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Underground Mining Methods

Underground Mining Methods

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10/19/2013

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Underground Mining Methods

by Dr. Arcady Dyskin & Mr. Paul Duplancic
A.V. Dyskin, UWA

Learning objectives
 Classification

of mining methods  Basic mining methods within the classification  Basic principles of selection of the mining method

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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Underground Mining Methods

Schematic layout of an idealised underground mine (Brady & Brown, 1993).
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
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Mining Terminology
 Deposit

and Spatial Terms  Excavation Terms

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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Deposit and Spatial Terms
• Back: roof, top or overlying surface of an underground excavation. • Country rock: waste material adjacent to a mineral deposit; also host rock. l h k • Crown pillar: portion of the deposit overlying an excavation and left in place as a pillar • Footwall wall: rock under the deposit • Hanging wall: wall rock above a deposit • Pillar: unmined portion of the deposit that provides support to the roof or hanging wall. • Rib: Side wall of an excavation; also rib pillar • Sill pillar: portion of the deposit underlying an excavation and left in place as a pillar
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
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Excavation Terms
• Adit: Main horizontal or near-horizontal underground opening, with single access to surface • Decline: Inclined opening driven downward to connect levels; also declined shaft and ramp h ft d • Drawpoint: Loading point beneath a stope, utilizing gravity to move bulk material downward and into a conveyance, by a chute or LHD (Load-HaulDump vehicle) • Drift: Horizontal or near horizontal opening; also drive, entry • Incline: Inclined opening driven upward to connect levels • Level: System of horizontal openings connected to a shaft; comprises an operating horizon of a mine • Orepass: Vertical or near-vertical opening through which bulk material flows by gravity • Portal: Opening or connection to the surface from an underground excavation • Raise: Vertical or near-vertical opening driven upward from one level to another
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
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Excavation Terms (Cont)
• Room: Horizontal exploitation opening, usually in a bedded deposit • Shaft: Primary vertical or near-vertical opening connecting the surface with underground workings • Slot: Narrow vertical or inclined opening excavated in a deposit at the end of a stope to provide a bench face • Stope: Large exploitation opening, usually inclined or vertical • Sublevel: secondary or intermediate level between main levels or horizons • Transfer point: Location in the materials-handling system, either haulage or hoisting, where bulk material is transferred between conveyances • Tunnel: Main horizontal or near-horizontal opening, with access to the surface at b h ends f both d • Undercut: Low horizontal opening excavated under a portion of a deposit, usually a stope, to induce breakage and caving of the deposit • Winze: Vertical or near vertical opening driven downward from one level to another
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
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A more insightful representation...

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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I. Naturally Supported Methods
A mining method based on natural support seeks to control the rock mass displacements through the zone of influence of mining, while mining proceeds. This implies maintenance of the local stability of the rock around individual excavations and more general control of displacements in the near-field domain (Brady & Brown 1993).
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
Slide 9

Room and Pillar Mining

(Bord and Pillar mining in the coal industry)
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
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Room and Pillar Mining (2)

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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Conditions
 Ore

strength: weak to moderate  Host rock strength: moderate to strong  Deposit shape: tabular  Deposit dip: low (<15 degrees), preferably flat  Deposit size: large extent – not thick  Ore grade: moderate
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
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Features
      

Generally low recovery of resource as pillars need to be left (4060%) Moderately high production rate Recovery can be improved with pillar extraction (60-80%) but caving and subsidence will occur Suitable for total mechanisation, not labour intensive High capital cost associated with mechanisation Versatile for variety of roof conditions Applications
• Bord and pillar – Coal mining region of Ipswich, Queensland • Room and pillar mining – MacArther River – North Queensland • Variation: Stope and pillar mining

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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Sublevel Stoping

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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Sublevel Stoping (2)

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Conditions
 Ore

strength: moderate to strong  Host rock strength: strong g g  Deposit shape: tabular or lenticular, regular dip and defined boundaries  Deposit dip: steep (>45-50 degrees, preferably 60-90 degrees)  Deposit size: 6-30m wide, fairly large extent  Ore grade: moderate
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
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Features
 Moderate

to high production rate  Not labour intensive – can be mechanised  Low breakage and handling cost  Inflexible and non-selective (Recovery ~70%, dilution ~ 20%)  High development costs  Limited exposure to unsafe working conditions  Applications
• Mt Isa Mines, Queensland
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
Slide 17

II. Artificially Supported Excavations
 Two

main ground control measures are used to control local stope wall behaviour and mine near-field displacements:
• Support is provided through devices such as rock-bolts, cable-bolts or grouted tendons. • Support is provided through an artificial support medium known as backfill.

