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Aircraft Structures for Engineers
Vijay K. Goyal, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Puerto Rico at Mayag¨ uez,
Mayag¨ uez, Puerto Rico
Vinay K. Goyal, Ph.D.
Sr. Member of the Technical Staﬀ, Structural Mechanics Subdivision,
The Aerospace Corporation,
Los Angeles, California
M.S. / M.Eng. in Mechanical Engineering / Minor in Aerospace Engineering (for B.S.)
This material is only for students enrolled at UPRM. All others must request permision from the author.
(vijay.goyal@me.uprm.edu)
Copyright c 2008, V. K. Goyal and V. K. Goyal
Dedication
To the Almighty God: Father, Son Yeshua, and the Holy Spirit;
Vijay: my wife Maricelis and my family
Vinay: my wife Stacey and my family
“I can do all things in Yeshua who strengthens me...”
– BIBLE: Phillipians 4:13
Preface
Aerospace Structures is one of the most challenging courses to teach. It enclosed many advanced
topics while introducing some fundamental thinwalled structural analysis. This book is written for
students with a background in mechanical engineering, although the concepts are presented in a funda
mental approach allowing students from all backgrounds to beneﬁt from the material in this book.
Intended Audience
This book is intended to provide a foundation of the ﬁnite element and optimization techniques.
The target audience are senior level undergraduate and ﬁrst year graduate students who have had
little, or no, exposure to thinwalled structural analysis. Practicing engineers will also beneﬁt from
the integration approach to obtain very impressive and useful results. Thus, we can assure that
this book will ﬁll up a void in the personal library of many engineers who are trying to, or planning,
to design and analyze thinwalled structures. A background in solid mechanics, calculus, and basic
programming knowledge is required.
Motivation
When writing this textbook, we have kept the reader in mind at all times. After years of using this
manuscript, engineering graduates (from the University of Puerto Rico at Mayag¨ uez) have found
the manuscript very useful in their respective jobs. In teaching and applying these subjects for
years, we have come to the conclusion that students and engineers too often take a ”blackbox”
approach. The book also tries to bind traditional theoretical approaches with some modern nu
merical techniques. The original is proven to be an eﬀective reference in the aerospace industry,
such as Boeing and InfoTech Aerospace Services. The format of this book is studentfriendly since
each chapter begins with instructional objectives and ends with a chapter summary highlighting
the most important aspects of the chapter with an outline of ongoing research within the top
ics presented in the chapter. The authors assume that the students have little experience with
programming languages and numerical methods; thus, this is a readerfriendly book that enables
the reader to selflearn the topics. It includes a variety of examples, speciﬁcally worked with a
pedagogical approach, using a stepbystep procedure which is easy to apply to a wide range of
engineering problems. At the end of each chapter one can ﬁnd a variety of problems that are been
carefully workedout in an accompanying solution manual to the textbook, available online to the
instructors. Importance was given to emphasis on application to keep the students interested in
the subject. After the reader has completed this book, he/she will be able to:
1. Understand how and why the aircraft are designed the way they are.
2. Learn and apply the fundamentals of the linear elasticity to the analysis of thinwalled struc
tures.
3. Use numerical techniques to approximate analytical solutions.
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Mathematical Level
Readers need a strong background in linear algebra, calculus, diﬀerential equations, and program
ming. For those who have not been exposed to linear algebra, we have included an appendix that
will enable the reader to selfstudy, or review, this topic. The authors assume that the readers
have little experience with programming languages and numerical methods.
Chapter Organization and Topical Coverage
The format of this book is studentfriendly since each chapter begins with instructional objectives
and ends with a chapter summary highlighting the most important aspects of the chapter with
an outline of ongoing research within the topics presented in the chapter. It includes a variety of
examples, speciﬁcally worked with a pedagogical approach, using a stepbystep procedure which
is easy to apply to a wide range of engineering problems. At the end of each chapter one can ﬁnd
a variety of problems that have been carefully workedout in an accompanying solution manual to
the textbook, available online to the instructors. Emphasis was placed on applications to keep the
reader interested in the subject.
The contents of this book are intended for a two semester term course. All examples have
been solved using Mathematica and MATLAB
(which are available to students and instructors
through the book website).
In short, this unique book will help the reader, whether a student or a practicing engineer, to
independently learn the topics through carefully worked out examples and apply them to real aircraft
engineering design problems. Any comments and suggestions can be sent to vgoyal@uprm.edu.
Vijay K. Goyal
July 23, 2008
Course Syllabus
1. Instructor
1a. Dr. Vijay K. Goyal, Associate Professor of the Mechanical Engineering Department
1b. Oﬃce: L207
1c. Oﬃce Hours: MW: 2:30p  3:30p; Tu Th: 2:00p  3:00p or by appointment
1d. Oﬃce Phone: (787) 8324040 ext. 2111/3659 (Please do not call at home nor at my cell phone)
1e. Email: vijay.goyal@me.uprm.edu, vgoyal@uprm.edu
2. General Information
2a. Course Number: INME 4717–5717
2b. Course Title: Aircraft Structural Analysis and Design Courses
2c. CreditHours: Three of lecture and lab included
2d. Classroom: L236A
3. Course Description
Aircraft Structural Analysis and Design (INME4717): Application of solid mechanics to
analyze aerospace structures. Study of aircraft components and their design philosophy. Applica
tion of elasticity to describe the stress, strain, and displacement ﬁelds of one and twodimensional
problems in aerospace structures. Exact and approximate solutions of twodimensional structural
problems. Analysis of bending, shear and torsional theories for arbitrary, multimaterial, and mul
ticell wing crosssections. Analysis of thinwalled single and multicell stiﬀened shell beams using
analytical and numerical solutions.
Advanced Aircraft Structural Design (INME5717): Application of work and energy prin
ciples, and numerical methods, to the design of ﬂight vehicles. Study of deﬂection and load analysis
using the Principle of Virtual Work, Principle of Complementary Virtual Work, analytical weak
form solutions, and the ﬁnite element formulation. Wing design considering: fatigue, aeroelasticity,
divergence, environmental loads, aerospace materials, dynamic stability of thinwalled compression
members, and structural dynamics.
4. Pre/Corequisites
Aircraft Structural Analysis and Design (INME4717):
4a. Prerequisites: Design of Machine Elements I (INME 4011) or DIR AUTHORIZATION
Advanced Aircraft Structural Design (INME5717):
4a. Prerequisites: Aircraft Structural Analysis and Design (INME 4717) or DIR AUTHORIZA
TION
v
vi
5. Textbook, Supplies and Other Resources
5a. Class notes are posted on the class website. The oﬃcial course textbook is the course website:
http://www.me.uprm.edu/vgoyal/inme4717.html
http://www.me.uprm.edu/vgoyal/inme5717.html
5b. Other useful references:
(a) Allen, D. H., Introduction to Aerospace Structural Analysis, 1985, John Wiley and Sons,
New York, NY*.
(b) Curtis, Howard D., Fundamentals Of Aircraft Structural Analysis, First Edition, 1997,
McGraw Hill, New York, NY*
(c) Johnson, E. R., ThinWalled Structures, 2006, Textbook at Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University, Blacksburg, VA.
(d) Keane, Andy and Nair, Prasanth, Computational Approaches for Aerospace Design: The
Pursuit of Excellence, August 2005, John Wiley and Sons.
(e) Newman, D., Interactive Aerospace Engineering And Design With CDROM, First Edi
tion, Mass Institute Of Tech, 2004, McgrawHill.
(f) Sun, C. T., Mechanics of Aircraft Structures, Second Edition 2006, John Wiley and Sons
(g) Thomas, G. B., Finney R. L., Weir, M. D., and Giordano F. R., Thomas Calculus, Early
Transcendentals Update, 2003, Tenth Edition, AddisonWesley, Massachusetts. Entire
book
6. Purpose
Aircraft Structural Analysis and Design (INME4717): After completing this course stu
dents should be able to: (i) identify and understand the function of typical aircraft components, and
discuss the behavior of monocoque and semimonocoque structures; (ii) formulate multidirectional
internal loads; (iii) formulate and analyze the state of point and state of stress; (iv) identify and
evaluate various stressstrain formulations; (v) apply Hooke’s law including thermal eﬀects; (vi)
apply EulerBernoulli beam theory and Timoshenko beam theory; (vii) apply Airy Stress Func
tion; (viii) apply the classical torsional theory for prismatic beams; (ix) analyze bending, shear,
and torsion of arbitrary, multicell and multimaterial crosssectional wings.
Advanced Aircraft Structural Design (INME5717): After completing this course students
should be able to: (i) analyze load and deﬂections of statically determinate and indeterminate
structures using the Principle of Virtual Work and Principle of Complementary Virtual Work; (ii)
analyze wings using the weak form and the ﬁnite element method; (iii) analyze and design wings
based on fatigue, aeroelasticity, divergence, structural dynamics, and dynamic stability; (iv) learn
and integrate environmental loads into aerospace design.
7. Course Goals
The course will be divided into four modules. Each module has the purpose to help the student
understand and grasp the basic concept in computer aided design for mechanical engineering
problems. See website.
7a. ( %) Chapter 1. Learning About Aircraft Structures
7b. ( %)
7c. ( %)
vii
7d. ( %)
In addition to the above topics, all students will demonstrate the ability analyze a recent journal
paper provided by the instructor: the context of the report (introduction), describe clearly and
precisely the procedures used (methodology), report verbally and visually the ﬁndings (results),
interpret the ﬁndings (analysis of results), justify the solutions persuasively (conclusions), and pro
vide ﬁnal comments. The students will demonstrate the ability to make eﬀective oral presentations
and written reports using appropriate computer tools.
8. Requirements
8a. Requirements: In order to succeed in the course students are expected to:
• should attend all class sessions and be punctual
• on a daily basis check the class website
• use a nonprogrammable calculator
• do all homework
• practice all suggested problems
• take all exams
• submit all work in English
• be ready to ask any questions at the beginning of every class session
• and obtain a minimum of 69.50% in the course
8b. Grading Distribution: Total course points are 100% and are distributed as follows:
Test I 25%
Test II 25%
Test III 25%
Test IV 25%
Students should take advantage of bonus homework and projects to improve their grade
because there will be no “grade curving” at the end of the semester. Your grade will be
determined by the following ﬁxed grade scale:
A 89.500 −100+
B 78.500 −89.499
C 69.500 −78.499
D 59.500 −69.499
F 0 −59.499
Your ﬁnal grade will be scaled based on the attendance. For an example, if you miss 3 classes
and your ﬁnal grade is 100% then your oﬃcial ﬁnal grade will be 100*(42/45)=93%.
8c. Students failing to provide a successful, highstandard, computer projects may not pass the
course, as they are entitled to a grade of IF or D, regardless of their progress in the midterm
examinations, homework, small projects, among other evaluation criteria. By successful we
mean obtaining a percentage higher than 80% in overall projects. Moreover, a successful
projects do not entitle the student to pass the course either (see 8b).
viii
8d. Homework and Tests: Only your own handwritten solutions, written legibly on one side of an
8.5
11
sheet of paper will be accepted for grading. In the case of computer assignment, a
computer print out is acceptable whenever a copy of the code is included and well documented
by hand. Students are encouraged to work together on the homework, but submissions must
be the student’s own work. NO LATE HOMEWORK WILL BE ACCEPTED.
9. Laboratory/Field Work (If applicable)
9a. Cell phones/pagers: All students MUST turn oﬀ their cell phones and pagers at the beginning
of each class session. By not doing so it is considered disrespectful and students will be asked
to leave the class. Students who need to have their cell phones or pagers on at all time must
inform the instructor at the beginning of the academic semester.
9b. Smoking: Smoking is not permitted in any area other than those areas designated for smoking.
9c. Electronic Devices: Radios, tape recorders, and other audio or video equipment are not
permitted in the lab or classroom at any time. Students must consult with the professor at
the beginning of the academic semester.
9d. Laptop Computers, Notebooks, PCTablets: Students can bring their personal computers
to classroom. However this must not interfere with other student’s work nor with the class
session. Students with their personal computers are responsible for any problems with software
versions or diﬀerences with the one available in the classroom.
10. Department/Campus Policies
10a. Class attendance: Class attendance is compulsory. The University of Puerto Rico at Mayag¨ uez
reserves the right to deal at any time with individual cases of non attendance. Professors are
expected to record the absences of their students. Absences aﬀect the ﬁnal grade, and may
even result in total loss of credits. Arranging to make up work missed because of legitimate
class absence is the responsibility of the student. (Bulletin of Information Undergraduate
Studies)
Students with three unexcused absences or more may be subject to a one or two ﬁnal grade
letter drop.
10b. Absence from examinations: Students are required to attend all examinations. If a student
is absent from an examination for a justiﬁable and acceptable reason to the professor, he or
she will be given a special examination. Otherwise, he or she will receive a grade of zero of
“F” in the examination missed. (Bulletin of Information Undergraduate Studies)
In short, any student missing a test without prior notice or unexcused absence will be required
to drop the course. There will be no reposition exam. At professor’s judgment, those students
with a genuine excuse will be given an oral 15–20 minutes oral comprehensive ﬁnal exam and
it will substitute the missed examination(s).
Under no circumstances should the students schedule interviews during previously set dates
for examinations.
10c. Final examinations: Final written examinations must be given in all courses unless, in the
judgment of the Dean, the nature of the subject makes it impracticable. Final examina
tions scheduled by arrangements must be given during the examination period prescribed in
ix
the Academic Calendar, including Saturdays. (see Bulletin of Information Undergraduate
Studies).
Because of the nature of this course, the comprehensive ﬁnal exam is substituted with the course
project. During their oral presentation, students should be ready to answer any question(s)
from the course.
10d. Partial withdrawals: A student may withdraw from individual courses at any time during the
term, but before the deadline established in the University Academic Calendar. (see Bulletin
of Information Undergraduate Studies).
10e. Complete withdrawals: A student may completely withdraw from the University of Puerto
Rico at Mayag¨ uez at any time up to the last day of classes. (see Bulletin of Information
Undergraduate Studies).
10f. Disabilities: All the reasonable accommodations according to the Americans with Disability
Act (ADA) Law will be coordinated with the Dean of Students and in accordance with the
particular needs of the student. Those students with special needs must identify themselves
at the beginning of the academic semester (with the professor) so that he/she can make the
necessary arrangements according to the Oﬃce of Aﬀairs for the Handicap. (Certiﬁcation
#44)
10g. Ethics: Any academic fraud is subject to the disciplinary sanctions described in article 14
and 16 of the revised General Student Bylaws of the University of Puerto Rico contained
in Certiﬁcation 018199798 of the Board of Trustees. The professor will follow the norms
established in articles 15 of the Bylaws. The honor code will be strictly enforced in this
course. Students are encouraged to review the honor system policy which has been placed on
the class website.
All assignments submitted shall be considered graded work unless otherwise noted. Thus all
aspects of the course work are covered by the honor system. Any suspected violations of the
honor code will be promptly reported to the honor system. Honesty in your academic work
will develop into professional integrity. The faculty and students of UPRM will not tolerate
any form of academic dishonesty. MUST BE TAKEN SERIOUSLY. Any violation may
result in an automatic “F” in the course and such behavior will be reported to the Dean’s oﬃce
of the College of Engineering.
x
11. General Topics
11a. Exam and Presentation Dates: (These dates may be subject to change)
Test 1:
Module
Review session: Class Time
Exam Date: Posted on class website
Test 2:
Module
Review session: Class Time
Exam Date: Posted on class website
Test 3:
Module
Review session: Class Time
Exam Date: Posted on class website
Final Project:
Presentations (Attendance compulsory)
Date and Location to be posted on the website
11b. Course Outline:
Syllabus is subject to changes
Acknowledgments
There are many people who have made this work possible. First and foremost, I am mostly thankful
to Yeshua, for giving me the opportunity to live in this time. All my success I give to him for He has
been my strength and inspiration at all times.
Secondly, I express my special appreciation to my wife Maricelis, my son Jeremiah, and my daughter
Naarah for their support and inspiration behind this eﬀort. I could not have completed this task without
their prayers, love, understanding, encouragement, and support.
Thirdly, I would like to thank all the graduate students who collaborated to complete this book: Juan
Rein´es and Angel Quintero. In addition, many thanks to the invaluable inputs from the undergraduate
students who used the manuscript form of this book during the 2004–2008 period at the University of
Puerto Rico at Mayag¨ uez.
Lastly, I cannot leave behind all the people who have given their suggestions to this work, such as
Dr. Paul Sundaram, whom I consider my mentor. Special thanks to all the friends who encouraged and
helped me achieve this goal.
God bless and thank you all,
Vijay K. Goyal
xi
Table of Contents
List of Figures xxi
List of Tables xxvii
Chapter 1. Learning about Aircraft Structures 1
1.1 History of Aviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 PreWright Era: Early Aviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.2 The 19th Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.3 Era of StrutandWire Biplanes: 1900 to World War I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.4 Before World War II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.5 Era of PropellerDriven Airplane: During World War II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.6 Era of JetPropelled Airplane: After World War II until end of 20th Century . . . 4
1.2 What do we study in aircraft structure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.1 Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.2 Development of Aircraft Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 Loads Acting on an Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4 Rotations Acting on an Airplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5 Components of a typical Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.5.1 Wings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.5.2 Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.5.3 Horizontal stabilizer and Elevators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.5.4 Stabilator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.5.5 Vertical Stabilizer and Rudder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.5.6 Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.5.7 Ailerons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.5.8 Flaps and Slats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.5.9 Gas Turbine Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.5.10 Landing gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.6 Basic Structural Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.6.1 Wing Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.6.2 Fuselage Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.6.3 Semimonocoque Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.7 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.9 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Chapter 2. Principle of Aerodynamics 40
2.1 Aerodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.1.1 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.1.2 Newton’s Laws Of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.1.3 Conservation laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
xii
TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii
2.2 Mach Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.3 Dynamic pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.4 Aircraft Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.5 Center of Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.6 Center of Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.7 Aerodynamic Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.8 Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.8.1 How is lift generated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.8.2 No Fluid, No Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.8.3 No Motion, No Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.8.4 Factors That Aﬀect Lift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.8.5 Lift Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.9 Drag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.10 Normal Load Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.10.1 Equations of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.10.2 Steady, Level Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.10.3 Level Turn: PullUp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.10.4 Level Turn: PullDown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.10.5 Banked Turns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.12 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Chapter 3. Load Analysis 62
3.1 Newton’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
3.2 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.2.1 Importance of Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.2.2 Systems of Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.3 Load Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.3.1 Internal Force Sign Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
3.4 Load Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.4.1 Sign Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.4.2 Linear Diﬀerential Equations of Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3.5 Discrete Load Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
3.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.7 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Chapter 4. ThinWall CrossSectional Properties 110
4.1 Geometric Properties of Plane Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
4.1.1 Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
4.1.2 First Moments of Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
4.1.3 Centroid of an Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
4.1.4 Second Moments of Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
4.1.5 Polar Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
4.1.6 Radius of Gyration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
4.2 ModulusWeighted Properties of Plane Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.2.1 Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.2.2 First Moments of Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
TABLE OF CONTENTS xiv
4.2.3 Centroid of an Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4.2.4 Second Moments of Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.2.5 Polar Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4.2.6 Radius of Gyration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4.3 Properties of Plane Areas of ThinWalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
4.3.1 Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
4.3.2 First Moments of Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.3.3 Centroid of an Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.3.4 Second Moments of Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.3.5 Polar Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.3.6 Radius of Gyration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
4.5 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Chapter 5. Applied Linear Elasticity 193
5.1 Theory of Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
5.1.1 State of Stress at a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
5.1.2 Stress Convention and Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
5.1.3 Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
5.1.4 Surface Equilibrium: Cauchy’s Stress Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
5.1.5 Principal Stresses and Principal Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
5.2 State of Plane Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
5.2.1 Principal stresses for Plane State of Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
5.2.2 Principal stresses: Eigenvalue Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
5.2.3 Principal stresses: Transformation Equations Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
5.2.4 Principal stresses: Mohr’s Circle Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
5.3 Important Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
5.3.1 Octahedral Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
5.3.2 Von Mises Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
5.4 Theory of Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
5.4.1 State of Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
5.4.2 Strain compatibility equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
5.4.3 Cauchy’s relationship for Strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
5.4.4 Principal Strains and Principal Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
5.5 State of Plane Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
5.5.1 Principal strains for State of Plane Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
5.5.2 Strain Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
5.6 Alternative Stress and Strain Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
5.6.1 GreenLagrange strains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
5.6.2 Stress Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
5.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
5.8 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
TABLE OF CONTENTS xv
Chapter 6. Mechanical Behavior of Aerospace Materials 307
6.1 Constitutive Equations for Elastic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
6.1.1 Hooke’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
6.1.2 Internal Strain Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
6.1.3 Anisotropic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
6.1.4 Elastic Constitutive Relationship for Isotropic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
6.1.5 Elastic StressStrain Relationship for Orthotropic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
6.1.6 Temperature Strains in Isotropic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
6.2 Plane Stress and Plane Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
6.2.1 Consequence of Plane Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
6.2.2 Consequence of Plane strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
6.2.3 von Mises Stress in Plane Strain and Plane Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
6.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
6.4 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Chapter 7. Advanced Beam Theories 382
7.1 Beam Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
7.1.1 Basic Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
7.1.2 Principle of SaintVenant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
7.1.3 Internal Force Sign Convention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
7.1.4 Resultant Forces and Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
7.2 EulerBernoulli Beam Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
7.2.1 Displacement Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
7.2.2 Curvatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
7.2.3 Strainsdisplacement Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
7.2.4 StressStrain Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
7.2.5 Neutral Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
7.2.6 Axial Stresses for Linear Thermoelastic Heterogeneous Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
7.2.7 Equations of Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
7.2.8 Slope and deﬂection diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
7.3 Timoshenko Beam Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
7.3.1 Displacement Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
7.3.2 Strainsdisplacement Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
7.3.3 StressStrain Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
7.3.4 Axial Stresses for Linear Thermoelastic Heterogeneous Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
7.3.5 Slope and deﬂection diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
7.4 Plane Stress: Thick Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
7.4.1 Plane Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
7.4.2 StressStrain relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
7.4.3 Compatibility Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
7.4.4 Equilibrium Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
7.4.5 Plane Stress Elasticity Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
7.4.6 Plane Stress Elasticity Solution via Airy Stress Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
7.5 Classical (St. Venant
s) Torsion Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
7.5.1 Displacement ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
7.5.2 Strainsdisplacement Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
7.5.3 Stressstrain Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
TABLE OF CONTENTS xvi
7.5.4 Equilibrium Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
7.5.5 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
7.5.6 Alternative Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
7.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491
7.7 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Chapter 8. ThinWalled Beam Analysis 494
8.1 Thinwalled Beam Shear in Open Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
8.1.1 No thermal loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
8.1.2 No axial and thermal loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
8.1.3 No axial and thermal loads and symmetric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
8.1.4 No axial, distributed, and thermal loads and symmetric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
8.1.5 Procedure to Calculate the Shear Flow in Open Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
8.1.6 Shear Flow in Multiweb Junctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
8.2 Shear Center in ThinWalled Open Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
8.2.1 Deﬁnition of Shear Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
8.2.2 Static Equivalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
8.2.3 General Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
8.3 Torsion in Open ThinWalled Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
8.3.1 Prandtl’s membrane analogy for torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
8.3.2 Torsion of a Narrow Rectangular CrossSection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
8.3.3 Torsion of an Arbitrary Open Thinwalled CrossSections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
8.4 Crosssection Idealization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
8.4.1 Idealization of SemiMonocoque construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
8.4.2 Typical method to Idealize of webs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
8.4.3 Shear ﬂow and shear center in Open Idealized Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
8.5 Closed SingleCell ThinWalled Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
8.5.1 Enclosed area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
8.5.2 Bredt’s formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566
8.5.3 Shear ﬂow due to transverse shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
8.5.4 Solution procedure to obtain shear center in closed sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
8.6 Analysis of Thinwalled MultiCell Closed Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
8.6.1 Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
8.6.2 Pure Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
8.6.3 Pure Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609
8.7 Analysis of Combined Open and Closed Thinwalled sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
8.7.1 Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
8.7.2 Pure Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
8.7.3 Pure Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
8.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616
8.9 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
Chapter 9. Virtual Work Principles 623
9.1 Diﬀerential Work and Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
9.1.1 Diﬀerential Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
9.1.2 Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
9.1.3 Complementary Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626
TABLE OF CONTENTS xvii
9.2 Review of equations of linear elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626
9.3 PVW for a System of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
9.3.1 Virtual Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628
9.3.2 PVW of a particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630
9.3.3 PVW for rigid and deformable bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
9.3.4 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
9.4 PVW for Deformable Continuous Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648
9.4.1 PVW for an Elastic Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652
9.4.2 PVW for an Elastic Truss Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661
9.4.3 Stiﬀness Inﬂuence Coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 667
9.4.4 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668
9.4.5 Strain Energy: Castigliano’s First Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688
9.4.6 PVW for Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696
9.5 Principle of Complementary Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716
9.6 PCVW for a System of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717
9.7 PCVW for Continuous Deformable Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722
9.7.1 PCVW for a Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723
9.7.2 PCVW for a Truss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730
9.7.3 Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733
9.7.4 Complementary Strain Energy: Castigliano’s Second Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 744
9.7.5 PCVW for a Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752
9.7.6 PCVW for Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772
9.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777
9.9 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778
Chapter 10. Failure Theories for Static Loading 784
10.1 Uncertainties in Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785
10.1.1 Design Safety factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785
10.1.2 Margin of Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790
10.2 Ductile and Brittle Failure Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792
10.3 3D Stress State Failure Theories: Brittle Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794
10.3.1 Maximum Normal Stress Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794
10.3.2 Brittle CoulombMohr Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795
10.3.3 Comparison of MNS and BCM Criterions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796
10.4 3D Stress State Failure Theories: Ductile Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797
10.4.1 Aka Distortion Energy Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798
10.4.2 Maximum Shear Stress Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801
10.4.3 Comparison of DE and MSS Criterions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805
10.4.4 Ductile CoulombMohr Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806
10.5 Introduction to Fracture Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820
10.5.1 Fracture of Cracked Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821
10.5.2 Cracks as stress raisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821
10.5.3 Fracture toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 823
10.5.4 Fracture Mechanics: MODE I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824
10.5.5 Fracture Mechanics: Tables and Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828
10.5.6 Fracture Mechanics: Mixed Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832
10.5.7 Plastic zone size in cracked metal plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834
TABLE OF CONTENTS xviii
10.5.8 Plastic zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835
10.5.9 Plane stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 836
10.5.10Plane strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 836
10.5.11Plasticity limitations on LEFM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 836
10.5.12Fracture toughness in plane strain and plane stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838
10.5.13Superposition of Combined Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846
10.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856
10.7 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857
Chapter 11. Failure Theories for Dynamic Loading 863
11.1 Vibration Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864
11.1.1 Fundamental Natural Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864
11.2 Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870
11.2.1 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870
11.2.2 Freely falling body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870
11.2.3 Falling body with a velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872
11.2.4 Horizontally Moving Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873
11.2.5 Maximum Dynamic Load and Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873
11.3 Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880
11.3.1 Cyclic Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880
11.3.2 Fluctuating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 881
11.3.3 Fully Reversed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 882
11.3.4 Repeated (Tension) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883
11.3.5 Repeated (Compression) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883
11.4 Alternate and mean stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884
11.4.1 Ductile materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884
11.4.2 Brittle materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885
11.5 S–N Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885
11.5.1 Fatigue Regimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886
11.5.2 Endurance Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886
11.5.3 Modiﬁed Endurance Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887
11.5.4 Stress concentration factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889
11.5.5 Plotting SN Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891
11.5.6 Fatigue Theories of Fatigue Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893
11.6 Cumulative fatigue damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 917
11.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 933
11.8 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 934
Chapter 12. Structural Stability 935
12.1 Concept of Stability of Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936
12.1.1 Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936
12.1.2 Stability of equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 936
12.1.3 Various Equilibrium Conﬁgurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938
12.1.4 Methods of stability analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 939
12.2 Stability of Rigid Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940
12.2.1 Analysis of a Perfect System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940
12.2.2 Analysis of an Imperfect System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 949
TABLE OF CONTENTS xix
12.3 Stability of BeamColumns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961
12.3.1 Perfect BeamColumns (Adjacent Equilibrium Method) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961
12.3.2 Several Type of Column End Constraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 975
12.3.3 Imperfect BeamColumns (Adjacent Equilibrium Method) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986
12.3.4 Perfect BeamColumn (Energy Approach) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 992
12.3.5 Inelastic Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1002
12.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003
12.5 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1004
Chapter 13. Introduction to Aeroelasticity 1014
13.1 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1015
13.2 Static Aeroelasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019
13.2.1 Divergence Analysis of A Rigid Wing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019
13.2.2 Divergence Analysis of Flexible Straight Wings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1023
13.2.3 Divergence Analysis of Flexible Swept Wings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1028
13.2.4 Aileron Reversal speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1033
13.3 The ﬂight envelops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1034
13.3.1 Basic Maneuver V –n Diagram: No gust loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1037
13.3.2 Wing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045
13.3.3 Design Gust Load Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1048
13.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1055
13.5 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1056
Appendix A. Math Review Using MatLab 1060
A.1 What is MATLAB
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061
A.1.1 Getting Familiar with MATLAB
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061
A.1.2 Basic commands and syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1062
A.1.3 MATLAB
Help command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063
A.1.4 MFiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065
A.1.5 Programming in MATLAB
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067
A.1.6 Diary on and diary oﬀ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071
A.1.7 Graphical Display of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1072
A.1.8 Final Remarks on MATLAB
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1077
A.2 Linear Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1078
A.2.1 Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1078
A.2.2 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1086
A.2.3 Matrix and Vector Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091
A.2.4 General Rules for Matrix Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117
A.2.5 Norm of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118
A.3 Solution to Linear System of Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121
A.4 Polynomial Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
A.4.1 Lagrange Interpolation Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
A.4.2 Newton Interpolating Polynomial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1126
A.4.3 Hermite Interpolation Polynomial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1127
A.5 Roots of polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128
A.5.1 Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128
A.5.2 Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128
TABLE OF CONTENTS xx
A.5.3 Cubic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128
A.6 Eigenvalue Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1132
A.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1138
A.8 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1139
Appendix B. Overview Mohr’s Circle 1144
B.1 Mohr’s Circle in Stress Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144
B.2 Procedure for the Mohr’s Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1147
B.3 Mohr’s Circle in ThreeDimensional Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
B.4 Final Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1158
B.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1158
B.6 Suggested Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1160
Appendix C. StrainGradient Matrix Expressions 1161
List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Typical forces acting on an airplane.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Figure 1.2 Airplane rotations and body axes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Figure 1.3 Airplane parts (in blue) and their functions (in red).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Figure 1.4 Geometry and nomenclature of a wing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Figure 1.5 The angle of attack is the angle between the chord of the airfoil and the relative wind.. 15
Figure 1.6 Lift versus the angle of attack.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Figure 1.7 Body of an airplane.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Figure 1.8 Horizontal stabilizer and elevator of an airplane.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Figure 1.9 Stabilator of a ﬁghter aircraft.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Figure 1.10 Vertical stabilizer and rudder of an airplane.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Figure 1.11 Spoilers of an airplane.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Figure 1.12 Ailerons of an airplane.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Figure 1.13 Flaps and slats of an airplane.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Figure 1.14 Flaps partially deployed (left), full ﬂaps (middle), full ﬂaps with spoilers deployed
(right).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Figure 1.15 The position of the leading edge slats on an airliner (Airbus A300).. . . . . . . . . . 23
Figure 1.16 Gas turbine engines on various aircraft.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Figure 1.17 The main undercarriage and nose undercarriage of a Qatar Airways A330300 (A7
ACA).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Figure 1.18 The main undercarriage and nose undercarriage of a Qatar Airways A330300 (A7
ACA).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Figure 1.19 Wing and fuselage undercarriages on a Boeing 747.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Figure 1.20 Landing gear parts of a Boeing 737700.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Figure 1.21 Diﬀerent angles of a Boeing 757 landing gear (12 o’clock, 10 o’clock, 3 o’clock, 4
o’clock, 6 o’clock, 9 o’clock, 11 o’clock).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Figure 1.22 Spar construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Figure 1.23 Typical spar construction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Figure 1.24 (a) Spars only, (b) spars and stringers.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Figure 1.25 Wing crosssections with integrally stiﬀened skin.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Figure 1.26 Fuselage structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Figure 1.27 Monocoque and semimonocoque structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Figure 1.28 Typical semimonocoque aircraft structures.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Figure 1.29 Idealization of semimonocoque structure: (a) actual structure, (b) idealized structure.. 36
Figure 1.30 Idealization of monocoque shell: (a) actual structure, (b) idealized structure.. . . . . 36
Figure 2.1 Newton’s third law applied to aerodynamics.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Figure 2.2 Aircraft weight.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Figure 2.3 Center of pressure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Figure 2.4 Forces acting on an aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Figure 2.5 Forces acting on an aircraft during a vertical pullup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Figure 2.6 Forces acting on an aircraft during a vertical pulldown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Figure 2.7 Forces acting on an aircraft during a banked turn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
xxi
LIST OF FIGURES xxii
Figure 3.1 Positive sign convention.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Figure 3.2 Threedimensional barstructure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Figure 3.3 Free body diagrams for the threedimensional barstructure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Figure 3.4 Equilibrium element supporting a general force system under the stress convention
in the xy plane.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Figure 3.5 Equilibrium element supporting a general force system under the structural conven
tion in the xy plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Figure 3.6 Equilibrium element supporting a general force system under the elasticity conven
tion in the xy plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Figure 3.7 Machine component for example below.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Figure 3.8 Dimensionless axial load distribution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Figure 3.9 Dimensionless shear (in the y–axis) load distribution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Figure 3.10 Dimensionless shear (in the z–axis) load distribution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Figure 3.11 Dimensionless torsional load distribution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Figure 3.12 Dimensionless moment (about the y–axis) distribution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Figure 3.13 Dimensionless moment (about the z–axis) distribution.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Figure 3.14 Crosssection of the helicopter blade.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Figure 3.15 Loading on the helicopter blade.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Figure 3.16 Replacing the pressure g(x, z) with a distributed load p
y
(x).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Figure 3.17 Locating all loads at the weightedmodulus centroid.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Figure 4.1 Arbitrary cross section of a structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Figure 4.2 Arbitrary cross section of a structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Figure 4.3 Typical cross section of a thinwalled structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Figure 5.1 Solid body in equilibrium.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Figure 5.2 Solid body in equilibrium sliced with an arbitrary plane.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Figure 5.3 Complete deﬁnition of the state of stress at a point.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Figure 5.4 Shear stresses on the faces of an element at a point in an elastic body about the
zaxis.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Figure 5.5 Shear forces on the faces of an element at a point in an elastic body about the zaxis..203
Figure 5.6 This is an inﬁnitesimal element representing the state of stress for the given problem
(NOTE: Units are part of the answer). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Figure 5.7 Principal state of stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Figure 5.8 Positive stresses on a two dimensional element.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Figure 5.9 a) Stresses acting on an element in plane stress. b) Stresses acting on an element
oriented at an angle θ = α. c) Principal normal stresses. d) Maximum inplane shear stresses..231
Figure 5.10 Mohr’s circle for plane stress in the yz plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Figure 5.11 a) Stresses acting on an element in plane stress. b) Stresses acting on an element
oriented at an angle θ = α. c) Principal normal stresses. d) Maximum inplane shear stresses..236
Figure 5.12 Mohr’s circle for plane stress in the xz plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Figure 5.13 a) Stresses acting on an element in plane stress. b) Stresses acting on an element
oriented at an angle θ = α. c) Principal normal stresses. d) Maximum inplane shear stresses..240
Figure 5.14 Mohr’s circle case for uniaxial state of stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Figure 5.15 Mohr’s circle case for triaxial state of stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Figure 5.16 Mohr’s circle case for hydrostatic state of stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Figure 5.17 General state of stress for stresses acting on octahedral planes. . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Figure 5.18 Tetrahedron element at O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
LIST OF FIGURES xxiii
Figure 5.19 Deformation of a solid body from the initial conﬁguration, (
0
, to the current conﬁg
uration, (
1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Figure 5.20 The neighborhood of point P in the reference and deformed conﬁgurations... . . . . 258
Figure 5.21 Shear deformation in the reference and deformed conﬁgurations... . . . . . . . . . . . 262
Figure 5.22 Three strain gauges at the surface of a solid: 3gage rosette.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Figure 5.23 Mohr’s circle for plane strain in the xy plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Figure 6.1 Uniaxial loadingunloading stressstrain curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Figure 6.2 Strain energy density.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Figure 6.3 Mohr’s circle case for the principal state of stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Figure 7.1 Sign convention for stress resultants on a beam cross section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Figure 7.2 Stresses acting on a beam’s crosssectional diﬀerential volume.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Figure 7.3 Decomposition of the axial displacement ﬁeld.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388
Figure 7.4 Deﬁnition of curvature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Figure 7.5 Bending of a beam element of length dx in the xy plane.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
Figure 7.6 Crosssection of the helicopter blade.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
Figure 7.7 Shear deformation of a beam element about the zaxis.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Figure 7.8 Crosssection of the helicopter blade.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Figure 7.9 Cantilever rectangular beam carrying a point load at the tip.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Figure 7.10 Cantilever rectangular beam carrying a uniform shear load on upper surface.. . . . . 451
Figure 7.11 Simplysupported rectangular beam carrying a uniform normal load on upper surface..460
Figure 7.12 Cylindrical bar of arbitrary crosssection in pure torsion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Figure 7.13 Cylindrical bar of arbitrary crosssection in pure torsion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Figure 7.14 Representation of stress state along edge of solid crosssection under torsion.. . . . . 479
Figure 7.15 Representation of stress state at top crosssection of rod under torsion.. . . . . . . . 480
Figure 7.16 Linear elastic torsion of a shaft with a rectangular crosssection.. . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Figure 7.17 Linear elastic torsion of a shaft with a parabolic crosssection.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Figure 8.1 Open thinwalled section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Figure 8.2 Shear stress in open thinwalled section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
Figure 8.3 Shear ﬂow in arbitrary open thinwalled section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 497
Figure 8.4 Diﬀerential element of a thinwalled beam showing shear ﬂow and bending stress.. . 498
Figure 8.5 Shear ﬂow convention in thinwalled open channel section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
Figure 8.6 Unsymmetrically thinwalled channel section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
Figure 8.7 Shear ﬂow convention for the given thinwalled channel section.. . . . . . . . . . . . 506
Figure 8.8 Shear ﬂow on a diﬀerential portion of a multiweb junction.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
Figure 8.9 Shear ﬂow convention.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Figure 8.10 Tiploaded cantilever beam: twisting and bending (ﬁrst & two), and bending only
(third).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Figure 8.11 Vertical and horizontal applied shear forces.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Figure 8.12 Location of the shear center of a thinwalled open section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523
Figure 8.13 Unsymmetrically thinwalled channel section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
Figure 8.14 Suggested shear ﬂow convention for statically equivalence by taking the torque at
point 3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
Figure 8.15 Suggested shear ﬂow convention for statically equivalence by taking the torque at
point 2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525
Figure 8.16 Shear ﬂow convention.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
Figure 8.17 Membrane analogy: inplane and transverse loading.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
LIST OF FIGURES xxiv
Figure 8.18 Equilibrium of element of a membrane.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Figure 8.19 Torsion of a narrow rectangular strip.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
Figure 8.20 Representation of crosssection for membrane analogy and the sideview of the mem
brane under pressure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
Figure 8.21 Arbitrary open thinwalled crossSection.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Figure 8.22 Actual thinwalled section and idealized section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
Figure 8.23 Actual thinwalled section and idealized section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
Figure 8.24 Idealization of a thin rectangular wall into two concentrated areas.. . . . . . . . . . . 545
Figure 8.25 Idealization of a thin rectangular wall into two concentrated areas.. . . . . . . . . . . 547
Figure 8.26 Actual thinwalled section and idealized section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
Figure 8.27 Symmetrically thinwalled channel section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
Figure 8.28 Shear ﬂow convention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
Figure 8.29 Shear ﬂow convention for statically equivalence when taking the torque at point 2.. . 555
Figure 8.30 Shear ﬂow convention for statically equivalence when taking the torque at point 3. . 556
Figure 8.31 Area enclosed by the contour.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
Figure 8.32 Thinwalled, single cell beam with an arbitrary crosssectional contour.. . . . . . . . 566
Figure 8.33 Thinwalled element in its undeformed and deformed conﬁgurations.. . . . . . . . . . 567
Figure 8.34 Geometry of the contour.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
Figure 8.35 Superposition of shear ﬂows: problem consisting of an open section and a section
with a constant shear ﬂow.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
Figure 8.36 Symmetrical thinwalled monocoque closed section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
Figure 8.37 Shear ﬂow convention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590
Figure 8.38 Shear ﬂow convention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
Figure 8.39 Shear ﬂow convention for statically equivalence when taking the torque at point O.. 593
Figure 8.40 Shear ﬂow convention for statically equivalence when taking the torque at point O. . 594
Figure 8.41 Shear ﬂow convention for statically equivalence when taking the torque at point O. . 599
Figure 8.42 Multicell thinwalled beam.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
Figure 8.43 Shear ﬂow in a Multicell thinwalled beam crosssection.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602
Figure 8.44 A twocell thinwalled section under torsion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
Figure 8.45 A typical hybrid thinwalled wing section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
Figure 8.46 A hybrid thinwalled section under torsion.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
Figure 8.47 Hybrid thinwalled wing section.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613
Figure 9.1 Force vector and displacement vector at a location s.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
Figure 9.2 Diﬀerential work done.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
Figure 9.3 Virtual work done.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
Figure 9.4 Complementary Virtual work done.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626
Figure 9.5 Virtual work done.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
Figure 9.6 Particle in equilibrium subject to n forces.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630
Figure 9.7 System of particles showing both external and internal forces.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
Figure 9.8 Rigidbars conﬁguration for Example 9.1.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636
Figure 9.9 Rigidbars conﬁguration for Example 9.2.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640
Figure 9.10 Rigidbars conﬁguration for Example 9.3.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644
Figure 9.11 Elastic bar subject to a load P undergoing a virtual displacement.. . . . . . . . . . . 652
Figure 9.12 Point force acting on a clamped bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655
Figure 9.13 Elastic truss bar.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661
Figure 9.14 Undeformed and deformed states of the q
th
elastic truss bar.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662
LIST OF FIGURES xxv
Figure 9.15 Planar truss conﬁguration.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668
Figure 9.16 Idealized landing gear truss structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670
Figure 9.17 Four bar truss structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
Figure 9.18 Four bar truss structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678
Figure 9.19 Representation of a single bay of a wing spar truss.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683
Figure 9.20 Virtual strain energy density per unit volume and virtual complementary strain
energy density per unit volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688
Figure 9.21 Four bar truss structure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692
Figure 9.22 Distributed load acting on a clamped beam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698
Figure 9.23 Distributed load acting on a simplysupported beam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707
Figure 9.24 Nondimensional axial displacement with one and ﬁve term approximation. . . . . . . 714
Figure 9.25 Nondimensional transverse displacement with one and ﬁve term approximation. . . . 714
Figure 9.26 Nondimensional lateral displacement with one and ﬁve term approximation. . . . . . 715
Figure 9.27 System in its deformed and undeformed state. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717
Figure 9.28 Virtual loads acting on the system of particles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718
Figure 9.29 Two rigid pinconnected members joined by a spring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719
Figure 9.30 Elastic bar subject to a virtual load δP.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723
Figure 9.31 Uniform, homogeneous, elastic bar subject to an axially distributed load. . . . . . . . 727
Figure 9.32 Elastic truss bar.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 730
Figure 9.33 Planar truss conﬁguration.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733
Figure 9.34 Truss structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735
Figure 9.35 Truss structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739
Figure 9.36 Virtual strain energy density per unit volume and virtual complementary strain
energy density per unit volume. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744
Figure 9.37 Truss structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747
Figure 9.38 Distributed load acting on a simplysupported beam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754
Figure 9.39 Distributed load acting on a simplysupported beam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759
Figure 9.40 Distributed load acting on a simplysupported beam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772
Figure 9.41 Truss bar structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779
Figure 9.42 Strutbraced wing subjected to a point load P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
Figure 9.43 Distributed load acting on a simplysupported beam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781
Figure 9.44 Elastic circular arch supporting a load P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 782
Figure 9.45 Idealized trussbar structure supporting a load P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
Figure 10.1 Three modes of fracture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820
Figure 11.1 Typical SN diagram for ferrous materials.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886
Figure 12.1 Equilibrium states. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938
Figure 12.2 One degree of freedom structural conﬁguration, α = 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 940
Figure 12.3 Summary of the primary and secondary path stability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 947
