Propulsion â ¢ Jet engine â ¢ â ¢ Rocket Spacecraft propulsion

⠢ Electric propulsion Jet Engine A jet engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet of fluid to generate thrust in accordance with Newton's third law of motion. This broad defi nition of jet engines includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets, ramjets, pulse jet s and pump-jets. In general, most jet engines are internal combustion engines bu t non-combusting forms also exist. In common usage, the term 'jet engine' generally refers to a gas turbine driven internal combustion engine, an engine with a rotary compressor powered by a turb ine ("Brayton cycle"), with the leftover power providing thrust. These types of jet engines are primarily used by jet aircraft for long distance travel. The ear ly jet aircraft used turbojet engines which were relatively inefficient for subs onic flight. Modern jet aircraft usually use high-bypass turbofan engines which help give high speeds as well as, over long distances, giving better fuel effici ency than many other forms of transport. About 7.2% of the world's oil was ultimately consumed by jet engines in 2004 In 2007, the cost of jet fuel, while highly variable from one airline to another, a veraged 26.5% of total operating costs, making it the single largest operating e xpense for most airlines. History Jet engines can be dated back to the first century AD, when Hero of Alexandria i nvented the aeolipile. This used steam power directed through two jet nozzles so as to cause a sphere to spin rapidly on its axis. So far as is known, it was li ttle used for supplying mechanical power, and the potential practical applicatio ns of Hero's invention of the jet engine were not recognized. It was simply cons idered a curiosity. Jet propulsion only literally and figuratively took off with the invention of th e rocket by the Chinese in the 11th century. Rocket exhaust was initially used i n a modest way for fireworks but gradually progressed to propel formidable weapo nry; and there the technology stalled for hundreds of years. In Ottoman Turkey in 1633 Lagari Hasan à elebi took off with what was described to b e a cone shaped rocket and then glided with wings into a successful landing winn ing a position in the Ottoman army. However, this was essentially a stunt.

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