
 Vtot= VR1+VR2

Taking common factors outside

So Dummbell will depend on distance with respect to 2 Targets , σtot is the periodic function
of V and depends of D/λ

) ( ) [(
)
2
2 2
( 2 )
2
2 2
( 2 u t u t
o
Sin
D
C C
R
t f j Sin
D
C C
R
t f j
Tot
o o
e e V
+ + ÷ ÷ + + ÷
+ =
} {
2 2 )
2
( 2
C
DSin
f j
C
DSin
f j
C
R
t f j
Tot
e e e V
o
u
t
u
t t
o
÷ ÷
+ =
)] 2 ( 2 [ .
)
2
( 2
C
DSin
f j Cos e V
C
R
t f j
Tot
o
u
t o o
t ÷
Tot Tot
V As o o
2
| | ¬
2
| 2 |
C
DSin
f Cos
Tot
u
t o o
2
| 2 |
ì
u
t o o
DSin
Cos
Tot
 From the above evaluartion it
is cleared that:

 When

 Sin (Endfire)

 When = 0,π

 Then Sin = 0 (Broadside)

2
t
t
2
t
u =
1 = u
u
u
 In the Monday lab , try to simulate relative

Radar cross section for the dummbbel target.
 D=
 R= 10000 D
 What happen if we consider multiple scatteres
distributed on a certain value ??
 Furthermore what are the guidelines necessary for
the Dummbbel Target?
Max
o
o
ì ì ì ì 100 , 50 , 20 , 10
u
N
Scatters N _
Ri
 Let us suppose that the radar is very far from
the distributed target = Ri
 For the amplitude evaluation Ri=DRo
 But different Ri(θ) should be considered for
the phase.
 Each Voltage: |Vi(Ri)| =
◦ Kost depends on Radar System
◦ Ri ≈ Ro
 |Vi(Ri)| α
o
i Pr,
4
.
Ri
i Kost o
i o
 The output voltage will be Vi(Ri)
 Finally the total voltage received will be:

o
2
| Vtot |
¿
¿
¿
¿
=
÷
=
÷
=
÷
=
÷
=
=
=
=
N
i
i Ri
j
t f j
N
i
C
i Ri
ft j
t f j
N
i
C
i Ri
ft j
t f j
N
i
C
i Ri
t ft j
e i e Vtot
e i e Vtot
e i e Vtot
e i Vtot
t
t
t
1
)
) (
( 4
. 2
1
)
) (
( 4
. 2
1
)
) ( 2
( 2
. 2
1
)
) ( 2
( 2
.
.
.
.
ì
u
t
t
u
t
t
u
t
t
u
t
o
o
o
o

Pr.

α

---------------------------
tot o
o
tot o
2
1
)
) ( (
4 (
| . |
¿
=
÷
N
i
i Ri
j
e
ì
u
t
o
2
| Vtot |
 Let us now suppose
σi= 1 constant
θ  0 to 360⁰ with step of 1⁰
Ro= 10 Km distance from the centre of the
image
f= 10 GHz

resolution
cell
u
u
Ro
m 5
m 10
50 Scatters
randomly
distributed
0
° 360
Fig: The Multilobe
structure is very
complicated now
& the result is very
noisy
u
r ot
Its better to discuss this
statistically !
 The resolution σ of randomly distributed scatters
inside the resolution cell is a random variable with
a given probabily density function PDF.
 Radar Backscattering can be used to estimate mean
{σi} inside the resolution cell.
 If we have a lot of scatters randomly distributed in
space with its own σi (not time varying)
 We can assume that the phase of each echo is
randomly distributed with a unique PDF (0,2π]
 Since the echo is the ∑ of all these phases!

 The central limit theorm ensures that
Vtot = ∑Echo
the given equation is independent of Gaussian distributions. i.e zero
mean and certain variance. N(0, )
σtot α

Pr(σ)

Vtot= |∑Echo| is Rayleigh distributed

Pvtot(V)=

} exp{
1
o
o
o
÷
σ ≥0
0 σ<0
} exp{
1
o
o
o
÷
¿
2
| |
Echo
 Hypothesis for Rayleigh / exponential
distribution:
N: Scattered randomly distributed
σi: More or less constant

--------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------
 Try to model the distribution of the σi[1 ] of
exercise 2.
 Which are 360 different distributions of 50
scatters?
 Try to find this distribution with an
exponential PDF with the σ’.
0 20 30 400

2
m
 The source PDF can be obtained considering
neither σi ≠ 1 nor constant but with exponential
 So all the radar “distributed” Layers are formed by
individual σi equal strength
 Therefore the Rayleigh/Exponential distribution is
not always applicable…!!!
1. Calibration sphere stationary reflection , no
motion:
Pσ(σ)=
2. N Scattered Randomly distributed none
dominated
Pσ(σ)=
3. N Scattered 1 dominated RCS , RCS=
Pσ(σ)=
4. Weibull PDF Leg-nesmal PDF: it can be used
to model the nature of radar returns from
land and sea clutters.

) exp(
1
o
o
o
÷
¿
+
i
RCSi ) 2 1 (
)
2
exp(
4
2
o
o
o
o
) ( o o o ÷
] [
2
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