Figure 12.4 One degree of freedom structural conﬁguration, α > 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 949
Figure 12.5 Linear response for various levels of imperfection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 950
Figure 12.6 Nonlinear response for various levels of imperfection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 951
Figure 12.7 One degree of freedom structural conﬁguration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 952
Figure 12.8 Summary of the primary and secondary path stability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 959
Figure 12.9 Load and frequency plots against vertical deﬂection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 960
Figure 12.10 A simplysupported beam column subject to an axial load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964
Figure 12.11 Cantilevered beam column subject to an axial load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 967
LIST OF FIGURES xxvi
Figure 12.12 A clampedspring supported beam column subject to an axial load. . . . . . . . . . . 970
Figure 12.13 Response for various levels of load imperfection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 989
Figure 12.14 Response for various levels of geometric imperfection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 991
Figure 12.15 A simplysupported beam column subject to an axial load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995
Figure 12.16 Beam column with unsymmetrical supports subject to an axial load. . . . . . . . . . 999
Figure 12.17 Conﬁguration case A.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1006
Figure 12.18 Conﬁguration case B.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007
Figure 12.19 Conﬁguration case C.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008
Figure 12.20 Rigid bar with a concentrated mass and spring system.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009
Figure 12.21 A springsupported beam column subject to an axial load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011
Figure 12.22 A simplysupported beam column subject to an axial load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012
Figure 13.1 Interdisciplinary nature of the ﬁeld of aeroelasticity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1015
Figure 13.2 The aeroelastic triangle of loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016
Figure 13.3 A twodimensional rigid wing model to study divergence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019
Figure 13.4 The divergence dynamic pressure with respect the angle of attack. . . . . . . . . . . 1021
Figure 13.5 Slender straight wing subject to distributed torsional load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1023
Figure 13.6 Small element with the diﬀerential loads acting on the wing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1024
Figure 13.7 Top view of an aircraft with swept wings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1028
Figure 13.8 Reverse airﬂow: forwardswept wing vs. aft swept wing.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1030
Figure 13.9 Aerodynamic axes on a twodimensional model.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1038
Figure 13.10 Lift coeﬃcient vs. angle of attack.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1039
Figure 13.11 The V –n diagram for a typical aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1040
Figure 13.12 Maneuver V –n diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1043
Figure 13.13 Aircraft subject to gust loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1048
Figure 13.14 Aircraft subject to gust loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050
Figure A.1 Basic MATLAB
working environment.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063
Figure B.1 Typical Mohr’s circles for a given state of stress.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145
Figure B.2 Sketch of the given information on the Mohr’s circle.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1148
Figure B.3 a) Stresses acting on an element in plane stress. b) Stresses acting on an element
oriented at an angle θ = α. c) Principal normal stresses. d) Maximum inplane shear stresses..1151
Figure B.4 Mohr’s circle for plane stress in the xy plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1154
Figure B.5 a) Stresses acting on an element in plane stress. b) Stresses acting on an element
oriented at an angle θ = α. c) Principal normal stresses. d) Maximum inplane shear stresses..1156
List of Tables
Table 7.1 Shear constant for various crosssections (Shames and Dym).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Table 10.1 Semiquantitative assessment of rating factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790
Table 10.2 Plane strain fracture toughness and corresponding tensile properties for representative metals
at room temperature. “Mechanical Behavior of Materials”, by N.E. Dowling, PrenticeHall Inc,
NJ, 1999. Page 291. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828
Table 12.1 Eﬀective length coeﬃcient C
L
for several type of column end constraints . . . . . . . . 975
xxvii
Chapter 1
Learning about Aircraft Structures
Instructional Objectives of Chapter 1
After completing this chapter, the reader should be able to:
1. Understand how aerospace structures have evolved with history.
2. Identify the main aerodynamic loads acting on airplanes.
3. Explain the major structural components of an aircraft and understand their func
tion(s).
4. Understand the use of semimonocoque structures in modern aircraft.
Before we begin our journey to study aircraft structures let us understand what we mean by aircraft
structures. We can deﬁne aircraft structures as the study of methods for designing and manufacturing
aircraft, and ensuring they withstand any stress or strain. Although we could spend several books on the
subject, for this introductory study we will limit our study to the few major structural components of
an aircraft such as wing ribs, stringers or longerons, spars, heavy frames and bulkheads, skin, and truss
components. These structural components play an important role most aircraft’s structural integrity.
Their location, weight, design, material, etc. are crucial for an optimum design.
In this chapter we will learn how structural components in modern aircraft have evolved. Followed
by a brief explanation of the typical loads acting on an aircraft and what are roles of the various
components on a typical aircraft. We conclude this chapter studying the diﬀerence of monocoque and
semimonocoque structures.
1
1.1. HISTORY OF AVIATION 2
1.1 History of Aviation
Before we begin the study of aircraft structures let us review the history of aviation at a glance. This will
help us better understand the whywedowhatwedo. We deﬁne aviation as the design, manufacture,
use, or operation of aircraft. By aircraft we mean any vehicle capable of ﬂying. Mainly, we have two
kinds of aircraft: (i) heavierthanair (airplanes, autogiros, gliders, helicopters, and ornithopters), (ii)
and lighterthanair (balloons and airships).
Man has always wanted to overcome the challenges to move through air, water and ground. When
man succeeded to travel through water and on ground, he dreamed to soar with the birds. These dreams
caused accidents due to structural failures. Icarus, from the Greek mythology, is famous for his death
caused when the sun melt the wax holding his artiﬁcial wings together. Years later, inventors such as
Leonardo Da Vinci, John Stringfellow, and Lawrence Hargrave designed intriguing ﬂying machines long
before the Wright brothers’ famous ﬁrst ﬂight at Kitty Hawk.
1.1.1 PreWright Era: Early Aviation
Roughly speaking, the ﬁrst type of aircraft was a kite. It was designed in China during the ﬁfth century
by Mozi and Lu Ban. These ﬁrst kites were made with silk using bamboo as the framework. During
the thirteenth century, Roger Bacon, famous Franciscan friars, concluded that air could support a craft
just like water supports boats. Later during the sixteenth century, Leonardo da Vinci while studying
the birds’ ﬂight designed the airscrew, leading to the propeller later on and the parachute. Leonardo
was a pioneer in the design of heavierthanair crafts. Although his designs were not successful, we
was the ﬁrst to conclude that the human power was insuﬃcient to generate ﬂight. His three most
important contributions are: (i) the helicopter powered by four men, (ii) the light hang glider, (iii) and
the ornithopter (a machine with mechanical wings which ﬂap to mimic a bird).
In June of 1783, in Annonay (France), the Montgolﬁer brothers (Joseph and Jacques), were the ﬁrst
to succed in launching a human to air. Their design consisted in a hot air balloon made of silk and lined
with paper to trap the gas, called the Montgolﬁere. This ﬁrst successful ﬂight lifted 6,562 feet into the
air, traveled more than a mile and stayed aloft for about ten minutes.
The Montgolﬁers believed they discovered a new gas (called Montgolﬁer gas) when they held a ﬂame
near the opening at the bottom, and the balloon expanded with hot air and ﬂoated upward. They
thought that this gas was lighter than air and caused the inﬂated balloons to rise. The gas was merely
air, which became more buoyant as it was heated.
1.1.2 The 19th Century
During the ninth century, new developments took place in the ﬁeld of stability and trust generation.
Lawrence Hargrave designed a box kite in 1893, followed by Alexander Graham Bell who experimented
with box kites and wings built of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in silk (19071912). Bell
named this tetrahedral kites Cygnet I, II and III. Jean Marie Le Bris designed a glider with movable
1.1. HISTORY OF AVIATION 3
wings.
The greatest impact, during the ninth century, to the aviation industry was the integration of motors
to aircraft. John Stringfellow designed a steam engine powered aircraft, Lawrence Hargrave designed a
rigidwing aircraft with ﬂapping blades operated by compressedair motor and the rotary engine, which
powered many early aircraft up until about 1920. They realized that successful powered ﬂight required
light gasoline engines instead of the cumbersome steam previously used. Samuel Langley designed the
ﬁrst heavierthan air gasoline powered engine which actually ﬂew, called the aerodrome. This aircraft
was powered by a 53 horsepower 5cylinder radial engine.
Also, during this century, British Sir George Cayley designed a combined helicopter and horizontally
propelled aircraft while Francis Herbert Wenham studied the behavior of multiple wings aircraft using
wind tunnels.
1.1.3 Era of StrutandWire Biplanes: 1900 to World War I
The ﬁrst heavierthanair machine powered ﬂight took place on December 17, 1903 (10:35am). It was
the famous Wright Bothers, Orville and Wilbur, ﬁrst ﬂight. This ﬂight lasted 12 second and covered
a distance of 120 feet. Their mayor breakthrough was the invention of the “three axiscontrol”, which
enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft eﬀectively and maintain its equilibrium. This has been become
the standard on ﬁxed wing aircraft of all kinds. Unfortunately, on September 17, their aircraft crashed
injuring Orville and his passenger Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge. Selfridge later died due to compli
cations, making him the ﬁrst person to die in a powered airplane. In 1908, Wilbur completed a 2 hour
and 20 minute ﬂight, showing full control over his ﬂyer. The ﬂyer became the ﬁrst successful military
airplane and it remained in service for around two years.
On July 4, 1908, Glenn H. Curtiss ﬂew the “June Bug” 5090 ft in 1 minute and 42.5 seconds. Curtiss
achieved the following: (i) the ﬁrst American award the Scientiﬁc American Trophy, (ii) win the ﬁrst
international speed event, (ii) and the ﬁrst American to develop and ﬂy a seaplane.
In 1913, A. V. Roe built the ﬁrst tractor biplane. It consists of twowinged airplanes with engine
and propeller in front of the wing. Years later, the military used the tractor biplanes with a closed
fuselage as the ﬁrst standard military aircraft. During the World War I, began the development of
huge biplane bombers with two to four engines. Not only the military used aircraft, but the airmail
also began using aircraft: on September 23, 1911 the pilot Earle Ovington completed the ﬁrst airmail
oﬃcially approved by the U.S. Post Oﬃce Department. Also in 1911, Calbraith P. Rogers completed
the ﬁrst transcontinental ﬂight across the U.S.
1.1.4 Before World War II
During the period of 1910 to 1930, the aviation industry greatly grew. In 1919, Captain E. F. White
made a nonstop ﬂight from Chicago to New York; later in 1923, Lieutenants Oakley Kelly and John
A. Macready made the ﬁrst nonstop transcontinental ﬂight from Roosevelt Field, Long Island to Rockwell
Field. In 1924, Douglas World Cruiser was developed for the U.S. Army Air Service for an attempt to
1.2. WHAT DO WE STUDY IN AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE? 4
make the ﬁrst ﬂight around the world.
One of the most successful designs during this period, was the Douglas DC3 which became the ﬁrst
airliner to exclusively carry passengers, starting the modern era of passenger airline service. Also, mail
delivery was impacted by the Kelly Air Mail act. This act authorized the postmaster general to contract
for domestic airmail service with commercial air carriers. It also set airmail rates and the level of cash
subsidies to be paid to companies that carried the mail. By transferring airmail operations to private
companies, the government helped create the commercial aviation industry.
1.1.5 Era of PropellerDriven Airplane: During World War II
By the beginning of World War II, many towns and cities had built airports, and there were numerous
qualiﬁed pilots. The war brought many innovations to aviation such as the ﬁrst jet aircraft and the ﬁrst
liquidfueled rockets. The largest operator of all international airlines in operation was Pan American
Airways, serving 46 countries and colonies. Before World War II, only about 193,000 people were
employed in the aviation industry; and after 1941, the number increased to almost 450,000.
1.1.6 Era of JetPropelled Airplane: After World War II until end of 20th
Century
In August of 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the world’s ﬁrst aircraft to ﬂy under turbojet power,
thus becoming the ﬁrst practical jet plane. The ﬁrst operational turbojet aircraft, the Messerschmitt Me
262 and the Gloster Meteor, entered service towards the end of World War II in 1944. Civilian aircraft
orders drastically increased from 6,844 in 1941 to 40,000 by the end of 1945. One of the minor military
contractors was the Boeing Company who later became the largest aircraft manufacturer in the world.
New aerodynamic designs, metals, and power plants would result in highspeed turbojet airplanes. These
planes would later be able to ﬂy supersonically and make transoceanic ﬂights regularly.
During the 20th century, Burt Rutan designed hundreds of aircraft, including the nowfamous Voy
ager, which was piloted by Dick, his brother, and Jeana Yeager in 1986 on a recordbreaking nineday
nonstop ﬂight around the world. The Voyager held 1,200 gallons of fuel in its 17 fuel tanks, and
maintained an average speed of 115.8 mph. lasted 9 days, 3 minutes, 44 seconds and covered 25,012
miles.
1.2 What do we study in aircraft structure?
By aircraft structure we refer to study and analyze how the plane is built. An aircraft must be lightweight,
but stress and strain resistant at the same time. The analysis of aircraft is quite complex, not only for its
design but also due to the loads it is subject. The aircraft experiences many forces during ﬂight and its
structural components must be able to resist to these static and dynamics loads. What makes aircraft
structural design unique t from other structural ﬁelds (such as buildings or ships) is that the aircraft
1.2. WHAT DO WE STUDY IN AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE? 5
must be both lightweight and strong.
1.2.1 Design Philosophy
The main forces acting on an aircraft during ﬂight are lift, drag, thrust and weight. The structural
components of an aircraft aﬀect directly or indirectly all of these four forces. However, the structure
determines the aircraft’s weight. The total weight of the plane consists in: the aircraft itself (empty
weight) plus the passengers, crew, baggage and freight (payload), and the fuel. This known as the takeoﬀ
weight. There must be enough lift to get the total weight of the aircraft into the air. Engineers also
consider cruising weight and landing weight. These weights are the totals of the empty weight, payload
weight, and the weight of the fuel at the time.
As an aircraft prepares to takeoﬀ, we must keep the following in mind: (i) the aircraft must be able to
lift the takeoﬀ weight from the ground before the end of the runway; (ii) and the amount of fuel carried
by the aircraft will depend on the traveling distance and the payload weight. Tradeoﬀs may have to be
made. Lighter payloads for shorter runways; larger aircrafts with more fuel to carry heavy payloads long
distances. Hence, weight becomes very important.
The aircraft structural design teams are responsible to design aircraft to withstand all static and
dynamic (transient and suddenly applied) loads. This team should keep the following goals in mind:
1. SAFE LIFE: Consists in designing each part for minimum weight and yet assuring they will last
for a long time.
2. FAIL SAFE: Consists in designing the aircraft’s components in such a coordination that if one
unit fails, the other units will take on the load. In other words, the overall airframe (structure) is
designed so that failure in one component doesn’t cause the whole aircraft to fall apart.
1.2.2 Development of Aircraft Structures
Early aircraft were built from very lightweight materials such as bamboo, wood, and fabric. They design
was similar to bridges, with beam and truss structures. As for an example, the wings on the Wright
Flyer formed a truss: the two wings used wires and bars diagonally (at an angle) to strengthen the wing
against aerodynamic forces.
In general, inside the wings we had truss structures. The bars inside were called spars. The wires
used on the diagonals strengthened the wing. The spars, plus the spar caps at each end, were shaped to
give the wing aerodynamic features. This shape is often called the airfoil.
As technology has grown, so have the manufacturing techniques. Hence, in the early twentieth
century, metal rods and pieces began to replace the wooden components. Metal skins, rolled very thin
were weatherresistant as opposed to the fabric skins. The ribs and spars of the plane were made by
riveting many pieces together. When aluminum alloys became available at the end of the 1920’s, ribs
and spars were often stamped (cut) out of whole aluminum sheets.
1.3. LOADS ACTING ON AN AIRCRAFT 6
At ﬁrst, when the aircraft ﬂew, the wood or metal frame took all of the stress. The fabric or thin
metal skin could not withstand any of the load. Later, thicker metal skin was put on airplane frames.
This thicker skin was able to share the stress. The metal frame could then be made of lighter metal.
Hence, the aircraft’s ﬁnal weight was lighter!
Throughout the years, with the use of metals, the basic aircraft design changed. The original biplane
design (two wings) with struts and bracing wires, was no longer eﬃcient at the higher speeds. The spars
and wires caused more drag at higher speeds. By using metal skins to carry some of the load (of the
frame) made the biplane design no longer necessary. Monoplanes (single wing) create much less drag
than a biplane. Also, the monoplane did not have the struts and wires sticking out, like the biplane.
Nowadays, aircraft industry is moving towards developing aircraft with even materials that are even
lighter such as composite materials. In fact, the design work continues in the ﬁeld of aircraft structures
for a better balance of weight and strength.
1.3 Loads Acting on an Aircraft
Figure 1.1: Typical forces acting on an airplane.
A force is something that produces a change in a physical quantity. It is a vector quantity and thus
has both a magnitude and a direction. Figure 1.1 shows the typical forces that act on an aircraft during
ﬂight. These four forces are:
1. WEIGHT (W): Weight is a force directed toward the center of the earth (downwards force). Its
1.4. ROTATIONS ACTING ON AN AIRPLANE 7
magnitude will depend on the mass of all the aircraft’s components, the amount of fuel, and any
payload on board (people, baggage, freight, etc.). Although the total weight may be distributed
throughout the airplane, its resultant acts through the center of gravity. In fact, we want our
aircraft to rotate about its center of gravity.
2. LIFT (L): For an aircraft to ﬂy it must overcome the total weight of the aircraft. This force
is called lift. Lift is generated by the aircraft’s motion through air and its an aerodynamic force.
Aerodynamic is a combination of two words aero and dynamic: aero stands for the air, and
dynamic denotes motion. Hence an aerodynamic load may be deﬁned as a load produces as an
aircraft moves though air. The aerodynamics load lift is perpendicular to the ﬂight direction and
its magnitude will depend on several factors such as the shape, size, and aircraft velocity. Each
aircraft part will experience certain list and the sum of these “lift forces” gives the total lift acting
on the aircraft. Most of the aircraft’s lift is generated by the wings. The aircraft lift acts through
a single point called the center of pressure
1
.
3. DRAG (D):
During ﬂight, there is another aerodynamic force which opposes the motion called drag. Drag acts
along, but opposed, to the ﬂight direction. As in the case of lift, many factors aﬀect the magnitude
of the drag force such as the shape of the aircraft, the “stickiness” of the air and the aircraft
velocity. Just as the weight and lift, each of the of the individual components’ drags combine to
produce the total aircraft drag. And like lift, drag acts through the aircraft center of pressure.
4. THRUST (T): In order to overcome drag, an aircraft uses a propulsion system to generate
thrust. Thrust is a propulsion force and its direction depends on how the engines are attached to
the aircraft. On some aircraft, such as the Harrier, the thrust direction can change to help the
aircraft take oﬀ in a very short distance. The magnitude of the thrust will depends on factors
associated with the propulsion system such as the type of engine, the number of engines, and the
throttle setting.
For jet engines, it is often confusing to remember that aircraft thrust is a reaction to the hot gas
rushing out of the nozzle. The hot gas goes out the back, but the thrust pushes towards the front.
The aircraft motion will depend on the relative strength and direction of the forces shown in Fig. 1.1.
If the forces are balanced, then it is said that the aircraft cruises at constant velocity. If the forces are
unbalanced, the aircraft accelerates in the direction of the largest force.
1.4 Rotations Acting on an Airplane
The aircraft motion is a threedimensional motion. Hence, we need to control the attitude or orientation
of a ﬂying aircraft in all directions. In ﬂight, any aircraft will rotate about its center of gravity. We
can deﬁne a threedimensional coordinate system through the center of gravity with each axis of this
coordinate system perpendicular to the other two axes. We can then deﬁne the orientation of the aircraft
by the amount of rotation of the parts of the aircraft along these principal axes, as shown in Figure 1.2.
1
The center of pressure is deﬁned just like the center of gravity, but using the pressure distribution around the body
instead of the weight distribution.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 8
Figure 1.2: Airplane rotations and body axes.
The yaw axis is perpendicular to the plane of the wings with its origin at the center of gravity and
directed towards the bottom of the aircraft. A yaw motion is a movement of the nose of the aircraft
from side to side. The pitch axis is perpendicular to the yaw axis and is parallel to the plane of the
wings with its origin at the center of gravity and directed towards the right wing tip. A pitch motion
is an up or down movement of the nose of the aircraft. The roll axis is perpendicular to the other two
axes with its origin at the center of gravity, and is directed towards the nose of the aircraft. A rolling
motion is an up and down movement of the wing tips of the aircraft.
1.5 Components of a typical Aircraft
Now that we have a fairly good idea about aircraft, let now us discuss its main parts and their functions.
An aircraft is designed to move people and/or cargo from one place to another through air. Their
shapes and sizes vary depending on the mission of the aircraft. The aircraft shown in Figure 1.3 is a
turbinepowered aircraft used here to represent most civil transport aircraft.
As previously mentioned, an aircraft ﬂies by lifting its total weight. As the aircraft moves through
air, the wings generate most of the lift to hold the plane in the air; the jet engines provide the necessary
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 9
Figure 1.3: Airplane parts (in blue) and their functions (in red).
thrust to push the airplane forward and overcome the aerodynamic drag. Some aircraft use propellers
instead of jets as their propulsion system.
The tail of the plane has built in smaller wings to help control and maneuver the aircraft. The
tail usually has a ﬁxed horizontal part known as the horizontal stabilizer, and a ﬁxed vertical part
known as the vertical stabilizer. The job of the stabilizers is to provide stability for the aircraft and to
help maintain a straight ﬂight. The vertical stabilizer keeps the nose of the plane from yawing, while
the horizontal stabilizer prevents a pitching motion. The stabilizers are controlled through automatic
controls.
At the rear of the wings and stabilizers are small moving sections that are attached to the ﬁxed
sections by hinges. Changing the rear portion of a wing, will change the amount of force produced by
the wing. This ability to change forces helps to control and maneuver the airplane. Let us understand
the purpose of one of these four sections:
1. The hinged part of the vertical stabilizer is called the rudder and it is used to deﬂect the tail to
the left and right as viewed from the front of the fuselage.
2. The hinged part of the horizontal stabilizer is called the elevator; it is used to deﬂect the tail up
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 10
and down.
3. The outboard hinged part of the wing is called the aileron; it is used to roll the wings from side to
side.
4. Most airplanes can also be rolled from side to side by using the spoilers. Spoilers are small plates
that are used to disrupt the ﬂow over the wing and to change the amount of force by decreasing
the lift when the spoiler is deployed.
The wings have additional hinged, rear sections near the body that are called ﬂaps. Flaps are
deployed downward on takeoﬀ and landing to increase the amount of force produced by the wing. On
some aircraft, the front part of the wing will also deﬂect and it is called slats. Slats are used at takeoﬀ
and landing to produce additional load. The spoilers are also used during landing to slow the plane
down and to counteract the ﬂaps when the aircraft is on the ground.
The fuselage is the body of the aircraft and it holds all the components together. The pilots sit in
the cockpit (front of the fuselage) and the passengers and cargo are carried in the rear of the fuselage.
Some aircraft carry fuel in the fuselage, while others carry the fuel in the wings.
1.5.1 Wings
Figure 1.4: Geometry and nomenclature of a wing.
Figure 1.4 helps us understand some fundamental deﬁnitions of a wing. The terms deﬁned here are
used throughout the aircraft industry. Although actual aircraft wings are complex threedimensional
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 11
structures, here we will start with some simple deﬁnitions for a twodimensional wings. Figure 1.4 shows
the three diﬀerent views of the wing: the top view shows the view from the top looking down on the
wing, the front view shows the view from the front looking at the wing leading edge, and the side view
shows a view from the left looking in towards the centerline. The side view shows an airfoil shape with
the leading edge to the left.
Top view
The top view shows the wing geometry. The front of the wing is called the leading edge and the back
of the wing is called the trailing edge. The leading edge is the front edge of the wing. When an aircraft
is moving forward, the leading edge is that part of the wing that ﬁrst contacts the air. The trailing
edge of a wing is the rear edge of the wing, where the airﬂow separated by the leading edge rejoins after
passing over and under the top and bottom surfaces of the wing.
The distance from the leading edge to the trailing edge is called the chord and it will be denoted by
the symbol c. The chord is measured in the direction of the normal airﬂow. Most wings change their
chord over their width (or span): i.e., the wings are tapered. In general, we use the mean aerodynamics
chord to give a characteristic ﬁgure which can be compared among various wing shapes.
The ends of the wing are called the wing tips. The distance from one wing tip to the other is called
the span and will be denoted by the symbol b. The wingspan, or simply span, of an aricraft is the
distance from the left wing tip to the right wing tip and is always measured in a straight line, from wing
tip to wing tip, independently of wing shape or sweep. As for an example:
In general, planes with a longer wingspan are more eﬃcient because they suﬀer less induced drag and
their wing tip vortices do not aﬀect the wing as much. However, the long wings mean that the plane has
a greater moment of inertia about its longitudinal axis and therefore cannot roll as quickly and is less
maneuverable. Thus, combat aircraft and aerobatic planes usually opt for shorter wingspans to increase
maneuverability.
Since the amount of lift that a wing generates is proportional to the area of the wing, planes with
short wings must correspondingly have a longer chord. An aircraft’s ratio of its wingspan to chord is
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 12
therefore very important in determining its characteristics, and we call this value the aspect ratio of a
wing (AR).
The shape of the wing, when viewed from above looking down onto the wing, is called a planform.
In Fig. 1.4, the planform is a rectangle. For a rectangular wing, the chord length at every location along
the span is the same. For most other planforms, the chord length varies along the span. The wing area,
A, is the projected area of the planform and is bounded by the leading and trailing edges and the wing
tips. Note: The wing area is not the total surface area of the wing. The total surface area includes both
upper and lower surfaces. The wing area is a projected area and is almost half of the total surface area.
Diﬀerent aircraft have diﬀerent wing shapes and conﬁgurations. Conﬁgurations will depend on wether
the wing is swept. A sweptwing is a wing planform used on highspeed aircraft that spend a considerable
portion of their ﬂight time in the transonic speed range. The sweptwing is a wing bent backwards or
forward opposed to being at right angles to the fuselage. Aircraft wings can be placed into any of the
following four type of sweptwing conﬁgurations:
1. STRAIGHT WING: Aircraft wings are straight with no swept angles
2. SWEPTBACK: The sweptback wing extends backward from the fuselage at an angle.
3. FORWARDSWEPT: The forwardswept wing gives an airplane the appearance of ﬂying backward.
The wing is angled toward the front of the aircraft and is usually attached to the airplane far back
on the fuselage.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 13
4. VARIABLESWEPT: A variablesweep wing can be moved during ﬂightusually between a swept
back position and a straight position.
Front view
When we see the wing from the nose, front view, we can see that the left and right wing may or may
not lie in the same plane as they might meet at an angle. The angle that the wing makes with the local
horizontal is called the dihedral angle. Dihedral is added to the wings for roll stability. In fact, a wing
with some dihedral will naturally return to its original position if it encounters a slight roll displacement.
That is the reason for which most civil transport aircraft are designed with diherdral. The wing tips are
farther oﬀ the ground than the wing root.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 14
On the other hand, highly maneuverable ﬁghter planes do not have dihedral. In fact, some ﬁghter aircraft
have the wing tips lower than the roots giving the aircraft a high roll rate. A negative dihedral angle is
called anhedral.
Side view
A cut through the wing perpendicular to the leading and trailing edges will show the crosssection of
the wing. This side view is called an airfoil. The straight line drawn from the leading to trailing edges
of the airfoil is called the chord line. The chord line cuts the airfoil into an upper surface and a lower
surface. If we plot the points that lie halfway between the upper and lower surfaces, we obtain a curve
called the mean camber line. For a symmetric airfoil (upper surface the same shape as the lower surface)
the mean camber line will fall on top of the chord line. But in most cases, these are two separate lines.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 15
The maximum distance between the two lines is called the camber, which is a measure of the curvature
of the airfoil (high camber means high curvature). In other words, the diﬀerence between the upper
and lower chamber is the chamber of the airfoil. The maximum distance between the upper and lower
surfaces is called the thickness. Often you will see these values divided by the chord length to produce a
nondimensional or “percent” type of number. Airfoils can come with all kinds of combinations of camber
and thickness distributions. NACA has established a method of designating classes of airfoils and then
wind tunnel tested the airfoils to provide lift coeﬃcients and drag coeﬃcients for designers.
Angle of Attack
Figure 1.5: The angle of attack is the angle between the chord of the airfoil and the relative wind.
Angle of attack, α, is the term used in aerodynamics to describe the angle between the airfoil’s chord
line and the direction of airﬂow wind, eﬀectively the direction in which the aircraft is currently moving,
as shown in Fig. 1.5. The angle of attack describes the angle between where the wing is pointing and
where it is going. The amount of lift generated by a wing is directly related to the angle of attack, with
greater angles generating more lift (and more drag). This remains true up to the stall point, where lift
starts to decrease again because of airﬂow separation, as shown in Fig. 1.6. Planes ﬂying at high angles
of attack can suddenly enter a stall if, for example, a strong wind gust changes the direction of the
relative wind. Also, to maintain a given amount of lift, the angle of attack must be increased as speed
through the air decreases. This is why stalling is an eﬀect that occurs more frequently at low speeds.
Nonetheless, a wing (or any other airfoil) can stall at any speed.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 16
Figure 1.6: Lift versus the angle of attack.
1.5.2 Fuselage
Figure 1.7: Body of an airplane.
The fuselage, or body of the airplane, is a long hollow tube which holds all aircraft components.
Figure 1.7 shows the fuselage on a typical airplane. The fuselage is hollow to reduce weight. As for
other components of airplanes, the aircraft’s mission is what will determine the shape of the fuselage. A
supersonic ﬁghter plane has a very slender, streamlined fuselage to reduce the drag associated with high
speed ﬂight. An airliner has a wider fuselage to carry the maximum number of passengers.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 17
1.5.3 Horizontal stabilizer and Elevators
Figure 1.8: Horizontal stabilizer and elevator of an airplane.
The rear of the fuselage of most aircraft has a horizontal stabilizer and an elevator. The stabilizer is
a ﬁxed wing section and it is responsible for the stability of the aircraft, i.e., to keep it ﬂying straight.
The horizontal stabilizer prevents pitching motion of the aircraft nose. The elevator is the small moving
section at the rear of the stabilizer that is attached to the ﬁxed sections by hinges. As the elevator
moves, it varies the amount of force generated by the tail surface and thus generates and controls the
pitching aircraft’s motion. There is an elevator attached to each side of the fuselage. The elevators
always work in pairs: when the right elevator goes up, the left elevator also goes up. Figure 1.8 shows
the resulting motion when the pilot deﬂects the elevator.
The main objective of the elevator is to control the position of the aircraft nose and the wing’s angle
of attack. By changing the wing’s angle of attack, the amount of lift generated by the wing changes.
Hence, causes the aircraft to climb (nose up) or dive (nose down).
The elevators work by changing the eﬀective shape of the horizontal stabilizer’s airfoil. With greater
downward deﬂection of the trailing edge, lift increases. With greater upward deﬂection of the trailing
edge, lift decreases and can even become negative. Suppose the lift force F is applied at center of
pressure of the horizontal stabilizer which is some distance L from the aircraft center of gravity. This
will produce a torque
T
q
= F L
on the aircraft and make the aircraft rotate about its center of gravity.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 18
Figure 1.9: Stabilator of a ﬁghter aircraft.
1.5.4 Stabilator
On many ﬁghter aircraft, to meet their high maneuvering requirements, the stabilizer and elevator are
combined into one large moving surface called a stabilator. The change in force is then created by
changing the inclination of the entire surface and not by changing its eﬀective shape as is done with an
elevator.
As in the case of elevators, the stabilator moves to vary the amount of force generated by the tail
surface and it generates and controls the pitching motion of the aircraft. There is usually a stabilator
on each side of the fuselage and they also work in pairs. Figure 1.9 shows the resulting motion when the
pilot deﬂects the stabilators. The stabilators follow the same mechanical behavior as elevators.
1.5.5 Vertical Stabilizer and Rudder
At the rear of the fuselage of most aircraft one ﬁnds a vertical stabilizer and a rudder. The stabilizer is
a ﬁxed wing section providing stability for the aircraft. The vertical stabilizer prevents yawing motion
of the aircraft nose. The rudder is the small moving section at the rear of the stabilizer that is attached
to the ﬁxed sections by hinges. As the rudder moves, it varies the amount of force generated by the tail
surface and it generates and controls the yawing motion of the aircraft. Figure 1.10 shows the resulting
motion when the pilot deﬂects the rudder, a hinged section at the rear of the vertical stabilizer.
The rudder is used to control the position of the nose of the aircraft but it is NOT used to turn
the aircraft in ﬂight. Aircraft turns are done by banking the aircraft to one side using either ailerons
or spoilers. The banking creates an unbalanced side force component of the large wing lift force which
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 19
Figure 1.10: Vertical stabilizer and rudder of an airplane.
causes the aircraft’s ﬂight path to curve. The rudder input insures that the aircraft is properly aligned
to the curved ﬂight path during the maneuver. Otherwise, the aircraft would encounter additional drag
or even a possible adverse yaw condition in which, due to increased drag from the control surfaces, the
nose would move farther oﬀ the ﬂight path.
The rudder works by changing the eﬀective shape of the airfoil of the vertical stabilizer. With
increased deﬂection, the lift will increase in the opposite direction. The rudder and vertical stabilizer are
mounted so that they will produce forces from side to side, not up and down. The side force F is applied
through the center of pressure of the vertical stabilizer which is some distance L from the aircraft center
of gravity. This creates a torque:
T
r
= F L
on the aircraft and the aircraft rotates about its center of gravity. With greater rudder deﬂection to the
left as viewed from the back of the aircraft, the force increases to the right.
On all aircraft, the vertical stabilizer and rudder create a symmetric airfoil. This combination
produces no side force when the rudder is aligned with the stabilizer and allows either left or right
forces, depending on the deﬂection of the rudder. Some ﬁghter planes have two vertical stabilizers and
rudders because of the need to control the plane with multiple, very powerful engines.
1.5.6 Spoilers
Spoilers are small, hinged plates on the top portion of wings. Spoilers can be used to slow an aircraft, or
to make an aircraft descend, if they are deployed on both wings. Spoilers can also be used to generate
a rolling motion for an aircraft, if they are deployed on only one wing. Figure 1.11 shows what happens
when the pilot only deﬂects the spoiler on the right wing.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 20
Figure 1.11: Spoilers of an airplane.
Spoilers Deployed on Both Wings
When we activate the spoilers, the plates ﬂip up into the air stream. The ﬂow over the wing is disturbed
by the spoiler, the drag of the wing is increased, and thus the lift is decreased. Spoilers can be used to
“dump” lift and make the airplane descend; or they can be used to slow the airplane down as it prepares
to land. When the airplane lands on the runway, the pilot usually brings up the spoilers to kill the lift,
keep the plane on the ground, and make the brakes work more eﬃciently. The friction force between the
tires and the runway depends on the “normal” force, which is the weight minus the lift. The lower the
lift, the better the brakes work. The additional drag of the spoilers also slows the plane down.
Spoilers Deployed on Only One Wing
When we activate a single spoiler, the aircraft banks as one wing tip to move up and the other wing
tip to move down. The banking creates an unbalanced side force component of the large wing lift force
which causes the aircraft’s ﬂight path to curve.
On the ﬁgure, the airplane’s right wing spoiler is deployed, while the left wing spoiler is stored ﬂat
against the wing surface (as viewed from the rear of the airplane). The ﬂow over the right wing will be
disturbed by the spoiler, the drag of this wing will be increased, and the lift will decrease relative to the
left wing. The lift force F is applied at the center of pressure of the segment of the wing containing the
spoiler. This location is some distance L from the aircraft center of gravity which creates a torque
T = F L
about the center of gravity. The net torque causes the aircraft to roll (clockwise from the rear) about
its center of gravity.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 21
1.5.7 Ailerons
Figure 1.12: Ailerons of an airplane.
Ailerons can be used to generate a rolling motion for an aircraft. Ailerons are small hinged sections
on the outboard portion of a wing. Ailerons usually work in opposition: as the right aileron is deﬂected
upward, the left is deﬂected downward, and vice versa. Figure 1.12 shows the resulting motion when
the pilot deﬂects the right aileron upwards and the left aileron downwards.
The ailerons are also used to bank the aircraft by causing one wing tip to move up and the other
wing tip to move down. The banking creates an unbalanced side force component of the large wing lift
force which causes the aircraft’s ﬂight path to curve.
The ailerons work by changing the eﬀective shape of the airfoil of the outer portion of the wing. Note
that in ﬁgure the aileron on the left wing, as viewed from the rear of the aircraft, is deﬂected down and
the aileron on the right wing is deﬂected up. Therefore, the lift on the left wing is increased, while the
lift on the right wing is decreased. For both wings, the lift force (F
r
or F
l
) of the wing section through
the aileron is applied at the aerodynamic center of the section which is some distance L from the aircraft
center of gravity. This creates a torque
T = F L
about the center of gravity. If the forces (and distances) are equal there is no net torque on the aircraft.
But if the forces are unequal, there is a net torque and the aircraft rotates about its center of gravity.
For the conditions shown in the ﬁgure, the resulting motion will roll the aircraft to the right (clockwise)
as viewed from the rear.
1.5.8 Flaps and Slats
The amount of lift generated by a wing depends on the shape of the airfoil, the wing area, and the
aircraft velocity. During takeoﬀ and landing the airplane’s velocity is relatively low. To keep the lift
high (to avoid objects on the ground!), airplane designers try to increase the wing area and change the
airfoil shape by putting some moving parts on the wings’ leading and trailing edges. The part on the
leading edge is called a slat, while the part on the trailing edge is called a ﬂap. The ﬂaps and slats move
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 22
Figure 1.13: Flaps and slats of an airplane.
along metal tracks built into the wings. Moving the ﬂaps aft (toward the tail) and the slats forward
increases the wing area. Pivoting the leading edge of the slat and the trailing edge of the ﬂap downward
increases the eﬀective camber of the airfoil, which increases the lift. In addition, the large aftprojected
area of the ﬂap increases the drag of the aircraft. This helps the airplane slow down for landing. See
Fig. 1.13.
On takeoﬀ, we want high lift and low drag, so the ﬂaps will be set downward at a moderate setting.
During landing we want high lift and high drag, so the ﬂaps and slats will be fully deployed. See Fig. 1.13.
When the wheels touch down, we want to decrease the lift (to keep the plane on the ground!), so often
the spoilers are deployed on the top of the wing to kill the lift. Spoilers create additional drag to slow
down the plane.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 23
Figure 1.14: Flaps partially deployed (left), full ﬂaps (middle), full ﬂaps with spoilers deployed (right).
Figure 1.15: The position of the leading edge slats on an airliner (Airbus A300).
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 24
1.5.9 Gas Turbine Engines
Figure 1.16: Gas turbine engines on various aircraft.
Thrust is the force which moves any aircraft through the air. Thrust is generated by the propulsion
system of the aircraft. Diﬀerent propulsion systems develop thrust in diﬀerent ways, but all thrust is
generated through some application of Newton’s third law of motion. For every action there is an equal
and opposite reaction. In any propulsion system, a working ﬂuid is accelerated by the system and the
reaction to this acceleration produces a force on the system. A general derivation of the thrust equation
shows that the amount of thrust generated depends on the mass ﬂow through the engine and the exit
velocity of the gas.
During World War II, a new type of airplane engine was developed independently in Germany and in
England. This engine was called a gas turbine engine. We sometimes call this engine a jet engine. Early
gas turbine engines worked much like a rocket engine creating a hot exhaust gas which was passed through
a nozzle to produce thrust. But unlike the rocket engine which must carry its oxygen for combustion,
the turbine engine gets its oxygen from the surrounding air. A turbine engine does not work in outer
space because there is no surrounding air. For a gas turbine engine, the accelerated gas, or working
ﬂuid, is the jet exhaust. Most of the mass of the jet exhaust comes from the surrounding atmosphere.
Most modern, high speed passenger and military aircraft are powered by gas turbine engines. Because
gas turbine engines are so important for modern life, we will be providing a lot of information about
turbine engines and their operation.
Turbine engines come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes because of the many diﬀerent aircraft
missions. All gas turbine engines have some parts in common, however. Each aircraft has a unique
mission and therefore a unique propulsion requirement.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 25
1.5.10 Landing gear
The undercarriage or landing gear is the structure (usually wheels) that supports an aircraft when it is
taxiing or stationary. The assembly usually has wheels and some sort of shock absorber apparatus, but
sometimes skis for snow or ﬂoats for water, and skids or pontoons (helicopters). To decrease drag in
ﬂight the undercarriages on many aircraft, particularly large modern ones, retract behind doors which
close ﬂush with the fuselage.
Figure 1.17: The main undercarriage and nose undercarriage of a Qatar Airways A330300 (A7ACA).
Figure 1.18: The main undercarriage and nose undercarriage of a Qatar Airways A330300 (A7ACA).
Wheeled undercarriages come in two types: either taildragger (Fig. 1.18), where there are two main
wheels towards the front of the aircraft and a single, much smaller, wheel or skid at the rear; or tricycle
(Fig. 1.17) undercarriage where there are two main wheels (or wheel assemblies) under the wings and a
third smaller wheel in the nose. Most modern aircraft have tricycle undercarriages or variants thereof.
Taildraggers are considered harder to land and take oﬀ, and usually require special training. Sometimes
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 26
a small tail wheel or skid is added to aircraft with tricycle undercarriage, in case the tail strikes the
ground during takeoﬀ. See Fig. 1.17.
As aircraft grow larger, they employ more wheels to cope with the increasing weights. The Airbus
A340500/600 has an additional fourwheel undercarriage bogie on the fuselage centreline. The Boeing
747 has ﬁve sets of wheels, a nosewheel assembly and four sets of fourwheel bogies. A set is located
under each wing, and two inner sets are located in the fuselage, a little rearward of the outer bogies.
Tricycle undercarriage aircraft are usually steered by the leading wheel(s) when taxiing. On the Boeing
747 the two inner bogies, and on the Boeing 777 the last two wheels on each leg, are also steerable with
the nose wheels in order to reduce the lateral stresses on the undercarriage. See Fig. 1.19.
The various parts of a typical landing gear are given in Fig. 1.20. Figure 1.21 shows diﬀerent
conﬁgurations of the Boeing 757 landing gear.
Figure 1.19: Wing and fuselage undercarriages on a Boeing 747.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 27
Figure 1.20: Landing gear parts of a Boeing 737700.
1.5. COMPONENTS OF A TYPICAL AIRCRAFT 28
Figure 1.21: Diﬀerent angles of a Boeing 757 landing gear (12 o’clock, 10 o’clock, 3 o’clock, 4 o’clock, 6
o’clock, 9 o’clock, 11 o’clock).
1.6. BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 29
1.6 Basic Structural Elements
There are three basic types of materials or elements in the structure of an airplane: stiﬀened shells,
stiﬀened plates, and Ibeams. Stiﬀening means that the plate or shell has oddly shaped pieces of metal
welded to the back side to strengthen it. This allows the plate or shell to carry more weight. On an
airplane, the fuselage (body) and nacelles (outer covering of the engine) are covered with stiﬀened shells.
The wing itself can be considered an Ibeam. Spars are welded to the Ibeam, at right angles, to form
the wing. The top and bottom surfaces of the wings are covered with stiﬀened plates.
Computing the loads on the diﬀerent components (parts) of an airplane can be very diﬃcult. Tension
loads (pulling molecules apart) on simple parts can be fairly easy to compute. Compressive stresses
(pushing molecules together) can be much more diﬃcult to ﬁgure. Plates and shells tend to be thin.
This means they can buckle or bend (deform) long before they reach the failure point. For this reason,
engineers try to design stiﬀened shells and plates to delay permanent deformation (bending). This means
much more stress can be applied before bending occurs.
One way to understand buckling is to think of a thin rod standing on end on a solid surface. As
more and more weight is placed on top of the rod, it will reach a critical point and bend or buckle. To
compute where that critical point is the engineer must know the strength of the material (its elasticity),
the length, shape and diameter of the rod.
1.6.1 Wing Structure
The main function of the wing is to pick up the air loads and transmit them to the fuselage. The wing
crosssection takes the shape of an airfoil, which is designed based on aerodynamic considerations. The
wing as a whole performs the combined function of a beam and a torsion member. It consists of axial
members in stringers, bending members in spars and shear panels in the cover skin and webs of spars.
The spar is a heavy beam running spanwise to take transverse shear loads and spanwise bending. It is
usually composed of a thin shear panel (the web) with a heavy cap or ﬂange at the top and bottom to
take bending. A typical spar construction is depicted in Fig. 1.22.
Wing ribs are planar structures capable of carrying inplane loads. They are placed chordwise along
the wing span. Besides serving as load redistributers, ribs also hold the skin stringer to the designed
contour shape. Ribs reduce the eﬀective buckling length of the stringers (or the stringerskin system)
and thus increase their compressive load capability. Figure 1.23 shows a typical rib construction. Note
that the rib is supported by spanwise spars.
The cover skin of the wing together with the spar webs form an eﬃcient torsion member. For subsonic
airplanes, the skin is relatively thin and may be designed to undergo postbuckling. Thus, the thin skin
can be assumed to make no contribution to bending of the wing box, and the bending moment is taken by
spars and stringers. Figure 1.24 presents two typical wing crosssections for subsonic aircraft. One type
consists only of spars (the concentrated ﬂange type) to take bending. The other type (the distributed
ﬂange type) uses both spars and stringers to take bending.
Supersonic airfoils are relatively thin compared with subsonic airfoils. To withstand high surface air
1.6. BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 30
Figure 1.22: Spar construction.
loads and to provide additional bending capability of the wing box structure, thicker skins are often
necessary. In addition, to increase structural eﬃciency, stiﬀeners can be manufactured (either by forging
or machining) as integral parts of the skin. Figure 1.25 shows an example of a wing crosssection with
integrally stiﬀened skin for supersonic aircraft.
Ribs
In an aircraft, ribs are forming elements of the structure of a wing, especially in traditional construction.
By analogy with the anatomical deﬁnition of “rib”, the ribs attach to the main spar, and by being
repeated at frequent intervals, form a skeletal shape for the wing. Usually ribs incorporate the airfoil
shape of the wing, and the skin adopts this shape when stretched over the ribs.
Stringer
In aircraft construction, a Longeron is a thin strip of wood or metal, to which the skin of the aircraft is
fastened. Longerons are attached to formers, in the case of the fuselage, or ribs in the case of a wing, or
empennage. In very early aircraft, a fabric covering was sewn to the longerons, and then stretched tight
by painting it with ”dope”, which would make the fabric shrink, and become stiﬀ.
Sometimes the terms ”longeron” and ”stringer” are used interchangeably. Historically, though, there
is a subtle diﬀerence between the two terms. If the longitudinal members in a fuselage are few in number
(usually 4 to 8) then they are called ”longerons”. The longeron system also requires that the fuselage
frames be closely spaced (about every 4 to 6 inches). If the longitudinal members are numerous (usually
50 to 100) then they are called ”stringers”. In the stringer system the longitudinal members are smaller
and the frames are spaced farther apart (about 15 to 20 inches). On large modern aircraft the stringer
system is more common because it is more weight eﬃcient despite being more complex to construct and
1.6. BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 31
Figure 1.23: Typical spar construction.
Figure 1.24: (a) Spars only, (b) spars and stringers.
analyze. Some aircraft, however, use a combination of both stringers and longerons.
The longitudinal members are known as longitudinals, stringers, or stiﬀeners. Longitudinals which
have large crosssectional areas are referred to as longerons. These members serve the following purposes:
1. They resist bending and axial loads along with the skin.
2. They divide the skin into small panels and thereby increase its buckling and failing stresses.
3. They act with the skin in resisting axial loads caused by pressurization.
1.6.2 Fuselage Structure
Unlike the wing, which is subjected to large distributed air loads, the fuselage is subjected to relatively
small air loads. The primary loads on the fuselage include large concentrated forces from wing reactions,
1.6. BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 32
Figure 1.25: Wing crosssections with integrally stiﬀened skin.
Figure 1.26: Fuselage structure.
landing gear reactions, and pay loads. For airplanes carrying passengers, the fuselage must also withstand
internal pressures. Because of internal pressure, the fuselage often has an eﬃcient circular crosssection.
Fuselage frames often take the form of a ring. They are used to maintain the shape of the fuselage
and to shorten the span of the stringers between supports in order to increase the buckling strength
of the stringer, see Fig. 1.26. The loads on the frames are usually small and selfequilibrated. Conse
quently, their constructions are light. To distribute large concentrated forces such as those from the
wing structure, heavy bulkheads are needed.
1.6. BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 33
1.6.3 Semimonocoque Structures
Monocoque (French for ”single shell”) or unibody is a construction technique that uses the external
skin of an object to support some or most of the load on the structure. This is as opposed to using an
internal framework (or truss) that is then covered with a nonloadbearing skin. Monocoque construction
was ﬁrst widely used in aircraft, starting in the 1930s, and is the predominant automobile construction
technology today.
Prior to this time aircraft were built up from an internal frame, typically of wood or steel tubing,
which was then covered (or skinned) with fabric to give it a smooth surface. The materials vary; some
builders used sheet metal or plywood for the skin. In all of these designs the idea of loadbearing
structure vs. skin remained.
By the late 1920s the price of aluminum (speciﬁcally duralumin) started dropping considerably and
many manufacturers started using it to replace the internal framing, and in some cases, the external
skin. A classic example of such a design is the Ford Trimotor, which is an “old style” plane built of
new materials. The structure of the plane consists of a latticework of Ushaped aluminum beams, with
a thin skin of aluminum riveted on top.
When these designs started appearing it was realized that the skin itself had signiﬁcant structural
properties of its own. With a suﬃcient thickness, one could do away with all of the internal structure.
However this would be even heavier than the framing would have been. At thinner gauges the skin
could easily provide the structure for tension and shear loads (metal resists being pulled apart quite
well), and if it was bent into a curve or pipe, it became quite strong against bending loads as well. The
only loading it could not handle on its own at least for thin “skins” was compression. Combining this
sort of structural skin with a greatly reduced internal framing to provide strength against buckling in
compression led to what is known as “semimonocoque”.
The result was a structure that was just as strong as ones made with older methods, but weighed
considerably less. For aircraft construction this is a very important consideration. As well, the mono
coque structure has high torsional stiﬀness, important in reducing aeroelastic eﬀects as aircraft speeds
increased. At the beginning of WWII the technique was just starting to appear, and many aircraft still
used mixed construction. By the end, all planes were monocoque.
The fuselage and wing structures are semimonocoque constructions consisting of a thin shell stiﬀened
by longitudinal axial elements (stringers and longerons) supported by many transverse frames or rings
along its length, as seen Fig. 1.28.
In semimonocoque structures the cover, or skin, has the following functions:
1. It transmits aerodynamic forces to the longitudinal and transverse supporting members by plate
and membrane action.
2. It develops shearing stresses which react the applied torsional moments (Chap. 8) and shear forces
3. It acts with the longitudinal members in resisting the applied bending and axial loads
1.6. BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 34
Figure 1.27: Monocoque and semimonocoque structure.
4. It acts with the longitudinals in resisting the axial load and with the transverse members in reacting
the hoop, or circumferential, load when the structure is pressurized.
In addition to these structural functions, it provides an aerodynamic surface and cover for the content
of the vehicle. Spar webs (Fig. 1.29b) play a role that is similar to function 2 of the skin. The spar caps
in aerodynamic surface perform functions 1 and 2.
The transverse members in body structures are called frames, rings, or if they cover all or most of the
crosssectional area, bulkheads. In aerodynamic surfaces they are referred to as ribs. These members
are used to:
1. Maintain the crosssectional shape.
2. Distribute concentrated loads into the structure and redistribute stresses around structural dis
continuities
3. Establish the column length and provide end restraint for the longitudinals to increase their column
buckling stress
4. Provide edge restraint for the skin panels and thereby increase the plate buckling stress of these
elements
1.6. BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 35
Figure 1.28: Typical semimonocoque aircraft structures.
5. Act with the skin in resisting the circumferential loads due to pressurization.
The behavior of these structural elements is often idealized to simplify the analysis of the assembled
component. The following assumptions are usually made:
1. The longitudinals carry only axial stress.
2. The webs (skin and spar webs) carry only shearing stresses.
3. The axial stress is constant over the cross section of each of the longitudinals, and the shearing
stress is uniform through the thickness of the webs.
4. The transverse frames and ribs are rigid within their own planes, so that the cross section is
maintained unchanged during loading. However, they are assumed to possess no rigidity normal
to their plane, so that they oﬀer no restraint to warping deformations out of their plane.
1.6. BASIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS 36
When the crosssectional dimensions of the longitudinals are very small compare to the crosssectional
dimensions of the assembly, assumptions 1 and 3 result in little error. The webs in an actual structure
carry signiﬁcant axial stresses as well as shearing stresses, and it is therefore necessary to use an analytical
model of the structure which includes this loadcarrying ability. This is done by combining the eﬀective
areas of the webs adjacent to a longitudinal with the area of the longitudinal into a total eﬀective area
of material which is capable of resisting bending moments and axial forces. In the illustrative examples
and problems on stiﬀened shells in this and succeeding chapters it may be assumed that his idealization
has already been made and that areas given for the longitudinals are the total eﬀective areas. The
fact that the crosssectional dimensions of most longitudinals are small when compared with those of
the stiﬀenedshell cross section makes it possible to assume without serious error that the area of the
eﬀective longitudinal is concentrated at a point on the midline of the skin where it joins the longitudinal.
The locations of these idealized longitudinals will be indicated by small circles, as shown in Fig. 1.29. In
thin aerodynamic surfaces the depth of the longitudinals may not be small compared to the thickness of
the cross section of the assembly, and more elaborate idealized model of the structure may be required.
Figure 1.29: Idealization of semimonocoque structure: (a) actual structure, (b) idealized structure.
Figure 1.30: Idealization of monocoque shell: (a) actual structure, (b) idealized structure.
The fewer the number of longitudinals, the simpler the analysis, and in some cases several longitudinal
may be lumped into a single eﬀective longitudinal to shorten computations (Fig. 1.29). On the other
hand, it is sometimes convenient to idealize a monocoque shell into an idealized stiﬀened shell by lumping
the shell wall into idealized longitudinals, as shown in Fig. 1.30,and assuming that the skin between these
1.7. MATERIALS 37
longitudinals carries only shearing stresses.. The simpliﬁcation of an actual structure into an analytical
model represents a compromise, since elaborate models which nearly simulate the actual structure are
usually diﬃcult to analyze.
Once the idealization is made, the stresses in the longitudinals due to bending moments, axial load,
and thermal gradients can be computed from the equations of this chapter if the structure is long com
pared to its crosssectional dimensions and if there are no signiﬁcant structural or loading discontinuities
in the region where the stresses are computed.
1.7 Materials
Most of the structural components of an airplane are made of metallic materials. An aluminum alloy
is used on most metallic components, because it is relatively light weight. Remember, the lighter the
plane, the farther it can ﬂy, or the less fuel it will need. Yet, aluminum is strong enough to carry heavy
loads. Steel is used for a smaller number of components that are exposed to heavy loads. Landing gears,
engine ﬁttings, and the tracks that the ﬂaps move along are usually made of steel. Since aluminum and
steel tend to lose their strength at high temperatures, titanium is used around engines, for ﬁrewalls and
hot ducts.
More and more, composite materials are being used for some components. Composite materials (two
or more materials bonded together) are made of ﬁbers of boron or graphite embedded in a layer of
epoxy (glue). The strength along the ﬁbers is very, very large, but is not very high across them. Most
composite materials then, are created by layering the thin sheets with the ﬁbers alternating directions.
The resulting material is very strong in all directions. These materials are very light and stiﬀ. They help
reduce the weight of the airplane structure. The next generation of airplanes will be made signiﬁcantly
of composite materials.
1.8. REFERENCES 38
1.8 References
Allen, D. H., Introduction to Aerospace Structural Analysis , 1985, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
NY.
Curtis, H. D., Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis, 1997, McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
Dole, Charles E. and Lewis, James E., Flight Theory and Aerodynamics: A Practical Guide for Opera
tional Safety, Second Edition, May 2000, John Wiley and Sons.
Johnson, E. R., ThinWalled Structures, 2006, Textbook at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University, Blacksburg, VA.
Keane, Andy and Nair, Prasanth, Computational Approaches for Aerospace Design: The Pursuit of
Excellence, August 2005, John Wiley and Sons.
Kuethe, Arnold M., and Chow, ChuenYen, Foundations of Aerodynamics: Bases of Aerodynamic De