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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Cut-and-Fill Stoping

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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Conditions
 Ore

strength: moderate to strong  Host rock strength: weak to fairly weak g y  Deposit shape: tabular, can be irregular, discontinuous  Deposit dip: steep(>45-50 degrees) can accommodate flatter deposits  Deposit size: 2-30m wide, fairly large extent  Ore grade: fairly high
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
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Features
 Low

development cost  High mining cost, due to backfilling operations  Permits good selectivity, is versatile, flexible and adaptable  Backfilling can disrupt mining operation  Labour intensive  Applications
• Mt Isa Mines, Queensland

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

Slide 21

Shrinkage Stoping

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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Conditions
 Ore

strength: strong (other characteristics important – should not pack, oxidise or spontaneously combust) t l b t)  Host rock strength: strong to fairly strong  Deposit shape: tabular or lenticular, defined boundaries  Deposit dip: steep(>50 degrees or angle of repose)  Deposit size: 1-30m wide – fairly large extent  Ore grade: fairly high
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
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Features
 Suited

to smaller scale operations –moderately low production  Labour intensive, dangerous work conditions  Low capital investment  Moderately selective  Majority of ore tied up in the stope  Ore subject to oxidation, packing and spontaneous combustion in stope b i i  Applications
• Limited modern use – was used at Broken Hill
 Variations:
A.V. Dyskin, UWA

Vertical Crater Retreat
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III. Unsupported Mining Methods
 Longwall

and caving mining methods are distinguished from other mining methods by the fact that that near-field rock undergoes large displacements so that mined voids become self filling. In caving methods the far-field rock may also undergo large displacements (Brady & Brown, 1993).

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

Slide 25

Longwall Mining (1)

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

Slide 26

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Longwall Mining (2)

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

Slide 27

Longwall Mining (3)

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Conditions
 Ore

strength: any, preferably weak and can be cut by continuous miner  Host rock strength: weak to moderate strength, must break and cave, floor must be non plastic  Deposit shape: tabular  Deposit dip: low (<12 degrees)  Deposit size: large extent, thin bedded and of uniform thickness  Ore grade: moderate and uniform
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
Slide 29

Features
 Extremely

high productivity, low labour requirements  Low mining cost, high capital cost  Highly mechanised  Method inflexible and rigid in layout and execution, no selectivity  Surface subsidence will occur  Applications pp
• Used in both coal and hardrock mines • Coal - Gordonstone, Oakey Creek and German Creek, Bowen Basin Central Queensland. • Metaliferous – most deep level gold mines.
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
Slide 30

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Sublevel Caving

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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Conditions
 Ore

strength: moderate to fairly strong, should competent to stand without support  Host rock strength: weak to strong, should be cavable.  Deposit shape: tabular or massive  Deposit dip: steep(>60 degrees), can be flat if the deposit is fairly thick.  Deposit size: large, extensive vertically  Ore grade: moderate
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
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Features
 High

production rate, large scale method  High recovery, high dilution  Suitable for full mechanization  Caving and subsidence occurs  Draw control important  High development costs  Some selectivity and flexibility  Applications
• Kiirunavaara iron ore mine, Kiruna, Sweden
 Variations:
A.V. Dyskin, UWA

Top slicing
Slide 33

Block Caving

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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Conditions
 Ore

strength: weak to strong, must be fractured or jointed and cave freely  Host rock strength: weak-moderate, similar to ore in characteristics  Deposit shape: massive or thick tabular, fairly regular  Deposit dip: steep(>60 degrees or vertical)  Deposit size: very large  Ore grade: low, uniform
A.V. Dyskin, UWA
Slide 35

Features
         

High productivity, low mining cost (comparable to open pit mining) Large scale method, high production rates High recovery and potentially high dilution Rock breakage by caving – no blasting costs Large scale caving and subsidence, wholesale damage to surface Good draw control essential Slow, extensive and costly development Highly mechanised Inflexible Applications
• Northparkes mine, Central NSW, El teniete, Chile
Slide 36

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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Conclusions
Selection of a suitable mining method for a deposit is a function of
• • • • • orebody geometry size geomechanical setting orebody value and spatial distribution engineering environment

A.V. Dyskin, UWA

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