sign, Fifth Edition, November 1997, John Wiley and Sons.
Newman, D., Interactive Aerospace Engineering And Design With CDROM, First Edition, Mass Insti
tute Of Tech, 2004, McgrawHill.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main Page
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K12/airplane/guided.htm
http://www.ndt.net/article/ecndt98/aero/001/001.htm
1.9. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 39
1.9 Suggested Problems
Problem 1.1.
Describe some of the most popular aircrafts conﬁgurations used during the history of aviation, its
inventors and its function.
Problem 1.2.
What were the advantages of the utilization of metals in the aerospace’s structures?
Problem 1.3.
What is the principal engine purpose? Justify your answer with examples.
Problem 1.4.
Let us suppose that you was contracted by aircraft design company, who want a passenger airplane, fuel
eﬃcient, stable and need to resist transonic speed. What wing, fuselage and landing gear conﬁguration
you will be used? Explain your answer.
Problem 1.5.
What is a stringers and why are so important in the aerospace structure?
Problem 1.6.
What is the diﬀerence between stringers and longeron, and which help more to avoid failing stresses?
Problem 1.7.
Why semimonocoque structures are widely used in current aircraft conﬁgurations? Give speciﬁc exam
ples of actual aircraft conﬁgurations that are semimonocoque structures.
Chapter 2
Principle of Aerodynamics
Instructional Objectives of Chapter 2
After completing this chapter, the reader should be able to:
1. Understand and apply the fundamental aerodynamic equations.
2. Understand lift and drag.
3. Determine the load factor for various maneuvers.
Although the main focus of this book is on aircraft structures, these structures are subject to aero
dynamics loads. Aerodynamics has its roots from two Greek words: aerios, concerning the air, and
dynamis, which means force. Hence, aerodynamics can be deﬁned as a branch of ﬂuid dynamics con
cerned with the study of the motion of air and other gaseous ﬂuids and other forces acting on objects
in motion through the air (gases). In fact, aerodynamics is concerned with the object (aircraft), the
movement (Relative Wind), and the air (Atmosphere). In this chapter, we limit to the fundamental
principles of aerodynamics as related to aerospace structures.
40
2.1. AERODYNAMICS 41
2.1 Aerodynamics
The solution of an aerodynamic problem normally involves calculating for various properties of the ﬂow,
such as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, as a function of space and time. Understanding the
ﬂow pattern makes it possible to calculate or approximate the forces and moments acting on bodies in
the ﬂow. This mathematical analysis and empirical approximation form the scientiﬁc basis for heavier
thanair ﬂight.
Aerodynamic problems can be classiﬁed in a number of ways. The ﬂow environment deﬁnes the ﬁrst
classiﬁcation criterion. External aerodynamics is the study of ﬂow around solid objects of various shapes.
Evaluating the lift and drag on an airplane, the shock waves that form in front of the nose of a rocket
or the ﬂow of air over a hard drive head are examples of external aerodynamics. Internal aerodynamics
is the study of ﬂow through passages in solid objects. For instance, internal aerodynamics encompasses
the study of the airﬂow through a jet engine or through an air conditioning pipe.
Aerodynamics is important in a number of applications other than aerospace engineering. It is a
signiﬁcant factor in any type of vehicle design, including automobiles. It is important in the prediction
of forces and moments in sailing. It is used in the design of small components such as hard drive
heads. Structural engineers use aerodynamics, and particularly aeroelasticity, to calculate wind loads
in the design of large buildings and bridges. Urban aerodynamics seeks to help town planners and
designers improve comfort in outdoor spaces, create urban microclimates and reduce the eﬀects of urban
pollution. The ﬁeld of environmental aerodynamics studies the ways atmospheric circulation and ﬂight
mechanics aﬀects ecosystems. The aerodynamics of internal passages is important in heating/ventilation,
gas piping, and in automotive engines where detailed ﬂow patterns strongly aﬀect the performance of
the engine.
2.1.1 Continuity
Gases are composed of molecules which collide with one another and solid objects. In aerodynamics,
however, gases are considered to have continuous quantities. That is, properties such as density, pressure,
temperature, and velocity are taken to be welldeﬁned at inﬁnitely small points, and are assumed to
vary continuously from one point to another. The discrete, molecular nature of a gas is ignored.
The continuity assumption becomes less valid as a gas becomes more rareﬁed. In these cases, statis
tical mechanics is a more valid method of solving the problem than aerodynamics.
2.1.2 Newton’s Laws Of Motion
The motion of an aircraft through the air can be explained and described by physical principals discovered
over 300 years ago by Sir Isaac Newton. The laws and their application to aerodynamics are given below.
Newton’s three laws of motion are:
2.1. AERODYNAMICS 42
1. Inertia: The ﬁrst law states that every object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight
line unless compelled to change its state by the action of an external force. This is normally taken
as the deﬁnition of inertia. The key point here is that if there is no net force resulting from
unbalanced forces acting on an object (if all the external forces cancel each other out), then the
object will maintain a constant velocity. If that velocity is zero, then the object remains at rest.
And if an additional external force is applied, the velocity will change because of the force. The
amount of the change in velocity is determined by Newton’s second law of motion.
There are many excellent examples of Newton’s ﬁrst law involving aerodynamics. The motion of
an airplane when the pilot changes the throttle setting of the engine is described by the ﬁrst law.
The motion of a ball falling down through the atmosphere, or a model rocket being launched up
into the atmosphere are both examples of Newton’s ﬁrst law. The motion of a kite when the wind
changes can also be described by the ﬁrst law. We have created separate pages which describe
each of these examples in more detail to help you understand this important physical principle.
2. Acceleration: The second law deﬁnes a force to be equal to the diﬀerential change in momentum
per unit time as described by the calculus of mathematics, which Newton also developed. The
momentum is deﬁned to be the mass of an object m times its velocity v. So the diﬀerential equation
for force F is:
F =
d (mv)
dt
= v
d m
dt
+m
d v
dt
= v ˙ m+ma
If the mass is a constant and using the deﬁnition of acceleration a as the change in velocity with
time, the second law reduces to the more familiar product of a mass and an acceleration:
F =
d (mv)
dt
= ma
The important fact is that a force will cause a change in velocity; and likewise, a change in
velocity will generate a force. The equation works both ways. The velocity, force, acceleration,
and momentum have both a magnitude and a direction associated with them. Scientists and
mathematicians call this a vector quantity. The equations shown here are actually vector equations
and can be applied in each of the component directions.
The motion of an aircraft resulting from aerodynamic forces and the aircraft weight and thrust
can be computed by using the second law of motion.
3. Action/Reaction:  third law states that for every action (force) in nature there is an equal and
opposite reaction. In other words, if object A exerts a force on object B, then object B also exerts
an equal and opposite force on object A. Notice that the forces are exerted on diﬀerent objects.
For aircraft, the principal of action and reaction is very important. It helps to explain the gen
eration of lift from an airfoil. In this problem, the air is deﬂected downward by the action of the
airfoil, and in reaction the wing is pushed upward. Similarly, for a spinning ball, the air is deﬂected
to one side, and the ball reacts by moving in the opposite direction. A jet engine also produces
thrust through action and reaction. The engine produces hot exhaust gases which ﬂow out the
back of the engine. In reaction, a thrusting force is produced in the opposite direction.
2.1. AERODYNAMICS 43
Figure 2.1: Newton’s third law applied to aerodynamics.
2.1.3 Conservation laws
Aerodynamic problems are solved using the conservation laws, or equations derived from the conservation
laws. In aerodynamics, three conservation laws are used:
1. Conservation of mass: Matter is not created or destroyed. If a certain mass of ﬂuid enters a
volume, it must either exit the volume or increase the mass inside the volume.
(a) Solid Mechanics: The mass of any object can be determined by multiplying the volume of
the object by the density of the object. When we move a solid object, as shown at the top of
the slide, the object retains its shape, density, and volume. The mass of the object, therefore,
remains a constant between state “1” and state “2”.
(b) Fluid Statics: Let us we consider an amount of a static ﬂuid, liquid or gas. If we change
the ﬂuid from some state “1” to another state “2” and allow it to come to rest, we ﬁnd that,
unlike a solid, a ﬂuid may change its shape. The amount of ﬂuid, however, remains the same.
We can calculate the amount of ﬂuid by multiplying the density times the volume. Since the
mass remains constant, the product of the density and volume also remains constant. (If the
density remains constant, the volume also remains constant.) The shape can change, but the
mass remains the same.
(c) Fluid dynamics: Finally, let us consider the changes for a ﬂuid that is moving through
our domain. There is no accumulation or depletion of mass, so mass is conserved within the
domain. Since the ﬂuid is moving, deﬁning the amount of mass gets a little tricky. Let’s
consider an amount of ﬂuid that passes through point “1” of our domain in some amount of
time t. If the ﬂuid passes through an area A at velocity v, we can deﬁne the volume V as:
V = Av t
Now the mass at time t = t
1
is:
m
1
= (ρ Av t)
1
2.1. AERODYNAMICS 44
where ρ is the ﬂuid density, A the area normal to the velocity v and t the time. At a diﬀerent
time t = t
2
the mass will be:
m
2
= (ρ Av t)
2
From the conservation of mass, these two masses are the same and since the times are the
same, we eliminate the time dependence:
m
1
= m
2
= m
(ρ Av)
1
= (ρ Av)
2
= ρ Av
The conservation of mass gives us an easy way to determine the velocity of ﬂow in a tube if the
density is constant. If we can determine (or set) the velocity at some known area, the equation
tells us the value of velocity for any other area. This information is used in the design of wind
tunnels. The quantity density times area times velocity has the dimensions of mass/time and
is called the mass ﬂow rate. This quantity is an important parameter in determining the thrust
produced by a propulsion system. As the speed of the ﬂow approaches the speed of sound the
density of the ﬂow is no longer a constant and we must then use a compressible form of the
mass ﬂow rate equation. The conservation of mass equation also occurs in a diﬀerential form
as part of the NavierStokes equations of ﬂuid ﬂow.
For a ﬂuid (a liquid or a gas) the density, volume, and shape of the object can all change
within the domain with time. And mass can move through the domain. On the ﬁgure, we
show a ﬂow of gas through a constricted tube. There is no accumulation or destruction of mass
through the tube; the same amount of mass leaves the tube as enters the tube. At any plane
perpendicular to the center line of the tube, the same amount of mass passes through. We
call the amount of mass passing through a plane the mass ﬂow rate. The conservation of mass
(continuity) tells us that the mass ﬂow rate through a tube is a constant. We can determine
the value of the mass ﬂow rate from the ﬂow conditions. We deﬁne mass ﬂow as follows:
˙ m = ρ v A
How do engineers use this knowledge of the mass ﬂow rate? From Newton’s Second Law of
Motion, the aerodynamic forces on an aircraft (lift and drag) are directly related to the change
in momentum of a gas with time. The momentum is deﬁned to be the mass times the velocity,
so we would expect the aerodynamic forces to depend on the mass ﬂow rate past an object.
The thrust produced by a propulsion system also depends on the change of momentum of a
working gas. The thrust depends directly on the mass ﬂow rate through the propulsion system.
For ﬂow in a tube, the mass ﬂow rate is a constant. For a constant density ﬂow, if we can
determine (or set) the velocity at some known area, the equation tells us the value of velocity
for any other area. If we desire a certain velocity, we know the area we have to provide to
obtain that velocity. This information is used in the design of wind tunnels.
Considering the mass ﬂow rate equation, it would appear that for a given area, we could make
the mass ﬂow rate as large as we want by setting the velocity very high. However, in real ﬂuids,
compressibility eﬀects limit the speed at which a ﬂow can be forced through a given area. If
there is a slight constriction in the tube, as shown in the nozzle graphics, the Mach number of
the ﬂow through the constriction cannot be greater than one. This is commonly referred to as
ﬂow choking and the details of the physics are given on a page considering compressible mass
2.1. AERODYNAMICS 45
ﬂow rates.
2. Conservation of momentum: Also called Newton’s second law of motion.
Momentum is deﬁned to be the mass of an object multiplied by the velocity of the object. The
conservation of momentum states that, within some problem domain, the amount of momentum
remains constant; momentum is neither created nor destroyed, but only changed through the action
of forces as described by Newton’s laws of motion. Dealing with momentum is more diﬃcult than
dealing with mass and energy because momentum is a vector quantity having both a magnitude
and a direction. Momentum is conserved in all three physical directions at the same time. It is even
more diﬃcult when dealing with a gas because forces in one direction can aﬀect the momentum in
another direction because of the collisions of many molecules.
Here we will present a very, very simpliﬁed ﬂow problem where properties only change in one
direction. The problem is further simpliﬁed by considering a steady ﬂow which does not change
with time and by limiting the forces to only those associated with the pressure. Be aware that real
ﬂow problems are much more complex than this simple example.
Let us consider the ﬂow of a gas through a domain in which ﬂow properties only change in one
direction, which we will call x. The gas enters the domain at station 1 with some velocity u
and some pressure p and exits at station 2 with a diﬀerent value of velocity and pressure. For
simplicity, we will assume that the density ρ remains constant within the domain and that the
area A through which the gas ﬂows also remains constant. The location of stations 1 and 2 are
separated by a distance ∆x
1
. The velocity gradient is indicated by du/dx, change in velocity per
change in distance. So at station 2, the velocity is given by the velocity at 1 plus the gradient
times the distance:
u
2
= u
1
+
∆u
∆x
∆x
Similarly, the pressure at the exit:
p
2
= p
1
+
∆p
∆x
∆x
From Newton’s second law:
F =
d(mu)
dt
= m
du
dt
= m
∆u
∆t
The force comes from the pressure gradient. Since pressure is a force per unit area, the net force
on our ﬂuid domain is the pressure times the area at the exit minus the pressure times the area at
the entrance:
F = −
__
p A
_
2
−
_
p A
_
1
_
Thus,
m
u
2
−u
1
∆t
= −
_
p A
_
2
+
_
p A
_
1
The minus sign at the beginning of this expression is used because gases move from a region of
high pressure to a region of low pressure; if the pressure increases with x, the velocity will decrease.
Substituting for our expressions for velocity and pressure:
m
_
u
1
+
∆u
∆x
∆x
_
−u
1
∆t
= −
_
p
1
+
∆p
∆x
∆x
_
A
2
+
_
p A
_
1
1
A change with distance is referred to as a gradient to avoid confusion with a change with time which is called a rate.
2.1. AERODYNAMICS 46
Assuming A
1
= A
2
= A and simplifying, we get:
m
_
∆u
∆x
∆x
_
∆t
= −
_
∆p
∆x
∆x
_
A
m
_
∆u
∆x
_ _
∆x
∆t
_
= −
_
∆p
∆x
_
∆xA
Recall,
m = ρ V = ρ ∆xA and u =
∆x
∆t
Thus,
−m
_
∆p
∆x
_
= ρ u
∆u
∆x
As we make ∆x →0, we obtain the diﬀerential equation:
−m
_
dp
dx
_
= ρ u
du
dx
This is a one dimensional, steady form of Euler’s Equation. It is interesting to note that the
pressure drop of a ﬂuid (the term on the left) is proportional to both the value of the velocity
and the gradient of the velocity. A solution of this momentum equation gives us the form of the
dynamic pressure that appears in Bernoulli’s Equation.
3. Conservation of energy: Although it can be converted from one form to another, the total
energy in a given system remains constant. The most general form for the conservation of energy
is given on the NavierStokes equation page. This formula includes the eﬀects of unsteady ﬂows
and viscous interactions.
Within some problem domain, the amount of energy remains constant and energy is neither cre
ated nor destroyed. Energy can be converted from one form to another (potential energy can be
converted to kinetic energy) but the total energy within the domain remains ﬁxed.
Here we derive a useful form of the energy conservation equation for a gas beginning with the ﬁrst
law of thermodynamics. If we call the total energy of a gas E, the work done by the gas W, and
the heat transferred into the gas Q, then the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics indicates that between
state “1” and state “2”:
E
2
−E
1
= Q−W
Aerospace engineers usually simplify a thermodynamic analysis by using intensive variables; vari
ables that do not depend on the mass of the gas
2
. We create a “speciﬁc” variable by taking a
property whose value depends on the mass of the system and dividing it by the mass of the system.
Many of the state properties listed on this slide, such as the work and total energy depend on the
total mass of gas. We will use “speciﬁc” versions of these variables. Engineers usually use the
lower case letter for the “speciﬁc” version of a variable. Our ﬁrst law equation then becomes:
e
2
−e
1
= q −w
2
Variables that do not change with the mass of the gas are called speciﬁc variables.
2.2. MACH NUMBER 47
The total energy is composed of the internal and kinetic energy:
e = u +k
where the speciﬁc kinetic energy is deﬁned as k = v
2
/2. The total speciﬁc work is deﬁned as:
w =
_
p v
vol
_
2
−
_
p v
vol
_
1
+w
shaft
Let us further deﬁne the total speciﬁc enthalpy as follows:
h
t
= e +p v
vol
+
1
2
v
2
Now substituting and regrouping we get:
h
t2
−h
t1
= q −w
shaft
For a compressor or power turbine, there is no external heat ﬂow into the gas and the q term is
set equal to zero. In the burner, no work is performed and the w
shaft
term is set to zero.
All aerodynamic problems are therefore solved by the same set of equations. However, they diﬀer by
the assumptions made in each problem.
2.2 Mach Number
As an aircraft moves through the air, the air molecules near the aircraft are disturbed and move around
the aircraft. If the aircraft passes at a low speed, typically less than 250 mph, the density of the air
remains constant. But for higher speeds, some of the energy of the aircraft goes into compressing the
air and locally changing the density of the air. This compressibility eﬀect alters the amount of resulting
force on the aircraft. The eﬀect becomes more important as speed increases. Near and beyond the speed
of sound, about 330 m/s or 760 mph at sea level, small disturbances in the ﬂow are transmitted to other
locations isentropically or with constant entropy. Sharp disturbances generate shock waves that aﬀect
both the lift and drag of the aircraft, and the ﬂow conditions downstream of the shock wave.
The ratio of the speed of the aircraft to the speed of sound in the gas determines the magnitude of
many of the compressibility eﬀects. This speed ratio is known as the Mach number and is deﬁned as
M=
V
∞
a
where M is the Mach Number, V the speed of the aircraft and a the speed of sound. It allows us to
deﬁne ﬂight regimes in which compressibility eﬀects vary.
1. Subsonic conditions occur for Mach numbers less than one, M < 1 . For the lowest subsonic
conditions, compressibility can be ignored.
2. As the speed of the object approaches the speed of sound, the ﬂight Mach number is nearly equal
2.3. DYNAMIC PRESSURE 48
to one, M≈ 1 , and the ﬂow is said to be transonic. At some places on the object, the local speed
exceeds the speed of sound. Compressibility eﬀects are most important in transonic ﬂows and lead
to the early belief in a sound barrier. Flight faster than sound was thought to be impossible. In fact,
the sound barrier was only an increase in the drag near sonic conditions because of compressibility
eﬀects. Because of the high drag associated with compressibility eﬀects, aircraft do not cruise near
Mach 1.
3. Supersonic conditions occur for Mach numbers greater than one, 1 < M < 3. Compressibility
eﬀects are important for supersonic aircraft, and shock waves are generated by the surface of the
object. For high supersonic speeds, 3 < M< 5, aerodynamic heating also becomes very important
for aircraft design.
4. For speeds greater than ﬁve times the speed of sound, M > 5, the ﬂow is said to be hypersonic.
At these speeds, some of the energy of the object now goes into exciting the chemical bonds which
hold together the nitrogen and oxygen molecules of the air. At hypersonic speeds, the chemistry of
the air must be considered when determining forces on the object. The Space Shuttle reenters the
atmosphere at high hypersonic speeds, M ∼ 25. Under these conditions, the heated air becomes
an ionized plasma of gas and the spacecraft must be insulated from the high temperatures.
For supersonic and hypersonic ﬂows, small disturbances are transmitted downstream within a cone.
The trigonometric sine of the cone angle b is equal to the inverse of the Mach number M and the angle
is therefore called the Mach angle.
sin(b) =
1
M
There is no upstream inﬂuence in a supersonic or hypersonic ﬂow; disturbances are only transmitted
downstream.
2.3 Dynamic pressure
2.4. AIRCRAFT WEIGHT 49
There are two ways to look at pressure: (1) the small scale action of individual air molecules or (2)
the large scale action of a large number of molecules. On the the small scale, from the kinetic theory
of gases, a gas is composed of a large number of molecules that are very small relative to the distance
between molecules. The molecules of a gas are in constant, random motion and frequently collide with
each other and with the walls of any container. During collisions with the walls, there is a change in
velocity and therefore a change in momentum of the molecules. The change in momentum produces a
force on the walls which is related to the gas pressure. The pressure of a gas is a measure of the average
linear momentum of the moving molecules of a gas. On the large scale, the pressure of a gas is a state
variable, like the temperature and the density. The change in pressure during any process is governed
by the laws of thermodynamics. Although pressure itself is a scalar quantity, we can deﬁne a pressure
force to be equal to the pressure (force/area) times the surface area in a direction perpendicular to the
surface. If a gas is static and not ﬂowing, the measured pressure is the same in all directions. But if the
gas is moving, the measured pressure depends on the direction of motion. This leads to the deﬁnition
of the dynamic pressure:
q
∞
=
1
2
ρ V
2
∞
2.4 Aircraft Weight
Figure 2.2: Aircraft weight.
Weight is the force generated by the gravitational attraction of the earth on the airplane. Each
part of the aircraft has a unique weight and mass, and for some problems it is important to know the
distribution. But for total aircraft maneuvering, we only need to be concerned with the total weight
and the location of the center of gravity. The center of gravity is the average location of the mass of any
object.
How do engineers determine the weight of an airplane which they are designing? An airplane is a
combination of many parts; the wings, engines, fuselage, and tail, plus the payload and the fuel. Each
part has a weight associated with it which the engineer can estimate, or calculate, using Newton’s weight
equation:
W = mg
where W is the weight, m the mass, and g the gravitational constant (32.174 ft/s
2
, English; 9.81 m/s
2
,
SI). The mass of an individual component can be calculated if we know the size of the component and
2.5. CENTER OF GRAVITY 50
its chemical composition. Every material (iron, plastic, aluminum, gasoline, etc.) has a unique density.
If we can calculate the volume V , then the mass of each material is obtained by:
m = ρ V
Then, the total weight W of the aircraft is simply the sum of the weight of all of the individual compo
nents:
W = w
¸
¸
¸
fuselage
+w
¸
¸
¸
wing
+w
¸
¸
¸
engines
+w
¸
¸
¸
payload
+w
¸
¸
¸
fuel
+
In general. we may have a total of n discrete components and the weight of the aircraft is the sum of
the individual i
th
component weights with the index i going from 1 to n:
W =
i=n
i=1
w
i
This equation says that the weight of the airplane is equal to the sum of the weight of n discrete parts.
What if the parts are not discrete? What if we had a continuous change of mass from front to back?
The continuous change can be computed using integral calculus:
W =
_
w(x) dx
The discrete weight is replaced with w(x) which indicates that the weight is some function of distance
x. If we are given the form of the function, there are methods to solve the integration. If we don’t
know the actual functional form, we can still numerically integrate the equation using a spread sheet by
dividing the distance up into a number of small distance segments and determining the average value of
the weight over that small segment, then summing up the value.
2.5 Center of Gravity
The center of gravity (CG) is a geometric property of the aircraft and is the average location of the
weight of the aircraft. We can completely describe the motion of the aircraft through space in terms of
the translation of the center of gravity of the aircraft from one place to another, and the rotation of the
aircraft about its center of gravity if it is free to rotate. If the aircraft is conﬁned to rotate about some
other point, like a hinge, we can still describe its motion.
In general, determining the CG) is a complicated procedure because the mass (and weight) may not
be uniformly distributed throughout the aircraft. Thus, we can characterize the mass distribution by a
function w(x) which indicates that the weight is some function of distance x from a reference line. Then
the center of gravity can be determined from:
x
CG
=
_
xw(x) dx
_
w(x) dx
2.6. CENTER OF PRESSURE 51
If we don’t know the actual functional form, we can numerically integrate the equation by dividing
the distance into a number of small distance segments and determining the average value of the mass
(or weight) over that small segment. Taking the sum of the average value times the distance times the
distance segment divided by the sum of the average value times the distance segment will produce the
center of gravity:
x
CG
=
n
i
x
i
w
i
n
i
w
i
The weight of the airplane, pilot and passengers, fuel and baggage is distributed throughout the
aircraft. However, the total weight can be considered as being concentrated at one given point. This
point is the center of gravity. If the plane were suspended by a rope attached at the center of gravity it
would be in balance.
The center of gravity is aﬀected by the way an aircraft is loaded. For example, if in a 4 place aircraft,
there are 2 rather large individuals in the front seats, and no rear seat passengers or baggage, the CG
will be somewhat toward the nose of the aircraft. If however, the 2 front seat passengers are smaller,
with 2 large individuals in the rear seats, and a lot of baggage in the rear baggage compartment, the
CG will be located more aft.
Every aircraft has a maximum forward and rearward CG position at which the aircraft is designed
to operate. Operating an aircraft with the CG outside these limits aﬀects the handling characteristics
of the aircraft. Serious “out of CG” conditions can be dangerous.
2.6 Center of Pressure
Figure 2.3: Center of pressure.
As an object moves through a ﬂuid, the velocity of the ﬂuid varies around the surface of the object.
The variation of velocity produces a variation of pressure on the surface of the object as shown by the the
thin red lines on Figure 2.3. Integrating the pressure times the surface area around the body determines
the aerodynamic force on the object:
F =
_
p(x)dS
2.6. CENTER OF PRESSURE 52
where S is the surface area, p(x) the pressure variation and f the total force exerted by the pressure.
We can consider this single force, F, to act through the average location of the pressure on the surface of
the object. We call the average location of the pressure variation the center of pressure (CP) in the same
way that we call the average location of the weight of an object the center of gravity. The aerodynamic
force can then be resolved into two components, lift and drag, which act through the center of pressure
in ﬂight.
Determining the center of pressure is very important for any ﬂying object. To trim an airplane, or
to provide stability for a model rocket or a kite, it is necessary to know the location of the center of
pressure of the entire aircraft. How do engineers determine the location of the center of pressure for an
aircraft which they are designing?
In general, determining the center of pressure is a very complicated procedure because the pressure
changes around the object. Determining the center of pressure requires a knowledge of the pressure
distribution around the body. We can characterize the pressure variation around the surface as a
function p(x) which indicates that the pressure depends on the distance x from a reference line usually
taken as the leading edge of the object. If we can determine the form of the function, then the center of
pressure can be determined from:
x
CP
=
_
xp(x) dx
_
p(x) dx
If we don’t know the actual functional form, we can numerically integrate the equation using a
spreadsheet by dividing the distance into a number of small distance segments and determining the
average value of the pressure over that small segment. Taking the sum of the average value times the
distance times the distance segment divided by the sum of the average value times the distance segment
will produce the center of pressure:
x
CP
=
n
i
x
i
p
i
n
i
p
i
There are several important problems to consider when determining the center of pressure for an
airfoil. As we change angle of attack, the pressure at every point on the airfoil changes. And, therefore,
the location of the center of pressure changes as well. The movement of the center of pressure caused
a major problem for early airfoil designers because the amount (and sometimes the direction) of the
movement was diﬀerent for diﬀerent designs. In general, the pressure variation around the airfoil also
imparts a torque, or ”twisting force”, to the airfoil. If a ﬂying airfoil is not restrained in some way it will
ﬂip as it moves through the air. (As a further complication, the center of pressure also moves because
of viscosity and compressibility eﬀects on the ﬂow ﬁeld. )
2.7. AERODYNAMIC CENTER 53
2.7 Aerodynamic Center
To resolve some of the above design problems, aeronautical engineers prefer to characterize the forces on
an airfoil by the aerodynamic force, described above, coupled with an aerodynamic moment to account
for the torque. It was found both experimentally and analytically that, if the aerodynamic force is
applied at a location 1/4 chord back from the leading edge on most low speed airfoils, the magnitude of
the aerodynamic moment remains nearly constant with angle of attack. Engineers call the location
where the aerodynamic moment remains constant the aerodynamic center of the airfoil.
Using the aerodynamic center as the location where the aerodynamic force is applied eliminates the
problem of the movement of the center of pressure with angle of attack in aerodynamic analysis. (For
supersonic airfoils, the aerodynamic center is nearer the 1/2 chord location.)
When computing the trim of an aircraft, we usually apply the aerodynamic forces at the aerodynamic
center of airfoils and compute the center of pressure of the vehicle as an areaweighted average of the
centers of the components.
2.8 Lift
Lift is the force that directly opposes the weight of an airplane and holds the airplane in the air. Lift
is generated by every part of the airplane, but most of the lift on a normal airliner is generated by the
wings. Lift is a mechanical aerodynamic force produced by the motion of the airplane through the air.
Because lift is a force, it is a vector quantity, having both a magnitude and a direction associated with it.
Lift acts through the center of pressure of the object and is directed perpendicular to the ﬂow direction.
There are several factors which aﬀect the magnitude of lift.
2.8.1 How is lift generated
Lift occurs when a moving ﬂow of gas is turned by a solid object. The ﬂow is turned in one direction, and
the lift is generated in the opposite direction, according to Newton’s Third Law of action and reaction.
Because air is a gas and the molecules are free to move about, any solid surface can deﬂect a ﬂow. For
an aircraft wing, both the upper and lower surfaces contribute to the ﬂow turning. Neglecting the upper
surface’s part in turning the ﬂow leads to an incorrect theory of lift.
2.8.2 No Fluid, No Lift
Lift is a mechanical force. It is generated by the interaction and contact of a solid body with a ﬂuid (liquid
or gas). It is not generated by a force ﬁeld, in the sense of a gravitational ﬁeld,or an electromagnetic ﬁeld,
where one object can aﬀect another object without being in physical contact. For lift to be generated,
the solid body must be in contact with the ﬂuid: no ﬂuid, no lift. The Space Shuttle does not stay in
space because of lift from its wings but because of orbital mechanics related to its speed. Space is nearly
a vacuum. Without air, there is no lift generated by the wings.
2.8. LIFT 54
2.8.3 No Motion, No Lift
Lift is generated by the diﬀerence in velocity between the solid object and the ﬂuid. There must be
motion between the object and the ﬂuid: no motion, no lift. It makes no diﬀerence whether the object
moves through a static ﬂuid, or the ﬂuid moves past a static solid object. Lift acts perpendicular to the
motion. Drag acts in the direction opposed to the motion.
You can learn more about the factors that aﬀect lift at this web site. There are many small interactive
programs here to let you explore the generation of lift.
2.8.4 Factors That Aﬀect Lift
All that is necessary to create lift is to turn a ﬂow of air. An aerodynamic, curved airfoil will turn a ﬂow.
But so will a simple ﬂat plate, if it is inclined to the ﬂow. The fuselage of an airplane will also generate
lift if it is inclined to the ﬂow. For that matter, an automobile body also turns the ﬂow through which
it moves, generating a lift force. Any physical body moving through a ﬂuid can create lift if it produces
a net turning of the ﬂow.
There are many factors that aﬀect the turning of the ﬂow, which creates lift. We can group these
factors into: (a) those associated with the object, (b) those associated with the motion of the object
through the air, and (c) those associated with the air itself:
1. Object: At the top of the ﬁgure, aircraft wing geometry has a large eﬀect on the amount of lift
generated. The airfoil shape and wing size will both aﬀect the amount of lift. The ratio of the
wing span to the wing area also aﬀects the amount of lift generated by a wing.
2. Motion: To generate lift, we have to move the object through the air. The lift then depends on
the velocity of the air and how the object is inclined to the ﬂow.
3. Air: Lift depends on the mass of the ﬂow. The lift also depends in a complex way on two other
properties of the air: its viscosity and its compressibility.
2.8.5 Lift Equation
We can gather all of this information on the factors that aﬀect lift into a single mathematical equation
called the Lift Equation. With the lift equation we can predict how much lift force will be generated by
a given body moving at a given speed.
Lift depends on the density of the air, the square of the velocity, the air’s viscosity and compressibility,
the surface area over which the air ﬂows, the shape of the body, and the body’s inclination to the ﬂow.
In general, the dependence on body shape, inclination, air viscosity, and compressibility is very complex.
One way to deal with complex dependencies is to characterize the dependence by a single variable.
For lift, this variable is called the lift coeﬃcient, designated C
L
. This allows us to collect all the eﬀects,
2.9. DRAG 55
simple and complex, into a single equation. The lift equation states that:
L =
1
2
ρ V
2
∞
S C
L
where V
∞
is the speed of the aircraft, S the wing area, and ρ the air density. We can further express
the equation in terms of the dynamic pressure:
L = q
∞
S C
L
2.9 Drag
In progress...
2.10. NORMAL LOAD FACTOR 56
2.10 Normal Load Factor
Load factor is the ratio of the total load supported by the airplane’s wing to the total weight of the
airplane. In still air ﬂight, the load on the wing equals the lift it generates. The load factor is expressed
in “g” units and is deﬁned as the ratio of lift and to weight:
n =
L
W
(2.1)
Hence,
L = nW =
1
2
ρ V
2
∞
S C
L.max
The load factor may be take positive or negative values:
1. POSITIVE LOAD FACTOR: During normal ﬂight, the load factor is 1 g or greater than 1 g.
Whenever the load factor is one or greater the load factor is deﬁned as positive.
2. NEGATIVE LOAD FACTOR:  Under certain conditions, an abrupt deviation from the air
plane’s equilibrium can cause an inertial acceleration that in turn will cause the weight to become
greater than the lift. For example, during a stall, the load factor may be reduced towards zero.
This will cause the pilot to feel “weightless”. A sudden and forceful elevator control movement
forward can cause the load factor to move into a negative region.
Both excessive deviation from positive and negative load factor limits must be avoided because of the
possibility of exceeding the structural load limits of the airplane.
Let us consider four cases:
1. Level ﬂight
2. Turning Flight
3. Vertical PullUps
4. Vertical PullDowns
2.10.1 Equations of Motion
To derive the equations of motion, let us consider an aircraft in ﬂight inclined at and angle with the
horizon. Assume that the aircraft is a rigid body on which all four forces are acting at the center of
mass. The forces acting on the aircraft, as shown in Fig. 2.4, are
1. Lift (L) which acts perpendicular to the ﬂight path.
2. Drag (D) which acts parallel to the forward velocity vector.
2.10. NORMAL LOAD FACTOR 57
L
W
D
T
Figure 2.4: Forces acting on an aircraft.
3. Weight (W) which acts vertically downwards.
4. Thrust (T) which is generally inclined at an angle
T
to the ﬂight path (it is assumed zero here)
Let the ﬂight path angle be θ. Hence, the equation of motion are
m ˙ v = T −D −W sinθ
_
F
= m ˙ v
_
mv
˙
θ = L −W cos θ
_
F
⊥
=
mv
2
r
= mv
˙
θ
_
2.10.2 Steady, Level Flight
Since we need a speciﬁc amount of lift in order to maintain straight and level ﬂight, turn, climb or
descend, we must be able to control the amount of lift produced. Furthermore, by steady we mean
unaccelerated level ﬂight and thus the ﬂight path angle is zero. Hence the equations reduce to
0 = T −D
0 = L −W
Recall the lift equation:
L =
1
2
ρ V
2
∞
S C
L
Generally, the wing span area, S is ﬁxed, the air density, rho, is determined by the altitude we are ﬂying
at (assume it cannot be changed). This leaves with two options the coeﬃcient of lift and the speed.
In level ﬂight, the load acting on the wings is equal to the ratio of lift and to weight:
n =
L
W
(2.2)
Consequently, the load factor equals “1 g”.
2.10. NORMAL LOAD FACTOR 58
2.10.3 Level Turn: PullUp
L
v
O
W
L
W
θ
r
Figure 2.5: Forces acting on an aircraft during a vertical pullup.
Consider the case of an aircraft initially in steady, straight, level ﬂight and then subjected to a sudden
increase in lift. This will result in a curved ﬂight path in the vertical plane, as shown in Fig. 2.5. Due
to the centripetal acceleration,
L =
_
v
2
g r
+ cos θ
_
W
Note that the maximum lift (and therefore the load factor) requirement will be at the bottom of the
curve,
n =
L
W
=
v
2
g r
+ 1 (2.3)
2.10.4 Level Turn: PullDown
Consider the case of an aircraft initially in steady, straight, level ﬂight and then subjected to a decrease
in lift. This will result in a curved ﬂight path in the vertical plane, as shown in Fig. 2.5. Typically, an
aircraft is initially in level ﬂight and rolled into an inverted position so both lift and weight are point
downwards. It can be shown that the load factor is
n =
L
W
= 1 −
v
2
g r
(2.4)
2.10.5 Banked Turns
Consider the case of an aircraft initially in steady, straight, level ﬂight and then making a level turn. This
will result in a level ﬂight path as shown in Fig. 2.7. From force balance in the vertical and horizontal
directions,
W = L cos φ, F
r
=
mv
2
r
= L sinφ
2.10. NORMAL LOAD FACTOR 59
L
v
O
W
r
Figure 2.6: Forces acting on an aircraft during a vertical pulldown.
Hence, it can be shown that the load factor is
n =
L
W
=
¸
v
4
g
2
r
2
−1
(2.5)
2.11. REFERENCES 60
Figure 2.7: Forces acting on an aircraft during a banked turn.
2.11 References
Dole, Charles E. and Lewis, James E., Flight Theory and Aerodynamics: A Practical Guide for Opera
tional Safety, Second Edition, May 2000, John Wiley and Sons.
Keane, Andy and Nair, Prasanth, Computational Approaches for Aerospace Design: The Pursuit of
Excellence, August 2005, John Wiley and Sons.
Kuethe, Arnold M., and Chow, ChuenYen, Foundations of Aerodynamics: Bases of Aerodynamic De
sign, Fifth Edition, November 1997, John Wiley and Sons.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main Page
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K12/airplane/guided.htm
http://www.ndt.net/article/ecndt98/aero/001/001.htm
2.12. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 61
2.12 Suggested Problems
Problem 2.1.
What happens when lift is higher than the weight?
Problem 2.2.
What happens when lift is equal to the weight?
Problem 2.3.
What happens when lift is less than the weight?
Problem 2.4.
A model wing of constant chord length is placed in a lowspeed subsonic wind tunnel, spanning the test
section, The wing has a NACA 2412 airfoil and a chord length of 1.3 m. The ﬂow in the test section is
at a velocity of 50 m/s at standard sealevel conditions. If the wing is at 4
◦
angle of attack, calculate:
1. The lift coeﬃcient, c
l
; the drag coeﬃcient, c
d
; the moment coeﬃcient, c
m.c/4
. (Hint: use tables for
the NACA airfoil given, use Reynolds number to determine c
d
).
2. Determine the lift, drag, and moments about the quarter chord, per unit span.
3. Determine the lift to drag ration (L/D).
Chapter 3
Load Analysis
Instructional Objectives of Chapter 3
After completing this chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Fully understand the importance of units.
2. Determine load analysis of airplane structural components under both static and dy
namic loading.
3. Draw load diagrams using common analytical and discrete solutions.
This chapter presents a brief review of Newton’s laws and Euler’s equations as applied to dynamically
loaded and steadyloaded systems in 3D. The concepts and methods used in this chapter are usually
presented in previous statics and dynamics courses. Students are encouraged to review their static and
dynamic course contents.
3.1 Newton’s Laws
Most of the problems in structural analysis deal with static and dynamic analyses. In fact, static
loading can be considered as a special case of the dynamic one. The most popular method for the
dynamic analysis is the Newtonian approach based on Newton’s laws and is generally used to obtain
information about internal forces. The three Newton’s Laws can be brieﬂy summarized as follows:
Newton’s First Law Newton’s First Law states that a body at rest tends to remain at rest and a
body in motion at constant velocity will tend to maintain that velocity unless acted upon by an
external force.
Newton’s Second Law Newton’s Second Law states that the time rate of change of momentum of a
body is equal to the magnitude of the applied force and acts in the direction of the force.
62
3.2. UNITS 63
Newton’s Third Law Newton’s Third Law states that when two particles interact, a pair of equal
and opposite reaction forces will exist at their contact point. This force pair will have the same
magnitude and act along the same direction line, but have opposite sense.
3.2 Units
In all engineering problems, we must deal with units carefully. Each parameter in the problem may have
a speciﬁc unit system. A unit may be deﬁned as a speciﬁed amount of a physical quantity by which
through comparison another quantity of the same kind is measured. It our job to ensure that we are
working in the proper unit system and make the corresponding conversions, should it be necessary.
3.2.1 Importance of Units
Equations from physics and engineering that relate physical quantities are dimensionally homogeneous.
Dimensionally homogeneous equations must have the same dimensions for each term. Newton’s second
law relates the dimensions force, mass, length, and time:
F α ma
[F] =
[M] [L]
[T]
2
(3.1)
If length and time are primary dimensions, Newton’s second law, being dimensionally homogeneous,
requires that both force and mass cannot be primary dimensions without introducing a constant of
proportionality that has dimension (and units).
Because physical quantities are related by laws and deﬁnitions, a small number of physical quantities,
called primary dimensions, are suﬃcient to conceive of and measure all others. Primary dimensions in
all systems of dimensions in common use length and time. Force is selected as a primary dimension in
some systems. Mass is taken as a primary dimension in others. For application in mechanics, we have
four basic systems of dimensions:
1. force [F], mass [M], length [L], time [T]
2. force [F], length [L], time [T]
3. mass [M], length [L], time [T]
In system 1, length [L], time [T], and both force [F] and mass [M] are selected as primary dimensions.
In this system, in Newton’s second law
F =
ma
g
c
3.2. UNITS 64
where the constant of proportionality, g
c
, is not dimensionless. For Newton’s law to be dimensionally
homogeneous, the dimensions of g
c
must be:
g
c
=
[M] [L]
[F] [T]
2
In system 2, mass [M] is a secondary dimension, and in Newton’s second law the constant of propor
tionality is dimensionless. In system 3, force [F] is a secondary dimension, and in Newton’s second law
the constant of proportionality is again dimensionless. The measuring units selected for each primary
physical quantities determine the numerical value of the constant of proportionality.
Secondary dimensions are those quantities measured in terms of the primary dimensions. For exam
ple, if mass, length, and time are primary dimensions, area, density, and velocity would be secondary
dimensions.
3.2.2 Systems of Units
Four diﬀerent systems of units can be identiﬁed:
1. Syst`eme International d’Unit`es (SI)
mass : kilogram (kg)
length : meter (m)
temperature : Celsius (
◦
C) or Kelvin (
◦
K)
time : second (s)
force : newton (N)
2. English Engineering
mass : pound mass (lbm)
length : feet (ft)
temperature : Rankine (
◦
R)
time : second (s)
force : pound force (lb or lbf)
3. British Engineering: footpoundsecond (fps)
mass : slug (slug)
length : feet (ft)
temperature : Fahrenheit (
◦
F)
time : second (s)
force : pound force (lb)
3.2. UNITS 65
4. British Engineering: inchpoundsecond (ips)
mass : slug (slug)
length : inch (in)
temperature : Fahrenheit (
◦
F)
time : second (s)
force : pound force (lb)
3.2. UNITS 66
Example 3.1.
A special payload package is to be delivered to the surface of the moon. A prototype of
the package, developed, constructed, and tested near Boston, has been determined to have
a mass of 24.0 kg. Assume g
Boston
= 9.77 m/sec
2
and g
moon
= 1.7 m/sec
2
. Show all your
work.
3.1a) Estimate the weight of the package, using the international system, as measured near
Boston.
3.1b) Estimate the weight of the package, using the international system, on the surface of
the moon.
3.1c) Reexpress the weights using fps and ips systems.
Let’s use Eq. (3.1),
F = ma → W = mg (3.2)
Thus,
3.1a) Estimate the weight of the package, using the international system, as measured near
Boston.
W
Boston
= mg
Boston
=
_
24.0 kg
_
_
9.77 m/sec
2
_
= 234.48
kg–m
sec
2
= 234.48 N
3.1b) Estimate the weight of the package, using the international system, on the surface of
the moon.
W
moon
= mg
moon
=
_
24.0 kg
_
_
1.7 m/sec
2
_
= 40.8
kg–m
sec
2
= 40.8 N
3.1c) Reexpress the weights using fps and ips systems.
Using Tables,
W
Boston
=
_
234.48 N
_
_
1 lb
4.448 N
_
= 52.72 lb in both units
W
moon
=
_
40.8 N
_
_
1 lb
4.448 N
_
= 9.17 lb in both units
Alternative approach:
3.2. UNITS 67
Note that the mass can be expressed as follows,
m
fps
=
_
24.0 kg
_
_
2.21 lbm
1.0 kg
_
_
1.0 slug
32.17 lbm
_
= 1.65 slug = 1.65
lb–sec
2
ft
m
ips
=
_
1.65
lb–sec
2
ft
_
_
1.0 ft
12.0 in
_
= 0.1375
lb–sec
2
in
and the gravitational constant at Boston and at the moon are
g
Bostonips
=
_
9.77
m
sec
2
_
_
1000.0 mm
1.0 m
_
_
1.0 in
25.4 mm
_
= 384.65
in
sec
2
g
Boston
fps
=
_
384.65
in
sec
2
_
_
1 ft
12 in
_
= 32.05
ft
sec
2
g
moonips
=
_
1.7
m
sec
2
_
_
1000.0 mm
1.0 m
_
_
1.0 in
25.4 mm
_
= 66.93
in
sec
2
g
moon
fps
=
_
66.93
in
sec
2
_
_
1 ft
12 in
_
= 5.58
ft
sec
2
Thus we could have also obtained the results by,
W
moon
=
_
1.65 slugs
_
_
5.58
ft
sec
2
_
= 362.70
slug–ft
sec
2
= 9.20 lb
W
moon
=
_
0.1375
lb–sec
2
in
_
_
66.93
in
sec
2
_
= 9.20 lb
W
Boston
=
_
1.65 slugs
_
_
32.05
ft
sec
2
_
= 52.88
slug–ft
sec
2
= 52.88 lb
W
Boston
=
_
0.1375
lb–sec
2
in
_
_
384.65
in
sec
2
_
= 52.88 lb
End Example
3.3. LOAD ANALYSIS 68
3.3 Load Analysis
Many problems deal with constant velocity, or zero velocity (static), in such cases Newton’s Second Law
reduces to:
F
x
= 0
F
y
= 0
F
z
= 0
M
x
= 0
M
y
= 0
M
z
= 0
(3.3)
Note that the above is just a special case of the dynamic loading situation but with zero accelerations.
3.3.1 Internal Force Sign Convention
Here we will always assumes all unknown forces and moments on the system to be positive in sign as
shown in Figure 3.1, regardless of what one’s intuition or an inspection of the freebody diagram might
indicate as to their probable directions. However, all known force components are given their proper
signs to deﬁne their directions. The simultaneous solution of the set of equations that results will cause
all the unknown components to have the proper signs when the solution is complete. If the loads act on
the opposite direction it results in a sign reversal on that component in the solution.
y
x
z
M
yy
M
xx
M
xx
M
yy
M
zz
M
zz
V
z
V
z
N
xx
N
xx
V
y
V
y
Positivelyoriented
surface
Negativelyoriented
surface
Figure 3.1: Positive sign convention.
We will need to apply the second law in order to solve for the forces on assemblies of elements that
act upon one another. The six equations can be written in a 3D system. In addition, as many (third
law) reaction force equations as are necessary will be written and the resulting set of equations solved
simultaneously for the forces and moments. The number of secondlaw equations will be up to six times
the number of individual parts in a threedimensional system (plus the reaction equations), meaning that
even simple systems result in large sets of simultaneous equations. The reaction (thirdlaw) equations
are often substituted into the secondlaw equations to reduce the total number of equations to be solved
simultaneously.
3.3. LOAD ANALYSIS 69
Example 3.2.
For the given problem obtain all the reactions at point O (clampedend). Use the shown sign
convention (it is similar to the one used on class). The loads P and T act in the xy plane.
The length of bar CB is L, of bar BA is 2 L, and of bar OA is 3 L.
y
y
3
z
3
z
x
3
O
3L
x
A
2L
x
2
y
1
y
2
z
1
x
1
3
4
T
C
B
z
2
L
P
Figure 3.2: Threedimensional barstructure.
3.3. LOAD ANALYSIS 70
3.2a) Draw freebody diagrams of the each section OA, BA, CB.
z1
x1
y1
P T
C
4
3
Vy1
B
Nxx1
Vz1
Myy1
Mxx1
Mzz1
y2
z2
x2
B
A
Nxx2
Vz2
Myy2
Mxx2
Mzz2
Vy2
Vy2
Nxx2
Vz2
Myy2
Mzz2
Mxx2
x3
z3
y3
O
Mxx3
Mzz3
Myy3
A
Vy3
Vz3
Nxx3
Mzz3
Myy3
Mxx3
Figure 3.3: Free body diagrams for the threedimensional barstructure.
3.3. LOAD ANALYSIS 71
3.2b) Obtain the internal loads at B.
First of all, the coordinate system can be changed from bar to bar whenever we are con
sistent are clear about what we are doing. In this context, let us use a local coordinate
system such that xaxis always goes along the main axis of the bar. In order to do so,
let us use subscript“1” to refer to the ﬁrst bar, “2” for the second bar and “3” for the
third bar. This will avoid any confusion as to what coordinate system we are working
with.
Next, we proceed to ﬁnd the loads at B:
+ ↑
F
y
= 0 ⇒ V
y1
(x
1
) +
4
5
P = 0
V
y1
(x
1
) = −
4
5
P
V
y1
(x
1
= L) = −
4
5
P
− →
+
F
x
= 0 ⇒ N
xx1
(x
1
) + 0 = 0
N
xx1
(x
1
) = 0
N
xx1
(x
1
= L) = 0
+
F
z
= 0 ⇒ V
z1
(x
1
) +
3
5
P = 0
V
z1
(x
1
) = −
3
5
P
V
z1
(x
1
= L) = −
3
5
P
3.3. LOAD ANALYSIS 72
+
M
y
B
= 0 ⇒ M
yy1
(x
1
) +
3
5
P x
1
= 0
M
yy1
(x
1
) = −
3
5
P x
1
M
yy1
(x
1
= L) = −
3
5
P L
+
M
x
B
= 0 ⇒ M
xx1
(x
1
) −T = 0
M
xx1
(x
1
) = T
M
xx1
(x
1
= L) = T
+
M
z
B
= 0 ⇒ M
zz1
(x
1
) −
4
5
P x
1
= 0
M
zz1
(x
1
) =
4
5
P x
1
M
zz1
(x
1
= L) =
4
5
P L
3.2c) Obtain the internal loads at A.
From action reaction at B:
M
xx2
(x
2
= 0) = M
yy1
(x
1
= L) = −
3
5
P L
M
yy2
(x
2
= 0) = −M
xx1
(x
1
= L) = −T
M
zz2
(x
2
= 0) = M
zz1
(x
1
= L) =
4
5
P L
N
xx2
(x
2
= 0) = V
y1
(x
1
= L) = −
4
5
P
V
y2
(x
2
= 0) = −N
xx1
(x
1
= L) = 0
V
z2
(x
2
= 0) = V
z1
(x
1
= L) = −
3
5
P
3.3. LOAD ANALYSIS 73
Next, we proceed to ﬁnd the loads at A:
+ ↑
F
y
= 0 ⇒ −V
y2
(x
2
= 0) +V
y2
(x
2
) = 0
V
y2
(x
2
) = V
y2
(x
2
= 0)
V
y2
(x
2
= 2 L) = V
y2
(x
2
= 0) = −N
xx1
(x
1
= L) = 0
− →
+
F
x
= 0 ⇒ −N
xx2
(x
2
= 0) +N
xx2
(x
2
) = 0
N
xx2
(x
2
) = N
xx2
(x
2
= 0)
N
xx2
(x
2
= 2 L) = N
xx2
(x
2
= 0) = V
y1
(x
1
= L) = −
4
5
P
+
F
z
= 0 ⇒ −V
z2
(x
2
= 0) +V
z2
(x
2
) = 0
V
z2
(x
2
) = V
z2
(x
2
= 0)
V
z2
(x
2
= 2 L) = V
z2
(x
2
= 0) = V
z1
(x
1
= L) = −
3
5
P
3.3. LOAD ANALYSIS 74
+
M
y
A
= 0 ⇒ −M
yy2
(x
2
= 0) +M
yy2
(x
2
) −V
z2
(x
2
= 0) x
2
= 0
M
yy2
(x
2
) = M
yy2
(x
2
= 0) +V
z2
(x
2
= 0) x
2
M
yy2
(x
2
) = −T −
3
5
P x
2
M
yy2
(x
2
= 2 L) = −T −
6
5
P L
+
M
x
A
= 0 ⇒ −M
xx2
(x
2
= 0) +M
xx2
(x
2
) = 0
M
xx2
(x
2
) = M
xx2
(x
2
= 0) = M
yy1
(x
1
= L)
M
xx2
(x
2
= 2 L) = −
3
5
P L
+
M
z
A
= 0 ⇒ −M
zz2
(x
2
= 0) +M
zz2
(x
2
) +V
y2
(x
2
= 0) x
2
= 0
M
zz2
(x
2
) = M
zz2
(x
2
= 0) +V
y2
(x
2
= 0) x
2
M
zz2
(x
2
) =
4
5
P L + 0
M
zz2
(x
2
= 2 L) =
4
5
P L
3.2d) Obtain the internal loads at O.
From action reaction at A:
M
xx3
(x
3
= 3 L) = −M
zz2
(x
2
= 2 L) = −
4
5
P L
M
yy3
(x
3
= 3 L) = −M
xx2
(x
2
= 2 L) =
3
5
P L
M
zz3
(x
3
= 3 L) = −M
yy2
(x
2
= 2 L) = T +
6
5
P L
N
xx3
(x
3
= 3 L) = −V
z2
(x
2
= 2 L) =
3
5
P
V
y3
(x
3
= 3 L) = −N
xx2
(x
2
= 2 L) =
4
5
P
V
z3
(x
3
= 3 L) = V
y2
(x
2
= 2 L) = 0
3.3. LOAD ANALYSIS 75
Next, we proceed to ﬁnd the loads at O:
+ ↑
F
y
= 0 ⇒ −V
y3
(x
3
= 3 L) +V
y3
(x
3
) = 0
V
y3
(x
3
= 3 L) = V
y3
(x
3
)
V
y3
(x
3
= 3 L) = V
y3
(x
3
= 0) = −N
xx2
(x
2
= 2 L) =
4
5
P
− →
+
F
x
= 0 ⇒ −N
xx3
(x
3
= 3 L) +N
xx3
(x
3
) = 0
N
xx3
(x
3
= 3 L) = N
xx3
(x
3
)
N
xx3
(x
3
= 3 L) = N
xx3
(x
3
= 0) = −V
z2
(x
2
= 2 L) =
3
5
P
+
F
z
= 0 ⇒ −V
z3
(x
3
= 3 L) +V
z3
(x
3
) = 0
V
z3
(x
3
= 3 L) = V
z3
(x
3
)
V
z3
(x
3
= 3 L) = V
z3
(x
3
= 0) = V
y2
(x
2
= 2 L) = 0
3.3. LOAD ANALYSIS 76
+
M
y
O
= 0 ⇒ −M
yy3
(x
3
= 3 L) +M
yy3
(x
3
) −V
z3
(x
3
= 3 L) x
3
= 3 L
M
yy3
(x
3
) = M
yy3
(x
3
= 3 L) +V
z3
(x
3
= 3 L) x
3
M
yy3
(x
3
) =
3
5
P L + 0
M
yy3
(x
3
= 0) =
3
5
P L
+
M
x
O
= 0 ⇒ −M
xx3
(x
3
= 3 L) +M
xx3
(x
3
) = 0
M
xx3
(x
3
= 3 L) = M
xx3
(x
3
) = −M
zz2
(x
2
= 2 L)
M
xx3
(x
3
= 3 L) = M
xx3
(x
3
= 0) = −
4
5
P L
+
M
z
O
= 0 ⇒ −M
zz3
(x
3
= 3 L) +M
zz3
(x
3
) +V
y3
(x
3
= 3 L) x
3
= 3 L
M
zz3
(x
3
) = M
zz3
(x
3
= 3 L) +V
y3
(x
3
= 3 L) x
3
M
zz3
(x
3
) = T +
6
5
P L +
4
5
P x
3
M
zz3
(x
3
= 0) = T +
18
5
P L
End Example
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 77
3.4 Load Diagrams
In the most general case, a structural component may have all type of loadings: torsional, bending and
axial. Before we proceed, let us discuss three diﬀerent sign conventions, which are typically used.
3.4.1 Sign Conventions
Stress Convention
In this course, problems will be solved using the following sign convention
V
y
+dV
y V
y
M
zz
M
zz
+dM
zz
p
y
(x)
y
x
dx
x
O
Figure 3.4: Equilibrium element supporting a general force system under the stress convention in the
xy plane.
Sum of forces in the ydirection, will give us an equation for the shear:
+ ↑
F
y
= 0 ⇒ −V
y
(x) +¦V
y
(x) +dV
y
(x)¦ +p
y
(x) dx = 0
divide by dx and take lim
dx→0
dV
y
(x)
dx
= −p
y
(x) (3.4)
Note that we can integrate the above equation over the domain where shear is interested:
V
y
(x) = −
_
p
y
(x) dx +V
y
0
(3.5)
Sum of moment at O, will give us an equation for the moment:
+
M
z
= 0 ⇒ V
y
(x)dx +¦M
zz
(x) +dM
zz
(x)¦ −M
zz
(x) −p
y
(x) dx
dx
2
= 0
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 78
divide by dx and take lim
dx→0
d M
zz
(x)
dx
= −V
y
(x) (3.6)
Note that we can integrate the above equation over the domain where moment is interested:
M
zz
(x) = −
_
V
y
(x) dx +M
zz
0
(3.7)
where M
zz
0
is found from boundary conditions.
Structural Convention
Problems can be solved using the following sign convention
V
y
+dV
y
V
y
M
zz
M
zz
+dM
zz
y
x
dx
x
O
p
y
(x)
Figure 3.5: Equilibrium element supporting a general force system under the structural convention in
the xy plane
Sum of forces in the ydirection, will give us an equation for the shear:
+ ↑
F
y
= 0 ⇒ V
y
(x) −¦V
y
(x) +dV
y
(x)¦ +p
y
(x) dx = 0
divide by dx and take lim
dx→0
dV
y
(x)
dx
= p
y
(x) (3.8)
Note that we can integrate the above equation over the domain where shear is interested:
V
y
(x) =
_
p
y
(x) dx +V
y
0
(3.9)
Sum of moment at O, will give us an equation for the moment:
+
M
z
= 0 ⇒ −V
y
(x) dx +¦M
zz
(x) +dM
zz
(x)¦ −M
zz
(x) −p
y
(x) dx
dx
2
= 0
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 79
divide by dx and take lim
dx→0
d M
zz
(x)
dx
= V
y
(x) (3.10)
Note that we can integrate the above equation over the domain where moment is interested:
M
zz
(x) =
_
V
y
(x) dx +M
zz
0
(3.11)
where M
zz
0
is found from boundary conditions.
Elasticity Convention
Problems can be solved using the following sign convention
V
y
+dV
y
V
y
M
zz
M
zz
+dM
zz
y
x
dx
x
O
p
y
(x)
Figure 3.6: Equilibrium element supporting a general force system under the elasticity convention in the
xy plane
Sum of forces in the ydirection, will give us an equation for the shear:
+ ↑
F
y
= 0 ⇒ −V
y
(x) +¦V
y
(x) +dV
y
(x)¦ +p
y
(x) dx = 0
divide by dx and take lim
dx→0
dV
y
(x)
dx
= −p
y
(x) (3.12)
Note that we can integrate the above equation over the domain where shear is interested:
V
y
(x) = −
_
p
y
(x) dx +V
y
0
(3.13)
Sum of moment at O, will give us an equation for the moment:
+
M
z
= 0 ⇒ V
y
(x) dx −¦M
zz
(x) +dM
zz
(x)¦ +M
zz
(x) −p
y
(x) dx
dx
2
= 0
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 80
divide by dx and take lim
dx→0
d M
zz
(x)
dx
= V
y
(x) (3.14)
Note that we can integrate the above equation over the domain where moment is interested:
M
zz
(x) =
_
V
y
(x) dx +M
zz
0
(3.15)
where M
zz
0
is found from boundary conditions.
3.4.2 Linear Diﬀerential Equations of Equilibrium
Consider a small diﬀerential element dx and construct a free body diagram with the actual stress
distributions replaced by their statically equivalent internal resultants. Thus using the stress convention
and applying Newton’s Second Law the diﬀerential equations for equilibrium are found as:
dN
xx
dx
= −p
x
(x)
dV
y
dx
= −p
y
(x)
dV
z
dx
= −p
z
(x)
dM
xx
dx
= −m
x
(x)
dM
yy
dx
= −m
y
(x) +V
z
dM
zz
dx
= −m
z
(x) −V
y
(3.16)
where p
x
(x) is the distributed load in the axial direction (xaxis), p
y
(x) the distributed load in the trans
verse direction (yaxis), p
z
(x) the distributed load in the lateral direction (zaxis), m
x
(x) the distributed
moments about the xaxis, m
y
(x) the distributed moments about the yaxis, and m
z
(x) the distributed
moments about the zaxis.
These equations are the ﬁrst order ordinary diﬀerential equations that may be solved by direct
integration. The solution to these equations is:
N
xx
(x) = N
xx
(x
1
) −
_
x
x1
p
x
(ζ) dζ (3.17)
V
y
(x) = V
y
(x
1
) −
_
x
x1
p
y
(ζ) dζ (3.18)
V
z
(x) = V
z
(x
1
) −
_
x
x1
p
z
(ζ) dζ (3.19)
M
xx
(x) = M
xx
(x
1
) −
_
x
x1
m
x
(ζ) dζ (3.20)
M
yy
(x) = M
yy
(x
1
) −
_
x
x1
_
m
y
(ζ) −V
z
(ζ)
_
dζ (3.21)
M
zz
(x) = M
zz
(x
1
) −
_
x
x1
_
m
z
(ζ) +V
y
(ζ)
_
dζ (3.22)
The ﬁrst term on the righthand side of the above equations are known as the boundary conditions; i.e.,
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 81
if the beam is statically determinate there will exist some point along the xaxis x = x
1
at which the
resultants are known. For the case of statically indeterminate, the boundary conditions may be found
using compatibility equations.
Example 3.3.
Aerospace engineers have idealized an aircraft structural component using the beam model as
shown in Fig. 3.7. The cantilever beam’s squared cross section is uniform. These engineers
need your help to analyze this component. Take a = 25 mm, b = 5 mm. Use the stress
convention and show all your steps.
y
x
z
100 N/m
1000 N
1000 N
y
z
100 N/m
Crosssectional
view
a
a
b b
L
Figure 3.7: Machine component for example below.
3.3a) Obtain axial load equation for N
xx
(x) and shear equations for V
y
(x) and V
z
(x).
First obtain the reactions at the ﬁxed end: (used positive stress convention discussed
in class)
x
y
z
100 N/m
1000 N
L
MyyR
MzzR
MxxR
VyR
NxxR
VzR
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 82
The internal shear loads at the ﬁxed end are (all in newtons, assuming L in meters)
+ ↑
F
y
= 0 → −V
yR
−q
o
L = −V
yR
−100 L = 0 → V
yR
= −100 L
+ →
F
x
= 0 → −N
xxR
+ 0 = 0 → N
xxR
= 0
+ →
F
z
= 0 → −V
zR
+P = −V
zR
+ 1000 = 0 → V
zR
= 1000
The internal moments at the ﬁxed end are (all in N–m, assuming L in meters)
+
M
y
= 0 → −M
yyR
−P L = −M
yyR
−1000 L = 0 → M
yyR
= −1000 L
+
M
x
= 0 → −M
xxR
−P a = −M
xxR
−1000 (0.025) = 0 → M
xxR
= −25
+
M
z
= 0 → −M
zzR
+q
o
L
_
L
2
_
= −M
zzR
−100
L
2
2
= 0 → M
zzR
= −50 L
2
Now let us make an arbitrary cut at a distance x (used positive stress convention dis
cussed in class)
x
y
z
100 N/m
x
MyyR
MzzR
MxxR
VyR
NxxR
VzR
Myy(x)
Mxx(x)
Mzz(x)
Vy(x)
Nxx(x)
Vz(x)
The internal shear loads at the a distance x are (all in newtons, assuming L in meters)
+ ↑
F
y
= 0 → −V
yR
+V
y
(x) +
_
x
0
p
y
(ζ) dζ = 0
V
y
(x) = −
_
x
0
p
y
(ζ) dζ +V
yR
= −
_
x
0
(−100) dζ −100 L
= 100 x −100 L
V
y
(x) = 100 L
_
−1 +
x
L
_
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 83
+ →
F
x
= 0 → −N
xxR
+N
xx
(x) = 0
N
xx
(x) = N
xxR
N
xx
(x) = 0
+ ↑
F
z
= 0 → −V
zR
+V
z
(x) = 0
V
z
(x) = V
zR
V
z
(x) = 1000
3.3b) Obtain moment equations for M
xx
(x), M
yy
(x) and M
zz
(x).
The internal moments at the a distance x are (all in N–m, assuming L in meters)
+
M
y
= 0 → −M
yyR
+M
yy
(x) −
_
x
0
V
z
(ζ) dζ = 0
−(−1000 L) +M
yy
(x) −
_
x
0
(1000) dζ = 0
1000 L +M
yy
(x) −1000 x = 0
M
yy
(x) = 1000 L
_
−1 +
x
L
_
+
M
x
= 0 → −M
xxR
+M
xx
(x) = 0
25 +M
xx
(x) = 0
M
xx
(x) = −25
+
M
z
= 0 → −M
zzR
+M
zz
(x) +
_
x
0
V
y
(ζ) dζ = 0
−
_
−50 L
2
_
+M
yy
(x) +
_
x
0
(−100 L + 100 ζ) dζ = 0
50 L
2
+M
yy
(x) −100 Lx + 50 x
2
= 0
M
zz
(x) = 50 L
2
_
−1 + 2
_
x
L
_
−
_
x
L
_
2
_
3.3c) Plot all axial, shear, and moment equations.
In general, it is convenient to plot nondimensional quantities. Thus let the length be
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 84
normalize to one:
η =
x
L
0 η 1
and the nondimensional loads are:
¯
M
xx
(η) =
M
xx
(x)
1
= −25
¯
N
xx
(η) = 0
¯
M
yy
(η) =
M
yy
(x)
L
= −1000 + 1000 η
¯
V
y
(η) =
V
y
(x)
L
= −100 + 100 η
¯
M
zz
(η) =
M
zz
(x)
L
2
= −50 + 100 η −50 η
2
¯
V
z
(η) =
V
z
(x)
1
= 1000
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 85
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
 1
 0. 5
0. 5
1
η
Nxx(η)
Figure 3.8: Dimensionless axial load distribution.
Vy(η)
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
 100
 50
50
100
η
Figure 3.9: Dimensionless shear (in the y–axis) load distribution.
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 86
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
 1000
 500
500
1000
Vz(η)
η
Figure 3.10: Dimensionless shear (in the z–axis) load distribution.
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8
Mxx(η)
1
 20
 10
10
20
η
Figure 3.11: Dimensionless torsional load distribution.
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 87
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
 1000
 500
500
1000
Myy(η)
η
Figure 3.12: Dimensionless moment (about the y–axis) distribution.
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
 40
 20
20
40
Mzz(η)
η
Figure 3.13: Dimensionless moment (about the z–axis) distribution.
End Example
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 88
Example 3.4.
Consider an idealization of the helicopter blade, show in Fig. 3.14, subject to the loading
shown in Fig. 3.15. The following data is given:
z′
y′
2
1
3
4
2 in
10 in
5 in
3 in
0.5 in
0.5 in
Hallow
Crosssection
Figure 3.14: Crosssection of the helicopter blade.
Figure 3.15: Loading on the helicopter blade.
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 89
L(x, z) = 4.0
_
x
L
_
2
psi D(x) = 4.0
_
x
L
_
2
lb/in P = 10000 lb
where L(x, z) is a pressure applied to the bottom surface. The total length of the beam is
L = 200 in. Resolve all loads at the modulusweighted centroid
1
(as a function of x): (y
∗
c
= 0,
z
∗
c
=5.767 in).
First of all we concentrate the pressure load to a distributed load:
x
z′
P 10 in
p
y
(x)
200 in
y′
p
z
(x)
Fixedend
Figure 3.16: Replacing the pressure g(x, z) with a distributed load p
y
(x).
p
y
(x) =
_
10
0
L(x, z) dz = 40.0
_
x
L
_
2
lb/in
1
This will be discussed in detail in the chapter 4.
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 90
Now move all loads to the modulusweighted centroid:
x
200 in
z
c
10 in
p
z
(x)
P
y
c
M
o
m
x
(x)
Fixedend
p
y
(x)
Figure 3.17: Locating all loads at the weightedmodulus centroid.
where,
m
x
(x) = −(7 −z
∗
c
) p
y
(x) = −0.001233 x
2
lbin/in M
o
= 10000(5.767) = 57670.0 lbin
Thus the loads are:
p
x
(x) = 0
p
y
(x) = 40.0
_
x
L
_
2
lb/in
p
z
(x) = 4.0
_
x
L
_
2
lb/in
m
x
(x) = −49.32
_
x
L
_
2
lbin/in
m
y
(x) = 0
m
z
(x) = 0
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 91
The loads at x = x
1
= 0 come from equilibrium of a diﬀerential element just after x = 0.
Using the stress convention, we get:
N
xx
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
−10000 = 0 → N
xx
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
= 10000 lb
V
y
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
+ 0 = 0 → V
y
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
= 0
V
z
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
+ 0 = 0 → V
z
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
= 0
M
xx
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
+ 0 = 0 → M
xx
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
= 0
M
yy
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
+ 57670 = 0 → M
yy
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
= −57670 lbin
M
zz
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
+ 0 = 0 → M
zz
(x)
¸
¸
¸
x1=0
= 0
Now we proceed to obtain the internal loads. Integrating to obtain the axial internal load;
Nxx(x) = Nxx(x1) −
_
x
0
px(ζ) dζ = Nxx(0) −
_
x
0
(0) dζ = Nxx(0) = 10000 lb
Vy(x) = Vy(x1) −
_
x
0
py(ζ) dζ = Vy(0) −
_
x
0
_
40.0
_
ζ
L
_
2
_
dζ = −0.000333333 x
3
lb
Vz(x) = Vz(x1) −
_
x
0
pz(ζ) dζ = Vz(0) −
_
x
0
_
4.0
_
ζ
L
_
2
_
dζ = −0.0000333333 x
3
lb
Mxx(x) = Mxx(x1) −
_
x
0
mx(ζ) dζ = Mxx(0) −
_
x
0
_
−0.001233 ζ
2
_
dζ
= 0.000411 x
3
lbin
Myy(x) = Myy(x1) −
_
x
0
_
my(ζ) −Vz(ζ)
_
dζ = Myy(0) −
_
x
0
(0 −(−0.0000333333 ζ
3
)) dζ
= −57670 −0.0000833333 x
4
lbin
Mzz(x) = Mzz(x1) −
_
x
0
_
mz(ζ) +Vy(ζ)
_
dζ = Mzz(0) −
_
x
0
(0 + (−0.000333333 ζ
3
)) dζ
= 0.0000833333 x
4
lbin
Note that in the above equations, x is measured in inches.
End Example
3.4. LOAD DIAGRAMS 92
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 93
3.5 Discrete Load Diagrams
For most aircraft, an analytical load expression may not available. The only information we may have
is the experimental data obtained from sensors located throughout the aircraft. For such cases we can
no longer obtain closeform load diagrams, but we have to use numerical techniques to obtain the load
diagrams. The method explained here can also be used when the analytical expression is available but
using a numerical method is desired.
First, we need an array with all locations where the data is measured. For an example, suppose we
want 10 intervals for the previous example, then we use the following locations
x = ¦0, 20, 40, 60, . . . , 180, 200¦ m
This is converted into small intervals:
∆x = ¦20, 20, 20, . . . , 20, 20¦ m
In this example all intervals have the same interval, but they could be diﬀerent. The smaller the ∆x
i
the better the approximation. At each location we calculate the distributed loads:
p
x
(x
i
) p
y
(x
i
) p
z
(x
i
)
m
x
(x
i
) m
y
(x
i
) m
z
(x
i
)
The next example will illustrate the approach.
Example 3.5.
Consider the idealized helicopter blade od Example 3.4. Use ﬁve interval elements approxi
mation, to determine the load diagrams.
From Example 3.4, we found that the loads acting on the helicopter blade are:
p
x
(x) = 0 p
y
(x) = 0.001 x
2
lb/in p
z
(x) = 0.0001 x
2
lb/in
m
x
(x) = −0.001233 x
2
lbin/in m
y
(x) = 0 m
z
(x) = 0
Since we want ﬁve element approximation, let us divide the interval of 0 < x < 200 into
identical ﬁve elements:
∆x =
x
root
−x
tip
5
=
200 −0
5
= 40 in
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 94
Hence,
∆x
1
= ∆x
2
= ∆x
3
= ∆x
4
= ∆x
5
= 40
The locations are
x
1
= 0
x
2
= 40
x
3
= 80
x
4
= 120
x
5
= 160
x
6
= 200
Let us proceed to obtain the discrete distributed loads at each location x
i
:
x
1
= 0 p
x1
= p
x
(x
1
) = 0 p
y
1
= p
y
(x
1
) = 0.0 p
z1
= p
z
(x
1
) = 0.00
x
2
= 40 p
x2
= p
x
(x
2
) = 0 p
y
2
= p
y
(x
2
) = 1.6 p
z2
= p
z
(x
2
) = 0.16
x
3
= 80 p
x3
= p
x
(x
3
) = 0 p
y
3
= p
y
(x
3
) = 6.4 p
z3
= p
z
(x
3
) = 0.64
x
4
= 120 p
x4
= p
x
(x
4
) = 0 p
y
4
= p
y
(x
4
) = 14.4 p
z4
= p
z
(x
4
) = 1.44
x
5
= 160 p
x5
= p
x
(x
5
) = 0 p
y
5
= p
y
(x
5
) = 25.6 p
z5
= p
z
(x
5
) = 2.56
x
6
= 200 p
x6
= p
x
(x
6
) = 0 p
y
6
= p
y
(x
6
) = 40.0 p
z6
= p
z
(x
6
) = 4.00
Let us proceed to obtain the discrete distributed moments at each location x
i
:
x
1
= 0 m
x1
= m
x
(x
1
) = 0.0000 m
y
1
= m
y
(x
1
) = 0 m
z1
= m
z
(x
1
) = 0
x
2
= 40 m
x2
= m
x
(x
2
) = −1.9728 m
y
2
= m
y
(x
2
) = 0 m
z2
= m
z
(x
2
) = 0
x
3
= 80 m
x3
= m
x
(x
3
) = −7.8912 m
y
3
= m
y
(x
3
) = 0 m
z3
= m
z
(x
3
) = 0
x
4
= 120 m
x4
= m
x
(x
4
) = −17.7552 m
y
4
= m
y
(x
4
) = 0 m
z4
= m
z
(x
4
) = 0
x
5
= 160 m
x5
= m
x
(x
5
) = −31.5648 m
y
5
= m
y
(x
5
) = 0 m
z5
= m
z
(x
5
) = 0
x
6
= 200 m
x6
= m
x
(x
6
) = −49.3200 m
y
6
= m
y
(x
6
) = 0 m
z6
= m
z
(x
6
) = 0
The tip load values are
P = 10000 lb M
o
= 10000(5.767) = 57670 lbin
Now in order to calculate the axial load along the wing’s major axis, let us use Simpson’s
integration rule. We start we the solution of the axial diﬀerential equation:
N
xx
(x) = N
xx
(0) −
_
x
0
p
x
(ζ) dζ → N
xx
(x
j
) ≈ N
xx0
−
j
i=1
p
x,ave
i
∆x
i
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 95
Hence, we need to obtain the average values for each distributed load:
p
x,ave
1
=
p
x1
+p
x2
2
= 0
p
x,ave
2
=
p
x2
+p
x3
2
= 0
p
x,ave
3
=
p
x3
+p
x4
2
= 0
p
x,ave
4
=
p
x4
+p
x5
2
= 0
p
x,ave
5
=
p
x5
+p
x6
2
= 0
Thus
∆N
xx1
= −p
x,ave
1
∆x
1
= 0
∆N
xx2
= −p
x,ave
2
∆x
2
= 0
∆N
xx3
= −p
x,ave
3
∆x
3
= 0
∆N
xx4
= −p
x,ave
4
∆x
4
= 0
∆N
xx5
= −p
x,ave
5
∆x
5
= 0
Hence,
N
xx0
= N
xx
(0) = P = 10000
x
1
= 0 N
xx1
= N
xx0
= 10000
x
2
= 40 N
xx2
= ∆N
xx1
+N
xx1
= 10000
x
3
= 80 N
xx3
= ∆N
xx2
+N
xx2
= 10000
x
4
= 120 N
xx4
= ∆N
xx3
+N
xx3
= 10000
x
5
= 160 N
xx5
= ∆N
xx4
+N
xx4
= 10000
x
6
= 200 N
xx6
= ∆N
xx5
+N
xx5
= 10000
In nondimensional form,
η =
x
L
¯
N
xxi
=
N
xxi
P
η
1
= 0.0
¯
N
xx1
= 1
η
2
= 0.2
¯
N
xx2
= 1
η
3
= 0.4
¯
N
xx3
= 1
η
4
= 0.6
¯
N
xx4
= 1
η
5
= 0.8
¯
N
xx5
= 1
η
6
= 1.0
¯
N
xx6
= 1
Compare to the exact nondimensional equation
¯
N
xx
(η) =
N
xx
(x)
P
= 1
The following plot shows the discrete method (points in red) and the exact solution (line in
blue):
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 96
p1a = ListPlotATransposeA9
xx
Lo
, Nxd=E, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.02D, PointSize@.01D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "N
¯
xx
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityE;
p1 = Plot@Nxp@ηD, 8η, 0, 1.0<, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.6D, PointSize@.4D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "N
¯
xx
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityD;
Show@p1, p1a, DisplayFunction → $DisplayFunction, PlotLabel →
StyleForm@"N
¯
xx
HηL vs. η", "Section"DD;
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
η
0. 5
1
1. 5
2
N
¯
xx
HηL
N
èèè
xx
HhL vs. h
Example_3.5.nb 22
Now we proceed with the solution of the shear diﬀerential equation in the y direction:
V
y
(x) = V
y
(0) −
_
x
0
p
y
(ζ) dζ → V
y
(x
j
) ≈ V
y
0
−
j
i=1
p
y,ave
i
∆x
i
Hence, we need to obtain the average values for each distributed load:
p
y,ave
1
=
p
y
1
+p
y
2
2
= 0.8
p
y,ave
2
=
p
y
2
+p
y
3
2
= 4.0
p
y,ave
3
=
p
y
3
+p
y
4
2
= 10.4
p
y,ave
4
=
p
y
4
+p
y
5
2
= 20.0
p
y,ave
5
=
p
y
5
+p
y
6
2
= 32.80
Thus
∆V
y
1
= −p
y,ave
1
∆x
1
= −32.0
∆V
y
2
= −p
y,ave
2
∆x
2
= −160.0
∆V
y
3
= −p
y,ave
3
∆x
3
= −416.0
∆V
y
4
= −p
y,ave
4
∆x
4
= −800.0
∆V
y
5
= −p
y,ave
5
∆x
5
= −1312.0
Hence,
V
y
0
= V
y
(0) = 0
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 97
x
1
= 0 V
y
1
= V
y
0
= 0
x
2
= 40 V
y
2
= ∆V
y
1
+V
y
1
= −32.0
x
3
= 80 V
y
3
= ∆V
y
2
+V
y
2
= −192.0
x
4
= 120 V
y
4
= ∆V
y
3
+V
y
3
= −608.0
x
5
= 160 V
y
5
= ∆V
y
4
+V
y
4
= −1408.0
x
6
= 200 V
y
6
= ∆V
y
5
+V
y
5
= −2720.0
In nondimensional form,
η =
x
L
¯
V
y
i
=
V
y
i
P
η
1
= 0
¯
V
y
1
= 0.0
η
2
= 0.2
¯
V
y
2
= −0.0032
η
3
= 0.4
¯
V
y
3
= −0.0192
η
4
= 0.6
¯
V
y
4
= −0.0608
η
5
= 0.8
¯
V
y
5
= −0.1408
η
6
= 1.0
¯
V
y
6
= −0.2720
Compare to the exact nondimensional equation
¯
V
y
(η) =
V
y
(x)
P
= −0.266667 η
3
The following plot shows the discrete method (points in red) and the exact solution (line in
blue):
In[182]:=
p2a = ListPlotATransposeA9
xx
Lo
, Vyd=E, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.02D, PointSize@.01D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "V
¯
y
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityE;
p2 = Plot@Vyp@ηD, 8η, 0, 1.0<, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.6D, PointSize@.05D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "V
¯
y
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityD;
Show@p2, p2a, DisplayFunction → $DisplayFunction, PlotLabel →
StyleForm@"V
¯
y
HηL vs. η", "Section"DD;
Null
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
η
 0. 25
 0. 2
 0. 15
 0. 1
 0. 05
V
¯
y
HηL
V
èè
y
HhL vs. h
Example_3.5.nb 24
Now, we proceed with the solution of the shear diﬀerential equation in the z direction:
V
z
(x) = V
z
(0) −
_
x
0
p
z
(ζ) dζ → V
z
(x
j
) ≈ V
z0
−
j
i=1
p
z,ave
i
∆x
i
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 98
Hence, we need to obtain the average values for each distributed load:
p
z,ave
1
=
p
z1
+p
z2
2
= 0.08
p
z,ave
2
=
p
z2
+p
z3
2
= 0.40
p
z,ave
3
=
p
z3
+p
z4
2
= 1.04
p
z,ave
4
=
p
z4
+p
z5
2
= 2.00
p
z,ave
5
=
p
z5
+p
z6
2
= 3.28
Thus
∆V
z1
= −p
z,ave
1
∆x
1
= −3.20
∆V
z2
= −p
z,ave
2
∆x
2
= −16.00
∆V
z3
= −p
z,ave
3
∆x
3
= −41.60
∆V
z4
= −p
z,ave
4
∆x
4
= −80.00
∆V
z5
= −p
z,ave
5
∆x
5
= −131.20
Hence,
V
z0
= V
z
(0) = 0
x
1
= 0 V
z1
= V
z0
= 0
x
2
= 40 V
z2
= ∆V
z1
+V
z1
= −3.20
x
3
= 80 V
z3
= ∆V
z2
+V
z2
= −19.20
x
4
= 120 V
z4
= ∆V
z3
+V
z3
= −60.80
x
5
= 160 V
z5
= ∆V
z4
+V
z4
= −140.80
x
6
= 200 V
z6
= ∆V
z5
+V
z5
= −272.00
In nondimensional form,
η =
x
L
¯
V
zi
=
V
zi
P
η
1
= 0.0
¯
V
z1
= 0
η
2
= 0.2
¯
V
z2
= −0.00032
η
3
= 0.4
¯
V
z3
= −0.00192
η
4
= 0.6
¯
V
z4
= −0.00608
η
5
= 0.8
¯
V
z5
= −0.01408
η
6
= 1.0
¯
V
z6
= −0.02720
Compare to the exact nondimensional equation
¯
V
z
(η) =
V
z
(x)
P
= −0.026667 η
3
The following plot shows the discrete method (points in red) and the exact solution (line in
blue):
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 99
In[186]:=
p3a = ListPlotATransposeA9
xx
Lo
, Vzd=E, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.02D, PointSize@.01D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "V
¯
z
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityE;
p3 = Plot@Vzp@ηD, 8η, 0, 1.0<, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.6D, PointSize@.03D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "V
¯
z
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityD;
Show@p3, p3a, DisplayFunction → $DisplayFunction, PlotLabel →
StyleForm@"V
¯
z
HηL vs. η", "Section"DD;
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
η
 0. 025
 0. 02
 0. 015
 0. 01
 0. 005
V
¯
z
HηL
V
èè
z
HhL vs. h
Example_3.5.nb 25
Now, we proceed with the solution of the torsional diﬀerential equation about the x axis:
M
xx
(x) = M
xx
(0) −
_
x
0
m
x
(ζ) dζ → M
xx
(x
j
) ≈ M
xx0
−
j
i=1
m
x,ave
i
∆x
i
Hence, we need to obtain the average values for each distributed moment:
m
x,ave
1
=
m
x1
+m
x2
2
= −0.9864
m
x,ave
2
=
m
x2
+m
x3
2
= −4.932
m
x,ave
3
=
m
x3
+m
x4
2
= −12.8232
m
x,ave
4
=
m
x4
+m
x5
2
= −24.66
m
x,ave
5
=
m
x5
+m
x6
2
= −40.4424
Thus
∆M
xx1
= −m
x,ave
1
∆x
1
= 39.456
∆M
xx2
= −m
x,ave
2
∆x
2
= 197.28
∆M
xx3
= −m
x,ave
3
∆x
3
= 512.928
∆M
xx4
= −m
x,ave
4
∆x
4
= 986.4
∆M
xx5
= −m
x,ave
5
∆x
5
= 1617.7
Hence,
M
xx0
= M
xx
(0) = 0
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 100
x
1
= 0 M
xx1
= M
xx0
= 0
x
2
= 40 M
xx2
= ∆M
xx1
+M
xx1
= 39.456
x
3
= 80 M
xx3
= ∆M
xx2
+M
xx2
= 236.736
x
4
= 120 M
xx4
= ∆M
xx3
+M
xx3
= 749.664
x
5
= 160 M
xx5
= ∆M
xx4
+M
xx4
= 1736.06
x
6
= 200 M
xx6
= ∆M
xx5
+M
xx5
= 3353.76
In nondimensional form,
η =
x
L
¯
M
xxi
=
M
xxi
M
o
η
1
= 0.0
¯
M
xx1
= 0
η
2
= 0.2
¯
M
xx2
= 0.000684169
η
3
= 0.4
¯
M
xx3
= 0.00410501
η
4
= 0.6
¯
M
xx4
= 0.0129992
η
5
= 0.8
¯
M
xx5
= 0.0301034
η
6
= 1.0
¯
M
xx6
= 0.0581543
Compare to the exact nondimensional equation
¯
M
xx
(η) =
M
xx
(x)
M
o
= 0.057014 η
3
The following plot shows the discrete method (points in red) and the exact solution (line in
blue):
ü Moment
In[189]:=
p4a = ListPlotATransposeA9
xx
Lo
, Mxxd=E, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.02D, PointSize@.01D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "M
¯
xx
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityE;
p4 = Plot@Mxxp@ηD, 8η, 0, 1.0<, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.6D, PointSize@.03D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "M
¯
xx
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityD;
Show@p4, p4a, DisplayFunction → $DisplayFunction, PlotLabel →
StyleForm@"M
¯
xx
HηL vs. η", "Section"DD;
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
η
0. 01
0. 02
0. 03
0. 04
0. 05
M
¯
xx
HηL
M
èèè
xx
HhL vs. h
Example_3.5.nb 26
Now, we proceed with the solution of the moment diﬀerential equation about the y axis:
M
yy
(x) = M
yy
(0) −
_
x
0
_
m
y
(ζ) −V
z
(ζ)
_
dζ → M
yy
(x
j
) ≈ M
yy
0
−
j
i=1
_
m
y,ave
i
−V
z,ave
i
_
∆x
i
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 101
Hence, we need to obtain the average values for each distributed moment and Shear V
z
:
m
y,ave
1
=
m
y
1
+m
y
2
2
= 0.0 V
z,ave
1
=
V
z1
+V
z2
2
= −1.6
m
y,ave
2
=
m
y
2
+m
y
3
2
= 0.0 V
z,ave
2
=
V
z2
+V
z3
2
= −11.20
m
y,ave
3
=
m
y
3
+m
y
4
2
= 0.0 V
z,ave
3
=
V
z3
+V
z4
2
= −40.00
m
y,ave
4
=
m
y
4
+m
y
5
2
= 0.0 V
z,ave
4
=
V
z4
+V
z5
2
= −100.80
m
y,ave
5
=
m
y
5
+m
y
6
2
= 0.0 V
z,ave
5
=
V
z5
+V
z6
2
= −206.4
Thus
∆M
yy
1
= −
_
m
y,ave
1
−V
z,ave
1
_
∆x
1
= −64.0
∆M
yy
2
= −
_
m
y,ave
2
−V
z,ave
2
_
∆x
2
= −448.0
∆M
yy
3
= −
_
m
y,ave
3
−V
z,ave
3
_
∆x
3
= −1600.0
∆M
yy
4
= −
_
m
y,ave
4
−V
z,ave
4
_
∆x
4
= −4032.0
∆M
yy
5
= −
_
m
y,ave
5
−V
z,ave
5
_
∆x
5
= −8256.0
Hence,
M
yy
0
= M
yy
(0) = −57670
x
1
= 0 M
yy
1
= M
yy
0
= −57670.0
x
2
= 40 M
yy
2
= ∆M
yy
1
+M
yy
1
= −57734.0
x
3
= 80 M
yy
3
= ∆M
yy
2
+M
yy
2
= −58182.0
x
4
= 120 M
yy
4
= ∆M
yy
3
+M
yy
3
= −59782.0
x
5
= 160 M
yy
5
= ∆M
yy
4
+M
yy
4
= −63814.0
x
6
= 200 M
yy
6
= ∆M
yy
5
+M
yy
5
= −72070.
In nondimensional form,
η =
x
L
¯
M
yy
i
=
M
yy
i
M
o
η
1
= 0.0
¯
M
yy
1
= −1.00000
η
2
= 0.2
¯
M
yy
2
= −1.00111
η
3
= 0.4
¯
M
yy
3
= −1.00888
η
4
= 0.6
¯
M
yy
4
= −1.03662
η
5
= 0.8
¯
M
yy
5
= −1.10654
η
6
= 1.0
¯
M
yy
6
= −1.2497
Compare to the exact nondimensional equation
¯
M
yy
(η) =
M
yy
(x)
M
o
= −1 −0.231201 η
4
The following plot shows the discrete method (points in red) and the exact solution (line in
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 102
blue):
In[192]:=
p5a = ListPlotATransposeA9
xx
Lo
, Myyd=E, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.02D, PointSize@.01D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "M
¯
yy
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityE;
p5 = Plot@Myyp@ηD, 8η, 0, 1.0<, PlotStyle −> 8Hue@.6D, PointSize@.03D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "M
¯
yy
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityD;
Show@p5, p5a, DisplayFunction → $DisplayFunction,
PlotRange → 880, 1.0<, 80, −1.5<<, PlotLabel →
StyleForm@"M
¯
yy
HηL vs. η", "Section"DD;
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
η
 1. 4
 1. 2
 1
 0. 8
 0. 6
 0. 4
 0. 2
M
¯
yy
HηL
M
èèè
yy
HhL vs. h
Example_3.5.nb 27
Lastly, we proceed with the solution of the moment diﬀerential equation about the z axis:
M
zz
(x) = M
zz
(0) −
_
x
0
_
m
z
(ζ) +V
y
(ζ)
_
dζ → M
zz
(x
j
) ≈ M
zz0
−
j
i=1
_
m
z,ave
i
+V
y,ave
i
_
∆x
i
Hence, we need to obtain the average values for each distributed moment and Shear V
y
:
m
z,ave
1
=
m
z1
+m
z2
2
= 0 V
y,ave
1
=
V
y
1
+V
y
2
2
= −16
m
z,ave
2
=
m
z2
+m
z3
2
= 0 V
y,ave
2
=
V
y
2
+V
y
3
2
= −112
m
z,ave
3
=
m
z3
+m
z4
2
= 0 V
y,ave
3
=
V
y
3
+V
y
4
2
= −400
m
z,ave
4
=
m
z4
+m
z5
2
= 0 V
y,ave
4
=
V
y
4
+V
y
5
2
= −1008
m
z,ave
5
=
m
z5
+m
z6
2
= 0 V
y,ave
5
=
V
y
5
+V
y
6
2
= −2064
Thus
∆M
zz1
= −
_
m
z,ave
1
+V
y,ave
1
_
∆x
1
= 640
∆M
zz2
= −
_
m
z,ave
2
+V
y,ave
2
_
∆x
2
= 4480
∆M
zz3
= −
_
m
z,ave
3
+V
y,ave
3
_
∆x
3
= 16000
∆M
zz4
= −
_
m
z,ave
4
+V
y,ave
4
_
∆x
4
= 40320
∆M
zz5
= −
_
m
z,ave
5
+V
y,ave
5
_
∆x
5
= 82560
Hence,
M
zz0
= M
zz
(0) = 0
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 103
x
1
= 0 M
zz1
= M
zz0
= 0
x
2
= 40 M
zz2
= ∆M
zz1
+M
zz1
= 640
x
3
= 80 M
zz3
= ∆M
zz2
+M
zz2
= 5120
x
4
= 120 M
zz4
= ∆M
zz3
+M
zz3
= 21120
x
5
= 160 M
zz5
= ∆M
zz4
+M
zz4
= 61440
x
6
= 200 M
zz6
= ∆M
zz5
+M
zz5
= 144000
In nondimensional form,
η =
x
L
¯
M
zzi
=
M
zzi
M
o
η
1
= 0.0
¯
M
zz1
= 0.00000
η
2
= 0.2
¯
M
zz2
= 0.0110976
η
3
= 0.4
¯
M
zz3
= 0.088781
η
4
= 0.6
¯
M
zz4
= 0.366222
η
5
= 0.8
¯
M
zz5
= 1.06537
η
6
= 1.0
¯
M
zz6
= 2.49697
Compare to the exact nondimensional equation
¯
M
zz
(η) =
M
zz
(x)
M
o
= 2.31201 η
4
The following plot shows the discrete method (points in red) and the exact solution (line in
blue):
In[195]:=
p6a = ListPlotATransposeA9
xx
Lo
, Mzzd=E, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.02D, PointSize@.01D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "M
¯
zz
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityE;
p6 = Plot@Mzzp@ηD, 8η, 0, 1.0<, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.6D, PointSize@.03D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "M
¯
zz
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityD;
Show@p6, p6a, DisplayFunction → $DisplayFunction,
PlotRange → 880, 1.0<, 80, 2.5<<, PlotLabel →
StyleForm@"M
¯
zz
HηL vs. η", "Section"DD;
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
η
0. 5
1
1. 5
2
2. 5
M
¯
zz
HηL
M
èèè
zz
HhL vs. h
Example_3.5.nb 28
As we increase the number of intervals, the solutions approaches to the exact solution. As
for an example, consider the plot for
¯
M
zz
with 20 intervals:
3.5. DISCRETE LOAD DIAGRAMS 104
In[195]:=
p6a = ListPlotATransposeA9
xx
Lo
, Mzzd=E, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.02D, PointSize@.01D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "M
¯
zz
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityE;
p6 = Plot@Mzzp@ηD, 8η, 0, 1.0<, PlotStyle → 8Hue@.6D, PointSize@.03D<,
AxesLabel → 8η, "M
¯
zz
HηL"<, DisplayFunction → IdentityD;
Show@p6, p6a, DisplayFunction → $DisplayFunction,
PlotRange → 880, 1.0<, 80, 2.5<<, PlotLabel →
StyleForm@"M
¯
zz
HηL vs. η", "Section"DD;
0. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 8 1
η
0. 5
1
1. 5
2
2. 5
M
¯
zz
HηL
M
èèè
zz
HhL vs. h
Example_3.5.nb 36
End Example
3.6. REFERENCES 105
3.6 References
Allen, D. H., Introduction to Aerospace Structural Analysis , 1985, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
NY.
Curtis, H. D., Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis, 1997, McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
Johnson, E. R., ThinWalled Structures, 2006, Textbook at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University, Blacksburg, VA.
Keane, Andy and Nair, Prasanth, Computational Approaches for Aerospace Design: The Pursuit of
Excellence, August 2005, John Wiley and Sons.
Shames, I. H., and Dym, C. L., Energy and Finite Element Methods in Structural Mechanics, 1985,
Taylor & Francis.
Sun, C. T., Mechanics of Aircraft Structures, Second Edition 2006, John Wiley and Sons
3.7. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 106
3.7 Suggested Problems
Problem 3.1.
At a small planet of an unknown galaxy called TEXTBOOK, there is a group of engineering working
with a diﬀerent unit system. The system is called the wordunitsystem (WUS). The force is measured
in LETTER and time is measured in WORD. It is known that:
1 LETTER = 1
PAGE – CHAPTER
WORD
2
(3.23)
where
1 PAGE = 1
LETTER– WORD
2
CHAPTER
(3.24)
At TEXTBOOK, Newton’s Second Law holds,
F = ma (3.25)
The conversion to our unit system can be obtained by using the following data:
1 LETTER = 1.5 Newtons (3.26)
1 PAGE = 2.0 slugs (3.27)
1 CHAPTER = 10 inches (3.28)
For the known information, obtain the following,
a) Determine the units for mass at TEXTBOOK. [2pts]
b) Determine the units for length at TEXTBOOK. [3pts]
c) Find the relationship between the acceleration in the SI and the WUS. [8pts]
d) Find the relationship between the mass moment of inertia in the fps and the WUS. [8pts]
e) The gravitational constant at our planet is known as 9.81 m/sec
2
. Convert our gravitational constant
to the WUS. [9pts]
3.7. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 107
Problem 3.2.
The wing of the aircraft can be modeled as a cantilever beam and the wing’s uniform cross section is
given. If d = 18 in, determine the load proﬁles about the aerodynamic center of the idealized wing box.
Assume point O enters ﬁrst in contact with the wing.
Problem 3.3.
Solve problem 3.2 but change the loads to:
p
y
(x) = 100
_
1 −
_
x
L
_
2
lb/in
p
z
(x) = −25
_
1 −
_
x
L
_
2
lb/in
Write a computer code using a programming language to determine all the load proﬁles about the
aerodynamic center (assume quarter cord from the leading edge). Solve exact solution by hand and using
the computer code. Also, solve the problem using Simpson’s Integration Rule (use 5,10,20 intervals).
Provide welllabel plots for each load proﬁle. On the same plot include exact solution, and 5,10,20
numerical solution. Give a printout of your wellexplained computer code.
3.7. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 108
Problem 3.4.
Determine all internal loads for the following cantilevered beam:
Problem 3.5.
One of the advanced airplanes that NASA is considering for carrying a large number of passengers is the
InboardWing Airplane. As shown in the ﬁgure the concept calls for the airplane to have two fuselages
at the wing tips and the engine in the middle. Assuming the aerodynamic lift acting on the wing, per
unit length, to be given by
p(x) = p
o
_
1 −
_
x
b
_
2
_
(3.29)
Here x is measured from the middle of the wing. The wing span is 2 b. Assume, the weight of the engine
is 0.06W and the weight of the each of the fuselages to be 0.47W; W being the total weight of the
aircraft.
Engine
Fuselage 1 Fuselage 2
right wing left wing
3.7. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 109
Determine:
1. Value of p
o
such that the aircraft is in level ﬂight.
2. Dimensionless shear force and moment diagrams neglecting wing weight.
3. Dimensionless Shear Force and Moment diagrams including wing weight.
Chapter 4
ThinWall CrossSectional
Properties
Instructional Objectives of Chapter 4
After completing this chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Determine the area of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous crosssections.
2. Determine the ﬁrst moments of area of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous crosssections.
3. Determine the second moments of area of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous cross
sections.
4. Apply concepts to sections with constant and variable thicknesses.
Thinwalled structures consist of a wide and growing ﬁeld of engineering applications which seek
eﬃciency in strength and cost by minimizing material. The result is a structure in which the stability of
the components, i.e. the “thin walls” is often the primary aspect of the behavior and design. Thinwalled
structures include industrial and residential buildings, box girder bridges, ship hulls, aircraft skins, as
well as buried structures such as tanks, pipes, culverts and many others. To a great extent, the structures
used in aerospace structures are thinwalled.
The basic objective of this chapter is to understand how to determine the sectional properties of these
thinwalled structures. Assuming a small thickness may help reducing the complexity of the analysis,
as a result a twodimensional analysis will suﬃce. Before we move into details of thinwalled structural
analysis let us determine the sectional properties of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous materials.
In general, one can use the thinwalled assumption if the following condition is satisﬁed:
t
All other dimensions
<
1
20
We might consider moderately thinwall structure if
t
All other dimensions
<
1
10
110
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 111
4.1 Geometric Properties of Plane Areas
4.1.1 Area
dA
y
z
Figure 4.1: Arbitrary cross section of a structure.
The total area bound by an area, A, of a bounded plane object is deﬁned as the integral over the
area of an element dA,
A =
__
A
dA
The area has units of length squared.
For N discrete sections, we may express the above as follows
A =
__
A
dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
dA
i
=
N
i=1
A
i
4.1.2 First Moments of Area
The ﬁrst moment of area, sometimes misnamed as the ﬁrst moment of inertia is a measure of the
distribution of the area of a shape in relationship to an axis of the crosssection. It is usually denoted
by the symbol Q, is a property of a shape that is used to predict its resistance to shear stress. The ﬁrst
moment of area bound by an area A of a bounded plane object is deﬁned as the integral of the distance
parallel over the area of an element dA,
Q
y
=
__
A
z dA Q
z
=
__
A
y dA
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 112
dA
z
y
y
z
Figure 4.2: Arbitrary cross section of a structure.
For N discrete sections, we may express the above as follows
Q
y
=
__
A
z dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
¯ z
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
__
Ai
¯ z
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
A
i
¯ z
i
=
N
i=1
Q
y
i
Q
z
=
__
A
y dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
¯ y
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
__
Ai
¯ y
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
A
i
¯ y
i
=
N
i=1
Q
y
i
where A
i
’s are the elemental areas, ¯ y
i
the distance from the crosssectional reference yaxis to the centroid
of the elemental area, and ¯ z
i
the distance from the crosssectional reference zaxis to the centroid of the
elemental area.
First moment of area is commonly used in engineering applications to determine the centroid of an
object.
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 113
4.1.3 Centroid of an Area
The centroid of an area is a geometric center of the cross section. It may be deﬁned as the point at the
center of any shape, sometimes called center of area or center of volume. For a triangle, the centroid is
the point at which the medians intersect. The coordinates of the centroid are the average (arithmetic
mean) of the coordinates of all the points of the shape. For a shape of uniform density, the centroid
coincides with the center of mass which is also the center of gravity in a uniform gravitational ﬁeld. The
ﬁrst moment of area has units of length.
The centroid is the point in a member at the intersection of two perpendicular axes so located that
the moments of the areas on opposite sides of an axis about that axis is zero and it is deﬁned as follows:
y
c
=
Q
z
A
z
c
=
Q
y
A
4.1.4 Second Moments of Area
The second moment of area, also known as the area moment of inertia or second moment of inertia, is
a property of a shape that is used to predict its resistance to bending and deﬂection which are directly
proportional. The second moment of area is not the same thing as the moment of inertia, which is used
to calculate angular acceleration. The second moment of area has units of length to the fourth power.
The second moment of area bound by an area A of a bounded plane object is deﬁned as the integral
of the distance parallel squared over the area of an element dA,
I
yy
=
__
A
z
2
dA I
zz
=
__
A
y
2
dA I
yz
=
__
A
y z dA
To deﬁne the moment of inertia about the another coordinate system we can use the parallel axis
theorem:
¯
I
yy
= I
yy
+z
2
c
A
¯
I
zz
= I
zz
+y
2
c
A
¯
I
yz
= I
yz
+y
c
z
c
A
For N discrete sections, the second moments of area about the reference coordinate may be deﬁned
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 114
as
¯
I
yy
=
__
A
z
2
dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
¯ z
2
i
dA
i
¯
I
zz
=
__
A
y
2
dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
¯ y
2
i
dA
i
¯
I
yz
=
__
A
y z dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
¯ y
i
¯ z
i
dA
i
where __
Ai
¯ z
2
i
dA
i
= I
yy
i
.¸¸.
About the centroid of the i
th
section
+¯ z
2
i
A
i
__
Ai
¯ y
2
i
dA
i
= I
zzi
.¸¸.
About the centroid of the i
th
section
+¯ y
2
i
A
i
__
Ai
¯ y
i
¯ z
i
dA
i
= I
yz
i
.¸¸.
About the centroid of the i
th
section
+¯ y
i
¯ z
i
A
i
Note that
N
i=1
__
Ai
¯ z
2
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
_
I
yy
i
+ ¯ z
2
i
A
i
_
=
N
i=1
I
yy
i
+
N
i=1
¯ z
2
i
A
i
N
i=1
__
Ai
¯ y
2
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
_
I
zzi
+ ¯ y
2
i
A
i
_
=
N
i=1
I
zzi
+
N
i=1
¯ y
2
i
A
i
N
i=1
__
Ai
¯ y
i
¯ z
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
_
I
yz
i
+ ¯ y
i
¯ z
i
A
i
_
=
N
i=1
I
yz
i
+
N
i=1
¯ y
i
¯ z
i
A
i
Now, we can ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about the modulusweighted centroid of the crosssection
by using the parallel axis theorem:
¯
I
yy
= I
yy
+ (z
c
)
2
A → I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
−(z
c
)
2
A
¯
I
zz
= I
zz
+ (y
c
)
2
A → I
zz
=
¯
I
zz
−(y
c
)
2
A
¯
I
yz
= I
yz
+y
c
z
c
A → I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
−y
c
z
c
A
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 115
4.1.5 Polar Moment of Inertia
Polar moment of inertia is a quantity used to predict an object’s ability to resist torsion, in objects (or
segments of objects) with an invariant circular crosssection and no signiﬁcant warping or outofplane
deformation. It is used to calculate the angular displacement of an object subjected to a torque. It is
analogous to the area moment of inertia, which characterizes an object’s ability to resist bending and is
required to calculate displacement. The polar moment of inertia has units of length to the fourth power.
The larger the polar moment of inertia, the less the beam will twist, when subjected to a given
torque. The polar moment of inertia may be deﬁned as
J
xx
= I
yy
+I
zz
4.1.6 Radius of Gyration
A distance known as the radius of gyration is occasionally encountered in mechanics. Radius of gyration
is the name of several related measures of the size of an object, a surface, or an ensemble of points. It is
calculated as the root mean square distance of the objects’ parts from either its center of gravity or an
axis. The radius of gyration has units of length.
Radius of gyration of a plane area is deﬁned as the square root of the moment of inertia of the area
divided by the area itself:
r
y
=
_
I
yy
A
r
z
=
_
I
zz
A
r
x
=
_
J
xx
A
in which r
y
and r
z
denote the radius of gyration with respect to y and z axes, respectively. Although the
radius of gyration of an area does not have an obvious physical meaning, we can see it as the distance
(from the reference axis) at which the entire area could be concentrated and still have the same moment
of inertia as the original area. The radius of gyration about the another coordinate system is be deﬁned
as
¯ r
2
y
= z
2
+r
2
y
¯ r
2
z
= y
2
+r
2
z
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 116
Example 4.1.
Multimaterial beam with a symmetric cross section
Determine the geometric crosssectional properties of a composite beam made of three dif
ferent materials.
1
2
3
y
z
1”
2”
2”
2”
Let us place our reference coordinate system at the lower surface of section 3 while splitting
the width in half, as shown in ﬁgure. The geometric properties are shown in ﬁgure and the
mechanical properties are:
Section Modulus (E
i
)
(i) (psi)
1 30 10
6
2 20 10
6
3 10 10
6
4.1a) Determine the geometrical area.
For sections 1, 2 and 3:
A
i
= b
i
h
i
, b
i
= 1
, h
i
= 2
, i = 1, 2, 3
The geometrical area is
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 117
Section Area
(i) (A
i
, in
2
)
1 2.00
2 2.00
3 2.00
Total ΣA
i
= 6.00
Thus the geometrical area is
A = ΣA
i
= 6.00 in
2
4.1b) Determine the geometrical ﬁrst moments of area.
First we ﬁnd the distance from the given coordinate to the centroid of each section (¯ z
i
,
¯ y
i
):
¯ z
1
= 0.00
¯ y
1
= 5.00
¯ z
2
= 0.00
¯ y
2
= 3.00
¯ z
3
= 0.00
¯ y
3
= 1.00
Section Area (A
i
) ¯ z
i
¯ y
i
Q
zi
= ¯ y
i
A
i
Q
y
i
= ¯ z
i
A
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in) (in
3
) (in
3
)
1 2.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 0.00
2 2.00 0.00 3.00 6.00 0.00
3 2.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.00
Total — — — ΣQ
zi
= 18.00 ΣQ
y
i
= 0.00
Thus the ﬁrst moment of area about the yaxis is
Q
y
= ΣQ
y
i
= 0.00 in
3
This is expected since the crosssection is symmetric about the yaxis. The ﬁrst moment
of area about the zaxis is
Q
z
= ΣQ
zi
= 18.00 in
3
4.1c) Determine the geometrical centroid.
In fact, note that we chose the yz coordinate system centered at the bottom of the
beam, as shown in Figure. Since the yaxis is an axis of symmetry, the geometrical
centroid lies on this axis.
z
c
=
Q
y
A
= 0.00
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 118
Thus we only need to ﬁnd the location of the y axis of the geometric centroid.
y
c
=
Q
z
A
= 3.00 in
4.1d) Determine the geometrical second moments of area about the crosssectional geometric
centroid.
First we ﬁnd the second moment of inertias at each section’s centroid (all in in
4
). Note
that b = 1
and h = 2
.
I
zz1
=
b h
3
12
= 0.6667 I
yy
1
=
b
3
h
12
= 0.1667 I
yz
1
= 0.00
I
zz2
=
b h
3
12
= 0.6667 I
yy
2
=
b
3
h
12
= 0.1667 I
yz
2
= 0.00
I
zz3
=
b h
3
12
= 0.6667 I
yy
3
=
b
3
h
12
= 0.1667 I
yz
3
= 0.00
All crossproducts of inertia are zero (because of symmetry in geometry). Now, the
second moment of inertia about yaxis about the geometric centroid is
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (Ai) ¯ zi ¯ z
2
i
¯ z
2
i
Ai I
yy
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.1667
2 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.1667
3 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.1667
Total — — — Σ¯ z
2
i
Ai = ΣI
yy
i
=
0.00 0.50
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
yy
= ΣI
yy
i
+ Σ¯ z
2
i
A
i
= 0.50 + 0.00 = 0.50 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about yaxis about the geometric centroid we use
the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
yy
= I
yy
+z
2
c
A → I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
−z
2
c
A = 0.50 −(0.00)
2
(6.00) = 0.50 in
4
Note that this is expected because of the symmetry about the yaxis.
Second moment of inertia about zaxis:
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 119
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (Ai) ¯ yi ¯ y
2
i
¯ y
2
i
Ai I
zz
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 2.00 5.00 25.00 50.00 0.6667
2 2.00 3.00 9.00 18.00 0.6667
3 2.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 0.6667
Total — — — Σ¯ y
2
i
Ai = ΣI
zz
i
=
70.00 2.00
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
zz
= ΣI
zzi
+ Σ¯ y
2
i
A
i
= 72.00 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about zaxis about the geometric centroid we use
the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
zz
= I
zz
+y
2
c
A → I
zz
=
¯
I
zz
−y
2
c
A = 72.00 −(3.00)
2
(6.00) = 18.00 in
4
Product moment of inertia about yz axis:
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (Ai) ¯ yi ¯ zi ¯ yi ¯ zi ¯ yi ¯ zi Ai I
yz
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 2.00 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 2.00 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
3 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total — — — — Σ¯ yi ¯ zi Ai = ΣI
yz
i
=
0.00 0.00
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
yz
= ΣI
yz
i
+ Σ¯ y
i
¯ z
i
A
i
= 0.00 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about zaxis about the geometric centroid we use
the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
yz
= I
yz
+y
c
z
c
A → I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
−y
c
z
c
A = 0.00 −(3.00)(0.00) (3.00) = 0
The above is expected since the crosssection is symmetric!
End Example
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 120
Example 4.2.
See Examples 3.4 and 3.5
Determine the geometric crosssectional properties for the idealized helicopter blade in Ex
ample 3.4.
z′
y′
2
1
3
4
2 in
10 in
5 in
3 in
0.5 in
0.5 in
Hallow
Crosssection
Let us place our reference coordinate system at trailing edge of the idealized airfoil, as shown
in ﬁgure. The following data is given:
Section Modulus (E
i
)
(i) (psi)
1 4010
6
2 3010
6
3 3010
6
4 1010
6
4.2a) Determine the geometrical area.
The geometric area for section 1 is:
A
1
=
1
2
π r
2
, r = 2
for sections 2 and 3:
A
i
= b
i
h
i
, b
i
= 10
, h
i
= 0.5
, i = 2, 3
andfor section 4:
A
4
=
b
4
h
4
2
, b
4
= 4
, h
4
= 5
Thus the geometrical area is
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 121
Section Area (A
i
)
(i) (in
2
)
1 6.28
2 5.00
3 5.00
4 10.00
Total ΣA
i
= 26.28
4.2b) Determine the geometrical ﬁrst moments of area.
First we ﬁnd the distance from the given coordinate to the centroid of each section (¯ z
i
,
¯ y
i
):
¯ z
1
= 2 −
4 r
3 π
= 1.15
¯ y
1
= 0
¯ z
2
= 2 +
b
2
= 2 +
10
2
= 7.00
¯ y
2
= 1.5 +
0.50
2
= 1.75
¯ z
3
= 2 +
b
2
= 2 +
10
2
= 7.00
¯ y
3
= −
_
1.5 +
0.50
2
_
= −1.75
¯ z
4
= 12 +
h
3
= 12 +
5
3
= 13.67
¯ y
4
= 0
Section Area (A
i
) ¯ z
i
¯ y
i
Q
zi
= ¯ y
i
A
i
Q
y
i
= ¯ z
i
A
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in) (in
3
) (in
3
)
1 6.28 1.15 0.00 0.00 7.23
2 5.00 7.00 1.75 8.75 35.00
3 5.00 7.00 −1.75 −8.75 35.00
4 10.00 13.67 0.00 0.00 136.667
Total — — — ΣQ
zi
= 0 ΣQ
y
i
= 213.9
Thus the ﬁrst moment of area about the yaxis is
Q
y
= ΣQ
y
i
= 213.9 in
3
and the ﬁrst moment of area about the zaxis is
Q
z
= ΣQ
zi
= 0 in
3
This is expected since the crosssection is symmetric about the zaxis.
4.2c) Determine the geometrical centroid.
The geometrical centroid is evaluated as
y
c
=
Q
z
A
= 0 z
c
=
Q
y
A
= 8.14 in
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 122
4.2d) Determine the geometrical second moments of area about the crosssectional geometric
centroid.
First we ﬁnd the second moment of inertias at each section’s centroid (all in in
4
)
I
yy
1
=
_
9π
2
−64
_
72 π
r
4
= 1.76 I
zz1
=
π
8
r
4
= 6.28 I
yz
1
= 0
I
yy
2
=
b
3
2
h
2
12
= 41.67 I
zz2
=
b
2
h
3
2
12
= 0.10 I
yz
2
= 0
I
yy
3
=
b
3
3
h
3
12
= 41.67 I
zz3
=
b
3
h
3
3
12
= 0.10 I
yz
3
= 0
I
yy
4
=
b
4
h
3
4
36
= 13.89 I
zz4
=
b
3
4
h
4
48
= 6.67 I
yz
4
= 0
All crossproducts of inertia are zero. Now the second moment of inertia about yaxis
about the geometric centroid is
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (Ai) ¯ zi ¯ z
2
i
¯ z
2
i
Ai I
yy
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 6.28 1.15 1.32 8.29 1.76
2 5.00 7.00 49.00 245.00 41.67
3 5.00 7.00 49.00 245.00 41.67
4 10.00 13.67 186.87 1868.69 13.89
Total — — — Σ¯ z
2
i
Ai = ΣI
yy
i
=
2367.00 98.99
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
yy
= ΣI
yy
i
+ Σ¯ z
2
i
A
i
= 2465.08 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about yaxis about the geometric centroid we use
the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
yy
= I
yy
+z
2
c
A → I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
−z
2
c
A = 2465.08 −(8.14)
2
(26.28)
Thus
I
yy
= 724.31 in
4
Second moment of inertia about zaxis:
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 123
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (Ai) ¯ yi ¯ y
2
i
¯ y
2
i
Ai I
zz
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 6.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.28
2 5.00 1.75 3.06 15.31 0.10
3 5.00 −1.75 3.06 15.31 0.10
4 10.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.67
Total — — — Σ¯ y
2
i
Ai = ΣI
zz
i
=
30.62 13.15
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
zz
= ΣI
zzi
+ Σ¯ y
2
i
A
i
= 43.78 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about zaxis about the geometric centroid we use
the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
zz
= I
zz
+y
2
c
A → I
zz
=
¯
I
zz
−y
2
c
A = 43.78 −(0)
2
(26.28)
Thus
I
zz
= 43.78 in
4
Product moment of inertia about yz axis:
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (Ai) ¯ yi ¯ zi ¯ yi ¯ zi ¯ yi ¯ zi Ai I
yz
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 6.28 0.00 1.15 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 5.00 1.75 7.00 12.25 61.25 0.00
3 5.00 −1.75 7.00 −12.25 −61.25 0.00
4 10.00 0.00 13.67 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total — — — — Σ¯ yi ¯ zi Ai = ΣI
yz
i
=
0.00 0.00
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
yz
= ΣI
yz
i
+ Σ¯ y
i
¯ z
i
A
i
= 0.00 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about zaxis about the geometric centroid we use
the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
yz
= I
yz
+y
c
z
c
A → I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
−y
c
z
c
A = 0.00 −(0)(8.14) (26.28)
Thus
I
yz
= 0
The above is expected since the crosssection is symmetric!
End Example
4.1. GEOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 124
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 125
4.2 ModulusWeighted Properties of Plane Areas
In many cases, especially in aerospace structures we deal with heterogeneous crosssectional structures.
By heterogeneous we mean that at a given point, the crosssection may be made of several diﬀerent
materials. In such cases, it may not be an easy task to determine the sectional properties. However, we
may use the approach of modulusweighted sectional properties. This approach becomes handy because
we usually know the reference modulus E
0
(in general, taken as the smallest E of all the crosssectional
E
i
’s.) For an example, we have an Ishaped crosssection
E
1
E
3
E
2
Then the reference modulus will be:
E
0
= min
_
E
1
, E
2
, E
3
_
Now we proceed to deﬁne the modulusweighted ratio as the actual modulus to the reference modulus
as follows:
ξ
i
=
E
i
E
0
, i = 1, 2, . . . , N
For homogenous crosssections, take ξ
i
= 1. In order to diﬀerentiate the modulusweighted properties
of plane areas from the geometric properties, we use the superscript “
∗
”.
4.2.1 Area
The modulusweighted area is deﬁned as
A
∗
=
__
A
ξ dA
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 126
For N discrete sections, we may express the above as follows
A
∗
=
__
A
ξ dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
ξ
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
A
i
=
N
i=1
A
∗
i
4.2.2 First Moments of Area
The modulusweighted ﬁrst moments of area are deﬁned as
Q
∗
y
=
__
A
ξ z dA
Q
∗
z
=
__
A
ξ y dA
For a composite crosssection, of Ndiscrete sections of homogeneous makeup, the modulusweighted
ﬁrst moments of area are deﬁned as
Q
∗
y
=
__
A
ξ z dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
ξ
i
¯ z
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
__
Ai
¯ z
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
Q
y
i
=
N
i=1
¯ z
i
A
∗
i
Q
∗
z
=
__
A
ξ y dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
ξ
i
¯ y
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
__
Ai
¯ y
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
Q
zi
=
N
i=1
¯ y
i
A
∗
i
where
Q
y
i
= ¯ z
i
A
i
Q
zi
= ¯ y
i
A
i
4.2.3 Centroid of an Area
The location of the modulusweighted centroid is evaluated as
y
∗
c
=
Q
∗
z
A
∗
z
∗
c
=
Q
∗
y
A
∗
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 127
4.2.4 Second Moments of Area
The modulusweighted second moments of area about the reference coordinate are deﬁned as
¯
I
∗
yy
=
__
A
ξ z
2
dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
ξ
i
¯ z
2
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
__
Ai
¯ z
2
i
dA
i
¯
I
∗
zz
=
__
A
ξ y
2
dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
ξ
i
¯ y
2
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
__
Ai
¯ y
2
i
dA
i
¯
I
∗
yz
=
__
A
ξ y z dA =
N
i=1
__
Ai
ξ
i
¯ y
i
¯ z
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
__
Ai
¯ y
i
¯ z
i
dA
i
where __
Ai
¯ z
2
i
dA
i
= I
yy
i
.¸¸.
About the centroid of the i
th
section
+¯ z
2
i
A
i
__
Ai
¯ y
2
i
dA
i
= I
zzi
.¸¸.
About the centroid of the i
th
section
+¯ y
2
i
A
i
__
Ai
¯ y
i
¯ z
i
dA
i
= I
yz
i
.¸¸.
About the centroid of the i
th
section
+¯ y
i
¯ z
i
A
i
For Ndiscrete sections,
N
i=1
__
Ai
ξ
i
¯ z
2
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
_
I
∗
yy
i
+ ¯ z
2
i
A
∗
i
_
=
N
i=1
I
∗
yy
i
+
N
i=1
¯ z
2
i
A
∗
i
N
i=1
__
Ai
ξ
i
¯ y
2
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
_
I
∗
zzi
+ ¯ y
2
i
A
∗
i
_
=
N
i=1
I
∗
zzi
+
N
i=1
¯ y
2
i
A
∗
i
N
i=1
__
Ai
ξ
i
¯ y
i
¯ z
i
dA
i
=
N
i=1
_
I
∗
yz
i
+ ¯ y
i
¯ z
i
A
∗
i
_
=
N
i=1
I
∗
yz
i
+
N
i=1
¯ y
i
¯ z
i
A
∗
i
Now, to ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about the modulusweighted centroid of the whole cross
section:
¯
I
∗
yy
= I
∗
yy
+ (z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
→ I
∗
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
−(z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
¯
I
∗
zz
= I
∗
zz
+ (y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
→ I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz
−(y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
¯
I
∗
yz
= I
∗
yz
+y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
→ I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
−y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 128
4.2.5 Polar Moment of Inertia
The modulusweighted polar moment of inertia may be deﬁned as
J
∗
xx
= I
∗
yy
+I
∗
zz
4.2.6 Radius of Gyration
The modulusweighted radius of gyration of a plane area is deﬁned as:
r
∗
y
=
_
I
∗
yy
A
∗
r
∗
z
=
_
I
∗
zz
A
∗
r
∗
x
=
_
J
∗
xx
A
∗
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 129
Example 4.3.
Multimaterial beam with a symmetric cross section
Determine the modulusweighted crosssectional properties of the composite beam in Exam
ple 4.1.
1
2
3
y
z
1”
2”
2”
2”
Let us place our reference coordinate system at the lower surface of section 3 while splitting
the width in half, as shown in ﬁgure. The geometric properties are shown in ﬁgure and the
mechanical properties are:
Section Modulus (E
i
)
(i) (psi)
1 30 10
6
2 20 10
6
3 10 10
6
4.3a) Determine the reference modulus.
Take as the reference modulus E
0
= E
1
= 10 10
6
psi, because it is the smallest sec
tional modulus.
4.3b) Determine the modulusweighted area.
For sections 1, 2 and 3, the geometric areas are:
A
i
= b
i
h
i
, b
i
= 1
, h
i
= 2
i = 1, 2, 3
The modulusweighted area is
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 130
Modulus Actual Weighted
Section Modulus ratio Area Area
(i) (E
i
10
6
, psi) (ξ
i
= E
i
/E
0
) (A
i
, in
2
) (A
∗
i
= ξ
i
A
i
, in
2
)
1 30 3.00 2.00 6.00
2 20 2.00 2.00 4.00
3 10 1.00 2.00 2.00
Total — — ΣA
i
= 6.00 ΣA
∗
i
= 12.00
Thus the modulusweighted area is
A
∗
= ΣA
∗
i
= 12.00 in
2
4.3c) Determine the modulusweighted ﬁrst moments of area.
From Example 4.1:
¯ z
1
= 0.00
¯ y
1
= 5.00
¯ z
2
= 0.00
¯ y
2
= 3.00
¯ z
3
= 0.00
¯ y
3
= 1.00
Section Modulus Area (A
∗
i
) ¯ zi ¯ yi Q
∗
z
i
= ¯ yi A
∗
i
Q
∗
y
i
= ¯ zi A
∗
i
(i) ratio (in
2
) (in) (in) (in
3
) (in
3
)
1 3.00 6.00 0.00 5.00 30.00 0.00
2 2.00 4.00 0.00 3.00 12.00 0.00
3 1.00 2.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 0.00
Total — — — — ΣQ
∗
z
i
= 44.00 ΣQ
∗
y
i
= 0.00
Thus the modulusweighted ﬁrst moment of area about the yaxis is
Q
∗
y
= ΣQ
∗
y
i
= 0.00 in
3
This is expected since the crosssection is symmetric about the yaxis. The modulus
weighted ﬁrst moment of area about the zaxis is
Q
∗
z
= ΣQ
∗
zi
= 44.00 in
3
4.3d) Determine the modulusweighted centroid.
The modulusweighted centroid is evaluated as
y
∗
c
=
Q
∗
z
A
∗
= 3.67 in z
∗
c
=
Q
∗
y
A
∗
= 0.00
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 131
y
3
2
1
2”
Modulusweighted
centroid
2”
Geometric
centroid
2”
z
1”
Note that the modulusweighted centroid is located at the intersection of materials 1
and 2, which does not coincide with the geometric centroid of the crosssectional area.
4.3e) Determine the modulusweighted second moments of area about the crosssectional
modulusweighted centroid.
First we ﬁnd the second moment of inertias at each section’s centroid (all in in
4
)
I
∗
yy
1
= ξ
1
I
yy
1
= 0.5000 I
∗
zz1
= ξ
1
I
zz1
= 2.0000 I
∗
yz
1
= ξ
1
I
yz
1
= 0.00
I
∗
yy
2
= ξ
2
I
yy
2
= 0.3333 I
∗
zz2
= ξ
2
I
zz2
= 1.3333 I
∗
yz
2
= ξ
2
I
yz
2
= 0.00
I
∗
yy
3
= ξ
3
I
yy
3
= 0.1667 I
∗
zz3
= ξ
3
I
zz3
= 0.6667 I
∗
yz
3
= ξ
3
I
yz
3
= 0.00
All crossproducts of inertia are zero. Now the second moment of inertia about yaxis
about the modulusweighted centroid is
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (A
∗
i
) ¯ zi ¯ z
2
i
¯ z
2
i
A
∗
i
I
∗
yy
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.5000
2 4.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.3333
3 2.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.1667
Total — — — Σ¯ z
2
i
A
∗
i
= ΣI
∗
yy
i
=
0.00 1.00
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
∗
yy
= ΣI
∗
yy
i
+ Σ¯ z
2
i
A
∗
i
= 1.00 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about yaxis about the modulusweighted centroid
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 132
we use the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
∗
yy
= I
∗
yy
+ (z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
→ I
∗
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
−(z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
= 1.00 −(0.00)
2
(12.00) = 1.00 in
4
Second moment of inertia about zaxis:
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (A
∗
i
) ¯ yi ¯ y
2
i
¯ y
2
i
A
∗
i
I
∗
zz
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 6.00 5.00 25.00 150.00 2.0000
2 4.00 3.00 9.00 36.00 1.3333
3 2.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 0.6667
Total — — — Σ¯ y
2
i
A
∗
i
= ΣI
∗
zz
i
=
188.00 4.00
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
∗
zz
= ΣI
∗
zzi
+ Σ¯ y
2
i
A
∗
i
= 192.00 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about zaxis about the modulusweighted centroid
we use the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
∗
zz
= I
∗
zz
+ (y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
→ I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz
−(y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
= 192.00 −(3.667)
2
(12.00) = 30.6667 in
4
Product moment of inertia about yz axis:
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (A
∗
i
) ¯ yi ¯ zi ¯ yi ¯ zi ¯ yi ¯ zi A
∗
i
I
∗
yz
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 6.00 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 4.00 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
3 2.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total — — — — Σ¯ yi ¯ zi A
∗
i
= ΣI
∗
yz
i
=
0.00 0.00
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
∗
yz
= ΣI
∗
yz
i
+ Σ¯ y
i
¯ z
i
A
∗
i
= 0.00 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about zaxis about the modulusweighted centroid
we use the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
∗
yz
= I
∗
yz
+y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
→ I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
−y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
= 0.00 −(0.00)(3.667) (12.00) = 0
The above is expected since the crosssection is symmetric!
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 133
End Example
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 134
Example 4.4.
See Examples 3.4 and 3.5
Determine the modulusweighted crosssectional properties for the idealized helicopter blade
in Example 4.2.
z′
y′
2
1
3
4
2 in
10 in
5 in
3 in
0.5 in
0.5 in
Hallow
Crosssection
Let us place our reference coordinate system at trailing edge of the idealized airfoil, as shown
in ﬁgure. The following data is given:
Section Modulus (E
i
)
(i) (psi)
1 4010
6
2 3010
6
3 3010
6
4 1010
6
4.4a) Determine the reference modulus.
Take as the reference modulus E
0
= E
4
= 10 10
6
psi, because it is the smallest sec
tional modulus.
4.4b) Determine the modulusweighted area.
The geometric area for section 1 is:
A
1
=
1
2
π r
2
, r = 2
for sections 2 and 3:
A
i
= b
i
h
i
, b
i
= 10
, h
i
= 0.5
, i = 2, 3
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 135
andfor section 4:
A
4
=
b
4
h
4
2
, b
4
= 4
, h
4
= 5
Thus the modulusweighted area is
Modulus Actual Weighted
Section Modulus ratio Area Area
(i) (E
i
10
6
, psi) (ξ
i
= E
i
/E
0
) (A
i
, in
2
) (A
∗
i
= ξ
i
A
i
, in
2
)
1 40 4.00 6.28 25.12
2 30 3.00 5.00 15.00
3 30 3.00 5.00 15.00
4 10 1.00 10.00 10.00
Total — — ΣA
i
= 26.28 ΣA
∗
i
= 65.1327
4.4c) Determine the modulusweighted ﬁrst moments of area.
From Example 4.2:
¯ z
1
= 2 −
4 r
3 π
= 1.15
¯ y
1
= 0
¯ z
2
= 2 +
b
2
= 2 +
10
2
= 7.00
¯ y
2
= 1.5 +
0.50
2
= 1.75
¯ z
3
= 2 +
b
2
= 2 +
10
2
= 7.00
¯ y
3
= −
_
1.5 +
0.50
2
_
= −1.75
¯ z
4
= 12 +
h
3
= 12 +
5
3
= 13.67
¯ y
4
= 0
Section Modulus Area (A
∗
i
) ¯ zi ¯ yi Q
∗
z
i
= ¯ yi A
∗
i
Q
∗
y
i
= ¯ zi A
∗
i
(i) ratio (in
2
) (in) (in) (in
3
) (in
3
)
1 4.00 25.12 1.15 0.00 0.00 28.9321
2 3.00 15.00 7.00 1.75 26.25 105.00
3 3.00 15.00 7.00 −1.75 −26.25 105.00
4 1.00 10.00 13.67 0.00 0.00 136.667
Total — — — — ΣQ
∗
z
i
= 0.0 ΣQ
∗
y
i
= 375.599
Thus the modulusweighted ﬁrst moment of area about the yaxis is
Q
∗
y
= ΣQ
∗
y
i
= 375.599 in
3
and the modulusweighted ﬁrst moment of area about the zaxis is
Q
∗
z
= ΣQ
∗
zi
= 0 in
3
.
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 136
4.4d) Determine the modulusweighted centroid.
The modulusweighted centroid is evaluated as
y
∗
c
=
Q
∗
z
A
∗
= 0.0 z
∗
c
=
Q
∗
y
A
∗
= 5.767 in
4.4e) Determine the modulusweighted second moments of area about the crosssectional
modulusweighted centroid.
First we ﬁnd the second moment of inertias at each section’s centroid (all in in
4
)
I
∗
yy
1
= ξ
1
I
yy
1
= 7.02 I
∗
zz1
= ξ
1
I
zz1
= 25.13 I
∗
yz
1
= ξ
1
I
yz
1
= 0
I
∗
yy
2
= ξ
2
I
yy
2
= 125 I
∗
zz2
= ξ
2
I
zz2
= 0.31 I
∗
yz
2
= ξ
2
I
yz
2
= 0
I
∗
yy
3
= ξ
3
I
yy
3
= 83.33 I
∗
zz3
= ξ
3
I
zz3
= 0.21 I
∗
yz
3
= ξ
3
I
yz
3
= 0
I
∗
yy
4
= ξ
4
I
yy
4
= 13.89 I
∗
zz4
= ξ
4
I
zz4
= 6.67 I
∗
yz
4
= ξ
4
I
yz
4
= 0
All crossproducts of inertia are zero. Now the second moment of inertia about yaxis
about the modulusweighted centroid is
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (A
∗
i
) ¯ zi ¯ z
2
i
¯ z
2
i
A
∗
i
I
∗
yy
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 25.12 1.15 1.32 33.16 7.02
2 15.00 7.00 49.00 735.00 125
3 10.00 7.00 49.00 490.00 83.67
4 10.00 13.67 186.87 1868.69 13.89
Total — — — Σ¯ z
2
i
A
∗
i
= ΣI
∗
yy
i
=
3126.85 232.85
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
∗
yy
= ΣI
∗
yy
i
+ Σ¯ z
2
i
A
∗
i
= 3355.33 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about yaxis about the modulusweighted centroid
we use the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
∗
yy
= I
∗
yy
+ (z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
→ I
∗
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
−(z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
= 3355.33 −(5.66)
2
(60.12)
Thus
I
∗
yy
= 1426.14 in
4
Second moment of inertia about zaxis:
4.2. MODULUSWEIGHTED PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS 137
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (A
∗
i
) ¯ yi ¯ y
2
i
¯ y
2
i
A
∗
i
I
∗
zz
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 25.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 25.13
2 15.00 1.75 3.06 45.9 0.31
3 10.00 −1.75 3.06 30.6 0.21
4 10.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.67
Total — — — Σ¯ y
2
i
A
∗
i
= ΣI
∗
zz
i
=
76.5 32.32
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
∗
zz
= ΣI
∗
zzi
+ Σ¯ y
2
i
A
∗
i
= 108.88 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about zaxis about the modulusweighted centroid
we use the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
∗
zz
= I
∗
zz
+ (y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
→ I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz
−(y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
= 108.88 −(0.145)
2
(60.12)
Thus
I
∗
zz
= 107.61 in
4
Product moment of inertia about yz axis:
Inertia about
section’s centroid
Section Area (A
∗
i
) ¯ yi ¯ zi ¯ yi ¯ zi ¯ yi ¯ zi A
∗
i
I
∗
yz
i
(i) (in
2
) (in) (in) (in
2
) (in
4
) (in
4
)
1 25.12 0.00 1.15 0.00 0.00 0.00
2 15.00 1.75 7.00 12.25 183.75 0.00
3 10.00 −1.75 7.00 −12.25 −122.5 0.00
4 10.00 0.00 13.67 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total — — — — Σ¯ yi ¯ zi A
∗
i
= ΣI
∗
yz
i
=
61.25 0.00
Thus about the located origin:
¯
I
∗
yz
= ΣI
∗
yz
i
+ Σ¯ y
i
¯ z
i
A
∗
i
= 61.25 in
4
To ﬁnd the second moment of inertia about zaxis about the modulusweighted centroid
we use the theorem of parallel axis:
¯
I
∗
yz
= I
∗
yz
+y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
→ I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
−y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
= 61.25 −(0.145)(5.66) (60.12)
Thus
I
∗
yz
= 0
End Example
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 138
4.3 Properties of Plane Areas of ThinWalls
4.3.1 Area
The total area bound by an area, A, of a bounded plane object is deﬁned as the integral over the area
of an element dA,
A =
__
A
dA
ds
t
s
z
y
Figure 4.3: Typical cross section of a thinwalled structure.
For thinwalled structures:
dA = t ds t = t(s)
Hence, the crosssectional geometric area is:
A =
_
s2
s1
t(s) ds
The modulusweighted area is deﬁned as
A
∗
=
_
s2
s1
ξ t(s) ds
For a thinwalled composite crosssection, of N sections of homogeneous makeup, the geometric and
modulusweighted areas are deﬁned as
A =
_
s2
s1
t(s) ds =
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
t(s
i
) ds
i
=
N
i=1
A
i
A
∗
=
_
s2
s1
ξ t(s) ds =
N
i=1
ξ
i
_
s2
s1
t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
A
i
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 139
4.3.2 First Moments of Area
For thinwalled structures:
dA = t ds t = t(s) y = y(s) z = z(s)
Hence the geometric ﬁrst moments of area are:
Q
y
=
_
s2
s1
z(s) t(s) ds Q
z
=
_
s2
s1
y(s) t(s) ds
The modulusweighted ﬁrst moments of area are deﬁned as
Q
∗
y
=
_
s2
s1
ξ z(s) t(s) ds Q
∗
z
=
_
s2
s1
ξ y(s) t(s) ds
For a thinwalled composite crosssection, of N sections of homogeneous makeup, the geometric and
modulusweighted ﬁrst moments of area are deﬁned as
Q
y
=
_
s2
s1
z(s) t(s) ds =
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
z
i
(s
i
) t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
=
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
z
i
(s
i
) t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
Q
z
=
_
s2
s1
y(s) t(s) ds =
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
y
i
(s
i
) t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
=
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
y
i
(s
i
) t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
Q
∗
y
=
_
s2
s1
ξ z(s) t(s) ds =
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
ξ
i
z
i
(s
i
) t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
_
s2
s1
z
i
(s
i
) t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
Q
∗
z
=
_
s2
s1
ξ y(s) t(s) ds =
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
ξ
i
y
i
(s
i
) t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
_
s2
s1
y
i
(s
i
) t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
In the above expressions, y
i
(s
i
) and z
i
(s
i
) are the parametric equations, of the i
th
section, as function
of the local coordinate s
i
. These are derives with respect to an arbitrary reference axis.
4.3.3 Centroid of an Area
The geometric and modulusweighted centroids for a thinwalled composite crosssection are deﬁned as
y
c
=
Q
z
A
z
c
=
Q
y
A
y
∗
c
=
Q
∗
z
A
∗
z
∗
c
=
Q
∗
y
A
∗
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 140
4.3.4 Second Moments of Area
For thinwalled structures:
dA = t ds t = t(s) y = y(s) z = z(s)
The geometric moments of inertia about the reference coordinate system are deﬁned as:
¯
Iyy =
_
s2
s1
[z(s)]
2
t(s) ds
¯
Izz =
_
s2
s1
[y(s)]
2
t(s) ds
¯
Iyz =
_
s2
s1
y(s) z(s) t(s) ds
To obtain the geometric moments of inertia about the geometric centroid we use the parallel axis theorem:
I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
−z
2
c
A, I
zz
=
¯
I
zz
−y
2
c
A, I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
−y
c
z
c
A
The modulusweighted moments of inertia about the reference coordinate system are deﬁned as:
¯
Iyy
∗
=
_
s2
s1
ξ [z(s)]
2
t(s) ds
¯
Izz
∗
=
_
s2
s1
ξ [y(s)]
2
t(s) ds
¯
Iyz
∗
=
_
s2
s1
ξ y(s) z(s) t(s) ds
To obtain the modulusweighted moments of inertia about the modulusweighted centroid we use the
parallel axis theorem:
I
∗
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
−(z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
, I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz
−(y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
, I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
−y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
For a thinwalled composite crosssection, of N sections of homogeneous makeup, the geometric
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 141
second moments of area are deﬁned as
¯
Iyy =
_
s2
s1
[z(s)]
2
t(s) ds =
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
[z
i
(s
i
)]
2
t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
¯
Izz =
_
s2
s1
[y(s)]
2
t(s) ds =
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
[y
i
(s
i
)]
2
t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
¯
Iyz =
_
s2
s1
y(s) z(s) t(s) ds =
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
y
i
(s
i
) z
i
(s
i
) t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
For a thinwalled composite crosssection, of N sections of homogeneous makeup, the modulusweighted
second moments of area are deﬁned as
¯
Iyy
∗
=
_
s2
s1
ξ [z(s)]
2
t(s) ds =
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
ξ
i
[z
i
(s
i
)]
2
t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
_
s2
s1
[z
i
(s
i
)]
2
t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
¯
Izz
∗
=
_
s2
s1
ξ [y(s)]
2
t(s) ds =
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
ξ
i
[y
i
(s
i
)]
2
t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
_
s2
s1
[y
i
(s
i
)]
2
t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
¯
Iyz
∗
=
_
s2
s1
ξ y(s) z(s) t(s) ds =
N
i=1
_
s2
s1
ξ
i
y
i
(s
i
) z
i
(s
i
) t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
=
N
i=1
ξ
i
_
s2
s1
y
i
(s
i
) z
i
(s
i
) t
i
(s
i
) ds
i
4.3.5 Polar Moment of Inertia
For a thinwalled composite crosssection the geometric and modulusweighted polar moments of inertia
are deﬁned as
J
xx
= I
yy
+I
zz
, J
∗
xx
= I
∗
yy
+I
∗
zz
4.3.6 Radius of Gyration
For a thinwalled composite crosssection the geometric and modulusweighted radius of gyration are
deﬁned as
r
y
=
_
I
yy
A
r
z
=
_
I
zz
A
r
x
=
_
J
xx
A
r
∗
y
=
_
I
∗
yy
A
∗
r
∗
z
=
_
I
∗
zz
A
∗
r
∗
x
=
_
J
∗
xx
A
∗
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 142
Example 4.5.
Thinwalled multimaterial beam with an open crosssection
Determine the weighted and geometric crosssectional properties of the opensection compos
ite beam shown below.
α
α
y′
z′
h
b
1
b
2
c
1
c
2
E
1
t
1
E
2
t
2
E
3
t
3
d
Let us place our reference coordinate system at a distance d from skin 1 and at the intersection
of skin 3, as shown in ﬁgure. The mechanical and geometrical properties are given as follows:
E
1
= 20 10
6
psi E
2
= 40 10
6
psi E
3
= 50 10
6
psi
b
1
=
d
2
b
2
=
d
4
c
1
=
d
2
c
2
=
d
4
t
1
=
d
20
t
2
=
d
10
t
3
=
d
15
h = 3 d
4.5a) Determine the reference modulus.
Take as the reference modulus E
0
= E
1
= 20 10
6
psi, because it is the smallest sec
tional modulus.
4.5b) Determine the parametric equations.
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 143
Let us ﬁnd the parametric equations (functions of s). For this let us set the local
coordinate system for each section and then transfer it to the given coordinate system.
y
j
(s
j
) =
y
f
−y
i
s
f
−s
i
s
j
+b
j
where b
j
→y
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=si)
= y
i
where
y
i
= y
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=si)
y
f
= y
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=s
f
)
and
z
j
(s
j
) =
z
f
−z
i
s
f
−s
i
s
j
+c
j
where c
j
→z
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=si)
= z
i
where
z
i
= z
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=si)
z
f
= z
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=s
f
)
Here j represents the section where the parametric equations are developed, f the ﬁnal
point and i the initial point.
For section 1:
z′
h
E1 t1
y′
d
s1
s
i
= 0 y
i
= 0 z
i
= d
s
f
= h = 3 d y
f
= h = 3 d z
f
= d
y
1
(s
1
) = s
1
z
1
(s
1
) = d
For section 2:
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 144
α
z′
y′
h
b1
b2
E2 t2
d
s2
s
i
= −b
1
= −
d
2
y
i
= h −b
1
sinα = 3 d −
1
2
d sinα z
i
= d −b
1
cos α = d −
1
2
d cos α
s
f
= b
2
=
d
4
y
f
= h +b
2
sinα = 3 d +
1
4
d sinα z
f
= d +b
2
cos α = d +
1
4
d cos α
y
2
(s
2
) = 3 d +s
2
sinα
z
2
(s
2
) = d +s
2
cos α
For section 3:
α
z′
y′
h
c1
c2
E3 t3
d
s3
s
i
= −c
1
= −
d
2
y
i
=
1
2
d sinα = c
1
sinα z
i
= d −c
1
cos α = d −
1
2
d cos α
s
f
= c
2
=
d
4
y
f
= −c
2
sinα = −
1
4
d sinα z
f
= d +c
2
cos α = d +
1
4
d cos α
y
3
(s
3
) = −s
3
sinα
z
3
(s
3
) = d +s
3
cos α
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 145
For α = 30
◦
:
y
1
(s
1
) = s
1
z
1
(s
1
) = d
y
2
(s
2
) = 3 d + 0.5 s
2
z
2
(s
2
) = d + 0.866025 s
2
y
3
(s
3
) = −0.5 s
3
z
3
(s
3
) = d + 0.866025 s
3
4.5c) Determine the geometrical area.
Note that
t
1
(s
1
) =
d
20
t
2
(s
2
) =
d
10
t
3
(s
3
) =
d
15
A
1
=
_
h
0
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
3
20
d
2
A
2
=
_
b2
−b1
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
_
d
10
_
ds
2
=
3
40
d
2
A
3
=
_
c2
−c1
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
_
d
15
_
ds
3
=
1
20
d
2
A = A
1
+A
2
+A
3
=
11
40
d
2
4.5d) Determine the geometrical ﬁrst moments of area.
For section 1:
Q
y1
=
_
h
0
z
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
(d)
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
3
20
d
3
Q
z1
=
_
h
0
y
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
(s
1
)
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
9
40
d
3
For section 2:
Q
y2
=
_
b2
−b1
z
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(d +s
2
cos α)
_
d
10
_
ds
2
=
3
40
d
3
−
3
320
d
3
cos α
Q
z2
=
_
b2
−b1
y
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(3 d +s
2
sinα)
_
d
10
_
ds
2
=
9
40
d
3
−
3
320
d
3
sinα
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 146
For section 3:
Q
y3
=
_
c2
−c1
z
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(d +s
3
cos α)
_
d
15
_
ds
3
=
1
20
d
3
−
1
160
d
3
cos α
Q
z3
=
_
c2
−c1
y
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(−s
3
sinα)
_
d
15
_
ds
3
=
1
160
d
3
sinα
Q
y
= Q
y1
+Q
y2
+Q
y3
=
11
40
d
3
−
1
64
d
3
cos α
Q
z
= Q
z1
+Q
z2
+Q
z3
=
9
20
d
3
−
1
320
d
3
sinα
For α = 30
◦
:
Q
y
= 0.261468 d
3
Q
z
= 0.448438 d
3
4.5e) Determine the geometrical centroid.
For section 1: y
c1
=
Q
z1
A
1
= 1.5 d
z
c1
=
Q
y1
A
1
= d
For section 2: y
c2
=
Q
z2
A
2
= 3 d −0.125 d sinα = 2.9375 d
z
c2
=
Q
y2
A
2
= d −0.125 d cos α = 0.891747 d
For section 3: y
c3
=
Q
z3
A
3
= 0.125 d sinα = 0.0625 d
z
c3
=
Q
y3
A
3
= d −0.125 d cos α = 0.891747 d
Crosssection centroid: y
c
=
Q
z
A
= 1.63636 d −0.0113636 d sinα = 1.63068 d
z
c
=
Q
y
A
= d −0.0568182 d cos α = 0.950794 d
4.5f) Determine the geometrical second moments of area about the crosssectional geometric
centroid.
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 147
The moments of inertia about the geometric centroid are found using:
¯
I
yy
= I
yy
+ (z
c
)
2
A →I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
−(z
c
)
2
A
¯
I
zz
= I
zz
+ (y
c
)
2
A →I
zz
=
¯
I
zz
−(y
c
)
2
A
¯
I
yz
= I
yz
+y
c
z
c
A →I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
−y
c
z
c
A
where
¯
I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
1
+
¯
I
yy
2
+
¯
I
yy
3
¯
I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
1
+
¯
I
yz
2
+
¯
I
yz
3
¯
I
zz
=
¯
I
zz1
+
¯
I
zz2
+
¯
I
zz3
Now we proceed to evaluate each moment of inertia.
For section 1:
I
yy
1
=
_
h
0
z
1
(s
1
)
2
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
(d)
2
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
3
20
d
4
= 0.15 d
4
I
yz
1
=
_
h
0
y
1
(s
1
) z
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
(d) (s
1
)
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
9
40
d
4
= 0.225 d
4
I
zz1
=
_
h
0
y
1
(s
1
)
2
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
(s
1
)
2
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
9
20
d
4
= 0.45 d
4
For section 2:
I
yy
2
=
_
b2
−b1
z
2
(s
2
)
2
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(d +s
2
cos α)
2
_
d
10
_
ds
2
= −
3
160
cos(α) d
4
+
3 cos(2α) d
4
1280
+
99 d
4
1280
= 0.0622776 d
4
I
yz
2
=
_
b2
−b1
y
2
(s
2
) z
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(3 d +s
2
sinα) (d +s
2
cos α)
_
d
10
_
ds
2
= −
9
320
cos(α) d
4
−
3
320
sin(α) d
4
+
3 sin(2α) d
4
1280
+
9 d
4
40
= 0.197985 d
4
I
zz2
=
_
b2
−b1
y
2
(s
2
)
2
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(3 d +s
2
sinα)
2
_
d
10
_
ds
2
= −
3 cos(2α) d
4
1280
−
9
160
sin(α) d
4
+
867 d
4
1280
= 0.648047 d
4
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 148
For section 3:
I
yy
3
=
_
c2
−c1
z
3
(s
3
)
2
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(d +s
3
cos α)
2
_
d
15
_
ds
3
= −
1
80
cos(α) d
4
+
1
640
cos(2α) d
4
+
33 d
4
640
= 0.0415184 d
4
I
yz
3
=
_
c2
−c1
y
3
(s
3
) z
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(−s
3
sinα) (d +s
3
cos α)
2
_
d
15
_
ds
3
=
1
160
d
4
sin(α) −
1
640
d
4
sin(2α) = 0.00177184 d
4
I
zz3
=
_
c2
−c1
y
3
(s
3
)
2
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(−s
3
sinα)
2
_
d
15
_
ds
3
=
d
4
640
−
1
640
d
4
cos(2α) = 0.00078125 d
4
Since the parametric equations where are derived from the local y
and z
, the second
moments of inertia for area are about the local axis:
¯
I
yy
j
= I
yy
j
¯
I
yz
j
= I
yz
j
¯
I
zzj
= I
zzj
where j = 1, 2, 3
¯
I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
1
+
¯
I
yy
2
+
¯
I
yy
3
= −
1
32
cos(α) d
4
+
1
256
cos(2α) d
4
+
357 d
4
1280
= 0.253796 d
4
¯
I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
1
+
¯
I
yz
2
+
¯
I
yz
3
= −
9
320
cos(α) d
4
−
1
320
sin(α) d
4
+
sin(2α) d
4
1280
+
9 d
4
20
= 0.424757 d
4
¯
I
zz
=
¯
I
zz1
+
¯
I
zz2
+
¯
I
zz3
= −
1
256
cos(2α) d
4
−
9
160
sin(α) d
4
+
289 d
4
256
= 1.09883 d
4
Thus
I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
−(z
c
)
2
A =
39 cos(2α) d
4
11264
+
39 d
4
11264
= 0.00519354 d
4
I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
−z
c
y
c
A =
39 d
4
sin(2α)
56320
−
9 d
4
cos(α)
3520
= −0.00161457 d
4
I
zz
=
¯
I
zz
−(y
c
)
2
A = −
219 cos(2α) d
4
56320
−
81 sin(α) d
4
1760
+
22107 d
4
56320
= 0.367569 d
4
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 149
4.5g) Determine the modulusweighted area.
The modulusweighted ratios are:
ξ
1
=
E
1
E
0
= 1 ξ
2
=
E
2
E
0
= 2 ξ
3
=
E
3
E
0
= 2.5
A
∗
1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
(1)
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
3
20
d
2
A
∗
2
=
_
b2
−b1
ξ
2
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2)
_
d
10
_
ds
2
=
3
20
d
2
A
∗
3
=
_
c2
−c1
ξ
3
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2.5)
_
d
15
_
ds
3
=
1
8
d
2
A
∗
= A
∗
1
+A
∗
2
+A
∗
3
=
17
40
d
2
4.5h) Determine the modulusweighted ﬁrst moments of area.
For section 1:
Q
∗
y1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
z
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
(1) (d)
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
3
20
d
3
Q
∗
z1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
y
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
(1) (s
1
)
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
9
40
d
3
For section 2:
Q
∗
y2
=
_
b2
−b1
ξ
2
z
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2) (d +s
2
cos α)
_
d
10
_
ds
2
=
3
40
d
3
−
3
320
d
3
cos α
Q
∗
z2
=
_
b2
−b1
ξ
2
y
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2) (3 d +s
2
sinα)
_
d
10
_
ds
2
=
9
40
d
3
−
3
320
d
3
sinα
For section 3:
Q
∗
y3
=
_
c2
−c1
ξ
3
z
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2.5) (d +s
3
cos α)
_
d
15
_
ds
3
=
1
20
d
3
−
1
160
d
3
cos α
Q
∗
z3
=
_
c2
−c1
ξ
3
y
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2.5) (−s
3
sinα)
_
d
15
_
ds
3
=
1
160
d
3
sinα
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 150
Q
∗
y
= Q
∗
y1
+Q
∗
y2
+Q
∗
y3
=
17
40
d
3
−
11
320
d
3
cos α
Q
∗
z
= Q
∗
z1
+Q
∗
z2
+Q
∗
z3
=
27
40
d
3
−
1
320
d
3
sinα
For α = 30
◦
:
Q
∗
y
= 0.39523 d
3
Q
∗
z
= 0.673438 d
3
4.5i) Determine the modulusweighted centroid.
For section 1: y
∗
c1
=
Q
∗
z1
A
∗
1
= 1.5 d
z
∗
c1
=
Q
∗
y1
A
∗
1
= d
For section 2: y
∗
c2
=
Q
∗
z2
A
∗
2
= 3 d −0.125 d sinα = 2.9375 d
z
∗
c2
=
Q
∗
y2
A
∗
2
= d −0.125 d cos α = 0.891747 d
For section 3: y
∗
c3
=
Q
∗
z3
A
∗
3
= 0.125 d sinα = 0.0625 d
z
∗
c3
=
Q
∗
y3
A
∗
3
= d −0.125 d cos α = 0.891747 d
Crosssection centroid: y
∗
c
=
Q
∗
z
A
∗
= 1.58824 d −0.00735294 d sinα = 1.58456 d
z
∗
c
=
Q
∗
y
A
∗
= d −0.0808824 d cos α = 0.929954 d
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 151
4.5j) Determine the modulusweighted second moments of area about the crosssectional
modulusweighted centroid.
The moments of inertia about the modulusweighted centroid are found using:
¯
I
∗
yy
= I
∗
yy
+ (z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
→I
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
−(z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
¯
I
∗
zz
= I
∗
zz
+ (y
∗
c
)
2
A →I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz
−(y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
¯
I
∗
yz
= I
∗
yz
+y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
→I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
−y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
where
¯
I
∗
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
1
+
¯
I
∗
yy
2
+
¯
I
∗
yy
3
¯
I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
1
+
¯
I
∗
yz
2
+
¯
I
∗
yz
3
¯
I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz1
+
¯
I
∗
zz2
+
¯
I
∗
zz3
Now we proceed to evaluate each moment of inertia.
For section 1:
I
∗
yy
1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
z
1
(s
1
)
2
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
(1) (d)
2
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
3
20
d
4
= 0.15 d
4
I
∗
yz
1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
y
1
(s
1
) z
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
(1) (d) (s
1
)
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
9
40
d
4
= 0.225 d
4
I
∗
zz1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
y
1
(s
1
)
2
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
(1) (s
1
)
2
_
d
20
_
ds
1
=
9
20
d
4
= 0.45 d
4
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 152
For section 2:
I
∗
yy
2
=
_
b2
−b1
ξ
2
z
2
(s
2
)
2
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2) (d +s
2
cos α)
2
_
d
10
_
ds
2
= −
3
80
cos(α) d
4
+
3
640
cos(2α) d
4
+
99 d
4
640
= 0.124555 d
4
I
∗
yz
2
=
_
b2
−b1
ξ
2
y
2
(s
2
) z
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2) (3 d +s
2
sinα) (d +s
2
cos α)
_
d
10
_
ds
2
= −
9
160
cos(α) d
4
−
3
160
sin(α) d
4
+
3
640
sin(2α) d
4
+
9 d
4
20
= 0.395971 d
4
I
∗
zz2
=
_
b2
−b1
ξ
2
y
2
(s
2
)
2
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2) (3 d +s
2
sinα)
2
_
d
10
_
ds
2
= −
3
640
cos(2α) d
4
−
9
80
sin(α) d
4
+
867 d
4
640
= 1.29609 d
4
For section 3:
I
∗
yy
3
=
_
c2
−c1
ξ
3
z
3
(s
3
)
2
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2.5) (d +s
3
cos α)
2
_
d
15
_
ds
3
= −
1
32
cos(α) d
4
+
1
256
cos(2α) d
4
+
33 d
4
256
= 0.103796 d
4
I
∗
yz
3
=
_
c2
−c1
ξ
3
y
3
(s
3
) z
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2.5) (−s
3
sinα) (d +s
3
cos α)
2
_
d
15
_
ds
3
=
1
64
d
4
sin(α) −
1
256
d
4
sin(2α) = 0.00442959 d
4
I
∗
zz3
=
_
c2
−c1
ξ
3
y
3
(s
3
)
2
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
d/4
−d/2
(2.5) (−s
3
sinα)
2
_
d
15
_
ds
3
=
d
4
256
−
1
256
d
4
cos(2α) = 0.00195313 d
4
Since the parametric equations where are derived from the local y
∗
and z
∗
, the second
moments of inertia for area are about the local axis:
¯
I
∗
yy
j
= I
∗
yy
j
¯
I
∗
yz
j
= I
∗
yz
j
¯
I
∗
zzj
= I
∗
zzj
where j = 1, 2, 3
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 153
¯
I
∗
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
1
+
¯
I
∗
yy
2
+
¯
I
∗
yy
3
= −
11
160
cos(α) d
4
+
11 cos(2α) d
4
1280
+
111 d
4
256
= 0.378351 d
4
¯
I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
1
+
¯
I
∗
yz
2
+
¯
I
∗
yz
3
= −
9
160
cos(α) d
4
−
1
320
sin(α) d
4
+
sin(2α) d
4
1280
+
27 d
4
40
= 0.6254 d
4
¯
I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz1
+
¯
I
∗
zz2
+
¯
I
∗
zz3
= −
11 cos(2α) d
4
1280
−
9
80
sin(α) d
4
+
463 d
4
256
= 1.74805 d
4
Thus
I
∗
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
−(z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
=
627 cos(2α) d
4
87040
+
627 d
4
87040
= 0.0108054 d
4
I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
−y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
=
57 d
4
sin(2α)
87040
−
9 d
4
cos(α)
5440
= −0.000865627 d
4
I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz
−(y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
= −
747 cos(2α) d
4
87040
−
279 sin(α) d
4
2720
+
3771 d
4
5120
= 0.680946 d
4
End Example
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 154
Example 4.6.
Thinwalled beam with a semicircular crosssection with two stringers
Determine the geometric crosssectional properties of the open circular crosssection beam
shown below. The beam cross section consists of a thinwalled semicircular web of radius a
and uniform thickness t, and two stringers each with area A
s
= π a t/2. In the thinwalled
construction the stringer’s crosssectional dimensions are small with respect to the largest
dimension of the crosssection. Hence the stringer is modeled by its area A
s
concentrated
at the stringer’s centroid. Let us place our reference coordinate system at the center of the
circle.
C
t
t
a
θ
y
z
A
s1
A
s2
ds
4.6a) Determine the parametric equations.
It is convenient to use the polar angle θ in the moment computations for the web, where
−
π
2
≤ θ ≤
π
2
For polar coordinates, the diﬀerential area of the web is:
dA = t(s) ds = t(θ) r(θ) dθ = t a dθ where r(θ) = a and t(θ) = t
and the coordinates to this diﬀerential area are:
y(θ) = a sinθ z(θ) = −a cos θ
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 155
4.6b) Determine the total geometric area of the crosssection.
A =
__
A
dA =
_
π/2
−π/2
t a dθ +A
s1
+A
s2
= 2 π a t
4.6c) Determine the geometrical ﬁrst moments of area.
Q
z
=
__
A
y dA =
_
π/2
−π/2
y(θ) t a dθ +A
s1
(a) +A
s2
(−a)
=
_
π/2
−π/2
(a sinθ) t a dθ +A
s1
(a) +A
s2
(−a) = 0
Q
y
=
__
A
z dA =
_
π/2
−π/2
z(θ) t a dθ +A
s1
(0) +A
s2
(0)
=
_
π/2
−π/2
(−a cosθ) t a dθ +A
s1
(0) +A
s2
(0) = −2 a
2
t
4.6d) Determine the geometrical centroid.
y
c
=
Q
z
A
= 0 z
c
=
Q
y
A
= −
a
π
Since the crosssection is symmetric with respect to z, it was expected that the centroid
be located on the zaxis.
4.6e) Determine the second moments of area.
The second moments of the stringer area are neglected with respect to the transfer terms
in the parallel axis theorem.
The second moments of area about the reference coordinate system are:
¯
I
zz
=
__
A
y
2
dA =
_
π/2
−π/2
[y(θ)]
2
t a dθ + (a)
2
A
s1
+ (−a)
2
A
s2
=
_
π/2
−π/2
_
a sinθ
_
2
t a dθ + (a)
2
A
s1
+ (a)
2
A
s2
=
3
2
a
3
π t
¯
I
yy
=
__
A
z
2
dA =
_
π/2
−π/2
[z(θ)]
2
t a dθ + (0)
2
A
s1
+ (0)
2
A
s2
=
_
π/2
−π/2
_
a cos θ
_
2
t a dθ + 0 + 0 =
1
2
a
3
π t
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 156
¯
I
yz
=
__
A
y z dA =
_
π/2
−π/2
y(θ) z(θ) t a dθ + (a)(0) A
s1
+ (−a)(0) A
s2
=
_
π/2
−π/2
_
a sinθ
__
a cos θ
_
t a dθ + 0 + 0 = 0
Now, the second moments of area about the geometric centroid are:
I
zz
=
¯
I
zz
−y
2
c
A =
3
2
a
3
π t
I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
−z
2
c
A =
_
−4 +π
2
_
2π
a
3
t
I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
−y
c
z
c
A = 0
Note that since the crosssection is symmetric with respect to the zaxis, the product
area moment is expected to be zero.
End Example
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 157
Example 4.7.
Thinwalled beam with a circular crosssection of variable thickness
Determine the geometric crosssectional properties of the closed crosssectional beam shown
below. The thinwalled crosssection shown has a circular contour with radius a. The wall
thickness is t everywhere except the topright quarter (section 1) where it is tapered with t
at 2 and 2 t at 1. Let us place our reference coordinate system at the center of the circle.
2
1
y
C
z
t
t
a
θ
Section 1
Section 2
4.7a) Determine the parametric equations.
First of all for polar coordinates, the diﬀerential area of the web is:
dA = t(s) ds = t(θ) r(θ) dθ = t(θ) a dθ where r(θ) = a
For section 1→2,
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 158
2
1
y
C
z
Section 1
θ
1
a
t
t
The thickness is:
t(θ) =
t
f
−t
i
θ
f
−θ
i
θ +b =
t −2 t
π/2 −0
θ +b = −
2 t
π
θ +b
For t(θ = 0
◦
) = 2 t, thus b = 2 t and the thickness for section 12 is
t
1
(θ
1
) = 2 t
_
1 −
θ
1
π
_
The parametric equations for y and z are
y
1
(θ
1
) = a sinθ
1
z
1
(θ
1
) = a cos θ
1
where θ
1
is measured from the zaxis and
0 ≤ θ
1
≤
π
2
For section 2→1,
2
1
y
C
z
θ
2
Section 2
a
t
t
the thickness is:
t
2
(θ
2
) = t
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 159
The parametric equations for y and z are
y
2
(θ
2
) = a cos θ
2
z
2
(θ
2
) = −a sinθ
2
or
y
2
(θ
2
) = a sin
_
θ
2
+
π
2
_
z
2
(θ
2
) = a cos
_
θ
2
+
π
2
_
where θ
2
is measured from the yaxis and
0 ≤ θ
2
≤
3 π
2
4.7b) Determine the total geometric area of the crosssection.
A =
__
A
dA =
_
π/2
0
t
1
(θ
1
) a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
t
2
(θ
2
) a dθ
2
=
_
π/2
0
_
2 t
_
1 −
θ
1
π
__
a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
t a dθ
2
=
9 a π t
4
= 7.06858 a t
4.7c) Determine the geometrical ﬁrst moments of area.
Q
z
=
__
A
y dA =
_
π/2
0
y
1
(θ
1
) t
1
(θ
1
) a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
y
2
(θ
2
) t
2
(θ
2
) a dθ
2
=
_
π/2
0
a sinθ
1
_
2 t
_
1 −
θ
1
π
__
a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
_
a cos θ
2
_
t a dθ
2
=
a
2
(−2 +π)t
π
= 0.3633802 a
2
t
Q
y
=
__
A
z dA =
_
π/2
0
z
1
(θ
1
) t
1
(θ
1
) a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
z
2
(θ
2
) t
2
(θ
2
) a dθ
2
=
_
π/2
0
a cos θ
1
_
2 t
_
1 −
θ
1
π
__
a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
_
−a sinθ
2
_
t a dθ
2
=
2a
2
t
π
= 0.6366197 a
2
t
4.7d) Determine the geometrical centroid.
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 160
y
c
=
Q
z
A
=
a
2
(−2 +π)t
π
9 a π t
4
=
4a(−2 +π)
9π
2
= 0.051407 a
z
c
=
Q
y
A
=
2a
2
t
π
9 a π t
4
=
8a
9π
2
= 0.09006 a
4.7e) Determine the second moments of area.
The second moments of area about the reference coordinate system are:
¯
I
zz
=
__
A
y
2
dA =
_
π/2
0
[y
1
(θ
1
)]
2
t
1
(θ
1
) a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
[y
2
(θ
2
)]
2
t
2
(θ
2
) a dθ
2
=
_
π/2
0
_
a sinθ
1
_
2
_
2 t
_
1 −
θ
1
π
__
a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
_
a cos θ
2
_
2
t a dθ
2
=
a
3
_
−4 + 9π
2
_
t
8π
¯
I
yy
=
__
A
z
2
dA =
_
π/2
0
[z
1
(θ
1
)]
2
t
1
(θ
1
) a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
[z
2
(θ
2
)]
2
t
2
(θ
2
) a dθ
2
=
_
π/2
0
_
a cos θ
1
_
2
_
2 t
_
1 −
θ
1
π
__
a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
_
−a sinθ
2
_
2
t a dθ
2
=
a
3
_
4 + 9π
2
_
t
8π
¯
I
yz
=
__
A
y z dA =
_
π/2
0
y
1
(θ
1
) z
1
(θ
1
) t
1
(θ
1
) a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
y
2
(θ
2
) z
2
(θ
2
) t
2
(θ
2
) a dθ
2
=
_
π/2
0
_
a sinθ
1
__
a cos θ
1
_
_
2 t
_
1 −
θ
1
π
__
a dθ
1
+
_
3 π/2
0
_
a cos θ
2
__
−a sinθ
2
_
t a dθ
2
=
a
3
t
4
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 161
Now, the second moments of area about the geometric centroid are:
I
zz
=
¯
I
zz
−y
2
c
A =
a
3
_
−128 + 36π
2
+ 81π
4
_
t
72π
3
= 3.356456 a
3
t
I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
−z
2
c
A =
a
3
_
−128 +π
_
128 −68π + 81π
3
__
t
72π
3
= 3.636110 a
3
t
I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
−y
c
z
c
A =
1
36
a
3
_
9 −
32(−2 +π)
π
3
_
t = 0.217273 a
3
t
End Example
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 162
Example 4.8.
Thinwalled multimaterial beam with a closed crosssection
Determine the weighted and geometric crosssectional properties of the idealized wing box
shown below. The wing’s crosssection consists of skins and ﬂanges idealizations. The ﬂanges
of the stringers carry only axial normal stress and their area is idealized with the ﬂange area
of A
f
(the number of each ﬂange is given in red). The webs, or skins, are eﬀective in bending
and shear, i.e., they carry axial normal stress due to bending and the shear stress tangent to
the contour. Let us place our reference coordinate system at at the center of the circle, as
shown in ﬁgure.
α
α
z′
y′
h/2
E
4
t
4
E
2
t
2
E
3
t
3
E
1
t
1
b
2
b
3
A
f
A
f
A
f
A
f
E
5
t
5
h/2
1
2
4
3
Take as the reference modulus E
0
= 40 MPa and the mechanical and geometrical properties
are given as follows:
E
1
= 40 MPa E
2
= 60 MPa E
3
= 60 MPa E
4
= 100 MPa E
5
= 80 MPa
b
2
= 2 h b
3
= 2 h α = 30
◦
A
f
=
h
2
40
t
1
=
h
20
t
2
=
h
10
t
3
=
h
10
t
4
=
h
15
t
5
=
h
10
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 163
4.8a) Determine the parametric equations.
Let us ﬁnd the parametric equations (functions of s). For this let us set the local
coordinate system for each section and then transfer it to the given coordinate system.
For sections 1,2,3 use:
y
j
(s
j
) =
y
f
−y
i
s
f
−s
i
s
j
+b
j
where b
j
→y
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=si)
= y
i
where
y
i
= y
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=si)
y
f
= y
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=s
f
)
and
z
j
(s
j
) =
z
f
−z
i
s
f
−s
i
s
j
+b
j
where b
j
→z
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=si)
= z
i
where
z
i
= z
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=si)
z
f
= z
j
¸
¸
¸
(sj=s
f
)
Here j represents the section where the parametric equations are developed, f the ﬁnal
point and i the initial point.
For sections 4,5 use:
ds = Rdθ
y
j
(θ
j
) = R sin(θ) or y
j
(θ
j
) = R cos(θ) depending on the location
z
j
(θ
j
) = R sin(θ) or z
j
(θ
j
) = R cos(θ) depending on the location
For section 1:
α
y′
h/2
E1 t1
α
z′
h/2
s1
s
i
= 0 y
i
= −
h
2
z
i
= −b
3
cos α = −
√
3 h
s
f
= h y
f
=
h
2
z
f
= −b
2
cos α = −
√
3 h
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 164
y
1
(s
1
) = s
1
−
h
2
z
1
(s
1
) = −
√
3 h
For section 2:
α
y′
α
z′
E2 t2
b2 s2
h/2
s
i
= 0 y
i
=
h
2
z
i
= −b
2
cos α = −
√
3 h
s
f
= b
2
y
f
=
h
2
+b
2
sinα =
3 h
2
z
f
= 0
y
2
(s
2
) =
h
2
+
1
2
s
2
z
2
(s
2
) =
√
3
2
s
2
−
√
3 h
For section 3:
α
y′
α
z′
E3 t3
b3
h/2
s3
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 165
s
i
= 0 y
i
= −
h
2
−b
3
sinα = −
3 h
2
z
i
= 0
s
f
= b
3
y
f
= −
h
2
z
f
= −b
3
cos α = −
√
3 h
y
3
(s
3
) = −
3
2
h +
1
2
s
3
z
3
(s
3
) = −
√
3
2
s
3
For section 4:
y′
s4
z′
E4 t4
θ4
R
R =
1
2
(h +b
2
sinα +b
3
sinα) =
3 h
2
s
i
= 0 θ
i
= 0
s
f
= R
π
2
θ
f
=
π
2
y
4
(θ
4
) = R cos θ
4
=
3
2
h cos θ
4
z
4
(θ
4
) = R sinθ
4
=
3
2
h sinθ
4
For section 5:
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 166
y′
z′
θ5
s5
R
E5 t5
R =
1
2
(h +b
2
sinα +b
3
sinα) =
3 h
2
s
i
= 0 θ
i
= 0
s
f
= R
π
2
θ
f
=
π
2
y
5
(θ
5
) = −R sinθ
5
= −
3
2
h sinθ
5
z
5
(θ
5
) = R cos θ
5
=
3
2
h cos θ
5
4.8b) Determine the geometrical area.
Note that
t
1
(s
1
) =
h
20
t
2
(s
2
) =
h
10
t
3
(s
3
) =
h
10
t
4
(θ
4
) =
h
15
t
5
(θ
5
) =
h
10
A
1
=
_
h
0
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
_
h
20
_
ds
1
=
1
20
h
2
A
2
=
_
b2
0
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
2 h
0
_
h
10
_
ds
2
=
1
5
h
2
A
3
=
_
b3
0
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
2 h
0
_
h
10
_
ds
3
=
1
5
h
2
A
4
=
_
π/2
0
t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
=
_
π/2
0
_
h
15
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
4
=
π
20
h
2
A
5
=
_
π/2
0
t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
=
_
π/2
0
_
h
10
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
5
=
3 π
40
h
2
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 167
A = A
1
+A
2
+A
3
+A
4
+A
5
+A
f1
+A
f2
+A
f3
+A
f4
=
11
20
h
2
+
π
8
h
2
= 0.942699 h
2
4.8c) Determine the geometrical ﬁrst moments of area.
For section 1:
Q
y1
=
_
h
0
z
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
_
−
√
3 h
_
_
h
20
_
ds
1
= −
√
3
20
h
3
Q
z1
=
_
h
0
y
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
_
s
1
−
h
2
_ _
h
20
_
ds
1
= 0
For section 2:
Q
y2
=
_
b2
0
z
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
2 h
0
_
√
3
2
s
2
−
√
3 h
_
_
h
10
_
ds
2
= −
√
3
10
h
3
Q
z2
=
_
b2
0
y
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
2 h
0
_
h
2
+
s
2
2
_ _
h
10
_
ds
2
=
1
5
h
3
For section 3:
Q
y3
=
_
b3
0
z
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
2 h
0
_
−
√
3
2
s
3
_
_
h
10
_
ds
3
= −
√
3
10
h
3
Q
z3
=
_
b3
0
y
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
2 h
0
_
1
2
s
3
−
3 h
2
_ _
h
10
_
ds
3
= −
1
5
h
3
For section 4:
Q
y4
=
_
π/2
0
z
4
(θ
4
) t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
=
_
π/2
0
_
3
2
h sinθ
4
_ _
h
15
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
4
=
3
20
h
3
Q
z4
=
_
π/2
0
y
4
(θ
4
) t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
=
_
π/2
0
_
3
2
h cos θ
4
_ _
h
15
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
4
=
3
20
h
3
For section 5:
Q
y5
=
_
π/2
0
z
5
(θ
5
) t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
=
_
π/2
0
_
3
2
h cos θ
5
_ _
h
10
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
5
=
9
40
h
3
Q
z5
=
_
π/2
0
y
5
(θ
5
) t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
=
_
π/2
0
_
−
3
2
h sinθ
5
_ _
h
10
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
5
= −
9
40
h
3
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 168
For ﬂanges:
Q
y
f
1
= A
f1
= A
f1
z
f1
= A
f1
(−b
2
cos α) = −
√
3
40
h
3
Q
y
f
2
= A
f2
z
f2
= A
f2
(−b
3
cos α) = −
√
3
40
h
3
Q
y
f
3
= A
f3
z
f3
= A
f3
(0) = 0
Q
y
f
4
= A
f4
z
f4
= A
f4
(0) = 0
Q
z
f
1
= A
f1
y
f1
= A
f1
_
h
2
_
=
1
80
h
3
Q
z
f
2
= A
f2
y
f2
= A
f2
_
−
h
2
_
= −
1
80
h
3
Q
z
f
3
= A
f3
y
f3
= A
f3
(R) =
3
80
h
3
Q
z
f
4
= A
f4
y
f4
= A
f4
(−R) = −
3
80
h
3
Q
y
= Q
y1
+Q
y2
+Q
y3
+Q
y4
+Q
y5
+Q
y
f
1
+Q
y
f
2
+Q
y
f
3
+Q
y
f
4
=
3
8
h
3
−
3
√
3
10
h
3
= −0.144615 h
3
Q
z
= Q
z1
+Q
z2
+Q
z3
+Q
z4
+Q
z5
+Q
z
f
1
+Q
z
f
2
+Q
z
f
3
+Q
z
f
4
= −
3
40
h
3
= −0.075 h
3
4.8d) Determine the geometrical centroid.
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 169
section 1: y
c1
=
Q
z1
A
1
= 0 z
c1
=
Q
y1
A
1
= −
√
3 h
section 2: y
c2
=
Q
z2
A
2
= h z
c2
=
Q
y2
A
2
= −
√
3h
2
= −0.866025 h
section 3: y
c3
=
Q
z3
A
3
= −h z
c3
=
Q
y3
A
3
= −
√
3h
2
= −0.866025 h
section 4: y
c4
=
Q
z4
A
4
=
3h
π
= 0.95493 h z
c4
=
Q
y4
A
4
=
3h
π
= 0.95493 h
section 5: y
c5
=
Q
z5
A
5
= −
3h
π
= −0.95493 h z
c5
=
Q
y5
A
5
=
3h
π
= 0.95493 h
Flange 1: y
c
f
1
=
Q
z
f
1
A
f1
=
h
2
z
c
f
1
=
Q
y
f
1
A
f1
= −
√
3 h
Flange 2: y
c
f
2
=
Q
z
f
2
A
f2
= −
h
2
z
c
f
2
=
Q
y
f
2
A
f2
= −
√
3 h
Flange 3: y
c
f
3
=
Q
z
f
3
A
f3
=
3 h
2
z
c
f
3
=
Q
y
f
3
A
f3
= 0
Flange 4: y
c
f
4
=
Q
z
f
4
A
f4
= −
3 h
2
z
c
f
4
=
Q
y
f
4
A
f4
= 0
Crosssection centroid: y
c
=
Q
z
A
= −
3 h
22 + 5π
= −0.0795588 h
z
c
=
Q
y
A
=
15h
22 + 5π
−
12
√
3 h
22 + 5π
= −0.153406 h
4.8e) Determine the geometrical second moments of area about the crosssectional geometric
centroid.
The moments of inertia about the geometric centroid are found using:
¯
I
yy
= I
yy
+ (z
c
)
2
A →I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
−(z
c
)
2
A
¯
I
zz
= I
zz
+ (y
c
)
2
A →I
zz
=
¯
I
zz
−(y
c
)
2
A
¯
I
yz
= I
yz
+y
c
z
c
A →I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
−y
c
z
c
A
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 170
where
¯
I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
1
+
¯
I
yy
2
+
¯
I
yy
3
+
¯
I
yy
4
+
¯
I
yy
5
+
¯
I
yy
f
1
+
¯
I
yy
f
2
+
¯
I
yy
f
3
+
¯
I
yy
f
4
¯
I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
1
+
¯
I
yz
2
+
¯
I
yz
3
+
¯
I
yz
4
+
¯
I
yz
5
+
¯
I
yz
f
1
+
¯
I
yz
f
2
+
¯
I
yz
f
3
+
¯
I
yz
f
4
¯
I
zz
=
¯
I
zz1
+
¯
I
zz2
+
¯
I
zz3
+
¯
I
zz4
+
¯
I
zz5
+
¯
I
zz
f
1
+
¯
I
zz
f
2
+
¯
I
zz
f
3
+
¯
I
zz
f
4
Now we proceed to evaluate each moment of inertia about the reference axis.
For section 1:
I
yy
1
=
_
h
0
z
1
(s
1
)
2
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
_
−
√
3 h
_
2
_
h
20
_
ds
1
=
3
20
h
4
= 0.15 h
4
I
yz
1
=
_
h
0
y
1
(s
1
) z
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
_
s
1
−
h
2
_
_
−
√
3 h
_
_
h
20
_
ds
1
= 0
I
zz1
=
_
h
0
y
1
(s
1
)
2
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
=
_
h
0
_
s
1
−
h
2
_
2
_
h
20
_
ds
1
=
1
240
h
4
= 0.00416667 h
4
For section 2:
I
yy
2
=
_
b2
0
z
2
(s
2
)
2
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
2 h
0
_
√
3
2
s
2
−
√
3 h
_
2 _
h
10
_
ds
2
=
h
4
5
= 0.20 h
4
I
yz
2
=
_
b2
0
y
2
(s
2
) z
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
2 h
0
_
h
2
+
s
2
2
_
_
√
3
2
s
2
−
√
3 h
_
_
h
10
_
ds
2
= −
h
4
4
√
3
= −0.144338 h
4
I
zz2
=
_
b2
0
y
2
(s
2
)
2
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
=
_
2 h
0
_
h
2
+
s
2
2
_
2
_
h
10
_
ds
2
=
13h
4
60
= 0.216667 h
4
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 171
For section 3:
I
yy
3
=
_
b3
0
z
3
(s
3
)
2
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
2 h
0
_
−
√
3
2
s
3
_
2 _
h
10
_
ds
3
=
h
4
5
= 0.20 h
4
I
yz
3
=
_
b3
0
y
3
(s
3
) z
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
2 h
0
_
1
2
s
3
−
3 h
2
_
_
−
√
3
2
s
3
_
2 _
h
10
_
ds
3
=
h
4
4
√
3
= 0.144338 h
4
I
zz3
=
_
b3
0
y
3
(s
3
)
2
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
=
_
2 h
0
_
1
2
s
3
−
3 h
2
_
2
_
h
10
_
ds
3
=
13h
4
60
= 0.216667 h
4
For section 4:
I
yy
4
=
_
π/2
0
z
4
(θ
4
)
2
t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
=
_
π/2
0
_
3
2
h sinθ
4
_
2
_
h
15
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
4
=
=
9h
4
π
160
= 0.176715 h
4
I
yz
4
=
_
π/2
0
y
4
(θ
4
) z
4
(θ
4
) t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
=
_
π/2
0
_
3
2
h cos θ
4
_ _
3
2
h sinθ
4
_ _
h
15
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
4
=
9h
4
π
80
= 0.1125 h
4
I
zz4
=
_
π/2
0
y
4
(θ
4
)
2
t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
=
_
π/2
0
_
3
2
h cos θ
4
_
2
_
h
15
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
4
=
9h
4
π
160
= 0.176715 h
4
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 172
For section 5:
I
yy
5
=
_
π/2
0
z
5
(θ
5
)
2
t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
=
_
π/2
0
_
3
2
h cos θ
5
_
2
_
h
10
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
5
=
=
27h
4
π
320
= 0.265072 h
4
I
yz
5
=
_
π/2
0
y
5
(θ
5
) z
5
(θ
5
) t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
=
_
π/2
0
_
3
2
h cos θ
5
_ _
−
3
2
h sinθ
5
_ _
h
10
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
5
= −
27h
4
160
= −0.16875 h
4
I
zz5
=
_
π/2
0
y
5
(θ
5
)
2
t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
=
_
π/2
0
_
−
3
2
h sinθ
5
_
2
_
h
10
_ _
3 h
2
_
dθ
5
=
27h
4
π
320
= 0.265072 h
4
For ﬂange 1:
I
yy
f
1
= A
f1
(−b
2
cos α)
2
=
√
3
40
h
4
= 0.075 h
4
I
yz
f
1
= A
f1
(−b
2
cos α)
_
h
2
_
= −
√
3
80
h
4
= −0.0216506 h
4
I
zz
f
1
= A
f1
_
h
2
_
2
=
1
160
h
4
= 0.00625 h
4
For ﬂange 2:
I
yy
f
2
= A
f2
(−b
3
cos α)
2
=
√
3
40
h
4
= 0.075 h
4
I
yz
f
2
= A
f2
(−b
3
cos α)
_
−
h
2
_
=
√
3
80
h
4
= 0.0216506 h
4
I
zz
f
2
= A
f2
_
−
h
2
_
2
=
1
160
h
4
= 0.00625 h
4
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 173
For ﬂange 3:
I
yy
f
3
= A
f3
(0)
2
= 0
I
yz
f
3
= A
f3
(0)
_
h
2
+b
2
sinα
_
= 0
I
zz
f
3
= A
f3
_
h
2
+b
2
sinα
_
2
=
9
160
h
4
= 0.05625 h
4
For ﬂange 4:
I
yy
f
4
= A
f4
(0)
2
= 0
I
yz
f
4
= A
f4
(0)
_
−
h
2
−b
3
sinα
_
= 0
I
zz
f
4
= A
f4
_
−
h
2
−b
3
sinα
_
2
=
9
160
h
4
= 0.05625 h
4
Since the parametric equations where are derived from the local y
and z
, the second
moments of inertia for area are about the local axis:
¯
I
yy
j
= I
yy
j
¯
I
yz
j
= I
yz
j
¯
I
zzj
= I
zzj
where j = 1, 2, 3
¯
I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
1
+
¯
I
yy
2
+
¯
I
yy
3
+
¯
I
yy
4
+
¯
I
yy
5
+
¯
I
yy
f
1
+
¯
I
yy
f
2
+
¯
I
yy
f
3
+
¯
I
yy
f
4
=
9πh
4
64
+
7h
4
10
= 1.14179 h
4
¯
I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
1
+
¯
I
yz
2
+
¯
I
yz
3
+
¯
I
yz
4
+
¯
I
yz
5
+
¯
I
yz
f
1
+
¯
I
yz
f
2
+
¯
I
yz
f
3
+
¯
I
yz
f
4
= −
9h
4
160
= −0.05625 h
4
¯
I
zz
=
¯
I
zz1
+
¯
I
zz2
+
¯
I
zz3
+
¯
I
zz4
+
¯
I
zz5
+
¯
I
zz
f
1
+
¯
I
zz
f
2
+
¯
I
zz
f
3
+
¯
I
zz
f
4
=
9πh
4
64
+
9h
4
16
= 1.00429 h
4
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 174
Thus
I
yy
=
¯
I
yy
−(z
c
)
2
A =
225π
2
h
4
+ 2110πh
4
+ 2880
√
3h
4
−328h
4
7040 + 1600π
= 1.1196 h
4
I
yz
=
¯
I
yz
−y
c
z
c
A =
−90πh
4
−288
√
3h
4
−36h
4
7040 + 1600π
= −0.0677554 h
4
I
zz
=
¯
I
zz
−(y
c
)
2
A =
225π
2
h
4
+ 1890πh
4
+ 3888h
4
7040 + 1600π
= 0.99832 h
4
4.8f) Determine the modulusweighted area.
The modulusweighted ratios are:
ξ
1
=
E
1
E
0
= 1 ξ
2
=
E
2
E
0
= 1.5 ξ
3
=
E
3
E
0
= 1.5 ξ
4
=
E
4
E
0
= 2.5 ξ
5
=
E
5
E
0
= 2.0
A
∗
1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
= ξ
1
A
1
=
1
20
h
2
A
∗
2
=
_
b2
0
ξ
2
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
= ξ
2
A
2
=
3
10
h
2
A
∗
3
=
_
b3
0
ξ
3
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
= ξ
3
A
3
=
3
10
h
2
A
∗
4
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
4
t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
= ξ
4
A
4
=
π
8
h
2
A
∗
5
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
5
t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
= ξ
5
A
5
=
3 π
20
h
2
A
∗
= A
∗
1
+A
∗
2
+A
∗
3
+A
∗
4
+A
∗
5
+A
f1
+A
f2
+A
f3
+A
f4
=
3
4
h
2
+
11π
40
h
2
= 1.61394 h
2
4.8g) Determine the modulusweighted ﬁrst moments of area.
For section 1:
Q
∗
y1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
z
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
= ξ
1
Q
y1
= −
√
3
20
h
3
Q
∗
z1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
y
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
= ξ
1
Q
z1
= 0
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 175
For section 2:
Q
∗
y2
=
_
b2
0
ξ
2
z
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
= ξ
2
Q
y2
= −
√
3
20
h
3
Q
∗
z2
=
_
b2
0
ξ
2
y
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
= ξ
2
Q
z2
=
3
10
h
3
For section 3:
Q
∗
y3
=
_
b3
0
ξ
3
z
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
= ξ
3
Q
y3
= −
√
3
20
h
3
Q
∗
z3
=
_
b3
0
ξ
3
y
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
= ξ
3
Q
z3
= −
3
10
h
3
For section 4:
Q
∗
y4
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
4
z
4
(θ
4
) t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
= ξ
4
Q
y4
=
3
8
h
3
Q
∗
z4
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
4
y
4
(θ
4
) t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
= ξ
4
Q
z4
=
3
8
h
3
For section 5:
Q
∗
y5
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
5
z
5
(θ
5
) t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
= ξ
5
Q
y5
=
9
20
h
3
Q
∗
z5
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
5
y
5
(θ
5
) t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
= ξ
5
Q
z5
= −
9
20
h
3
For ﬂanges (don’t change):
Q
y
f
1
= A
f1
= A
f1
z
f1
= A
f1
(−b
2
cos α) = −
√
3
40
h
3
Q
y
f
2
= A
f2
z
f2
= A
f2
(−b
3
cos α) = −
√
3
40
h
3
Q
y
f
3
= A
f3
z
f3
= A
f3
(0) = 0
Q
y
f
4
= A
f4
z
f4
= A
f4
(0) = 0
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 176
Q
z
f
1
= A
f1
y
f1
= A
f1
_
h
2
_
=
1
80
h
3
Q
z
f
2
= A
f2
y
f2
= A
f2
_
−
h
2
_
= −
1
80
h
3
Q
z
f
3
= A
f3
y
f3
= A
f3
_
h
2
+b
2
sinα
_
=
3
80
h
3
Q
z
f
4
= A
f4
y
f4
= A
f4
_
−
h
2
−b
3
sinα
_
= −
3
80
h
3
Q
∗
y
= Q
∗
y1
+Q
∗
y2
+Q
∗
y3
+Q
∗
y4
+Q
∗
y5
+Q
y
f
1
+Q
y
f
2
+Q
y
f
3
+Q
y
f
4
=
33
40
h
3
−
2
√
3
5
h
3
= 0.13218 h
3
Q
∗
z
= Q
∗
z1
+Q
∗
z2
+Q
∗
z3
+Q
∗
z4
+Q
∗
z5
+Q
z
f
1
+Q
z
f
2
+Q
z
f
3
+Q
z
f
4
= −
3
40
h
3
= −0.075 h
3
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 177
4.8h) Determine the modulusweighted centroid.
section 1: y
∗
c1
=
Q
∗
z1
A
∗
1
= 0 z
∗
c1
=
Q
∗
y1
A
∗
1
= −
√
3 h
section 2: y
∗
c2
=
Q
∗
z2
A
∗
2
= h z
∗
c2
=
Q
∗
y2
A
∗
2
= −
√
3h
2
= −0.866025 h
section 3: y
∗
c3
=
Q
∗
z3
A
∗
3
= −h z
∗
c3
=
Q
∗
y3
A
∗
3
= −
√
3h
2
= −0.866025 h
section 4: y
∗
c4
=
Q
∗
z4
A
4
=
3h
π
= 0.95493 h z
∗
c4
=
Q
∗
y4
A
∗
4
=
3h
π
= 0.95493 h
section 5: y
∗
c5
=
Q
∗
z5
A
∗
5
= −
3h
π
= −0.95493 h z
∗
c5
=
Q
∗
y5
A
∗
5
=
3h
π
= 0.95493 h
Flange 1: y
c
f
1
=
Q
z
f
1
A
f1
=
h
2
z
c
f
1
=
Q
y
f
1
A
f1
= −
√
3 h
Flange 2: y
c
f
2
=
Q
z
f
2
A
f2
= −
h
2
z
c
f
2
=
Q
y
f
2
A
f2
= −
√
3 h
Flange 3: y
c
f
3
=
Q
z
f
3
A
f3
=
3 h
2
z
c
f
3
=
Q
y
f
3
A
f3
= 0
Flange 4: y
c
f
4
=
Q
z
f
4
A
f4
= −
3 h
2
z
c
f
4
=
Q
y
f
4
A
f4
= 0
Note that the modulusweighted centroid of each section is the same as the geometrical
centroid (which is expected)
Crosssection centroid: y
∗
c
=
Q
∗
z
A
∗
= −
3 h
30 + 11π
= −0.0464702 h
z
∗
c
=
Q
∗
y
A
∗
=
33 h
30 + 11π
−
16
√
3 h
30 + 11π
= 0.0818989 h
4.8i) Determine the modulusweighted second moments of area about the crosssectional
modulusweighted centroid.
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 178
The moments of inertia about the modulusweighted centroid are found using:
¯
I
∗
yy
= I
∗
yy
+ (z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
→I
∗
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
−(z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
¯
I
∗
zz
= I
∗
zz
+ (y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
→I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz
−(y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
¯
I
∗
yz
= I
∗
yz
+y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
→I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
−y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
where
¯
I
∗
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
1
+
¯
I
∗
yy
2
+
¯
I
∗
yy
3
+
¯
I
∗
yy
4
+
¯
I
∗
yy
5
+
¯
I
yy
f
1
+
¯
I
yy
f
2
+
¯
I
yy
f
3
+
¯
I
yy
f
4
¯
I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
1
+
¯
I
∗
yz
2
+
¯
I
∗
yz
3
+
¯
I
∗
yz
4
+
¯
I
∗
yz
5
+
¯
I
yz
f
1
+
¯
I
yz
f
2
+
¯
I
yz
f
3
+
¯
I
yz
f
4
¯
I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz1
+
¯
I
∗
zz2
+
¯
I
∗
zz3
+
¯
I
∗
zz4
+
¯
I
∗
zz5
+
¯
I
zz
f
1
+
¯
I
zz
f
2
+
¯
I
zz
f
3
+
¯
I
zz
f
4
Now we proceed to evaluate each moment of inertia about the reference axis.
For section 1:
I
∗
yy
1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
z
1
(s
1
)
2
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
= ξ
1
I
yy
1
=
3
20
h
4
= 0.15 h
4
I
∗
yz
1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
y
1
(s
1
) z
1
(s
1
) t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
= ξ
1
I
yz
1
= 0
I
∗
zz1
=
_
h
0
ξ
1
y
1
(s
1
)
2
t
1
(s
1
) ds
1
= ξ
1
I
zz1
=
1
240
h
4
= 0.00416667 h
4
For section 2:
I
∗
yy
2
=
_
b2
0
ξ
2
z
2
(s
2
)
2
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
= ξ
2
I
yy
2
=
3h
4
10
= 0.30 h
4
I
∗
yz
2
=
_
b2
0
ξ
2
y
2
(s
2
) z
2
(s
2
) t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
= ξ
2
I
yz
2
= −
1
8
√
3h
4
= −0.216506 h
4
I
∗
zz2
=
_
b2
0
ξ
2
y
2
(s
2
)
2
t
2
(s
2
) ds
2
= ξ
2
I
zz2
=
13h
4
40
= 0.325 h
4
For section 3:
I
∗
yy
3
=
_
b3
0
ξ
3
z
3
(s
3
)
2
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
= ξ
3
I
yy
3
=
3h
4
10
= 0.30 h
4
I
∗
yz
3
=
_
b3
0
ξ
3
y
3
(s
3
) z
3
(s
3
) t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
= ξ
3
I
yz
3
=
1
8
√
3h
4
= 0.216506 h
4
I
∗
zz3
=
_
b3
0
ξ
3
y
3
(s
3
)
2
t
3
(s
3
) ds
3
= ξ
3
I
zz3
=
13h
4
40
= 0.325 h
4
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 179
For section 4:
I
∗
yy
4
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
4
z
4
(θ
4
)
2
t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
= ξ
4
I
yy
4
=
9h
4
π
64
= 0.441786 h
4
I
∗
yz
4
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
4
y
4
(θ
4
) z
4
(θ
4
) t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
= ξ
4
I
yz
4
=
9h
4
32
= 0.28125 h
4
I
∗
zz4
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
4
y
4
(θ
4
)
2
t
4
(θ
4
) Rdθ
4
= ξ
4
I
zz4
=
9h
4
π
64
= 0.441786 h
4
For section 5:
I
∗
yy
5
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
5
z
5
(θ
5
)
2
t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
= ξ
5
I
yy
5
=
27h
4
π
160
= 0.530144 h
4
I
∗
yz
5
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
5
y
5
(θ
5
) z
5
(θ
5
) t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
= ξ
5
I
yz
5
= −
27h
4
80
= −0.3375 h
4
I
∗
zz5
=
_
π/2
0
ξ
5
y
5
(θ
5
)
2
t
5
(θ
5
) Rdθ
5
= ξ
5
I
zz5
=
27h
4
π
160
= 0.530144 h
4
For ﬂange 1:
I
yy
f
1
= A
f1
(−b
2
cos α)
2
=
√
3
40
h
4
= 0.075 h
4
I
yz
f
1
= A
f1
(−b
2
cos α)
_
h
2
_
= −
√
3
80
h
4
= −0.0216506 h
4
I
zz
f
1
= A
f1
_
h
2
_
2
=
1
160
h
4
= 0.00625 h
4
For ﬂange 2:
I
yy
f
2
= A
f2
(−b
3
cos α)
2
=
√
3
40
h
4
= 0.075 h
4
I
yz
f
2
= A
f2
(−b
3
cos α)
_
−
h
2
_
=
√
3
80
h
4
= 0.0216506 h
4
I
zz
f
2
= A
f2
_
−
h
2
_
2
=
1
160
h
4
= 0.00625 h
4
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 180
For ﬂange 3:
I
yy
f
3
= A
f3
(0)
2
= 0
I
yz
f
3
= A
f3
(0)
_
h
2
+b
2
sinα
_
= 0
I
zz
f
3
= A
f3
_
h
2
+b
2
sinα
_
2
=
9
160
h
4
= 0.05625 h
4
For ﬂange 4:
I
yy
f
4
= A
f4
(0)
2
= 0
I
yz
f
4
= A
f4
(0)
_
−
h
2
−b
3
sinα
_
= 0
I
zz
f
4
= A
f4
_
−
h
2
−b
3
sinα
_
2
=
9
160
h
4
= 0.05625 h
4
Since the parametric equations where are derived from the local y
and z
, the second
moments of inertia for area are about the local axis:
¯
I
yy
j
= I
yy
j
¯
I
yz
j
= I
yz
j
¯
I
zzj
= I
zzj
where j = 1, 2, 3
¯
I
∗
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
1
+
¯
I
∗
yy
2
+
¯
I
∗
yy
3
+
¯
I
∗
yy
4
+
¯
I
∗
yy
5
+
¯
I
yy
f
1
+
¯
I
yy
f
2
+
¯
I
yy
f
3
+
¯
I
yy
f
4
=
99πh
4
320
+
9h
4
10
= 1.87193 h
4
¯
I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
1
+
¯
I
∗
yz
2
+
¯
I
∗
yz
3
+
¯
I
∗
yz
4
+
¯
I
∗
yz
5
+
¯
I
yz
f
1
+
¯
I
yz
f
2
+
¯
I
yz
f
3
+
¯
I
yz
f
4
= −
9h
4
160
= −0.05625 h
4
¯
I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz1
+
¯
I
∗
zz2
+
¯
I
∗
zz3
+
¯
I
∗
zz4
+
¯
I
∗
zz5
+
¯
I
zz
f
1
+
¯
I
zz
f
2
+
¯
I
zz
f
3
+
¯
I
zz
f
4
=
99πh
4
320
+
187h
4
240
= 1.7511 h
4
4.3. PROPERTIES OF PLANE AREAS OF THINWALLS 181
Thus
I
∗
yy
=
¯
I
∗
yy
−(z
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
= 1.8611 h
4
I
∗
yz
=
¯
I
∗
yz
−y
∗
c
z
∗
c
A
∗
= −0.0501076 h
4
I
∗
zz
=
¯
I
∗
zz
−(y
∗
c
)
2
A
∗
= 1.74761 h
4
End Example
4.4. REFERENCES 182
4.4 References
Allen, D. H., Introduction to Aerospace Structural Analysis , 1985, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
NY.
Curtis, H. D., Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis, 1997, McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
Johnson, E. R., ThinWalled Structures, 2006, Textbook at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University, Blacksburg, VA.
Keane, Andy and Nair, Prasanth, Computational Approaches for Aerospace Design: The Pursuit of
Excellence, August 2005, John Wiley and Sons.
Shames, I. H., and Dym, C. L., Energy and Finite Element Methods in Structural Mechanics, 1985,
Taylor & Francis.
Sun, C. T., Mechanics of Aircraft Structures, Second Edition 2006, John Wiley and Sons
4.5. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 183
4.5 Suggested Problems
Problem 4.1.
Consider a cantilever beam as shown in the attached ﬁgure. Take b = h = 100 mm and t
1
= t
2
= 5
mm.
A
B
C D
E
F
G
z
y
G
y
Web:
Section 1
Flange:
Section 2
A
B
C D
E
F
G
t
2
t
1
h
1
h
b
x
G
z
Assume that the reference coordinate system at E.
a) Determine the centroid
b) Calculate the second moments of area
c) Using thinwall assumption, determine the sectional properties while keeping the crosssection area
of the beam constant, i.e., keep αβ = 1. [20pts]
Part B. Use thinwall assumption. For θ = 45
◦
, b = 100 mm, and t
2
= 5 mm, we want
to study the eﬀect of changing the ratio α between 0.70 and 1.30 while keeping the
crosssection area of the beam constant, i.e., keep αβ = 1.
α =
h
b
⇒ h = b α
β =
t
1
t
2
αβ = α
t
1
t
2
= 1 ⇒ t
1
=
t
2
α
In thinwall assumption it is reasonable to ignore higher order thickness terms. Basically, sub
stitute the h and t
1
for the above expressions and expand. Also, note that for thinwalled beam:
• Point A and point F are located at A’= F
• Point E and point B are located at B’= E
• Point C and point D are located at C’= D
⇒
A
B
C D
E
F
A’
B’
C’
b
h
t
1
t
2
Fig. 3 Thinwalled assumption
The ﬁrst step is to calculate the centroid. Note that the centroid will be a function of α. Let’s
place the the origin at point E and calculate x
G
and y
G
. See Mathematica ﬁle.
x
i
y
i
A
i
Section mm mm mm
2
1 0 −h/2 (h)(t
1
)
2 b/2 0 (b)(t
2
)
A
i
= 2 b t
2
= 1000 mm
2
x
i
A
i
=
b
2
t
2
2
y
i
A
i
= −
b
2
αt
2
2
4 of 7
Homework # 7
α =
h
b
⇒ h = b α
4.5. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 184
β =
t
1
t
2
αβ = α
t
1
t
2
= 1 ⇒ t
1
=
t
2
α
Problem 4.2.
Determine all geometric and modulusweighted sectional properties for the following Ibeam cross
section:
Take:
Section Modulus (E
i
)
(i) (Msi)
1 80
2 10
3 25
Assume that the reference coordinate system as shown in Figure.
4.5. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 185
Problem 4.3.
Determine all geometric and modulusweighted sectional properties for the following crosssection:
1 2
3
4
y
C
z
a
2a
2a
2t
2t
t
Take:
Section Modulus (E
i
)
(i) (Msi)
12 80
23 10
34 25
Assume that the reference coordinate system is located at 2.
4.5. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 186
Problem 4.4.
Determine all geometric and modulusweighted sectional properties for the following crosssection:
1
2
3
4
y
C
z
a
2a
2a
2t
2t
t
t
t
Take:
Section Modulus (E
i
)
(i) (Msi)
12 80
23 10
34 25
Assume that the reference coordinate system is located at 2.
4.5. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 187
Problem 4.5.
Determine all geometric and modulusweighted sectional properties for the following crosssection:
a
1
2
3
y
C
z
2t
t
2t
t
4
t
Only
Tapered segment
Take:
Section Modulus (E
i
)
(i) (Msi)
12 20
23 10
34 30
45 40
Assume that the reference coordinate system is located at the center of the circle.
4.5. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 188
Problem 4.6.
Determine all geometric and modulusweighted properties for the following crosssection:
1
2
4
y
z
2t
t
2t
3
Only
Tapered segment
t
a
a
Take:
Section Modulus (E
i
)
(i) (Msi)
12 20
31 10
34 30
Assume that the reference coordinate system is located at 4.
4.5. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 189
Problem 4.7.
Consider the following idealization for an opensection. The ﬂanges of the stringers carry only axial
normal stress and their area is idealized with the ﬂange area of A
f
. The following crosssection has six
ﬂanges, each one of the same area:
A
f
=
π
2
600
R
2
Take the local coordinates as follows:
1 →2 2 →3 3 →4 4 →5 5 →6
y′
E
1
t
1
E
2
t
2
z′
R
R
E
3
t
3
E
4
t
4 E
5
t
5
2
R/2
R/2
θ
3
1
6
4
5
The mechanical and geometrical properties are given as follows:
E
1
= 10 10
6
psi E
2
= 20 10
6
psi E
3
= 5 10
6
psi E
4
= 20 10
6
psi E
5
= 10 10
6
psi
R = 1
The circular sections are linearly tapered as follows:
At 2: t = 0.02 π R
At 3: t = 0.01 π R
At 4: t = 0.04 π R
At 5: t = 0.02 π R
At the vertical skins:
t
1
= 0.02 π R t
6
= 0.02 π R
Solve the problem by hand and write a MATLAB
code to solve this problem. You may used any numer
ical integrating function such as QUAD. Verify your hand solutions with those obtained in MATLAB
.
4.5. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 190
Carefully document your MATLAB
code. Explain any variable, function, and script ﬁle you will be
using.
(1a) What reference modulus would you choose? Explain.
(1b) Determine the parametric equations. (Include equations for thickness.)
(1c) Determine the geometric and modulusweighted area.
(1d) Determine the geometric and modulusweighted ﬁrst moments of area.
(1e) Determine the geometric and modulusweighted centroid.
(1f) Determine the geometric and modulusweighted second moments of area about the their respective
crosssectional centroid.
4.5. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 191
Problem 4.8.
Consider the following idealization for a closedsection wingbox. The ﬂanges of the stringers carry only
axial normal stress and their area is idealized with the ﬂange area of A
f
. The following crosssection has
ﬁve ﬂanges, each one of the same area:
A
f
=
π
2
600
R
2
Take the local coordinates as follows:
1 →2 2 →3 3 →4 4 →5 5 →1
y′
z′
R
R
E
2
t
2
E
3
t
3
E
4
t
4
E
1
t
1
E
5
t
5
R/2
θ
1
2
R/2
3
4
5
3R
The mechanical and geometrical properties are given as follows:
E
1
= 10 10
6
psi E
2
= 20 10
6
psi E
3
= 5 10
6
psi E
4
= 20 10
6
psi E
5
= 10 10
6
psi
R = 1
The circular sections are linearly tapered as follows:
At 2: t = 0.02 π R
At 3: t = 0.01 π R
At 4: t = 0.04 π R
At 5: t = 0.02 π R
At the vertical skins:
t
1
= 0.02 π R t
5
= 0.02 π R
4.5. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 192
The following empirical data is known for section 1 →2:
y = 0 z = 3 R
y = 0.5 R z = 2 R
y = R z = 0
The following empirical data is known for section 5 →1:
y = 0 z = 3 R
y = −0.5 R z = R
y = −R z = 0
Solve the problem by hand and write a MATLAB
code to solve this problem. You may used
any numerical integrating function such as QUAD. Verify your hand solutions with those obtained in
MATLAB
. Carefully document your MATLAB
code. Explain any variable, function, and script ﬁle
you will be using. (Hint: you will need to use an interpolation function algorithm).
(2a) What reference modulus would you choose? Explain.
(2b) Determine the parametric equations. (Include equations for thickness. Note that two section will
not have linear parametric equations.) Show that the parametric equations for section one and
ﬁve are:
y
1
(s
1
) = (0.518928 −0.0643916 s
1
) s
1
(counterclockwise)
z
1
(s
1
) = −0.0227123 (−3.18885 +s
1
) (41.4216 +s
1
) (counterclockwise)
y
5
(s
5
) = −0.0643916 (−4.8701 +s
5
) (−3.18885 +s
5
) (counterclockwise)
z
5
(s
5
) = (0.868353 + 0.0227123 s
5
) s
5
(counterclockwise)
(2c) Determine the geometric and modulusweighted area.
(2d) Determine the geometric and modulusweighted ﬁrst moments of area.
(2e) Determine the geometric and modulusweighted centroid.
(2f) Determine the geometric and modulusweighted second moments of area about the their respective
crosssectional centroid.
Chapter 5
Applied Linear Elasticity
Instructional Objectives of Chapter 5
After completing this chapter, the reader should be able to:
1. Explain and apply the concepts of stress and strain.
2. Determine the principal stresses and strains, and their principal planes.
3. Identify the various stress and strain measures.
4. Understand linear elasticity as applied to aerospace structures.
The stress and strain states at critical locations in a structural component are extremely important
to evaluate the safety of structural components. Most of the concepts covered in this chapter are no
longer solved by hand but with the use of computer software. However, a theoretical understanding how
the state of stress is expressed at a point and state of strain at the neighborhood of the same point may
be crucial and important. Thus, we will begin our discussion with the theory of stresses, followed by the
theory of strains. In the next chapter, we will discuss how both stresses and strains are related.
193
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 194
5.1 Theory of Stresses
The concept of stress began with the study of strength and failure of solids. The state of stress in a solid
body can be deﬁned as a measure of force intensity, at a point, acting within the solid. It has units of:
[Force]
[Length]
2
We should handle stress at a point carefully because it is directionally dependent. By directionally
dependent we do not meant stress depends on the direction of the but that it depends on the coordinate
system.
Cutting
plane
Distributed
load
Displacement
constraint
z
y
x
F
3
F
2
F
1
M
3
M
2
M
1
Figure 5.1: Solid body in equilibrium.
5.1.1 State of Stress at a Point
In order to better understand the concept of stress, let us consider a solid body in equilibrium, loaded
and constrained in an arbitrary fashion, as shown in Fig. 5.1. Let an arbitrary plane cut the solid body
as shown in Fig. 5.2. We deﬁne the small element of area of a cutting plane through point P in the solid
be deﬁned as δA. The inﬁnitesimal plane has a unit normal ˆ n and encloses the point of interest.
Let us denote δF
(n)
as the force exerted by the rest of the body on δA of a cutting plane through point
P. Likewise, the couple exerted at point P will be denoted as δM
(n)
. Both δF
(n)
δM
(n)
are resultants
loads and are, in general, diﬀerent in magnitude and orientation from the corresponding resultants acting
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 195
Distributed
load
F
3
F
2
δF
(n)
M
2
M
1
n
P
δA
δM
(n)
T
(n)
z
x
y
Figure 5.2: Solid body in equilibrium sliced with an arbitrary plane.
on the entire surface of the cut. Now, the average stress vector on this area can be obtained by
T
(n)
ave
=
δF
(n)
δA
(n)
(5.1)
As we continuously reduce the small surface area, δA
(n)
, the area becomes an element of inﬁnitesimal
area δA
(n)
→0 and we approach the point P. As the small surface becomes a point, the force and couple
acting on the element keep decreasing in magnitude and changing in orientation whereas the normal to
the surface remains the unit vector, ˆ n of constant direction in space. This limiting process gives place
to the concept of stress vector, which is deﬁned as
lim
δA
(n)
→0
δF
(n)
δA
(n)
= T
(n)
(5.2)
where T
(n)
is called the stress vector and in the cartesian coordinate is deﬁned as
T
(n)
= T
x
ˆ
i +T
y
ˆ
j +T
z
ˆ
k =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.3)
The existence of the stress vector is a fundamental assumption of continuum mechanics. In this limiting
process, we assume that the couple becomes smaller and smaller:
lim
δA
(n)
→0
δM
(n)
δA
(n)
= 0 (5.4)
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 196
The above is also a logical assumption of continuum mechanics because in the limiting process, both
forces and moment arms become increasingly small. Forces decrease because the area on which they
act decreases, and thus moment arms decrease because the dimensions of the surface decrease. At the
limit, the couple is the product of a diﬀerential element of force by a diﬀerential element of moment arm,
giving rise to a negligible, second order quantity.
We use the notation T
(n)
to emphasize the fact that the stress vector at a given point P in the
continuum depends explicitly upon the particular surface, which is represented by the unit normal ˆ n.
Thus, the superscript
(n)
refers the normal of the surface where the stress vector is acting. We can obtain
the normal, tangential and resultant components of the stress vector using vector algebra
1
. Hence we
obtain the normal stress component as follows
σ
nn
= T
(n)
ˆ n (5.5)
The stress vector in the normal stress component can be found by:
S
nn
= σ
nn
ˆ n (5.6)
The tangential component as follows
σ
tt
=
_
_
_
T
(n)
_
_
2
−σ
2
nn
(5.7)
where
_
_
T
(n)
_
_
=
_
T
(n)
T
(n)
(5.8)
An alternative to the above approach can be to ﬁnd the stress vector in the tangential directional and
then taking the magnitude of the vector:
S
tt
= T
(n)
−S
nn
→ σ
tt
= S
tt
 , S
tt
 =
_
S
tt
S
tt
For an inﬁnite number of cutting planes through point P, each identiﬁed by a speciﬁc ˆ n, there will be
an inﬁnite associated stress vectors T
(n)
for a given loading of the body. This total pair of the companion
vectors T
(n)
and ˆ n at P deﬁne the state of stress at that point.
Now that we have deﬁned the concept of stress, let us proceed to obtain the state of stress for
the cartesian coordinate system: xyz. Let the stress vector act on three mutually orthogonal planes
described by the unit base vectors
ˆ
i,
ˆ
j, and
ˆ
k. Consider the xplane (plane normal to the xaxis), with
a diﬀerential area δA with the unit normal
ˆ
i. Let δF
(x)
be the force acting by the rest of the body on
1
For a review in vector algebra see Appendix A.
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 197
the enclosing xplane. Then the stress vector T
(x)
is
T
(x)
= lim
δA→0
δF
(x)
δA
= lim
δA→0
_
δF
(x)
x
ˆ
i +δF
(x)
y
ˆ
j +δF
(x)
z
ˆ
k
δA
_
= lim
δA→0
_
δF
(x)
x
δA
ˆ
i +
δF
(x)
y
δA
ˆ
j +
δF
(x)
z
δA
ˆ
k
_
= lim
δA→0
_
δF
(x)
x
δA
_
ˆ
i + lim
δA→0
_
δF
(x)
y
δA
_
ˆ
j + lim
δA→0
_
δF
(x)
z
δA
_
ˆ
k
= σ
xx
ˆ
i +σ
xy
ˆ
j +σ
xz
ˆ
k
(5.9)
The component σ
xx
is called the normal stress component in the xdirection. The other two components
σ
xy
and σ
xz
act tangential to the plane and are called shear components. Using a similar process, we can
obtain the stress in the y and z directions. Thus, the components of the stresses acting the x, y, and z
direction are
T
(x)
= = σ
xx
ˆ
i +σ
xy
ˆ
j +σ
xz
ˆ
k
T
(y)
= = σ
yx
ˆ
i +σ
yy
ˆ
j +σ
yz
ˆ
k
T
(z)
= = σ
zx
ˆ
i +σ
zy
ˆ
j +σ
zz
ˆ
k
(5.10)
All three stress vectors describe the state of stress at a given point.
Now, we express the unit vector acting on P, for any arbitrary orthogonal planes, as follows:
ˆ n = n
x
ˆ
i +n
y
ˆ
j +n
z
ˆ
k
Thus, if we want the stresses acting in the xdirection:
T
x
= T
(x)
ˆ n = σ
xx
n
x
+σ
xy
n
y
+σ
xz
n
z
Similarly, we can obtain the stresses acting in the y and z directions:
T
y
= T
(y)
ˆ n = σ
yx
n
x
+σ
yy
n
y
+σ
yz
n
z
T
z
= T
(z)
ˆ n = σ
zx
n
x
+σ
zy
n
y
+σ
zz
n
z
This shows that we need a total of nine stress components to completely describe the state of stress at
a given point. Furthermore, the shear stresses will be expressed using τ instead of σ and σ will be used
for normal stress only.
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 198
Cauchy’s Stress Tensor
We can express the equations of stress quantities in each mutually orthogonal planes in a matrix form
as follows _
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T = σ ˆ n
(5.11)
where σ is called the stress tensor and ˆ n is the unit normal to the plane. The stress tensor contains the
nine stress components and we deﬁned it as follows
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.12)
As we can see, all normal and shear stress components fully characterize the state of stress at a
point. We will later show that if the stress components acting on three orthogonal faces are known, it
is possible to compute the stress components acting at the same point, on any face with an arbitrary
orientation. Hence, the fact that the state of stress at a point is a complex concept: its complete
deﬁnition requires the knowledge of nine stress components acting on three mutually orthogonal faces.
This is quite diﬀerent form the concept of a force: (i) a force is vector quantity that is characterized by
its magnitude and orientation, (ii) a force can be deﬁned by the three components of the force vector in a
given coordinate system. Thus, the deﬁnition of a force requires three quantities, whereas the deﬁnition
of the stress state requires nine quantities. In this context, a force is a vector, i.e. a ﬁrst order tensor,
whereas a state of stress is a second order tensor.
5.1.2 Stress Convention and Signs
We usually classify stresses into normal stresses and shear stresses: Normal stress, σ, are stress perpen
dicular (normal) to the plane on which they act; and shear stresses, τ, are stresses parallel to the plane
on which they act.
Fig. 5.3 shows the complete deﬁnition of the state of stress at a point. Note that the positive direction
of each stress component are given and the gray dashed arrows and numbers are on hidden faces. The
stresses have two subscripts and these are interpreted as follows:
τ
[plane where stress acts][direction of the stress]
The ﬁrst of which indicates the direction of the plane on which it acts and the second of which indicates
the direction of the stress in the plane. For an example, τ
zx
is the shear stress acting on the zplane
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 199
x
y
z
σ
zz
σ
yy
τ
zy
τ
zx
τ
yz
τ
yx
τ
xz
τ
xy
σ
yy
σ
xx
τ
yz
τ
yx
σ
zz
τ
zx
τ
zy
τ
xz
σ
xx
τ
xy
Figure 5.3: Complete deﬁnition of the state of stress at a point.
in the direction of x. In short, the convention we use is such that a stress component, acting on the
xplane, is positive if acting toward the positive xaxis.
If any stress component is positive the direction of the outer normal will be given as shown in Fig. 5.3.
Based on our convention, if a normal stress is positive in its value then it will be in tension; if it is negative
then it will be in compression. Positive (+) shear stresses act in the direction of an axis whose sign is
the same as the sign of the axis in the direction of the outward drawn normal to the plane on which the
shear stresses act.
5.1.3 Equilibrium
Volume Equilibrium
In general, the state of stress varies throughout the solid body, and hence, it is clear that the stresses
acting on two parallel faces located a small distance apart are not equal. To better understand this,
let us consider a small diﬀerential element with only shear stresses acting about the zaxis, as shown in
Fig. 5.4.
In Fig. 5.4, the two faces of a diﬀerential volume element that are normal to yaxis. The normal stress
component on the negative face at coordinate y is σ
yy
, but the stress components on the positive face
at coordinate y +dy will be slightly diﬀerent and we can write it as σ
yy
(y +dy). If σ
yy
(y) is an analytic
function, it is then possible to express σ
yy
(y +dy) in terms of σ
yy
(y) using a Taylor series expansion to
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 200
y
z
x
τ
xy
+ dτ
xy
τ
yx
τ
xy
dx/2
dz
dy
dx/2
dy/2
dy/2
S
τ
yx
+ dτ
yx
S
y
x
τ
xy
+ dτ
xy
τ
yx
+ dτ
yx
τ
yx
τ
xy
TOP VIEW
dy/2 dy/2
dx/2
dx/2
dx
σ
yy
+ dσ
yy
σ
xx
+ dσ
xx
σ
xx
σ
yy
σ
yy
+ dσ
yy
σ
yy
σ
xx
+ dσ
xx
σ
xx
Figure 5.4: Shear stresses on the faces of an element at a point in an elastic body about the zaxis.
obtain
σ
yy
(y +dy) = σ
yy
¸
¸
¸
y+dy
= σ
yy
+ dσ
yy
= σ
yy
(y) +
∂σ
yy
∂y
¸
¸
¸
y
dy + + higher order terms
This expansion is a essential in the deriving the diﬀerential equations governing the behavior of a
continuum such as a solid body. Since all diﬀerentials are inﬁnitesimally small, we neglect all higher
order terms. Hence, we can write the stress components on the positive face at coordinate y +dy as
σ
yy
(y +dy) = σ
yy
(y) +
∂σ
yy
∂y
¸
¸
¸
y
dy
The same series expansion technique can be applied to all other directions and shear stress components.
Force Equilibrium
Let us assume that in addition to the internal loads, the solid is subject to body forces per unit volume,
represented by a vector b acting about its centroid. These body forces can be gravity forces, inertial
forces, or forces of an electric or magnetic origin; the components of this body force vector resolved in
the cartesian coordinate system as
b =
_
_
_
b
x
b
y
b
z
_
_
_
The units of the force vector are force per unit volume.
Now, let us consider the diﬀerential element of volume subjected to stress components acting on its
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 201
six external faces and to body forces per unit volume. According to Newton’s law, static equilibrium
requires the sum of all the forces acting on this diﬀerential element to vanish. Considering all the forces
acting along the direction of xaxis, the equilibrium condition is
−σ
xx
dy dz +
_
σ
xx
+
∂σ
xx
∂x
dx
_
dy dz −τ
yx
dx dz +
_
τ
yx
+
∂τ
yx
∂y
dy
_
dx dz+
−τ
zx
dx dy +
_
τ
zx
+
∂τ
zx
∂z
dz
_
dx dy +b
x
dx dy dz = 0
The above equation represents an equilibrium of forces. Hence, the stress components must be multiplied
by the surface area on which they act to yield the corresponding force; and the components of the body
force per unit volume must be multiplied by the volume of the diﬀerential element, dxdy dz. Now
simplifying the equilibrium condition, we get
_
∂σ
xx
∂x
dx
_
dy dz +
_
∂τ
yx
∂y
dy
_
dx dz +
_
∂τ
zx
∂z
dz
_
dx dy +b
x
dx dy dz = 0
_
∂σ
xx
∂x
+
∂τ
yx
∂y
+
∂τ
zx
∂z
+b
x
_
dx dy dz = 0
Taking the limit as dx, dy, and dz approach zero (the diﬀerential volume approaches to a point)
∂σ
xx
∂x
+
∂τ
yx
∂y
+
∂τ
zx
∂z
+b
x
= 0
Similarly reasoning along the y and z axis, we obtain the three equilibrium equations which must be
satisﬁed at all point inside the body:
∂σ
xx
∂x
+
∂τ
yx
∂y
+
∂τ
zx
∂z
+b
x
= 0
∂τ
xy
∂x
+
∂σ
yy
∂y
+
∂τ
zy
∂z
+b
y
= 0
∂τ
xz
∂x
+
∂τ
yz
∂y
+
∂σ
zz
∂z
+b
z
= 0
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 202
Example 5.1.
Determine under what conditions the following state of stress within an elastic solid is stat
ically admissible. Note that A, B, C are constants.
σ
xx
= 2 Ax
2
σ
yy
= 2 C
_
4 x
2
+y
2
_
τ
xy
= −4 Bxy
τ
yx
= τ
xy
τ
xz
= τ
yz
= τ
zx
= τ
zy
= σ
zz
= 0
Ignore all body forces.
Any state of stress satisfying the equilibrium equations is statically admissible. Assuming
that body forces are negligible, the equilibrium equations can be written as follows
∂σ
xx
∂x
+
∂τ
yx
∂y
+
∂τ
zx
∂z
= 0
∂τ
xy
∂x
+
∂σ
yy
∂y
+
∂τ
zy
∂z
= 0
∂τ
xz
∂x
+
∂τ
yz
∂y
+
∂σ
zz
∂z
= 0
∂σ
xx
∂x
+
∂τ
yx
∂y
+
∂τ
zx
∂z
=
∂(2 Ax
2
)
∂x
+
∂(−4 Bxy)
∂y
+
∂(0)
∂z
= 4 Ax −4 Bx + 0
= A−B = 0
The ﬁrst equilibrium equation is satisﬁed only if A = B.
∂τ
xy
∂x
+
∂σ
yy
∂y
+
∂τ
zy
∂z
=
∂(−4 Bxy)
∂x
+
∂(8 C x
2
+ 2 C y
2
)
∂y
+
∂(0)
∂z
= −4 By +C y + 0
= −B +C = 0
The ﬁrst equilibrium equation is satisﬁed only if B = C.
∂τ
xz
∂x
+
∂τ
yz
∂y
+
∂σ
zz
∂z
=
∂(0)
∂x
+
∂(0)
∂y
+
∂(0)
∂z
= 0 + 0 + 0
= 0 satisﬁes third equilibrium equation
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 203
Also, note that
τ
xy
= τ
yx
for moment equilibrium. Hence, if A = B = C, then the state of stress satisﬁes all three
equilibrium equations and also τ
xy
= τ
yx
(for moment equilibrium). Under these conditions,
the given stress state is a statically admissible one.
End Example
Moment Equilibrium
In addition, the requirement of equilibrium of moments implies that the shear stresses on orthogonal
planes at a point are equal in magnitude. To better understand this concept, consider a small diﬀerential
element with only shear forces acting about the zaxis, as shown in Fig. 5.5.
y
z
x
F
xy
+ dF
xy
F
yx
F
xy
dx/2
dz
dy
dx/2
dy/2
dy/2
S
F
yx
+ dF
yx
S
y
x
F
xy
+ dF
xy
F
yx
+ dF
yx
F
yx
F
xy
TOP VIEW
dy/2 dy/2
dx/2
dx/2
dx
Figure 5.5: Shear forces on the faces of an element at a point in an elastic body about the zaxis.
Note that when taking moment about the zaxis at a point S in the middle of the diﬀerential element,
all normal forces vanish. The small variation in the loads can be obtained as a result of a Taylor’s series
expansion,
F
xy
¸
¸
¸
x+dx
= F
xy
+ dF
xy
= F
xy
+
∂F
xy
∂x
dx
F
yx
¸
¸
¸
y+dy
= F
yx
+ dF
yx
= F
yx
+
∂F
yx
∂y
dy
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 204
Now, the moment about the zaxis at a point S in the middle of the diﬀerential element gives:
_
F
xy
_
dx
2
+
_
F
xy
+ dF
xy
_
dx
2
−
_
F
yx
_
dy
2
−
_
F
yx
+ dF
xy
_
dy
2
= 0
_
τ
xy
dz dy
_
dx
2
+
_
τ
xy
dz dy +
∂τ
xy
∂x
dx dz dy
_
dx
2
−
_
τ
yx
dz dx
_
dy
2
−
_
τ
yx
dz dx +
∂τ
yx
∂y
dy dz dx
_
dy
2
= 0
Regrouping and simplifying,
_
τ
xy
+
∂τ
xy
∂x
dx
_
dx dy dz −
_
τ
yx
+
∂τ
yx
∂y
dy
_
dx dy dz = 0
_
τ
xy
+
∂τ
xy
∂x
dx −τ
yx
−
∂τ
yx
∂y
dy
_
dx dy dz = 0
For all diﬀerential volume (dVol = dx dy dz) diﬀerent from zero,
τ
xy
+
∂τ
xy
∂x
dx −τ
yx
−
∂τ
yx
∂y
dy = 0
Taking the limit as dx, dy, and dz approach zero (the diﬀerential volume approaches to a point)
τ
xy
−τ
yx
= 0 → τ
xy
= τ
yx
(5.13)
Similarly, moment equilibrium about the y and xaxis leads to
τ
zx
= τ
xz
τ
zy
= τ
yz
(5.14)
Hence, this lead to a symmetric stress tensor, known as the stress tensor,
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
xy
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
xz
τ
yz
σ
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.15)
The implication of these equalities is summarized by the principal of reciprocity of shearing stresses:
The shearing stresses acting in the direction normal to the common edge of two orthogonal
faces must be equal in magnitude and be simultaneously oriented toward or away from the
common edge.
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 205
5.1.4 Surface Equilibrium: Cauchy’s Stress Relation
We use the Cauchy’s stress relation to relate the surface tractions at a point on the surface of the body
to the inner stresses, or to determine the stress boundary conditions which must be satisﬁed at those
points on the boundary where the tractions or surface forces are speciﬁed. Cauchy’s relationship can be
expressed as,
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
xy
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
xz
τ
yz
σ
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
(s)
= σ ˆ n
(s)
(5.16)
where ˆ n
(s)
is the unit normal to the plane s, σ the stress tensor at the point in the plane s, and T
(s)
the
total stress acting on ˆ n
(s)
. It should be clear that T
(s)
does not necessarily act in the direction of ˆ n
(s)
.
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 206
Example 5.2.
The state of stress at a point in a structural component is given as
_
_
40 40 0
40 50 −60
0 −60 40
_
_
MPa
(a) Show this state of stress on a diﬀerential element.
σ =
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
_
=
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
xy
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
xz
τ
yz
σ
zz
_
_
=
_
_
40 40 0
40 50 −60
0 −60 40
_
_
MPa
Must work in the following convention:
z
x
y
σ σσ σyy
σ σσ σxx
τ ττ τyx
τ ττ τyz
τ ττ τxy
τ ττ τxz
τ ττ τzy
τ ττ τzx
σ σσ σxx
σ σσ σzz
τ ττ τxy
τ ττ τxz
σ σσ σyy
τ ττ τyz
τ ττ τyx
τ ττ τzy
σ σσ σzz
τ ττ τzx
(a)
z, MPa
x, MPa
y, MPa
50
40
40
40
60
40
60
40
60
40
40
50
60
40
(b)
Figure 5.6: This is an inﬁnitesimal element representing the state of stress for the given problem (NOTE:
Units are part of the answer)
(b) Determine the stress vectors acting on the mutually orthogonal face OAC, OCB, OBA.
Use both static equilibrium of stresses and Cauchys relation (Cauchys formula).
METHOD ONE: Using static equilibrium
The inﬁnitesimal element in Fig. 5.6 is in equilibrium. Therefore, the sum of all forces
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 207
z
x
y
C
B
O
A
2∆ ∆∆ ∆
∆ ∆∆ ∆
3∆ ∆∆ ∆
40
40
60
40
50
60
40
should be zero:
A
(j)
T
(j)
+A
(−j)
T
(−j)
= 0 → A
(j)
T
(−j)
= −A
(−j)
T
(j)
where j represents the direction
Since the area A
(−j)
= A
(j)
,
T
(−j)
= −T
(j)
where j represents the direction
Stress vector on face OAC
T
(z)
= −T
(z)
= −σ ˆ n
(z)
= −
_
_
40 40 0
40 50 −60
0 −60 40
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0
0
1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
(OAC)
= −τ
xz
ˆ
i −τ
yz
ˆ
j −σ
zz
ˆ
k
= −(0)
ˆ
i −(−60)
ˆ
j −(40)
ˆ
k
= 60
ˆ
j −40
ˆ
k MPa
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 208
Stress vector on face OBA
T
(x)
= −T
(x)
= −σ ˆ n
(x)
= −
_
_
40 40 0
40 50 −60
0 −60 40
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
(OBA)
= −σ
xx
ˆ
i −τ
yx
ˆ
j −τ
zx
ˆ
k
= −(40)
ˆ
i −(40)
ˆ
j −(0)
ˆ
k
= −40
ˆ
i −40
ˆ
j MPa
Stress vector on face OCB
T
(y)
= −T
(y)
= −σ ˆ n
(y)
= −
_
_
40 40 0
40 50 −60
0 −60 40
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0
1
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
(OCB)
= −τ
xy
ˆ
i −σ
yy
ˆ
j −τ
zy
ˆ
k
= −(40)
ˆ
i −(50)
ˆ
j −(−60)
ˆ
k
= −40
ˆ
i −50
ˆ
j + 60
ˆ
k MPa
METHOD TWO: Using Cauchys Relation
Find unit vectors on faces on which traction forces are desired
ˆ n
(OAC)
= −
ˆ
k =
_
_
_
0
0
−1
_
_
_
ˆ n
(OCB)
= −
ˆ
j =
_
_
_
0
−1
0
_
_
_
ˆ n
(OBA)
= −
ˆ
i =
_
_
_
−1
0
0
_
_
_
Now the stress vectors are found using Cauchys formula
T
(j)
= σ ˆ n
j
Stress vector on face OAC
T
(OAC)
=
_
_
40 40 0
40 50 −60
0 −60 40
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
−1
_
_
_
MPa =
_
_
_
0
60
−40
_
_
_
MPa
= 60
ˆ
j −40
ˆ
k MPa
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 209
Stress vector on face OBA
T
(OBA)
=
_
_
40 40 0
40 50 −60
0 −60 40
_
_
_
_
_
−1
0
0
_
_
_
MPa =
_
_
_
−40
−40
0
_
_
_
MPa
= −40
ˆ
i −40
ˆ
j MPa
Stress vector on face OCB
T
(OCB)
=
_
_
40 40 0
40 50 −60
0 −60 40
_
_
_
_
_
0
−1
0
_
_
_
MPa =
_
_
_
−40
−50
60
_
_
_
MPa
= −40
ˆ
i −50
ˆ
j + 60
ˆ
k MPa
(c) Determine the total force vectors acting on the mutually orthogonal face OAC, OCB,
OBA. Note that OA = ∆ meter, OB = 3∆ meter, OC = 2∆ meter.
Since force is equal to stress multiplied by area, we proceed to calculate the area of faces
OAC, OCB, OBA
A =
1
2
(base height)
A
OAC
=
1
2
(∆) (2 ∆) = ∆
2
meters
2
A
OCB
=
1
2
(2 ∆) (3 ∆) = 3 ∆
2
meters
2
A
OBA
=
1
2
(3 ∆) (∆) =
3
2
∆
2
meters
2
Total force acting on face OAC: (Note that distance ∆ is given in meters)
F
(OAC)
= T
(OAC)
A
OAC
= (60
ˆ
j −40
ˆ
k) (∆
2
) MPam
2
= 60 ∆
2
ˆ
j −40 ∆
2
ˆ
k MPam
2
= 60 ∆
2
ˆ
j −40 ∆
2
ˆ
k MN
Total force acting on face OBA: (Note that distance ∆ is given in meters)
F
(OBA)
= T
(OBA)
A
OBA
= (−40
ˆ
i −40
ˆ
j)
_
3
2
∆
2
_
MPam
2
= −60 ∆
2
ˆ
i −60 ∆
2
ˆ
j MPam
2
= −60 ∆
2
ˆ
i −60 ∆
2
ˆ
j MN
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 210
Total force acting on face OCB: (Note that distance ∆ is given in meters)
F
(OCB)
= T
(OCB)
A
OCB
= (−40
ˆ
i −50
ˆ
j + 60
ˆ
k)(3 ∆
2
) MPam
2
= −120 ∆
2
ˆ
i −150 ∆
2
ˆ
j + 180 ∆
2
ˆ
k MPam
2
= −120 ∆
2
ˆ
i −150 ∆
2
ˆ
j + 180 ∆
2
ˆ
k MN
(d) Determine the stress vector acting on the face ABC. Use both static equilibrium and
Cauchys relation.
METHOD ONE: STATIC EQUILIBRIUM
The stress vector is obtain by dividing the total force acting on face ABC by area of
z
x
y
C
B
A
2∆ ∆∆ ∆
∆ ∆∆ ∆
3∆ ∆∆ ∆
T
O
face ABC
T
(ABC)
=
F
( ABC)
A
ABC
Thus the stress vector acting in the ABC plane can be found by ﬁrst obtaining the force
in the ABC then diving the force by the area enclosed by ABC. Note that element
OABC is in static equilibrium, therefore
F = 0 → F
(ABC)
+F
( OAC)
+F
( OCB)
+F
( OBA)
= 0
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 211
Thus, the total force acting on face ABC is
F
(ABC)
= −F
( OAC)
−F
( OCB)
−F
(OBA)
F
(ABC)
= −
_
60 ∆
2
ˆ
j −40 ∆
2
ˆ
k
_
−
_
−120 ∆
2
ˆ
i −150 ∆
2
ˆ
j + 180 ∆
2
ˆ
k
_
−
_
−60 ∆
2
ˆ
i −60 ∆
2
ˆ
j
_
F
(ABC)
= 180 ∆
2
ˆ
i + 150 ∆
2
ˆ
j −140 ∆
2
ˆ
k MN
Since stresses are obtained dividing forces by the area, we proceed to ﬁnd the magnitude
of area A
ABC
. The area of ABC is calculate using analytical geometry as follows Area
z
x
y
C
B
A
2∆ ∆∆ ∆
∆ ∆∆ ∆
3∆ ∆∆ ∆
T
of triangle ABC can be found by using the following equation
A
ABC
=
1
2
r
(BC)
r
(BA)
where
r
(BC)
= C−B =
_
_
_
2 ∆
0
0
_
_
_
−
_
_
_
0
0
3 ∆
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
2 ∆
0
−3 ∆
_
_
_
meters
= 2 ∆
ˆ
i −3 ∆
ˆ
k meters
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 212
r
(BA)
= A−B =
_
_
_
0
∆
0
_
_
_
−
_
_
_
0
0
3 ∆
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
∆
−3 ∆
_
_
_
meters
= ∆
ˆ
j −3 ∆
ˆ
k meters
Thus the area is then
A
ABC
=
1
2
r
(BC)
r
(BA)
=
1
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ˆ
i
ˆ
j
ˆ
k
2 ∆ 0 −3 ∆
0 ∆ −3 ∆
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
3
2
∆
2
ˆ
i + 3 ∆
2
ˆ
j + ∆
2
ˆ
k meters
2
(5.17)
We could have also used the following (check it!)
A
ABC
=
1
2
r
(CA)
r
(CB)
=
1
2
r
(AB)
r
(AC)
=
3
2
∆
2
ˆ
i + 3 ∆
2
ˆ
j + ∆
2
ˆ
k meters
2
Thus the magnitude value of A
ABC
is
A
ABC
 =
_
A
ABC
A
ABC
=
_
A
2
x
+A
2
y
+A
2
z
=
¸
(
3 ∆
2
2
)
2
+ (3 ∆
2
)
2
+ (∆
2
)
2
=
7
2
∆
2
meters
2
(5.18)
Now the stress vector is obtain by dividing the total force acting on face ABC by area
of face ABC
T
(ABC)
=
F
(ABC)
A
ABC

=
180 ∆
2
ˆ
i + 150 ∆
2
ˆ
j −140 ∆
2
ˆ
k
7
2
∆
2
=
360
7
ˆ
i +
300
7
ˆ
j −40
ˆ
k =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
360
7
300
7
−40
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
MPa
METHOD TWO: CAUCHY´S FORMULA
We can use Cauchy’s relationship to obtain the stress vector,
T
ABC
= σ ˆ n
ABC
where T
ABC
is the stress vector acting on the face ABC and the stress tensor σ is
known. Thus in order to calculate the stress vector acting on the face ABC, we need to
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 213
calculate the unit vector. The unit vector can be obtained using
ˆ n
ABC
=
A
ABC
A
ABC

The unit normal to face ABC is found using Eqs. (5.17) and (5.18)
ˆ n
ABC
=
A
ABC
A
ABC

=
3
2
∆
2
ˆ
i + 3 ∆
2
ˆ
j + ∆
2
ˆ
k
7
2
∆
2
=
3
7
ˆ
i +
6
7
ˆ
j +
2
7
ˆ
k
Stress vector is found as follows
T
(ABC)
= σ ˆ n
ABC
=
_
_
40 40 0
40 50 −60
0 −60 40
_
_
_
_
_
3/7
6/7
2/7
_
_
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
360/7
300/7
−280/7
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
MPa
=
360
7
ˆ
i +
300
7
ˆ
j −40
ˆ
k MPa
End Example
5.1.5 Principal Stresses and Principal Planes
The knowledge of principal stresses help us ﬁnd plane(s) on which the normal stress has the largest
possible value or plane(s) on which the largest possible shear stress value. A principal plane is a plane
such that the stress vector acting on that plane has no component which is tangent to the plane (i.e.,
there are no shear stresses acting on the plane):
T
(n)
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
1
0 0
0 σ
2
0
0 0 σ
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.19)
In order words, the stress vector has the same direction as the unit normal that describes the plane. The
magnitude of the normal stress is known as principal stress. Now we proceed to derive the solution
procedure.
So far we have used the Cauchy’s relationship to ﬁnd the stress vector acting on a face whose unit
normal and stress tensor is known. Now, let us assume that the principal stress vector is known and the
unit normal is not known. Let λ be the magnitude of the stress vector acting on the principal plane.
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 214
Using Cauchy’s formula we can deﬁne the principal stress vector as
T
(n)
= λ ˆ n = λ
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
= λ
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
λ 0 0
0 λ 0
0 0 λ
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.20)
Also, using Cauchy’s relationship, the principal stress vector can be expressed in terms of the nine stress
components as follows
T
(n)
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
(n)
x
T
(n)
y
T
(n)
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
xy
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
xz
τ
yz
σ
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.21)
Now using the knowledge of what the principal stress vector should be for a principal plane, Eq. (5.20),
Cauchy’s equation becomes
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
λ 0 0
0 λ 0
0 0 λ
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
xy
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
xz
τ
yz
σ
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.22)
Thus for a principal plane, we can write Cauchy’s equations in matrix form as follows
_
_
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
−λ
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
(5.23)
These equations have the trivial solution n
x
= n
y
= n
z
= 0. However, this solution is not allowed
because n
x
, n
y
, and n
z
are the components of a unit vector, satisfying
n
2
x
+n
2
y
+n
2
z
= 1 (5.24)
and at least one component must be nonzero (i.e., one). Hence, equations in (5.23) possess a nontrivial
solution if the three equations are not independent of each other. In other words, the determinant of
the matrix of coeﬃcients of n
x
, n
y
, and n
z
must vanish:
det
_
_
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
−λ
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
−λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0 (5.25)
The characteristic equation obtained by expanding the determinant can be expressed in terms of the
stress invariants as follows
λ
3
−I
σ1
λ
2
+I
σ2
λ −I
σ3
= 0 (5.26)
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 215
where I
σi
’s are the stress invariants. Using the deﬁnition of stress invariants:
I
σ1
= σ
xx
+σ
yy
+σ
zz
(5.27)
I
σ2
= det
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
yx
σ
yy
_
+ det
_
σ
xx
τ
xz
τ
zx
σ
zz
_
+ det
_
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
= σ
xx
σ
yy
+σ
zz
σ
xx
+σ
yy
σ
zz
−τ
2
xy
−τ
2
yz
−τ
2
zx
(5.28)
I
σ3
= det
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
_
= σ
xx
σ
yy
σ
zz
+ 2 τ
xy
τ
yz
τ
zx
−σ
xx
τ
2
yz
−σ
yy
τ
2
zx
−σ
zz
τ
2
xy
(5.29)
The three roots of the characteristic equation, Eq. (5.26), are the principal stresses and may be obtained
analytically
2
λ
1
=
I
σ1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
σ1
−3 I
σ2
cos
_
β
3
_
(5.30)
λ
2
=
I
σ1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
σ1
−3 I
σ2
cos
_
β
3
+
2 π
3
_
(5.31)
λ
3
=
I
σ1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
σ1
−3 I
σ2
cos
_
β
3
+
4 π
3
_
(5.32)
β = cos
−1
_
_
2I
3
σ1
−9I
σ1
I
σ2
+ 27I
σ3
2
_
_
I
2
σ1
−3I
σ2
_
3
_
_
(keep in radians) (5.33)
For each of these three solutions, the matrix of the system of equations deﬁned by Eq. (5.29) has a zero
determinant, and a non trivial solution exists for the directions on which the shear stresses vanish. Such
direction is called a principal stress plane or simply principal planes. Since we are solving homogeneous
equations, the solution will include an arbitrary constant which can be determined by enforcing the
condition,
n
2
x
+n
2
y
+n
2
z
= 1
associated with the fact that vector ˆ n must be a unit vector. We will have three principal stress directions
because we have three principal stresses. Furthermore, it can be shown that these three directions are
mutually orthogonal.
The fact that the stress tensor is symmetric, the three principal stress, roots of Eq. (5.26), will be
2
These can also be obtained using any computer program.
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 216
realvalued. The principal stresses are chosen as:
σ
1
= max[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
]
σ
3
= min[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
]
σ
2
= The remaining λ
(5.34)
Thus the principal stresses are given as follows
σ
1
> σ
2
> σ
3
It turns out that a state of stress not only has three extreme values of normal stress, but also three
extreme values of shear stress, which are related to the three principal stresses as follows:
τ
12
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
1
−σ
2
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
τ
13
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
1
−σ
3
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
τ
23
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
2
−σ
3
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
(5.35)
Observe that the absolute maximum shear stress at a point equals onehalf the diﬀerence between the
largest and the smallest principal stress, or:
σ
max
= max[σ
1
, σ
2
, σ
3
] (5.36)
σ
min
= min[σ
1
, σ
2
, σ
3
] (5.37)
τ
max
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
max
−σ
min
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
(5.38)
Finally, it must be pointed out that whereas the shear stress, by deﬁnition, vanishes on planes of principal
stress, the normal stress is generally not zero on planes where the shear stress acquires its extreme values.
We are not only interested in the principal stresses but also the planes upon which they act on, as
shown in Fig. 5.7. Hence, we now proceed to determine these plane.
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(1)
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(1)
, the principal direction of σ
1
, we substitute λ = σ
1
into Eq. (5.23) and use any two of the
three equations, but not all three. This will give two of the three components of ˆ n
(1)
(n
(1)
x
, n
(1)
y
, and
n
(1)
z
) and the last component is obtained with
_
n
(1)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
z
_
2
= 1
The above condition ensures that ˆ n
(1)
is indeed a unit vector. Hence,
ˆ n
(1)
=
_
¸
_
¸
_
n
(1)
x
n
(1)
y
n
(1)
z
_
¸
_
¸
_
(5.39)
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(2)
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 217
σ
2
σ
2
σ
1
σ
3
σ
1
σ
3
n
(3)
n
(1)
n
(2)
Figure 5.7: Principal state of stress
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(2)
, the principal direction of σ
2
, we substitute λ = σ
2
into Eq. (5.23) and use any two of the
three equations, but not all three. This will give two of the three components of ˆ n
(2)
(n
(2)
x
, n
(2)
y
, and
n
(2)
z
) and the last component is obtained with
_
n
(2)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
z
_
2
= 1
The above condition ensures that ˆ n
(2)
is indeed a unit vector. Hence,
ˆ n
(2)
=
_
¸
_
¸
_
n
(2)
x
n
(2)
y
n
(2)
z
_
¸
_
¸
_
(5.40)
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(3)
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(3)
, the principal direction of σ
3
, we substitute λ = σ
3
into Eq. (5.23) and use any two of the
three equations, but not all three. This will give two of the three components of ˆ n
(3)
(n
(3)
x
, n
(3)
y
, and
n
(3)
z
) and the last component is obtained with
_
n
(3)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
z
_
2
= 1
The above condition ensures that ˆ n
(3)
is indeed a unit vector. Hence,
ˆ n
(3)
=
_
¸
_
¸
_
n
(3)
x
n
(3)
y
n
(3)
z
_
¸
_
¸
_
(5.41)
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 218
Note that the principal planes are orthogonal to each other. In other words, the three principal normals
are perpendicular to one another and thus
ˆ n
(3)
= ˆ n
(1)
ˆ n
(2)
(5.42)
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 219
Example 5.3.
Determine the three Principal stresses and corresponding Principal planes for the given state
of stress. Also determine the extreme shear stresses.
_
_
40 40 0
40 50 −60
0 −60 40
_
_
MPa
For a principal plane, Cauchy’s equations can be written in matrix form as follows
_
_
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
−λ
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
_
_
40 −λ 40 0
40 50 −λ −60
0 −60 40 −λ
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
For nontrivial solutions the determinant of the matrix of coeﬃcients of n
x
, n
y
, and n
z
must
vanish:
det
_
_
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
−λ
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
40 −λ 40 0
40 50 −λ −60
0 −60 40 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
The characteristic equation obtained by expanding the determinant can be expressed in terms
of the stress invariants as follows
λ
3
−I
σ1
λ
2
+I
σ2
λ −I
σ3
= 0
where I
σi
’s are the stress invariants.
I
σ1
= σ
xx
+σ
yy
+σ
zz
= (40 + 50 + 40) MPa = 130 MPa
I
σ2
= det
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
yx
σ
yy
_
+ det
_
σ
xx
τ
xz
τ
zx
σ
zz
_
+ det
_
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
40 40
40 50
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
40 0
0 40
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
50 −60
−60 40
¸
¸
¸
¸
= ¦(40)(50) −(40)(40)¦ +¦(40)(40)¦ +¦(50)(40) −(−60)(−60)¦ = 400 MPa
2
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 220
I
σ3
= det
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
40 40 0
40 50 −60
0 −60 40
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (40)
¸
¸
¸
¸
50 −60
−60 40
¸
¸
¸
¸
−(40)
¸
¸
¸
¸
40 −60
0 40
¸
¸
¸
¸
+ (0)
¸
¸
¸
¸
40 50
0 −60
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −128000 MPa
3
Therefore, the characteristic equation can be written as
λ
3
−130 λ
2
+ 400 λ + 128000 = 0
The three roots of the characteristic equation are the principal stresses and are obtained
analytically as follows:
β = cos
−1
_
_
2I
3
σ1
−9I
σ1
I
σ2
+ 27I
σ3
2
_
_
I
2
σ1
−3I
σ2
_
3
_
_
= cos
−1
_
235
157
√
157
_
= 1.45105 rads
λ
1
=
I
σ1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
σ1
−3 I
σ2
cos
_
β
3
_
= 117.284 MPa
λ
2
=
I
σ1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
σ1
−3 I
σ2
cos
_
β
3
+
2 π
3
_
= −27.2842 MPa
λ
3
=
I
σ1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
σ1
−3 I
σ2
cos
_
β
3
+
4 π
3
_
= 40.00 MPa
and the principal stresses are
σ
1
= max[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = 117.284 MPa
σ
3
= min[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = −27.2842 MPa
σ
2
= 40.00 MPa
As we can see the principal stresses are given as follows
σ
1
> σ
2
> σ
3
The three extreme values of shear stress are:
τ
12
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
1
−σ
2
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 38.6421 MPa
τ
13
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
1
−σ
3
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 72.2842 MPa
τ
23
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
2
−σ
3
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 33.6421 MPa
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 221
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(1)
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(1)
, the principal direction of σ
1
= 117.284 MPa, we substitute λ = σ
1
into Eq. (5.23)
and use only two equations but not all three. This will give two of the three components of
ˆ n
(1)
(n
(1)
x
, n
(1)
y
, and n
(1)
z
) and the last component is obtained with
_
n
(1)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
z
_
2
= 1
(5.43)
Therefore,
_
_
−77.2842 40 0
40 −67.2842 −60
0 −60 −77.2842
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
(1)
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
−77.2842 n
(1)
x
+ 40 n
(1)
y
+ 0 = 0
40 n
(1)
x
+ −67.2842 n
(1)
y
+ −60 n
(1)
z
= 0
0 + −60 n
(1)
y
+ −77.2842 n
(1)
z
= 0
Using the ﬁrst two equations (we could have used any two equations) and solving all variables
in terms of n
(1)
z
(we could have solved in terms of any other component). From the ﬁrst
equation:
−77.2842 n
(1)
x
+ 40 n
(1)
y
+ 0 = 0
77.2842 n
(1)
x
= 40 n
(1)
y
n
(1)
x
= 0.51757 n
(1)
y
(5.44)
From the second equation:
40 n
(1)
x
+−67.2842 n
(1)
y
+−60 n
(1)
z
= 0
40
_
0.51757 n
(1)
y
_
+−67.2842 n
(1)
y
+−60 n
(1)
z
= 0
n
(1)
y
= −1.28807 n
(1)
z
(5.45)
Substituting Eq. (5.45) into Eq. (5.44) we get:
n
(1)
x
= 0.51757 n
(1)
y
= 0.51757
_
−1.28807 n
(1)
z
_
= −0.666667 n
(1)
z
Thus
n
(1)
x
= −0.666667 n
(1)
z
n
(1)
y
= −1.28807 n
(1)
z
(5.46)
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 222
Now obtain n
(1)
z
using Eq. (5.43)
_
n
(1)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
z
_
2
= 1
_
−0.666667 n
(1)
z
_
2
+
_
−1.28807 n
(1)
z
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
z
_
2
= 1
3.10357
_
n
(1)
z
_
2
= 1
Then
n
(1)
z
= ±0.567635
Note that the signs represent that the stress vector acts on opposite ends of the same plane.
This makes sense as it ensures equilibrium. Now taking the positive sign (arbitrarily) of n
(1)
z
and substituting into Eq. (5.46)
n
(1)
z
= 0.567635 n
(1)
x
= −0.378424 n
(1)
y
= −0.731154
Thus, the principal stress σ
1
= 117.284 MPa acts on a plane with the unit normal
ˆ n
(1)
=
_
_
_
−0.378424
−0.731154
0.567635
_
_
_
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(2)
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(2)
, the principal direction of σ
2
= 40.00 MPa, we substitute λ = σ
2
into Eq. (5.23)
and use only two equations but not all three. This will give two of the three components of
ˆ n
(2)
(n
(2)
x
, n
(2)
y
, and n
(2)
z
) and the last component is obtained with
_
n
(2)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
z
_
2
= 1
(5.47)
Therefore,
_
_
0 40 0
40 10 −60
0 −60 0
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
(2)
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
0 n
(2)
x
+ 40 n
(2)
y
+ 0 = 0
40 n
(2)
x
+ 10 n
(2)
y
+ −60 n
(2)
z
= 0
0 + −60 n
(2)
y
+ 0 = 0
Using the ﬁrst two equations (we could have used any two equations) and solving all variables
in terms of n
(2)
z
(we could have solved in terms of any other component)
n
(2)
x
= 1.5 n
(2)
z
n
(2)
y
= 0 n
(2)
z
= 0
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 223
Now obtain n
(2)
z
using Eq. (5.47)
_
n
(2)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
z
_
2
= 1
_
1.5 n
(2)
z
_
2
+
_
0 n
(2)
z
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
z
_
2
= 1
3.25
_
n
(2)
z
_
2
= 1
Then
n
(2)
z
= ±0.5547
Note that the signs represent that the stress vector acts on opposite ends of the same plane.
This makes sense as it ensures equilibrium. Now taking the positive sign (arbitrarily) of n
(2)
z
:
n
(2)
z
= 0.5547 n
(2)
x
= 0.83205 n
(2)
y
= 0
Thus, the principal stress σ
2
= 40.00 MPa acts on a plane with the unit normal
ˆ n
(2)
=
_
_
_
0.83205
0.0
0.5547
_
_
_
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(3)
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(3)
, the principal direction of σ
3
= −27.2842 MPa, we substitute λ = σ
3
into
Eq. (5.23) and use only two equations but not all three. This will give two of the three
components of ˆ n
(3)
(n
(3)
x
, n
(3)
y
, and n
(3)
z
) and the last component is obtained with
_
n
(3)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
z
_
2
= 1
(5.48)
Therefore,
_
_
67.2842 40 0
40 77.2842 −60
0 −60 67.2842
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
(3)
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
67.2842 n
(3)
x
+ 40 n
(3)
y
+ 0 = 0
40 n
(3)
x
+ 77.2842 n
(3)
y
+ −60 n
(3)
z
= 0
0 + −60 n
(3)
y
+ 67.2842 n
(3)
z
= 0
Using the ﬁrst two equations (we could have used any two equations) and solving all variables
in terms of n
(3)
z
(we could have solved in terms of any other component)
n
(3)
x
= −0.666667 n
(3)
z
n
(3)
y
= 1.1214 n
(3)
z
5.1. THEORY OF STRESSES 224
Now obtain n
(3)
z
using Eq. (5.48)
_
n
(3)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
z
_
2
= 1
_
−0.666667 n
(3)
z
_
2
+
_
1.1214 n
(3)
z
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
z
_
2
= 1
2.70199
_
n
(3)
z
_
2
= 1
Then
n
(3)
z
= ±0.608357
Note that the signs represent that the stress vector acts on opposite ends of the same plane.
This makes sense as it ensures equilibrium. Now taking the positive sign (arbitrarily) of n
(3)
z
:
n
(3)
z
= 0.608357 n
(3)
x
= −0.405571 n
(3)
y
= 0.682213
Thus, the principal stress σ
3
= −27.2842 MPa acts on a plane with the unit normal
ˆ n
(3)
=
_
_
_
−0.405571
0.682213
0.608357
_
_
_
Also, we could have obtained this by using Eq. (5.42):
ˆ n
(3)
= ˆ n
(1)
ˆ n
(2)
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ˆ
i
ˆ
j
ˆ
k
−0.378424 −0.731154 0.567635
0.83205 0.0 0.5547
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
ˆ
i
¸
¸
¸
¸
−0.731154 0.567635
0.0 0.5547
¸
¸
¸
¸
−
ˆ
j
¸
¸
¸
¸
−0.378424 0.567635
0.83205 0.5547
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
ˆ
k
¸
¸
¸
¸
−0.378424 −0.731154
0.83205 0.0
¸
¸
¸
¸
ˆ n
(3)
= −0.405571
ˆ
i + 0.682213
ˆ
j + 0.608357
ˆ
k
End Example
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 225
5.2 State of Plane Stress
A particular state of stress of great practical importance is the state of plane stress. The state of stress
at a point is given by the stress tensor
σ =
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
_
=
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
xy
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
xz
τ
yz
σ
zz
_
_
(5.49)
For applications for which a material is formed into thin sheets and plates of uniform thickness, it is
often appropriate to assume that the stress components are conﬁned to a plane, say xy plane. In other
words,
τ
xz
= τ
yz
= 0 (5.50)
σ =
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
0
τ
xy
σ
yy
0
0 0 σ
zz
_
_
(5.51)
Now for many problems, such as in aerospace and mechanical engineering applications,
σ
zz
¸σ
xx
σ
zz
¸σ
yy
(5.52)
If this is the case, then we can take
σ
zz
≈ 0 (5.53)
This type of problems are known as plane stress problems and the three dimensional state of stress
reduces to three independent components,
σ =
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
0
τ
xy
σ
yy
0
0 0 0
_
_
(5.54)
and it is shown in Fig. 5.8. In short, plane stress assumption is acceptable when the thickness is far
smaller than (at least) other dimension.
x
y
σ
xx
σ
yy
σ
yy
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xy
Figure 5.8: Positive stresses on a two dimensional element.
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 226
5.2.1 Principal stresses for Plane State of Stress
Recall that the knowledge of principal stresses help us ﬁnd plane(s) on which the normal stress has the
largest possible value or plane(s) on which the largest possible shear stress value. Next, we will review
three diﬀerent methods used to obtain the principal stresses and maximum shear stresses for a plane
state of stress.
5.2.2 Principal stresses: Eigenvalue Approach
A principal plane is a plane such that the stress vector acting on that plane has no component which is
tangent to the plane:
T
(n)
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
1
0 0
0 σ
2
0
0 0 σ
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.55)
For a plane stress problem, at a principal plane Cauchy’s equations can be written in matrix form as
follows
_
_
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
0
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ 0
0 0 0 −λ
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
(5.56)
The above posses a nontrivial solution if the three equations are not independent of each other. In other
words, the determinant of the matrix of coeﬃcients of n
x
, n
y
, and n
z
must vanish:
det
_
_
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
0
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ 0
0 0 −λ
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
0
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ 0
0 0 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0 (5.57)
The characteristic equation obtained by expanding the determinant can be expressed in terms of the
stress invariants as follows
λ
3
−I
σ1
λ
2
+I
σ2
λ −I
σ3
= 0
where I
σi
’s are the stress invariants. Using the deﬁnition of stress invariants:
I
σ1
= σ
xx
+σ
yy
I
σ2
= det
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
yx
σ
yy
_
+ det
_
σ
xx
0
0 0
_
+ det
_
σ
yy
0
0 0
_
= σ
xx
σ
yy
−τ
2
xy
I
σ3
= det
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
0
τ
yx
σ
yy
0
0 0 0
_
_
= 0
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 227
Thus the characteristic equation becomes
λ
3
−I
σ1
λ
2
+I
σ2
λ = 0 → λ
_
λ
2
−I
σ1
λ +I
σ2
_
= 0 (5.58)
The three roots of the characteristic equation, Eq. (5.58), are the principal stresses and can be obtained
analytically:
λ
1
=
I
σ1
2
+
1
2
_
I
2
σ1
−4 I
σ2
λ
2
=
I
σ1
2
−
1
2
_
I
2
σ1
−4 I
σ2
λ
3
= 0
The principal stresses are chosen as:
σ
1
= max[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
]
σ
3
= min[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
]
Thus the principal stresses are given as follows
σ
1
> σ
2
> σ
3
5.2.3 Principal stresses: Transformation Equations Approach
Plane stress transformation matrix for a rotation about the zaxis is
a =
_
_
cos θ sinθ 0
−sinθ cos θ 0
0 0 1
_
_
(5.59)
Therefore the plane stresses can be transformed as follows
σ = aσa
T
(5.60)
This yields to the plane stress transformation formulas
σ
xx
= σ
ave
+σ
diff
cos 2 θ +τ
xy
sin2 θ (5.61a)
σ
yy
= σ
ave
−σ
diff
cos 2 θ −τ
xy
sin2 θ (5.61b)
τ
xy
= −σ
diff
sin2 θ +τ
xy
cos 2 θ (5.61c)
where
σ
ave
=
σ
xx
+σ
yy
2
σ
diff
=
σ
xx
−σ
yy
2
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 228
5.2.4 Principal stresses: Mohr’s Circle Approach
The transformation equations for plane stress can be represented in graphical form by a plot known as
Mohr’s circle. The Mohr’s circle, although not so popular, is a useful tool for stress analysis at a material
point. Numerical techniques, such as eigenvalue problem, have substituted this technique. However, the
Mohr’s circle helps the understanding of the physical meaning of some speciﬁc problems. Thus, we will
apply the twodimensional representation of the threedimensional state of stress at a point
3
.
Example 5.4.
Mohr’s Stress Circle
At a point on the surface of a turbine engine the stresses are
σ =
_
_
−50 20 0
20 −20 0
0 0 0
_
_
MPa
Using Mohr’s circle and only considering inplane stresses, determine the following quanti
ties: a)stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle α = 40
◦
; b) principal stresses; c)
maximum inplane shear stresses.
5.4a) Determine the Mohr circle radius and center
The average stress acting on the diﬀerential element will be:
σ
ave
=
σ
xx
+σ
yy
2
=
(−50) + (−20)
2
MPa = −35 MPa
The diﬀerence in stresses acting on the diﬀerential element will be:
σ
diff
=
σ
xx
−σ
yy
2
=
(−50) −(−20)
2
MPa = −15 MPa
The radius of the inplane state of stress is:
R =
_
τ
2
xy
+σ
2
diff
=
_
(20)
2
+ (−15)
2
MPa = 25 MPa
3
A full description and derivation of the Mohr’s circle is found in Appendix B.
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 229
The center of the circle is:
C = C(σ
ave
, 0) = C(−35 MPa, 0)
5.4b) Locate the two points and draw the circle:
Q
1
= Q
1
(−50, 20) Q
2
= Q
2
(−20, −20) C = C(−35, 0)
(a) stresses on a two dimensional element (b) Mohr’s circle for plane stress in the xy plane
5.4c) Calculate angles:
Principal stresses act on an element inclined at an angle θ
p
2 θ
p
= tan
−1
_
τ
xy
σ
diff
_
= tan
−1
_
(20)
(−15)
_
= −53.130
◦
2 θ
p
= 2 θ
p
−180
◦
= 126.853
◦
→ θ
p
= 63.426
◦
Note that we in CASE B. because 2 θ
p
is measured from Q
1
C to positive σaxis. Min
imum and maximum inplane shear stresses act on an element inclined at an angle
θ
s
2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
±90
◦
= 126.87
◦
±90
◦
θ
s
= θ
p
±45
◦
= 63.435
◦
±45
◦
Transformed stresses act on an element inclined at an angle α = 40
◦
2 θ
A
= 2 θ
p
−2 α = 126.87
◦
−80
◦
= 46.87
◦
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 230
Note that all angles are measured positive clockwise in the Mohr’s circle but are positive
counterclockwise in the rotation of the diﬀerential element.
5.4d) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the inclined plane(s)
The normal stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle α are
σ
x1
= σ
ave
+R cos (2 θ
A
) = (−35) + (25) cos (46.87
◦
) = −17.91 MPa
σ
y1
= σ
ave
−R cos (2 θ
A
) = (−35) −(25) cos (46.87
◦
) = −52.09 MPa
The shear stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle α are
τ
x1y1
= R sin(2 θ
A
) = (25) sin(46.87
◦
) = 18.2451 MPa
5.4e) Determine the maximum normal stresses, the inplane maximum shear and the overall
maximum shear
Note that when calculating principal stresses 2 α = 2 θ
p
→ 2 θ
A
= 0
◦
, therefore the
principal stresses are
λ
1
= σ
ave
+R = (−35) + (25) = −10 MPa
λ
2
= σ
ave
−R = (−35) −(25) = −60 MPa
λ
3
= 0 MPa
The principal stresses are chosen as:
σ
1
= max[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = 0 MPa
σ
3
= min[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = −60 MPa
σ
2
= −10
Note σ
1
> σ
2
> σ
3
.
The maximum and minimum normal stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle
θ
p
are
σ
max
= σ
1
= 0 MPa
σ
min
= σ
3
= −60 MPa
The inplane maximum shear stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle θ
s
are
τ
max
¸
¸
¸
inplane
= R =
σ
2
−σ
3
2
= 25 MPa
The maximum inplane shear stresses will be:
τ
12
=
σ
1
−σ
2
2
= 5 MPa
τ
13
=
σ
1
−σ
3
2
= 25 MPa
τ
23
=
σ
2
−σ
3
2
= 30 MPa
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 231
The overall maximum shear stress acting on an element inclined at an angle θ
s
is
τ
max
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
max
−σ
min
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 30 MPa
5.4f) Show all results on sketches of properly oriented elements
(c) (d) (e)
(f)
Figure 5.9: a) Stresses acting on an element in plane stress. b) Stresses acting on an element oriented
at an angle θ = α. c) Principal normal stresses. d) Maximum inplane shear stresses.
End Example
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 232
Example 5.5.
An element in plane stress at the lateral surface of a wing panel is subjected to the following
stresses
σ =
_
_
0 0 0
0 1 −10
0 −10 −5
_
_
MPa
z, MPa
10
5
10
1
10
10
5
1
z, MPa
y, MPa
10
10
1 1
5
5
y, MPa
x, MPa
Considering only the inplane stresses and using Mohr Circle determine:
1. Stresses acting on a element inclined at an angle θ = 45
◦
.
2. Principal stresses and maximum shear stresses.
5.5a) Calculate the radius and center of the Mohr’s circle
The average stress acting on the diﬀerential element will be:
σ
ave
=
σ
yy
+σ
zz
2
=
1 + (−5)
2
= −2 MPa (5.62)
(5.63)
The diﬀerence in stresses acting on the diﬀerential element will be:
σ
diff
=
σ
yy
−σ
zz
2
=
1 −(−5)
2
= 3 MPa (5.64)
(5.65)
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 233
The radius of the inplane state of stress is:
R =
_
τ
2
yz
+σ
2
diff
=
_
(−10)
2
+ (3)
2
= 10.44033 MPa (5.66)
(5.67)
The center of the circle is:
C = C(−2, 0)3 MPa (5.68)
5.5b) Draw the circle and locate all points
Q
1
= Q
1
(σ
yy
, τ
yz
) = Q
1
(1, −10) MPa
Q
2
= Q
2
(σ
zz
, −τ
yz
) = Q
1
(−5, 10) MPa
C = C(σ
ave
, 0) = C(−2, 0) MPa
τ [MPa]
5.0
5.0
10.0
σ
[MPa]
Q1(σyy, τyz) = Q1(1, 10)
A1(σy1, τy1z1)
σ
2
10.0
5.0
C(2, 0)
Q2(σzz, τxz) = Q2(5, 10)
σ
3
σ
1
2θp
2θA
2α
Figure 5.10: Mohr’s circle for plane stress in the yz plane.
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 234
5.5c) Calculate angles:
(All measured positive clockwise from Q
1
C )
First calculate 2 θ
p
,
tan2 θ
p
=
τ
yz
σ
diff
2 θ
p
= tan
−1
_
τ
yz
σ
diff
_
= −73.3008
◦
Now consider the location of Q
1
:
CASE D: Q
1
→fourth quadrant (σ
yy
> 0, τ
yz
< 0) 2 θ
p
= 360
◦
−
¸
¸
2 θ
p
¸
¸
Thus
2 θ
p
= 360
◦
−
¸
¸
2 θ
p
¸
¸
= 360
◦
−73.3008
◦
= 286.699
◦
Principal stresses act on an element inclined at an angle θ
p
are
θ
p
=
1
2
(2 θ
p
) = 143.35
◦
Minimum/maximum inplane shear stresses act on an element inclined at an angle θ
s
2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
±90
◦
Note that at a rotation of 2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
+ 90
◦
from Q
1
C the value of the inplane shear
stress is negative thus it gives the minimum shear stress, the maximum is obtained by
taking 2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
−90
◦
. In short,
Maximum Shear Stress: 2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
−90
◦
= 163.301
◦
→ τ
max
Minimum Shear Stress: 2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
+ 90
◦
= −16.6992
◦
→ τ
min
Note we used the fact that 2 θ
s
> 360
◦
thus
2 θ
s
= (360
◦
−2 θ
p
) ±90
◦
Transformed stresses act on an element inclined at an angle α
2 θ
A
= 2 θ
p
−2 α = 196.699
◦
Note: When working in the y–z plane, all angles are measured positive clockwise in
the Mohr’s circle but are positive counterclockwise in the rotation of the diﬀerential
element. Also, note that 2 θ
p
is measured from Q
1
C to positive σaxis.
5.5d) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the inclined plane(s)
The normal stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle α are
σ
y1
= σ
ave
+Rcos (2 θ
A
) = −12.0 MPa
σ
z1
= σ
ave
+Rcos (2 θ
A
+ 180
◦
) = σ
ave
−Rcos (2 θ
A
) = 8.0 MPa
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 235
The shear stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle α are
τ
y1z1
= R sin(2 θ
A
) = −3 MPa
5.5e) Determine the maximum normal stresses, the inplane maximum shear and the overall
maximum shear
Note that when calculating principal stresses 2 α = 2 θ
p
→ 2 θ
A
= 0
◦
, therefore the
principal normal stresses are found as follows
λ
1
= σ
ave
+R = 8.4403 MPa
λ
2
= σ
ave
−R = −12.4403 MPa
λ
3
= 0
The principal stresses are chosen as:
σ
1
= max[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = 8.4403 MPa
σ
3
= min[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = −12.4403 MPa
Thus the principal stresses are given as follows
σ
1
> σ
2
> σ
3
The maximum and minimum normal stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle
θ
p
are
σ
max
= σ
1
= 8.4403 MPa
σ
min
= σ
3
= −12.4403 MPa
The inplane maximum shear stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle θ
s
are
τ
max
¸
¸
¸
inplane
= R =
σ
1
−σ
2
2
= 10.4403 MPa
The maximum inplane shear stresses will be:
τ
12
=
σ
1
−σ
2
2
= 4.220 MPa
τ
13
=
σ
1
−σ
3
2
= 6.220 MPa
τ
23
=
σ
2
−σ
3
2
= 10.440 MPa
The overall maximum shear stress acting on an element inclined at an angle θ
s
is
τ
max
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
max
−σ
min
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 10.4403 MPa
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 236
5.5f) Show all results on sketches of properly oriented elements
z, MPa
y, MPa
10
10
1 1
5
5
(a)
y, MPa
α =45°
12
3
8
12
8
z, MPa
3
(b)
z, MPa
y, MPa
12.4403
8.4403
12.4403
8.4403 θp =143.35°
(c)
z, MPa
3
2
2
θs =98.34°
3
2
2
y, MPa
(d)
Figure 5.11: a) Stresses acting on an element in plane stress. b) Stresses acting on an element oriented
at an angle θ = α. c) Principal normal stresses. d) Maximum inplane shear stresses.
End Example
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 237
Example 5.6.
An element in plane stress at the lateral surface of a wing panel is subjected to the following
stresses
σ =
_
_
15 0 4
0 0 0
4 0 −5
_
_
MPa
z, MPa
5
4
4
15
4
15
5
4
z, MPa
4
4
15 15
5
5
x, MPa
y, MPa
x, MPa
Considering only the inplane stresses and using Mohr’s Circle determine:
1. Stresses acting on a element inclined at an angle θ = 45
◦
.
2. Principal stresses and maximum shear stresses.
5.6a) Calculate the radius and center of the Mohr’s circle
The average stress acting on the diﬀerential element will be:
σ
ave
=
σ
xx
+σ
zz
2
=
(15) + (−5)
2
MPa = 5 MPa
The diﬀerence in stresses acting on the diﬀerential element will be:
σ
diff
=
σ
xx
−σ
zz
2
=
(15) −(−5)
2
MPa = 10 MPa
The radius of the inplane state of stress is:
R =
_
τ
2
xz
+σ
2
diff
=
_
(4)
2
+ (10)
2
MPa = 10.7703 MPa
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 238
The center of the circle is:
C = C(σ
ave
, 0) = C(5, 0) MPa
5.6b) Draw the circle and locate all points
Q
1
= Q
1
(σ
xx
, τ
xz
) = Q
1
(15, 4) Q
2
= Q
2
(σ
zz
, −τ
xz
) = Q
2
(−5, −4) C = C(σ
ave
, 0) = C(5, 0)
τ
5.0
5.0
5.0
σ
Q1(σx, τxz) = Q1(15, 4)
Q
2
(σ
z
, τ
xz
) = Q
2
(5, 4)
σ
2
C(5, 0) σ
2
A
1
(σ
x1
, τ
x1z1
)
σ
3
10.0
15.0
5.0
2θ
p
2θ
A
2α
Figure 5.12: Mohr’s circle for plane stress in the xz plane.
5.6c) Calculate angles:
(All measured positive clockwise from Q
1
C )
First calculate 2 θ
p
,
tan2 θ
p
=
τ
xz
σ
diff
2 θ
p
= tan
−1
_
τ
xz
σ
diff
_
= tan
−1
_
4
10
_
= 21.8014
◦
= 0.380506 rads
Now consider the location of Q
1
:
CASE A: Q
1
→ﬁrst quadrant (σ
xx
> 0, τ
xy
> 0)
Thus
2 θ
p
= 2 θ
p
= 21.8014
◦
= 0.380506 rads
Principal stresses act on an element inclined at an angle θ
p
are
θ
p
=
1
2
(2 θ
p
) = 10.9007
◦
= 0.190253 rads
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 239
Minimum/maximum inplane shear stresses act on an element inclined at an angle θ
s
2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
±90
◦
Note that at a rotation of 2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
+ 90
◦
from Q
1
C the value of the inplane shear
stress is negative thus it gives the minimum shear stress, the maximum is obtained by
taking 2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
−90
◦
. In short,
Maximum Shear Stress: τ
max
: 2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
−90
◦
= −68.1986
◦
= −1.19029 rads
Minimum Shear Stress: τ
min
: 2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
+ 90
◦
= 111.801
◦
= 1.9513 rads
Transformed stresses act on an element inclined at an angle α
2 θ
A
= 2 θ
p
−2 α = −68.1986
◦
= −1.19029 rads (α = 45
◦
)
or
2 θ
A
+ 360
◦
= 291.801
◦
= 5.0929 rads (to measure clockwise)
Note that all angles are measured positive clockwise in the Mohr’s circle but are positive
counterclockwise in the rotation of the diﬀerential element. Also, note that 2 θ
p
is
measured from Q
1
C to positive σaxis.
5.6d) Determine the normal and shear stresses on the inclined plane(s)
The normal stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle α are
σ
x1
= σ
ave
+Rcos (2 θ
A
) = 9 MPa
σ
z1
= σ
ave
−Rcos (2 θ
A
) = 1 MPa
The shear stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle α are
τ
x1z1
= R sin(2 θ
A
) = −10 MPa
5.6e) Determine the maximum normal stresses, the inplane maximum shear and the overall
maximum shear
Note that when calculating principal stresses 2 α = 2 θ
p
→ 2 θ
A
= 0
◦
, therefore the
principal normal stresses are found as follows
λ
1
= σ
ave
+R = (5) + (10.7703) = 15.77033 MPa
λ
2
= σ
ave
−R = (5) −(10.7703) = −5.77033 MPa
λ
3
= 0
The principal stresses are chosen as:
σ
1
= max[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = 15.77033 MPa
σ
3
= min[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = −5.770333 MPa
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 240
Thus the principal stresses are given as follows
σ
1
> σ
2
> σ
3
The maximum and minimum normal stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle
θ
p
are
σ
max
= σ
1
= 15.77033 MPa
σ
min
= σ
3
= −5.770333 MPa
The inplane maximum shear stresses acting on an element inclined at an angle θ
s
are
τ
max
¸
¸
¸
inplane
= R =
σ
1
−σ
2
2
= 10.77033 MPa
The maximum inplane shear stresses will be:
τ
12
=
σ
1
−σ
2
2
= 7.885 MPa
τ
13
=
σ
1
−σ
3
2
= 2.885 MPa
τ
23
=
σ
2
−σ
3
2
= 10.770 MPa
The overall maximum shear stress acting on an element inclined at an angle θ
s
is
τ
max
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
max
−σ
min
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 10.77033 MPa
5.6f) Show all results on sketches of properly oriented elements
z, MPa
4
4
15 15
5
5
x, MPa
(a)
z, MPa
x, MPa
α =45°
10
9
1
9
1
10
(b)
z, MPa
x, MPa
θp =10.9°
15.77
5.77
15.77
5.77
(c)
z, MPa
5
5
10.77
10.77
θs =68.2°
x, MPa
5
5
(d)
Figure 5.13: a) Stresses acting on an element in plane stress. b) Stresses acting on an element oriented
at an angle θ = α. c) Principal normal stresses. d) Maximum inplane shear stresses.
End Example
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 241
Case 5.1.
Uniaxial Tension
Consider the state of stress at a given point as
σ =
_
_
σ
o
σ
o
0
σ
o
σ
o
0
0 0 0
_
_
where σ
o
is a constant stress, determine the principal stresses and plot the Mohr’s circles.
The principal stresses are determined by ﬁnding the eigenvalues of the stress tensor:
det
_
_
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
−λ
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
o
−λ σ
o
0
σ
o
σ
o
−λ 0
0 0 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
which leads to the characteristic equation that can be expressed in terms of the stress invari
ants as follows
λ
3
−I
σ1
λ
2
+I
σ2
λ −I
σ3
= 0
where I
σi
’s are the stress invariants.
I
σ1
= σ
xx
+σ
yy
+σ
zz
= 2 σ
o
I
σ2
= det
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
yx
σ
yy
_
+ det
_
σ
xx
τ
xz
τ
zx
σ
zz
_
+ det
_
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
o
σ
o
σ
o
σ
o
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
o
0
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
o
0
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
I
σ3
= det
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
o
σ
o
0
σ
o
σ
o
0
0 0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
Thus, the characteristic equation becomes
λ
3
−2 σ
o
λ
2
= λ
2
(λ −2 σ
o
) = 0
The three roots of the characteristic equation are
λ
1
= 2 σ
o
λ
2
= 0 λ
3
= 0
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 242
and the principal stresses are
σ
1
= max[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = 2 σ
o
σ
3
= min[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = 0
σ
2
= 0
The Mohr’s circle is shown in Fig. 5.14. Here because of the doublezero root, one of the
three Mohr’s circles degenerated into a point (origin) and the other two circles coincide. Also,
note that physically this is simply equivalent to a onedimensional tension in the principal
plane ˆ n
(1)
.
τ
σ
1
σ
2 σ
3
σ
Figure 5.14: Mohr’s circle case for uniaxial state of stress.
End Case
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 243
Case 5.2.
Similar to Uniaxial Tension
Consider the state of stress at a given point as
σ =
_
_
2 σ
o
0 0
0 σ
o
0
0 0 0
_
_
where σ
o
is a constant stress, determine the principal stresses and plot the Mohr’s circles.
The principal stresses are determined by ﬁnding the eigenvalues of the stress tensor:
det
_
_
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
−λ
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 σ
o
−λ 0 0
0 σ
o
−λ 0
0 0 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
which leads to the characteristic equation that can be expressed in terms of the stress invari
ants as follows
λ
3
−I
σ1
λ
2
+I
σ2
λ −I
σ3
= 0
where I
σi
’s are the stress invariants.
I
σ1
= σ
xx
+σ
yy
+σ
zz
= 3 σ
o
I
σ2
= det
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
yx
σ
yy
_
+ det
_
σ
xx
τ
xz
τ
zx
σ
zz
_
+ det
_
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 σ
o
0
0 σ
o
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 σ
o
0
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
o
0
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 2 σ
2
o
I
σ3
= det
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 σ
o
0 0
0 σ
o
0
0 0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
Thus, the characteristic equation becomes
λ
3
−3 σ
o
λ
2
+ 2 σ
2
o
λ = λ
_
λ −3 σ
o
λ + 2 σ
2
o
_
= 0
The three roots of the characteristic equation are
λ
1
= 2 σ
o
λ
2
= σ
o
λ
3
= 0
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 244
and the principal stresses are
σ
1
= max[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = 2 σ
o
σ
3
= min[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = 0
σ
2
= σ
o
The Mohr’s circle is shown in Fig. 5.15. Here one could try to infer it is a onedimensional
case but this is not correct. The reason is that there is a Mohr’s circle between σ
2
and σ
3
.
τ
σ
1
σ
2
σ
3
σ
Figure 5.15: Mohr’s circle case for triaxial state of stress.
End Case
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 245
Case 5.3.
Hydrostatic State of Stress
Consider the state of stress at a given point as
σ =
_
_
σ
o
0 0
0 σ
o
0
0 0 σ
o
_
_
where σ
o
is a constant stress, determine the principal stresses and plot the Mohr’s circles.
The principal stresses are determined by ﬁnding the eigenvalues of the stress tensor:
det
_
_
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
−λ
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
o
−λ 0 0
0 σ
o
−λ 0
0 0 σ
o
−λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
which leads to the characteristic equation that can be expressed in terms of the stress invari
ants as follows
λ
3
−I
σ1
λ
2
+I
σ2
λ −I
σ3
= 0
where I
σi
’s are the stress invariants.
I
σ1
= σ
xx
+σ
yy
+σ
zz
= 3 σ
o
I
σ2
= det
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
yx
σ
yy
_
+ det
_
σ
xx
τ
xz
τ
zx
σ
zz
_
+ det
_
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
o
0
0 σ
o
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
o
0
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
o
0
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
= σ
2
o
I
σ3
= det
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
o
0 0
0 σ
o
0
0 0 σ
o
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= σ
3
o
Thus, the characteristic equation becomes
λ
3
−3 σ
o
λ
2
+σ
2
o
λ −σ
3
o
= (λ −σ
o
) (λ −σ
o
) (λ −σ
o
) = 0
The three roots of the characteristic equation are
λ
1
= σ
o
λ
2
= σ
o
λ
3
= σ
o
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 246
and the principal stresses are
σ
1
= max[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = σ
o
σ
3
= min[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = σ
o
σ
2
= σ
o
The Mohr’s circle is shown in Fig. 5.16. Here because of the triplezero root, all of the three
Mohr’s circles degenerated into a point. The classical physical example of this is the state
of stress in a ﬂuid at rest which is known as hydrostatic stress, and for which σ
o
= −p, the
static pressure.
τ
σ
1
σ
2
σ
3
τ
max
σ
Figure 5.16: Mohr’s circle case for hydrostatic state of stress.
End Case
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 247
Case 5.4.
Consequences on the Overall Maximum Shear Stress
Consider three diﬀerent state of stresses with the same loading in the x and y direction but
diﬀerent loadings in the zdirection:
2σo
σo
2σo
σo
x
z
σzz
y
σzz
(a) No loading in the zaxis
2σo
σo
2σo
σo
x
z
σo
y
σo
(b) Tensile loading in the zaxis
2σo
σo
2σo
σo
x
z
σo
y
σo
(c) Compressive loading in the zaxis
For each of the state of stresses determine the consequences on the overall maximum shear
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 248
stress:
σ
A
=
_
_
2 σ
o
0 0
0 σ
o
0
0 0 0
_
_
(5.69a)
σ
B
=
_
_
2 σ
o
0 0
0 σ
o
0
0 0 σ
o
_
_
(5.69b)
σ
C
=
_
_
2 σ
o
0 0
0 σ
o
0
0 0 −σ
o
_
_
(5.69c)
where σ
o
is a constant stress.
First we evaluate the principal stresses for each case and then ﬁnd the overall maximum
shear stress.
For σ
A
,
τ
σ
1
σ
2
σ
3
τ
max
σ
σ
A
=
_
_
2 σ
o
0 0
0 σ
o
0
0 0 0
_
_
→ σ
1
= 2 σ
o
σ
2
= σ
o
σ
3
= 0
τ
max
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
max
−σ
min
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
= σ
o
For σ
B
,
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 249
τ
σ
1
σ
2
σ
3
τ
max
σ
σ
B
=
_
_
2 σ
o
0 0
0 σ
o
0
0 0 σ
o
_
_
→ σ
1
= 2 σ
o
σ
2
= σ
3
= σ
o
τ
max
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
max
−σ
min
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
σ
o
2
For σ
C
,
τ
σ
1
σ
2
σ
3
τ
max
σ
σ
C
=
_
_
2 σ
o
0 0
0 σ
o
0
0 0 −σ
o
_
_
→ σ
1
= 2 σ
o
σ
2
= σ
o
σ
3
= −σ
o
τ
max
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
max
−σ
min
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
3
2
σ
o
From these very interesting cases we can observe that when adding a compressive traction
to the point of stress, it improves the shear capacity; and when adding a tensile traction,
it worsens the shear capacity. This observations became handy when studying steadyload
theories of failure.
End Case
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 250
Case 5.5.
Pure Shear
x
y
σ
o
σ
o
σ
o
σ
o
σ
o
45°
A stress state of great practical importance is the state of pure shear characterized by prin
cipal stresses of equal magnitude but opposite signs:
σ
A
=
_
_
σ
o
0 0
0 −σ
o
0
0 0 0
_
_
(5.70a)
First we evaluate the principal stresses for each case and then ﬁnd the overall maximum
shear stress.
σ
A
=
_
_
σ
o
0 0
0 −σ
o
0
0 0 0
_
_
→ σ
1
= σ
o
σ
2
= 0 σ
3
= −σ
o
τ
max
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
max
−σ
min
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
= σ
o
On faces oriented at 45
◦
angles with respect to the principal stress directions, the direct
stresses vanish and the shear has a maximum value, equal in magnitude to the common
magnitudes of the two principal stresses.
End Case
5.2. STATE OF PLANE STRESS 251
5.3. IMPORTANT STRESSES 252
x
1
σ σσ σ
3
σ σσ σ
2
σ σσ σ
2
σ σσ σ
1
σ σσ σ
3
σ σσ σ
1
x
2
x
3
O
Figure 5.17: General state of stress for stresses acting on octahedral planes.
5.3 Important Stresses
5.3.1 Octahedral Stresses
Sometimes it is advantageous to represent the stresses on an octahedral stress element rather than on
a conventional cubic element of principal stresses. Figures 5.17 and 5.18 and show the general state of
stress for stresses acting on octahedral planes. These ﬁgures show the orientation of the eight octahedral
planes that are associated with a given stress state. Each octahedral plane cuts across a corner of a
principal element, so that the eight planes together form an octahedron. The following characteristics
of the stresses on an octahedral plane should be noted:
1. Identical normal stresses act on all eight planes. Thus, the normal stresses tend to compress or
enlarge the octahedron but not to distort it.
2. Identical shear stresses act on all eight planes. Thus, the shear stresses tend to distort the octahe
dron without changing its volume.
The fact that the normal and shear stresses are of equal magnitude for the eight planes is a powerful
tool in failure analysis. Furthermore, the octahedral normal and shear stress can be expressed in terms
of the principal normal stresses. Hence, our goal is to determine the octahedral normal stress, σ
oct
, and
the octahedral shear stress, τ
oct
. The octahedral stresses are also known as hydrostatic stresses and will
are denoted as T
(oct)
.
5.3. IMPORTANT STRESSES 253
O
x
3
x
1
x
2
σ σσ σ
3
σ σσ σ
2
σ σσ σ
2
σ σσ σ
3
σ σσ σ
1
x
3
x
2
x
1
σ σσ σ
1
O
B
C
A
Figure 5.18: Tetrahedron element at O.
In order to derive these stresses we use Cauchy’s relationship. We start the analysis with the principal
stress element at point O. The general state of stress at O has only principal stresses
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
1
0 0
0 σ
2
0
0 0 σ
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.71)
and they are acting on the principal axes x
1
x
2
x
3
, as shown in Fig. 5.18. All three axes are mutually
orthogonal: x
1
is the principal plane ˆ n
(1)
, x
2
is the principal plane ˆ n
(2)
, and x
3
is the principal plane
ˆ n
(3)
. Figure 5.18 shows the equilibrium of an inﬁnitesimal tetrahedron at O.
We need to ﬁnd the direction of the unit vector normal to the oblique face of the tetrahedron, ˆ n:
ˆ n
ACB
=
A
ACB
A
ACB

(5.72)
where A
ACB
is the area of the tetrahedron’s oblique face. Note that for a tetrahedron OA = OB = OC.
Let us take OA = OB = OC = ∆. Let us proceed to obtain the area of ACB:
A
ACB
=
1
2
r
(AC)
r
(AB)
where
r
(AC)
= C−A =
_
_
_
0
∆
0
_
_
_
−
_
_
_
∆
0
0
_
_
_
= −∆
ˆ
i + ∆
ˆ
j
r
(AB)
= B−A =
_
_
_
0
0
∆
_
_
_
−
_
_
_
∆
0
0
_
_
_
= −∆
ˆ
i + ∆
ˆ
j
5.3. IMPORTANT STRESSES 254
Hence, the area and its magnitude are
A
ACB
=
1
2
r
(AC)
r
(AB)
=
1
2
∆
2
ˆ
i +
1
2
∆
2
ˆ
j +
1
2
∆
2
ˆ
k
A
ACB
 =
_
A
ABC
A
ABC
=
_
A
2
x
+A
2
y
+A
2
z
=
√
3
2
∆
2
Thus, the unit vector on face ACB is
ˆ n
ACB
=
1
√
3
ˆ
i +
1
√
3
ˆ
j +
1
√
3
ˆ
k (5.73)
Now we ﬁnd the stress vector on face ACB using Cauchy’s formula
T
(ACB)
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
1
0 0
0 σ
2
0
0 0 σ
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
√
3
1
√
3
1
√
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
1
√
3
σ
2
√
3
σ
3
√
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
σ
1
√
3
ˆ
i +
σ
2
√
3
ˆ
j +
σ
3
√
3
ˆ
k
Since the octahedral stress vector is the stress vector acting on face ACB:
T
(oct)
= T
(ACB)
=
σ
1
√
3
ˆ
i +
σ
2
√
3
ˆ
j +
σ
3
√
3
ˆ
k
(5.74)
The magnitude of the normal octahedral stress can be obtained using Eq. (5.5):
σ
oct
= T
(oct)
ˆ n
oct
=
σ
1
+σ
2
+σ
3
3
(5.75)
where ˆ n
oct
= ˆ n
ACB
. The magnitude of the shear octahedral stress can be obtained using Eq. (5.7):
τ
oct
=
_
_
_
T
(oct)
_
_
2
−σ
2
oct
=
√
2
3
_
σ
2
1
+σ
2
2
+σ
2
3
−σ
1
σ
2
−σ
1
σ
3
−σ
2
σ
3
(5.76)
We can rearrange the above equation as follows
τ
oct
=
1
3
_
(σ
1
−σ
2
)
2
+ (σ
2
−σ
3
)
2
+ (σ
3
−σ
1
)
2
=
1
3
_
(σ
xx
−σ
yy
)
2
+ (σ
yy
−σ
zz
)
2
+ (σ
zz
−σ
xx
)
2
+ 6
_
τ
2
xy
+τ
2
yz
+τ
2
xz
_
(5.77)
The octahedral stresses can also be expressed in terms of the stress invariants as follows
_
_
σ
1
−λ 0 0
0 σ
2
−λ 0
0 0 σ
3
−λ
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
5.3. IMPORTANT STRESSES 255
The nontrivial solution is given when the determinant of the matrix of coeﬃcients of n
x
, n
y
, and n
z
vanish:
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
1
−λ 0 0
0 σ
2
−λ 0
0 0 σ
3
−λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
The characteristic equation obtained by expanding the determinant can be expressed in terms of the
stress invariants as follows
λ
3
−I
σ1
λ
2
+I
σ2
λ −I
σ3
= 0
where I
σi
’s are the stress invariants. Using the deﬁnition of stress invariants:
I
σ1
= σ
1
+σ
2
+σ
3
I
σ2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
1
0
0 σ
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
2
0
0 σ
3
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
1
0
0 σ
3
¸
¸
¸
¸
= σ
1
σ
2
+σ
2
σ
3
+σ
1
σ
3
I
σ3
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
1
0 0
0 σ
2
0
0 0 σ
3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= σ
1
σ
2
σ
3
We can express the normal octahedral (hydrostatic) stress in terms of the stress invariants as follows:
σ
oct
=
σ
1
+σ
2
+σ
3
3
=
I
σ1
3
(5.78)
and the shear octahedral stress in terms of the stress invariants as follows:
τ
oct
=
1
3
_
(σ
1
−σ
2
)
2
+ (σ
2
−σ
3
)
2
+ (σ
3
−σ
1
)
2
=
1
3
_
2 I
2
σ1
−6 I
σ2
(5.79)
5.3.2 Von Mises Stress
The triaxial state of stress can be expressed in terms of the following equation
τ
oct
=
√
2
3
σ
eq
(5.80)
where σ
eq
is known as the von Misses stress, eﬀective stress, or equivalent uniaxial stress. The derivation
for the above equation is left for the discussion of steadyload failure criterions. However, here we deﬁne
5.3. IMPORTANT STRESSES 256
the von Mises stress using the expression for τ
oct
:
σ
eq
=
¸
(σ
1
−σ
2
)
2
+ (σ
2
−σ
3
)
2
+ (σ
3
−σ
1
)
2
2
=
¸
(σ
xx
−σ
yy
)
2
+ (σ
yy
−σ
zz
)
2
+ (σ
zz
−σ
xx
)
2
+ 6
_
τ
2
xy
+τ
2
yz
+τ
2
xz
_
2
=
_
I
2
σ1
−3 I
σ2
(5.81)
Note that the von Mises stress is invariant as it only depends on stress invariants.
For a uniaxial state of stress
σ =
_
_
σ
xx
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
where σ
2
= σ
3
= 0,
σ
eq
= σ
1
= σ
xx
For a state of plane stress (say the xy plane)
σ =
_
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
0
τ
xy
σ
yy
0
0 0 0
_
_
where σ
3
= 0,
σ
eq
=
_
σ
2
1
+σ
2
2
−σ
1
σ
2
=
_
σ
2
xx
+σ
2
yy
−σ
yy
σ
xx
+ 3 τ
2
xy
Reconsider the particular case of combined loading, where σ
yy
= σ
zz
= τ
xz
= τ
yz
= 0. Then the above
expression becomes
σ
eq
=
_
σ
2
xx
+ 3 τ
2
xy
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 257
5.4 Theory of Strains
A structure deforms as we apply loads. The deformation may produce change in the dimensions of
the body, change in its shape. Deformations induce strains throughout the structure. Thus, strain
may deﬁned as a measure of the relative distortion of the material in the vicinity of a given point.
Normal strains have units of [Length]/[Length] and shear strains have units of [radians]; and they are
directionally dependent.
x, U
z, W
y, V
Reference configuration
(Undeformed)
Current configuration
(Deformed)
P
1
(x
1
, y
1
, z
1
)
R
r
r
1
P(x, y, z)
Figure 5.19: Deformation of a solid body from the initial conﬁguration, (
0
, to the current conﬁguration,
(
1
The formulation of strains is more complex that that of stresses. One reason is due to the non
linear terms. As is was in the case of stresses, we are interested in deriving the state of strain in the
neighborhood of a given point. The state of strain may be deﬁned as the deformation of a solid in the
neighborhood of a given point, say point P of position vector
r = x
ˆ
i +y
ˆ
j +z
ˆ
k (5.82)
as shown in Fig. 5.19.
To better understand the concept of strain let us start by deﬁning the deformed and undeformed
states. The reference conﬁguration is the conﬁguration of the solid in its undeformed state. Under
the eﬀect of applied loads, the body deforms and assumes a new conﬁguration, called the deformed
conﬁguration. Figure 5.19 shows an arbitrary body in its initial and deformed conﬁgurations. Let the
body in its undeformed conﬁguration have a volume designated Γ, external surface area Ω, mass density
ρ, and reference material points of the body to cartesian coordinates x, y, z. Denote the deformed
conﬁguration with a volume Γ
1
, external surface area Ω
1
, mass density ρ
1
, and reference material points
of the body to cartesian coordinates x
1
, y
1
, z
1
. Furthermore, let the coordinate system of the reference
(undeformed) and current (deformed) conﬁguration coincide.
The initial position of a point, P, with coordinates (x, y, z) is given by the position vector r, and the
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 258
current position of the same point, P
1
, with coordinates (x
1
, y
1
, z
1
) is given by the position vector r
1
.
Let us deﬁne the position vector r
1
as
r
1
= r +R
where
4
R =
_
_
_
U(x, y, z)
V (x, y, z)
W(x, y, z)
_
_
_
r =
_
_
_
x
y
z
_
_
_
r
1
=
_
_
_
x
1
y
1
z
1
_
_
_
When loads are applied to an initially unstressed body, each unconstrained material particle undergoes a
small displacement, moving from its initial location to a new location a small distance away, see Fig. 5.19.
y
z
x
P
Q
R
S
T
P
1
R
1
Q
1
S
1
T
1
r
R
Reference Configuration Deformed Configuration
dy
dx
dz
r
1
dr
dr
1
Figure 5.20: The neighborhood of point P in the reference and deformed conﬁgurations..
In order to visualize the deformed conﬁguration, consider a small rectangular parallelepiped PQRST
of diﬀerential volume dΓ = dxdy dz. Let us cut the parallelepiped in the neighborhood of point P, as
shown in Fig. 5.20. All the material particle that form the rectangular parallelepiped PQRST in the
reference conﬁguration now form the parallelepiped P
1
Q
1
R
1
S
1
T
1
in the deformed conﬁguration. The
state of strain at a point characterizes the deformation of the parallelepiped without any consideration
for the loads that created the deformation.
The displacement vector is a measure of how much a material point moves from the reference to the
deformed conﬁguration. The components of the displacement vector in the cartesian coordinates are
R = U(x, y, z)
ˆ
i +V (x, y, z)
ˆ
j +W(x, y, z)
ˆ
k (5.83)
4
They could be timedependent.
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 259
This displacement ﬁeld describes the displacement of any point within the solid and consists of two parts:
a rigid body motion and a deformation or straining of the solid. The rigid body motion itself consists of
two parts: a rigid body translation and rigid body rotation. By deﬁnition, a rigid body motion does not
strain the body. Strain measures extract from the displacement ﬁeld the part that deforms the body.
Consider a diﬀerential line element dr joining an arbitrary material point P to a neighboring material
point Q, as shown in Fig. 5.20. The components of dr are:
dr = dx
ˆ
i +dy
ˆ
j +dz
ˆ
k
and the magnitude is
ds = dr =
_
dx
2
+dy
2
+dz
2
Thus the unit vector un the direction of dr is
ˆ n =
dr
ds
=
dx
ds
ˆ
i +
dy
ds
ˆ
j +
dz
ds
ˆ
k
During deformation, point P undergoes a displacement R, carrying it to P
1
. The displacement vector
joins a point in the deformed body to its new location in the deformed state. The coordinates of P
1
therefore are
x
1
= x +U(x, y, z) y
1
= y +V (x, y, z) z
1
= z +W(x, y, z) (5.84)
Thus, after deformation, the vector joining P
1
to Q
1
is dr
1
:
dr
1
= dx
1
ˆ
i +dy
1
ˆ
j +dz
1
ˆ
k
where
dx
1
= dx +dU dy
1
= dy +dV dz
1
= dz +dW (5.85)
From diﬀerential calculus, the total derivatives in Eq. (5.85) are:
dU =
∂U
∂x
dx +
∂U
∂y
dy +
∂U
∂z
dz
dV =
∂V
∂x
dx +
∂V
∂y
dy +
∂V
∂z
dz
dW =
∂W
∂x
dx +
∂W
∂y
dy +
∂W
∂z
dz
Thus, Eq. (5.85) may be written as:
dx
1
= dx +
∂U
∂x
dx +
∂U
∂y
dy +
∂U
∂z
dz
dy
1
= dy +
∂V
∂x
dx +
∂V
∂y
dy +
∂V
∂z
dz
dz
1
= dz +
∂W
∂x
dx +
∂W
∂y
dy +
∂W
∂z
dz
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 260
5.4.1 State of Strain
A material line is an ensemble of material particles that are in a straight line in the reference conﬁguration
of the body. For instance, segments PR, PS and PT of the reference conﬁguration are material lines.
Due to the deformation of the body, all the material particles forming material line PR will move to
segment P
1
R
1
in the deformed conﬁguration. Due to the diﬀerential nature of this segment, it can be
assumed to remain straight in the deformed conﬁguration.
When comparing segment PR in the undeformed and deformed conﬁgurations, the motion consists
of two parts: a change in orientation and a change in length. Clearly, the orientation change is a
rigid body motion, whereas the change in length is a deformation or stretching of the material line.
Similarly, segments PR and PS form a rectangle in the reference conﬁguration, but a parallelogram
in the deformed conﬁguration. Here again, the change in orientation of the rectangle is a rigid body
rotation, but the angular distortion of the rectangle into a parallelogram represents a deformation of the
body. Stretching of the material lines and angular distortion between two material lines will be selected
as measures of the state of strain at a point.
The stretching or relative elongations of materials lines PR, PS and PT will be denoted e
xx
, e
yy
and
e
zz
, respectively. The angular distortions between segments PS and PT, PR and PT, and PR and PS
will be denoted γ
yz
, γ
xz
, and γ
xy
, respectively.
Extensional Strains
The extensional strain of the line element PQ in Fig. 5.20, is the ratio of the change of its length to its
original length:
e
n
=
ds
1
−ds
ds
=
ds
1
ds
−1
The extensional strain is obviously a dimensionless quantity and a typical order of magnitude is 10
−3
.
It is written often as 1000µ and is read as “1000 microstrain”, where µ = 10
−6
length units/ per length
unit. In order to derive these strains let us only look at the material line PR. This will give us the total
strain in the xdirection. The relative elongation, e
xx
, of the material line PR is deﬁned as:
e
xx
=
ds
1
ds
−1 =
P
1
R
1
PR
−1
The length of the material lines in the undeformed and deformed conﬁgurations are
PR =
_
_
_dx
ˆ
i
_
_
_ = dx
P
1
R
1
=
_
_
_(dx +dU)
ˆ
i
_
_
_ =
¸
1 + 2
∂U
∂x
+
_
∂U
∂x
_
2
+
_
∂V
∂x
_
2
+
_
∂W
∂x
_
2
dx
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 261
The extensional, or relative, elongation becomes
e
xx
=
P
1
R
1
PR
−1
=
¸
1 + 2
∂U
∂x
+
_
∂U
∂x
_
2
+
_
∂V
∂x
_
2
+
_
∂W
∂x
_
2
dx
dx
−1
=
¸
1 + 2
∂U
∂x
+
_
∂U
∂x
_
2
+
_
∂V
∂x
_
2
+
_
∂W
∂x
_
2
−1
We can replace the squared operator by using the following expansion
(1 +)
1/2
= 1 +
1
2
−
1
8
2
+
1
16
3
+
and for a small
(1 +)
1/2
≈ 1 +
1
2
(5.86)
Thus,
e
xx
=
∂U
∂x
+
1
2
_
_
∂U
∂x
_
2
+
_
∂V
∂x
_
2
+
_
∂W
∂x
_
2
_
Similarly,
e
yy
=
∂V
∂y
+
1
2
_
_
∂U
∂y
_
2
+
_
∂V
∂y
_
2
+
_
∂W
∂y
_
2
_
e
zz
=
∂W
∂z
+
1
2
_
_
∂U
∂z
_
2
+
_
∂V
∂z
_
2
+
_
∂W
∂z
_
2
_
In most aerospace engineering materials, strains on the order of 1% or more may cause damage,
which is unacceptable. The fact that in most applications are indeed quite small when compared to
1, justiﬁes a fundamental assumption of linear elasticity which states that all displacement components
remain very small so that all second order terms can be neglected. As a consequence:
[U[ ¸1 [V [ ¸1 [W[ ¸1
¸
¸
¸
¸
∂U
∂x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸1
¸
¸
¸
¸
∂U
∂y
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸1
¸
¸
¸
¸
∂U
∂z
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸1
¸
¸
¸
¸
∂V
∂x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸1
¸
¸
¸
¸
∂V
∂y
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸1
¸
¸
¸
¸
∂V
∂z
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸1
¸
¸
¸
¸
∂W
∂x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸1
¸
¸
¸
¸
∂W
∂y
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸1
¸
¸
¸
¸
∂W
∂z
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸1
With these assumptions, the expressions for the relative elongation are reduced to:
e
xx
=
∂U
∂x
e
yy
=
∂V
∂y
e
zz
=
∂W
∂z
But we should treat this assumption with care as for some applications, such as helicopter blades,
nonlinear terms are extremely important.
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 262
Shear Strain
Now let us obtain the appropriate measure of the change in shape of the solid body. To better understand
the derivation, let us limit to the yz plane, see Fig. 5.21.
P
Q
R
S
T
P
1
R
1
Q
1
S
1
T
1
Reference Configuration Deformed Configuration
T
P= P
1
S
T
1
S
1
Undeformed
Deformed
y
z
y
z
x
α
β
yz plane with positive angular distortion
Figure 5.21: Shear deformation in the reference and deformed conﬁgurations..
The shear strain, or the angular distortion, γ
yz
, between two material lines PT and PS is deﬁned as
the change of the initially right angle
γ
yz
= α +β = TPS −T
1
P
1
S
1
=
π
2
−T
1
P
1
S
1
where TPS is is used to indicate the angle between segments PT and PS. The shear strain, or the
angular distortion, are also nondimensional quantities. To eliminate the diﬀerence between the two
angles, the basic properties of the sine function are used: the sine of the angular distortion becomes
sin γ
yz
= sin
_
π
2
−T
1
P
1
S
1
_
= cos T
1
P
1
S
1
→ γ
yz
= arcsin
_
cos T
1
P
1
S
1
_
The cosine of the angle between the two material lines is computed from the following trigonometric
identity, the law of cosines, applied to triangle T
1
P
1
S
1
in the deformed conﬁguration
T
1
S
1

2
= P
1
T
1

2
+P
1
S
1

2
−2 P
1
T
1
 P
1
S
1
 cos T
1
P
1
S
1
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 263
solving in terms of the cosine of the angle T
1
P
1
S
1
cos T
1
P
1
S
1
=
T
1
S
1

2
−P
1
T
1

2
−P
1
S
1

2
2 P
1
T
1
 P
1
S
1

Thus, the shear strain is
γ
yz
= arcsin
_
cos T
1
P
1
S
1
_
= γ
yz
= arcsin
_
T
1
S
1

2
−P
1
T
1

2
−P
1
S
1

2
2 P
1
T
1
 P
1
S
1

_
The same procedure as used above in determining e
xx
is used to compute P
1
T
1
 and P
1
S
1
:
P
1
T
1
=
_
dy
ˆ
j +
∂R
∂y
dy
_
=
_
ˆ
j +
∂R
∂y
_
dy
P
1
S
1
=
_
dz
ˆ
k +
∂R
∂z
dz
_
=
_
ˆ
k +
∂R
∂z
_
dz
Hence,
T
1
S
1
= P
1
S
1
−P
1
T
1
With some mathematical manipulation, it can be shown that
numerator = T
1
S
1

2
−P
1
T
1

2
−P
1
S
1

2
= 2
_
ˆ
j +
∂R
∂y
_
_
ˆ
k +
∂R
∂z
_
dy dz
= 2
_
∂V
∂z
+
∂W
∂y
+
∂R
∂y
∂R
∂z
_
dy dz
= 2
_
∂V
∂z
+
∂W
∂y
+
∂U
∂y
∂U
∂z
+
∂V
∂y
∂V
∂z
+
∂W
∂y
∂W
∂z
_
dy dz
The denominator is expressed in the same manner:
denominator = 2 P
1
T
1
 P
1
S
1

= 2
¸
1 + 2
∂U
∂y
+
_
∂U
∂y
_
2
+
_
∂V
∂y
_
2
+
_
∂W
∂y
_
2
dy
¸
1 + 2
∂W
∂z
+
_
∂U
∂z
_
2
+
_
∂V
∂z
_
2
+
_
∂W
∂z
_
2
dz
Using Eq. (5.86), it can be shown that
denominator = 2 P
1
T
1
 P
1
S
1
 ≈ 1 +
∂U
∂y
+
∂W
∂z
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 264
For moderately small rotations, the angular distortion, or the shear strain about the xaxis can be
approximated as
γ
yz
=
∂V
∂z
+
∂W
∂y
+
∂U
∂y
∂U
∂z
+
∂V
∂y
∂V
∂z
+
∂W
∂y
∂W
∂z
Likewise,
γ
xy
=
∂U
∂y
+
∂V
∂x
+
∂U
∂y
∂U
∂x
+
∂V
∂y
∂V
∂x
+
∂W
∂y
∂W
∂x
γ
xz
=
∂U
∂z
+
∂W
∂x
+
∂U
∂x
∂U
∂z
+
∂V
∂x
∂V
∂z
+
∂W
∂x
∂W
∂z
For small displacements,
γ
xy
=
∂U
∂y
+
∂V
∂x
γ
xz
=
∂U
∂z
+
∂W
∂x
γ
yz
=
∂U
∂y
+
∂V
∂z
(5.87)
Now recall that the engineering shear strain (γ
shear
) is related to the true elasticity shear strain (e
shear
)
as
e
shear
=
γ
shear
2
(5.88)
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 265
Thus
e
xy
=
1
2
_
∂u
∂y
+
∂v
∂x
_
e
xz
=
1
2
_
∂u
∂z
+
∂w
∂x
_
e
yz
=
1
2
_
∂w
∂y
+
∂v
∂z
_
(5.89)
These strains are often called the GreenCauchy strains.
Green Tensor or Cauchy’s Strain Tensor
The components os strain relative to any set of orthogonal axes are therefore known if we are given the
state of strain (relative to a cartesian coordinate system),
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
The above is known as the strain tensor. Further we can show that the strain tensor is a symmetric
strain matrix,
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
xy
e
yy
e
yz
e
xz
e
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.90)
In terms of the engineering shear strains
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.91)
Example 5.7.
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 266
The following displacement ﬁeld describes the movement of a body under load:
R = 0.01
_
x
2
+ 3
_
ˆ
i + 0.01
_
3 y
2
z
_
ˆ
j + 0.01 (x + 3 z)
ˆ
k m
(a) Determine the strain tensor.
The strain tensor is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
and from the given problem,
U(x, y, z) = 0.01
_
x
2
+ 3
_
V (x, y, z) = 0.01
_
3 y
2
z
_
W(x, y, z) = 0.01 (x + 3 z)
Now, evaluating all strains we get
e
xx
=
∂U
∂x
= 2 (0.01) x e
yy
=
∂V
∂y
= 6 (0.01) y z
e
zz
=
∂W
∂z
= 0.03 γ
xy
=
∂U
∂y
+
∂V
∂x
= 0
γ
xz
=
∂U
∂z
+
∂W
∂x
= 0.010 γ
yz
=
∂W
∂y
+
∂V
∂z
= 3 (0.01) y
2
Thus, the strain tensor is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2 x 0 0.5
0 6 y z 1.5 y
2
0.5 1.5 y
2
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10
−2
(b) Determine the state of strain at (0,2,3).
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 267
At the given point x = 0 y = 2 z = 3. Thus the state of strain is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.000 0.000 0.005
0.000 0.360 0.060
0.005 0.060 0.030
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
End Example
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 268
5.4.2 Strain compatibility equations
We deﬁned the displacement ﬁeld, R, to describe the motion and deformation of a solid. In order to
accomplish this, the displacement ﬁeld must be a singlevalued, continuous function. If it is not single
valued, it means that certain points can have more than one displacement at a time, which is physically
impossible. A a discontinuous displacement ﬁeld means that originally inﬁnitesimally close points would
be separated by a ﬁnite amount in the deformed geometry, which takes place in presence of imperfections
or cracks. However, this is beyond the scope of this text.
The state of strain also has a means of describing deformation of a solid for purposes of relating
simply to the state of stress. Hence, we must ensure properly association with a physically deformation
of a solid, free from cracks and ﬁssures. To better understand this suppose a solid is before deformation
consists of a system of inﬁnitesimal contiguous cubes. Then, we must choose strain component functions
that ensure that
1. each element is continuous.
2. no element partially or fully occupies the same space at the same time.
This is known as ensuring strain compatibility. One way to ensure strain compatible is by starting with
a singlevalued, continuous displacement ﬁeld and developing the strains from this ﬁeld in accordance
with the straindisplacement equations discussed earlier. However, for some circumstances we may
only be able to assume the strains functions instead of the displacement ﬁeld. In order to ensure that
the strains are indeed compatible, we can derive certain equations known as the compatibility equations.
Compatibility equations guarantee for certain classes of bodies that the strains have the proper functions.
Consider the following derivatives of the shear strain components
∂
2
γ
yz
∂y ∂z
=
∂
2
∂y ∂z
_
∂V
∂z
+
∂W
∂y
_
=
∂
3
V
∂y ∂
2
z
+
∂
3
W
∂
2
y ∂z
=
∂
2
e
yy
∂z
2
+
∂
2
e
zz
∂y
2
or
2
∂
2
e
yz
∂y ∂z
=
∂
2
e
yy
∂z
2
+
∂
2
e
zz
∂y
2
This clearly implies that the shear and axial strain components are not independent. Consider now a
diﬀerent set of derivatives
∂
2
e
xx
∂y ∂z
=
∂
3
U
∂x∂y ∂z
∂γ
yz
∂x
=
∂
2
V
∂x∂z
+
∂
2
W
∂x∂y
∂γ
xz
∂y
=
∂
2
U
∂y ∂z
+
∂
2
W
∂x∂y
∂γ
xy
∂z
=
∂
2
U
∂y ∂z
+
∂
2
V
∂x∂z
It can be shown that all the above four equations can be written into one:
2
∂
2
e
xx
∂y ∂z
=
∂
∂x
_
−
∂γ
yz
∂x
+
∂γ
xz
∂y
+
∂γ
xy
∂z
_
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 269
or
∂
2
e
xx
∂y ∂z
=
∂
∂x
_
−
∂e
yz
∂x
+
∂e
xz
∂y
+
∂e
xy
∂z
_
This is another relationship between the shear and axial strain components. Similar relationship can be
obtained through cyclical permutations of the indices to yield the six strain compatibility equations
∂
2
e
xy
∂x∂y
=
∂
2
e
xx
∂y
2
+
∂
2
e
yy
∂x
2
∂
2
e
yz
∂y ∂z
=
∂
2
e
yy
∂z
2
+
∂
2
e
zz
∂y
2
∂
2
e
zx
∂z ∂x
=
∂
2
e
xx
∂z
2
+
∂
2
e
zz
∂x
2
∂
2
e
xx
∂y ∂z
=
∂
∂x
_
−
∂e
yz
∂x
+
∂e
xz
∂y
+
∂e
xy
∂z
_
∂
2
e
yy
∂x∂z
=
∂
∂y
_
−
∂e
zx
∂y
+
∂e
yx
∂z
+
∂e
yz
∂x
_
∂
2
e
zz
∂x∂y
=
∂
∂z
_
−
∂e
xy
∂z
+
∂e
zy
∂x
+
∂e
zx
∂y
_
(5.92)
In short, note that at the beginning of this chapter, we found that to satisfy equilibrium, stresses
had to vary with position in such a way as to satisfy the equilibrium equations. Similarly, strains must
vary with position so as to satisfy the compatibility equations in order to represent physically realizable
deformations.
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 270
5.4.3 Cauchy’s relationship for Strains
Cauchy’s relation can be extended for strains. Recall that to ﬁnd the stress vector at a surface with a
unit normal ˆ n
(s)
, we had
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
xx
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
xy
σ
yy
τ
yz
τ
xz
τ
yz
σ
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
(s)
= σ ˆ n
(s)
Analog to the above formulation, the relationship may be extended to strains as follows:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
E
x
E
y
E
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
E
(s)
= e ˆ n
(s)
(5.93)
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 271
Example 5.8.
The following displacement ﬁeld describes the movement of a body under load:
R = 0.01
_
x
2
+y
2
_
ˆ
i + 0.01 (3 +xz)
ˆ
j −
_
0.006 z
2
_
ˆ
k ft
(a) Determine the strain tensor.
The strain tensor is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
From the problem,
U(x, y, z) = 0.01
_
x
2
+y
2
_
V (x, y, z) = 0.01 (3 +xz)
W(x, y, z) = −
_
0.006 z
2
_
Now, evaluating all strains we get
e
xx
=
∂U
∂x
= 2 (0.01) x
e
yy
=
∂V
∂y
= 0
e
zz
=
∂W
∂z
= −.012 z
γ
xy
=
∂U
∂y
+
∂V
∂x
= 2 (0.01) y + (0.01) z
γ
xz
=
∂U
∂z
+
∂W
∂x
= 0
γ
yz
=
∂W
∂y
+
∂V
∂z
= (0.01) x
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 272
Thus, the strain tensor is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2 x y +
z
2
0
y +
z
2
0
x
2
0
x
2
−1.2 z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10
−2
(b) Determine the state of strain at (0,1,3).
At the given point x = 0, y = 1, z = 3. Thus the state of strain is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0.025 0
0.025 0 0
0 0 −0.036
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(c) Compute the normal strain at (0,1,3) in the direction of
ˆ n
(s)
= 0.6
ˆ
i + 0.8
ˆ
j =
_
_
_
0.6
0.8
0.0
_
_
_
E
(s)
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0.025 0
0.025 0 0
0 0 −0.036
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
_
_
0.6
0.8
0.0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0.0200
0.015
0.000
_
_
_
The normal component of the strain is
e
nn
=
_
E
(s)
¸
T
ˆ n
(s)
=
_
0.0200 0.015 0.000
_
_
_
_
0.6
0.8
0.0
_
_
_
= 0.0240
End Example
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 273
5.4.4 Principal Strains and Principal Planes
Similar to principal stresses, the knowledge of principal strains help us ﬁnd plane(s) on which the
normal strains has the largest possible value or plane(s) on which the largest possible shear strain value.
A principal plane is a plane such that the strain vector acting on that plane has no component which is
tangent to the plane (i.e., there are no shear strains acting on the plane):
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
1
0 0
0 e
2
0
0 0 e
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.94)
In order words, the strain vector has the same direction as the unit normal that describes the plane.
The magnitude of the normal strain is known as principal strain. The procedure is similar to that
used to obtain principal stresses for a given threedimensional state of stress
5
The derivation of the eigenvalue problem is similar to that for the stress analysis. If φ is the magnitude
of the strain vector acting on the principal plane the strain vector is deﬁned as
φ ˆ n = φ
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
= φ
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
φ 0 0
0 φ 0
0 0 φ
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.95)
Now using the knowledge of what the strain vector should be for a principal plane, Eq. (5.95),
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
φ 0 0
0 φ 0
0 0 φ
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Thus for a principal plane,
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
−φ
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
−φ
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
−φ
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
(5.96)
These equations have the trivial solution n
x
= n
y
= n
z
= 0, which is not allowed, since n
x
, n
y
, and n
z
5
All stress equations apply but take τ →
γ
2
and σ →e for the case of strains.
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 274
are the components of a unit vector, satisfying
n
2
x
+n
2
y
+n
2
z
= 1 (5.97)
Equations in (5.96) possess a nontrivial solution if the three equations are not independent of each other.
In other words, the determinant of the matrix of coeﬃcients of n
x
, n
y
, and n
z
must vanish:
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
xx
−φ
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
−φ
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
−φ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
The characteristic equation obtained by expanding the determinant can be expressed in terms of the
strain invariants as follows
φ
3
−I
1
φ
2
+I
2
φ −I
3
= 0 (5.98)
where I
i
’s are:
I
1
= e
xx
+e
yy
+e
zz
(5.99)
I
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
xx
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xz
e
zz
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= e
xx
e
yy
+e
zz
e
xx
+e
yy
e
zz
−
1
4
_
γ
2
xy
+γ
2
yz
+γ
2
xz
_
(5.100)
I
3
= det
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
+
1
4
_
γ
xy
γ
yz
γ
xz
−e
xx
γ
2
yz
−e
yy
γ
2
xz
−e
zz
γ
2
xy
_
(5.101)
The three roots of the characteristic equation, Eq. (5.98), are the principal strains and can be obtained
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 275
analytically:
e
1
=
I
1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
1
−3 I
2
cos
_
β
3
_
(5.102)
e
2
=
I
1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
1
−3 I
2
cos
_
β
3
+
2 π
3
_
(5.103)
e
3
=
I
1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
1
−3 I
2
cos
_
β
3
+
4 π
3
_
(5.104)
β = cos
−1
_
_
2I
3
1
−9I
1
I
2
+ 27I
3
2
_
_
I
2
1
−3I
2
_
3
_
_
(keep in radians) (5.105)
Since the strain tensor is symmetric, the principal strains, roots of Eq. (5.98), will be three realvalued
solutions. For each of these three solutions, the matrix of the system of equations deﬁned by Eq. (5.96)
will have a zero determinant and a non trivial solution for the directions cosines that now deﬁne the
direction for which the shear strains vanish. Such direction is called a principal strain direction. Since
the equations to be solved are homogeneous, their solution will include an arbitrary constant which can
be determined by enforcing the condition
n
2
x
+n
2
y
+n
2
z
= 1
associated with the fact that vector ˆ n must be a unit vector. Since there exist three principal strains,
three principal strain directions will exist. It can be shown that these three directions are mutually
orthogonal.
It turns out that a state of strain not only has three extreme values of normal strain, but also three
extreme values of shear strain, which are related to the three principal strains as follows:
e
12
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
1
−e
2
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
13
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
1
−e
3
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
23
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
2
−e
3
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
(5.106)
or
γ
12
= [e
1
−e
2
[ γ
13
= [e
1
−e
3
[ γ
23
= [e
2
−e
3
[ (5.107)
Observe that the absolute maximum shear strain at a point equals onehalf the diﬀerence between the
largest and the smallest principal strain, or:
e
max
= max[e
1
, e
2
, e
3
] (5.108)
e
min
= min[e
1
, e
2
, e
3
] (5.109)
γ
max
= [e
max
−e
min
[ (5.110)
Note that whereas the shear strain vanishes on planes of principal strain, the normal strain is generally
nonzero on planes where the shear strain acquires its extreme values.
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 276
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(1)
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(1)
, the principal direction of e
1
, we substitute φ = e
1
into Eq. (5.96) and use only two equations
but not all three. This will give two of the three components of ˆ n
(1)
(n
(1)
x
, n
(1)
y
, and n
(1)
z
) and the last
component is obtained with
_
n
(1)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
z
_
2
= 1
thus
ˆ n
(1)
=
_
¸
_
¸
_
n
(1)
x
n
(1)
y
n
(1)
z
_
¸
_
¸
_
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(2)
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(2)
, the principal direction of e
2
, we substitute φ = e
2
into Eq. (5.96) and use only two equations
but not all three. This will give two of the three components of ˆ n
(2)
(n
(2)
x
, n
(2)
y
, and n
(2)
z
) and the last
component is obtained with
_
n
(2)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
z
_
2
= 1
thus
ˆ n
(2)
=
_
¸
_
¸
_
n
(2)
x
n
(2)
y
n
(2)
z
_
¸
_
¸
_
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(3)
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(3)
, the principal direction of e
3
, we substitute φ = e
3
into Eq. (5.96) and use only two equations
but not all three. This will give two of the three components of ˆ n
(3)
(n
(3)
x
, n
(3)
y
, and n
(3)
z
) and the last
component is obtained with
_
n
(3)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
z
_
2
= 1
thus
ˆ n
(3)
=
_
¸
_
¸
_
n
(3)
x
n
(3)
y
n
(3)
z
_
¸
_
¸
_
Note that the principal planes are orthogonal to each other. In other words, the three principal normals
are perpendicular to one another and thus
ˆ n
(3)
= ˆ n
(1)
ˆ n
(2)
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 277
Example 5.9.
Determine the three principal strains and the corresponding principal planes for the state of
strain given in Example 5.7.
From the problem we found that the state of strain at (0,2,3) was
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.000 0.000 0.005
0.000 0.360 0.060
0.005 0.060 0.030
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
For a principal plane, Cauchy’s equations can be written in matrix form as follows
_
_
e
xx
−φ e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
−φ e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
−φ
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.000 −φ 0.000 0.005
0.000 0.360 −φ 0.060
0.005 0.060 0.030 −φ
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
For nontrivial solutions the determinant of the matrix of coeﬃcients of n
x
, n
y
, and n
z
must
vanish:
det
_
_
e
xx
−φ e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
−φ e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
−φ
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0.000 −φ 0.000 0.005
0.000 0.360 −φ 0.060
0.005 0.060 0.030 −φ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
The characteristic equation obtained by expanding the determinant can be expressed in terms
of the stress invariants as follows
φ
3
−I
1
φ
2
+I
2
φ −I
3
= 0
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 278
where I
i
’s are the strain invariants.
I
1
= e
xx
+e
yy
+e
zz
= 0.390
I
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
xx
e
xy
e
xy
e
yy
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
xx
e
xz
e
xz
e
zz
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
yy
e
yz
e
yz
e
zz
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= e
xx
e
yy
+e
zz
e
xx
+e
yy
e
zz
−e
2
xy
+e
2
yz
+e
2
xz
= 0.007175
I
3
= det
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
xy
e
yy
e
yz
e
xz
e
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
+
_
2 e
xy
e
yz
e
xz
−e
xx
e
2
yz
−e
yy
e
2
xz
−e
zz
e
2
xy
_
= −0.000009
Therefore, the characteristic equation can be written as
λ
3
−0.390 λ
2
+ 0.007175 λ + 0.000009 = 0
The three roots of the characteristic equation are the principal strains and are obtained
analytically as follows:
β = cos
−1
_
_
2 I
3
1
−9 I
1
I
2
+ 27 I
3
2
_
_
I
2
1
− 3 I
2
_
3
_
_
= 0.11567 rads
φ
1
=
I
1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
1
−3 I
2
cos
_
β
3
_
= 0.370573
φ
2
=
I
1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
1
−3 I
2
cos
_
β
3
+
2 π
3
_
= −0.001178
φ
3
=
I
1
3
+
2
3
_
I
2
1
−3 I
2
cos
_
β
3
+
4 π
3
_
= 0.02061
and the principal strains are
e
1
= max[φ
1
, φ
2
, φ
3
] = 0.370573
e
3
= min[φ
1
, φ
2
, φ
3
] = −0.001178
e
2
= 0.02061
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 279
As we can see the principal strains are given as follows
e
1
> e
2
> e
3
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(1)
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(1)
, the principal direction of e
1
= 0.370573, we substitute φ = e
1
into Eq. (5.96)
and use only two equations but not all three. This will give two of the three components of
ˆ n
(1)
(n
(1)
x
, n
(1)
y
, and n
(1)
z
) and the last component is obtained with
_
n
(1)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
z
_
2
= 1
(5.111)
Therefore,
_
_
−0.370573 0.0 0.005
0.0 −0.010573 0.06
0.005 0.06 −0.340573
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
(1)
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
−0.370573 n
(1)
x
+ 0 + 0.005 n
(1)
z
= 0
0 + −0.010573 n
(1)
y
+ 0.06 n
(1)
z
= 0
0.005 n
(1)
x
+ 0.06 n
(1)
y
+ −0.340573 n
(1)
z
= 0
Using the ﬁrst two equations (we could have used any two equations) and solving all variables
in terms of n
(1)
z
(we could have solved in terms of any other component). Using the ﬁrst two
equations:
n
(1)
x
= 0.01349 n
(1)
z
n
(1)
y
= 5.6748 n
(1)
z
(5.112)
Now obtain n
(1)
z
using Eq. (5.111)
_
n
(1)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
z
_
2
= 1
_
0.01349 n
(1)
z
_
2
+
_
5.6748 n
(1)
z
_
2
+
_
n
(1)
z
_
2
= 1
Then
n
(1)
z
= ±0.173535
Now taking the positive sign (arbitrarily) of n
(1)
z
and substituting into Eq. (5.112)
n
(1)
z
= 0.173535 n
(1)
x
= 0.00234144 n
(1)
y
= 0.984825
Thus, the principal strain e
1
= 0.370573 acts on a plane with the unit normal
ˆ n
(1)
=
_
_
_
0.00234144
0.984825
0.173535
_
_
_
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 280
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(2)
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(2)
, the principal direction of e
2
= 0.0206061, we substitute φ = e
2
into Eq. (5.96)
and use only two equations but not all three. This will give two of the three components of
ˆ n
(2)
(n
(2)
x
, n
(2)
y
, and n
(2)
z
) and the last component is obtained with
_
n
(2)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
z
_
2
= 1
(5.113)
Therefore,
_
_
−0.0206061 0.0 0.005
0.0 0.33939 0.06
0.005 0.06 0.00939
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
(2)
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
−0.0206061 n
(2)
x
+ 0 + 0.005 n
(2)
z
= 0
0 + 0.33939 n
(2)
y
+ 0.06 n
(2)
z
= 0
0.005 n
(2)
x
+ 0.06 n
(2)
y
+ 0.00939 n
(2)
z
= 0
Using the ﬁrst two equations (we could have used any two equations) and solving all variables
in terms of n
(2)
z
(we could have solved in terms of any other component). Using the ﬁrst two
equations:
n
(2)
x
= 0.2426 n
(2)
z
n
(2)
y
= −0.17678 n
(2)
z
(5.114)
Now obtain n
(2)
z
using Eq. (5.113)
_
n
(2)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
z
_
2
= 1
_
0.2426 n
(2)
z
_
2
+
_
−0.17678 n
(2)
z
_
2
+
_
n
(2)
z
_
2
= 1
Then
n
(2)
z
= ±0.957769
Now taking the positive sign (arbitrarily) of n
(2)
z
and substituting into Eq. (5.114)
n
(2)
z
= 0.957769 n
(2)
x
= 0.232399 n
(2)
y
= −0.16932
Thus, the principal strain e
2
= 0.00206061 acts on a plane with the unit normal
ˆ n
(2)
=
_
_
_
0.232399
−0.16932
0.957769
_
_
_
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 281
Principal Plane: ˆ n
(3)
To ﬁnd ˆ n
(3)
, the principal direction of e
3
= −0.00117862, we substitute φ = e
1
into Eq. (5.96)
and use only two equations but not all three. This will give two of the three components of
ˆ n
(3)
(n
(3)
x
, n
(3)
y
, and n
(3)
z
) and the last component is obtained with
_
n
(3)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
z
_
2
= 1
(5.115)
Therefore,
_
_
0.00117862 0.0 0.005
0.0 0.361178 0.06
0.005 0.06 0.031178
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
(3)
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
0.00117862 n
(3)
x
+ 0 + 0.005 n
(3)
z
= 0
0 + 0.361178 n
(3)
y
+ 0.06 n
(3)
z
= 0
0.005 n
(3)
x
+ 0.06 n
(3)
y
+ 0.031178 n
(3)
z
= 0
Using the ﬁrst two equations (we could have used any two equations) and solving all variables
in terms of n
(3)
z
(we could have solved in terms of any other component). Using the ﬁrst two
equations:
n
(3)
x
= −4.24225 n
(3)
z
n
(3)
y
= −0.166123 n
(3)
z
(5.116)
Now obtain n
(3)
z
using Eq. (5.115)
_
n
(3)
x
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
y
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
z
_
2
= 1
_
−4.24225 n
(3)
z
_
2
+
_
−0.166123 n
(3)
z
_
2
+
_
n
(3)
z
_
2
= 1
Then
n
(3)
z
= ±0.229269
Now taking the positive sign (arbitrarily) of n
(3)
z
and substituting into Eq. (5.116)
n
(3)
z
= 0.229269 n
(3)
x
= −0.972618 n
(3)
y
= −0.0380868
Thus, the principal strain e
3
= −0.0405854 acts on a plane with the unit normal
ˆ n
(3)
=
_
_
_
−0.972618
−0.0380868
0.229269
_
_
_
5.4. THEORY OF STRAINS 282
Also, we could have obtained this by using Eq. (5.42):
ˆ n
(3)
= ˆ n
(1)
ˆ n
(2)
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ˆ
i
ˆ
j
ˆ
k
0.00234144 0.984825 0.173535
0.232399 −0.16932 0.957769
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −0.972618
ˆ
i −0.0380868
ˆ
j + 0.229269
ˆ
k
End Example
5.5. STATE OF PLANE STRAIN 283
5.5 State of Plane Strain
The state of strain in the neighborhood of a point is given by the strain tensor
e =
_
_
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yx
e
yy
e
yz
e
zx
e
zy
e
zz
_
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.117)
The plane state of strain is of great practical importance in aerospace engineering. In this case, the
displacement component along the direction of zaxis is assumed to vanish, or to be negligible compared
to the displacement components in the other two directions.
For applications for which a material is formed into thick sheets and plates of uniform thickness, it is
often appropriate to assume that the strain components are conﬁned to a plane, say xy plane. In other
words,
γ
xz
= γ
yz
= 0 (5.118)
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
0
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.119)
Now for many problems, such as in aerospace applications,
e
zz
¸e
xx
e
zz
¸e
yy
(5.120)
If this is the case, then we can take
e
zz
≈ 0 (5.121)
This type of problems are known as plane strain problems and the three dimensional state of strain
reduces to three independent components,
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
0
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
_
e
xx
e
xy
0
e
xy
e
yy
0
0 0 0
_
_
(5.122)
5.5.1 Principal strains for State of Plane Strain
Now we will brieﬂy discuss three diﬀerent methods used to obtain the principal strains and maximum
shear strains.
5.5. STATE OF PLANE STRAIN 284
Principal strains: Eigenvalue Approach
A principal plane is a plane such that the strain vector acting on that plane has no component which is
tangent to the plane (i.e., there are no shear strains acting on the plane):
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
1
0 0
0 e
2
0
0 0 e
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
For a plane strain problem,
_
_
e
xx
−φ e
xy
0
e
yx
e
yy
−φ 0
0 0 0 −φ
_
_
_
_
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
The above posses a nontrivial solution if the three equations are not independent of each other. In other
words, the determinant of the matrix of coeﬃcients of n
x
, n
y
, and n
z
must vanish:
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
xx
−φ e
xy
0
e
yx
e
yy
−φ 0
0 0 0 −φ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
The characteristic equation obtained by expanding the determinant can be expressed in terms of the
strain invariants as follows
φ
3
−I
1
φ
2
+I
2
φ −I
3
= 0
where I
i
’s are the strain invariants. Using the deﬁnition of strain invariants:
I
1
= e
xx
+e
yy
I
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
xx
0
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
yy
0
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
= e
xx
e
yy
−
1
4
γ
2
xy
I
3
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
0
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
0
0 0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
Thus the characteristic equation becomes
φ
3
−I
1
φ
2
+I
2
φ = 0φ
_
φ
2
−I
1
φ +I
2
_
= 0 (5.123)
5.5. STATE OF PLANE STRAIN 285
The three roots of the characteristic equation, Eq. (5.123), are the principal strains and can be obtained
analytically:
e
1
=
I
1
2
+
1
2
_
I
2
1
−4 I
2
e
2
=
I
1
2
−
1
2
_
I
2
1
−4 I
2
e
3
= 0
5.5.2 Strain Measurements
The whole idea of state of stress at a given point of an elastic body must be veriﬁed using through
experimental data or measurements. So far we have no experimental equipment to directly measure
stresses. However, we do have gauges that can measure strains, and thus the state of strain. The state
of stress can be obtained using the constitutive laws discussed in chapter 6.
Let us now discuss how we determine the state of strain. In general, we obtain the measurements
on an external surface rather than at an interior point. As we have discussed in previous sections,
a twodimensional state of strain in the neighborhood of a point is characterized by two components:
extensional and angular (shear). The measurement of the ﬁrst one, extensional strains, is easy; but the
measurement of the extremely small angular changes associated with shear strain is very diﬃcult to
accomplish. The relative elongation at the surface of a body can be measured with the help of what
are called electrical resistance strain gauges, or more simply, strain gauges. The complete state of strain
at the surface of the body is speciﬁed by three independent quantities, i.e., either two extensional and
a shear strain, or two principal strains and a principal direction. These can be computed from the
measurement of relative elongation in three distinct directions.
1
3
2
u
3
, y
u
2
u
1
, x
θ
Figure 5.22: Three strain gauges at the surface of a solid: 3gage rosette.
To better understand how this works, let
1
,
2
, and
3
be the experimentally measured relative
elongations in those three directions. Note that a complete evaluation of the state of strain requires
the knowledge of three strain components, and thus requires three independent measurements in three
5.5. STATE OF PLANE STRAIN 286
distinct directions. If the four gauges are properly working, the redundant information can be used to
compensate for experimental errors.
In order to calculate the principal strains, we need the actual strains for the above measurements.
These can be obtained by solving the following system of equations:
1
= e
xx
cos
2
θ
1
+e
yy
sin
2
θ
1
+γ
xy
sinθ
1
cos θ
1
2
= e
xx
cos
2
θ
2
+e
yy
sin
2
θ
2
+γ
xy
sinθ
2
cos θ
2
3
= e
xx
cos
2
θ
3
+e
yy
sin
2
θ
3
+γ
xy
sinθ
3
cos θ
3
where the θ
i
’s are measured counterclockwise from the xaxis. The above can also be written in matrix
form,
_
_
_
1
2
3
_
_
_
=
_
_
cos
2
θ
1
sin
2
θ
1
sinθ
1
cos θ
1
cos
2
θ
2
sin
2
θ
2
sinθ
2
cos θ
2
cos
2
θ
3
sin
2
θ
3
sinθ
3
cos θ
3
_
_
_
_
_
e
xx
e
yy
γ
xy
_
_
_
(5.124)
5.5. STATE OF PLANE STRAIN 287
Example 5.10.
The strain gage measurements from a rosette are given as:
e
xx
= 2000µ e
xx+45
◦ = 1350µ e
yy
= 950µ
Determine the principal strains from the above components.
First we need to ﬁnd all strains components in the xy plane.
θ
1
= 0
◦
θ
2
= 45
◦
θ
3
= 90
◦
1
= e
xx
= 2000µ
2
= e
xx+45
◦ = 1350µ
3
= e
yy
= 950µ
From Eq. (5.124):
_
_
_
2000
1350
950
_
_
_
µ =
_
_
1 0 0
1/2 1/2 1/2
0 1 0
_
_
_
_
_
e
xx
e
yy
γ
xy
_
_
_
_
_
_
e
xx
e
yy
γ
xy
_
_
_
=
_
_
1 0 0
1/2 1/2 1/2
0 1 0
_
_
−1 _
_
_
2000
1350
950
_
_
_
µ =
_
_
_
2000
950
−250
_
_
_
µ
Note that for this rosette
1
= e
xx
and
3
= e
yy
and the only unknown is the shear strain γ
xy
,
which could have been directly calculated using the transformation relationship for
2
:
2
= (θ) = e
xx
cos
2
θ +e
yy
sin
2
θ +γ
xy
sinθ cos θ
= e
ave
+e
dif
cos 2θ +
γ
xy
2
sin2θ
(45
◦
) = e
ave
+
γ
xy
2
where,
e
ave
=
e
xx
+e
yy
2
=
(2000) + (950)
2
µ = 1475 µ
e
dif
=
e
xx
−e
yy
2
=
(2000) −(950)
2
µ = 525 µ
Now, half the shear strain, γ
xy
/2, is
e
xy
=
γ
xy
2
= (45
◦
) −e
ave
= (1350 µ) −(1475 µ) = −125 µ
5.5. STATE OF PLANE STRAIN 288
Let’s use the Mohr’s circle to ﬁnd the principal strains.
5.10a) Calculate the radius and center of the Mohr’s circle
e
ave
=
e
xx
+e
yy
2
=
(2000) + (950)
2
µ = 1475 µ
e
dif
=
e
xx
−e
yy
2
=
(2000) −(950)
2
µ = 525 µ
R =
_
_
γ
xy
2
_
2
+e
2
dif
=
_
(−125)
2
+ (525)
2
µ = 539.676 µ
C = C(e
ave
, 0) = C(1475 µ, 0)
5.10b) Draw the circle and locate all points
Q
1
= Q
1
(e
xx
, e
xy
) = (2000, −125) Q
2
= Q
2
(e
yy
, −e
xy
) = (950, 125) C = C(1475, 0)
Q
1
(e
xx
, γ
xy
/2) =
Q
1
(2000, 125)
ε (µ)
γ
xy
/2 (µ)
e
1
e
2
C(1475, 0)
Q
2
(e
yy
, γ
xy
/2) =
Q
2
(950, 125)
2θ
p
Figure 5.23: Mohr’s circle for plane strain in the xy plane.
5.10c) Calculate angles:
Principal stresses act on an element inclined at an angle θ
p
2θ
p
= tan
−1
_
γ
xy
/2
e
dif
_
= tan
−1
_
(−125)
(525)
_
= −13.3925
◦
2θ
p
= 360
◦
−
¸
¸
2θ
p
¸
¸
= 346.6
◦
5.5. STATE OF PLANE STRAIN 289
Note that we in CASE C because 2 θ
p
is measured from Q
1
C to positive σaxis. Recall
Now consider the location of Q
1
:
CASE A: Q
1
→ﬁrst quadrant (e
xx
> 0, γ
xy
/2 > 0) 2 θ
p
= 2 θ
p
CASE B: Q
1
→second quadrant (e
xx
< 0, γ
xy
/2 > 0) 2 θ
p
= 180
◦
−
¸
¸
2 θ
p
¸
¸
CASE C: Q
1
→third quadrant (e
xx
< 0, γ
xy
/2 < 0) 2 θ
p
= 180
◦
+
¸
¸
2 θ
p
¸
¸
CASE D: Q
1
→fourth quadrant (e
xx
> 0, γ
xy
/2 < 0) 2 θ
p
= 360
◦
−
¸
¸
2 θ
p
¸
¸
Minimum and maximum shear strain act on an element inclined at an angle θ
s
2 θ
s
= 2 θ
p
±90
◦
= 346.6
◦
±90
◦
θ
s
= θ
p
±45
◦
= 173.3
◦
±45
◦
Note that all angles are measured positive clockwise in the Mohr’s circle but are positive
counterclockwise in the rotation of the diﬀerential element.
5.10d) Determine the principal strains
Note that when calculating principal stresses 2 α = 2 θ
p
→ 2 θ
A
= 0
◦
, therefore the
principal stresses are
φ
1
= e
ave
+R = (1475 µ) + (539.676 µ) = 2014.68 µ
φ
2
= e
ave
−R = (1475 µ) −(539.676 µ) = 935.324 µ
φ
3
= 0
For the inplane principal strain:
e
1
= 2014.68 µ e
2
= 935.324 µ
5.10e) Determine the maximum inplane shear strain
γ
max
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
in−plane
= R =
1
−
2
2
= 539.676 µ (5.125)
γ
max
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
in−plane
= 2 R =
1
−
2
= 1079.35 µ (5.126)
5.5. STATE OF PLANE STRAIN 290
5.10f) Show all results on sketches of properly oriented elements
y
p
x
p
x
y
θ
p
=13.5°
e
2
=935µ
e
1
=2014µ
deformed
undeformed
1
1
(a) Principal strain axes shown with a undeformed
and deformed element
x
y
deformed
θ
s
=128.3°
γ
xy
/2
γ
xy
/2
x
s
y
s
(b) Axes of maximum shearing with the deformed el
ement
End Example
5.6. ALTERNATIVE STRESS AND STRAIN QUANTITIES 291
5.6 Alternative Stress and Strain Quantities
For a given problem diﬀerent strains and stress measures can be used. However, it is important to con
sider the stresses and the strains as conjugate quantities in the sense that their product gives mechanical
work. The present formulations are generally used for nonlinear analysis of structures.
5.6.1 GreenLagrange strains
Consider the quantities deﬁned in Fig. 5.19. Then derivatives of r
1
with respect to r constitute the
deformation gradient matrix, F, when arranged in Jacobian format:
F =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
∂x
1
∂x
∂x
1
∂y
∂x
1
∂z
∂y
1
∂x
∂y
1
∂y
∂y
1
∂z
∂z
1
∂x
∂z
1
∂y
∂z
1
∂z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 +
∂U
∂x
∂U
∂y
∂U
∂z
∂V
∂x
1 +
∂V
∂y
∂V
∂z
∂W
∂x
∂W
∂y
1 +
∂W
∂z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.127)
The determinant of the deformation gradient matrix is known as the Jacobian determinant and is deﬁned
as
J = det[F] (5.128)
The displacement gradients with respect to the reference conﬁguration are deﬁned as
G = F −I =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
∂x
1
∂x
−1
∂x
1
∂y
∂x
1
∂z
∂y
1
∂x
∂y
1
∂y
−1
∂y
1
∂z
∂z
1
∂x
∂z
1
∂y
∂z
1
∂z
−1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
∂U
∂x
∂U
∂y
∂U
∂z
∂V
∂x
∂V
∂y
∂V
∂z
∂W
∂x
∂W
∂y
∂W
∂z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
g
1
g
4
g
7
g
2
g
5
g
8
g
3
g
6
g
9
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.129)
where I is the identity matrix. Sometimes, it is convenient to arrange the displacements gradients in
vector form as follows
g
T
=
_
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
5
g
6
g
7
g
8
g
9
_
(5.130)
Now, the displacement gradients for the displacement ﬁeld are:
g
1
=
∂U(x, y, z)
∂x
g
2
=
∂V (x, y, z)
∂x
g
3
=
∂W(x, y, z)
∂x
g
4
=
∂U(x, y, z)
∂y
g
5
=
∂V (x, y, z)
∂y
g
6
=
∂W(x, y, z)
∂y
g
7
=
∂U(x, y, z)
∂z
g
8
=
∂V (x, y, z)
∂z
g
9
=
∂W(x, y, z)
∂z
(5.131)
5.6. ALTERNATIVE STRESS AND STRAIN QUANTITIES 292
The strains associated with the displacement ﬁeld are computed using the GreenLagrange strains. These
strains can be expressed in terms of the displacement gradients as follows
1
= e
xx
= g
1
+
1
2
_
g
2
1
+g
2
2
+g
2
3
_
(5.132a)
2
= e
yy
= g
5
+
1
2
_
g
2
4
+g
2
5
+g
2
6
_
(5.132b)
3
= e
zz
= g
9
+
1
2
_
g
2
7
+g
2
8
+g
2
9
_
(5.132c)
4
= 2 e
yz
= g
6
+g
8
+g
4
g
7
+g
5
g
8
+g
6
g
9
(5.132d)
5
= 2 e
xz
= g
3
+g
7
+g
1
g
7
+g
2
g
8
+g
3
g
9
(5.132e)
6
= 2 e
xy
= g
2
+g
4
+g
1
g
4
+g
2
g
5
+g
3
g
6
(5.132f)
The above may be rewritten in the quadratic form, as follows:
i
= h
T
i
g +
1
2
g
T
H
i
g (5.133)
where the 9 1 vectors h
i
’s and 9 9 matrices H
i
’s are given in Appendix C. If we assume small dis
placements, small strains and rotations, these strains can be expressed in terms of the GreenLangrange
strains as follows
E
1
= e
xx
= g
1
(5.134a)
E
2
= e
yy
= g
5
(5.134b)
E
3
= e
zz
= g
9
(5.134c)
E
4
= 2 e
yz
= g
6
+g
8
(5.134d)
E
5
= 2 e
xz
= g
3
+g
7
(5.134e)
E
6
= 2 e
xy
= g
2
+g
4
(5.134f)
The above expressions are obtained by taking H
i
as the zero matrix. The GreenLagrange strains are
usually expressed in vectorial form as follows
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.135)
For arbitrary rigidbody motions (motions without deformations)
F
T
F = FF
T
= I
that is, F is an orthogonal matrix. Displacement gradient matrices are connected by the relations
G = (I −J)
−1
−I and J = I −(I +G)
−1
5.6. ALTERNATIVE STRESS AND STRAIN QUANTITIES 293
For small deformations,
G ≈ J
−1
and J ≈ G
−1
Example 5.11.
Express the state of strain in Example 5.7 in terms of the GreenLagrange linear and non
linear strains.
From Example 5.7, the displacement ﬁeld was given as
U(x, y, z) = 0.01
_
x
2
+ 3
_
V (x, y, z) = 0.01
_
3 y
2
z
_
W(x, y, z) = 0.01 (x + 3 z)
and the state of strain at (0,2,3) is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.000 0.000 0.005
0.000 0.360 0.060
0.005 0.060 0.030
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
5.11a) Linear GreenLagrange strains.
i
= h
T
i
g
where h
i
’s are given in Appendix C. The linear GreenLagrange strains are:
1
= e
xx
= g
1
2
= e
yy
= g
5
3
= e
zz
= g
9
4
= 2 e
yz
= g
6
+g
8
5
= 2 e
xz
= g
3
+g
7
6
= 2 e
xy
= g
2
+g
4
5.6. ALTERNATIVE STRESS AND STRAIN QUANTITIES 294
where the displacement gradient is
g
1
=
∂U
∂x
= 0.02 x = 0.000 g
4
=
∂U
∂y
= 0.000 g
7
=
∂U
∂z
= 0.000
g
2
=
∂V
∂x
= 0.000 g
5
=
∂V
∂y
= 0.06yz g
8
=
∂V
∂z
= 0.03y
2
g
3
=
∂W
∂x
= 0.01 g
6
=
∂W
∂y
= 0.00 g
9
=
∂W
∂z
= 0.03
The displacement gradient vector is
g =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
g
1
g
2
g
3
g
4
g
5
g
6
g
7
g
8
g
9
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.02 x
0.0
0.01
0.0
0.06 y z
0.0
0.03 y
2
0.03
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
and the displacement gradient matrix becomes:
G =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.02 x 0.0 0.01
0.0 0.06 y z 0.03 y
2
0.01 0.0 0.03
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(x,y,z)=(0,2,3)
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.0 0.0 0.01
0.0 0.36 0.48
0.01 0.0 0.03
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
The linear strains are
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.02 x
0.06 y z
0.03
0.03 y
2
0.01
0.00
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(x,y,z)=(0,2,3)
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.00
0.36
0.03
0.12
0.01
0.00
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
5.11b) Full GreenLagrange Strains.
i
= h
T
i
g +
1
2
g
T
H
i
g
5.6. ALTERNATIVE STRESS AND STRAIN QUANTITIES 295
where h
i
’s and H
i
’s are given in Appendix C.
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.00005 + 0.02 x + 0.0002 x
2
0.06 y z + 0.0018 y
2
z
2
0.03045 + 0.00045 y
4
0.03 y
2
+ 0.0018 y
3
z
0.0103
0.00
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(x,y,z)=(0,2,3)
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.00005
0.4248
0.0376
0.1632
0.0103
0.00
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
5.11c) Comparing both solutions (Linear and Nonlinear GreenLagrange Strains):
percentage of error =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
yy
e
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.00
0.00
2.91262
15.2542
26.4706
20.3187
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
End Example
5.6. ALTERNATIVE STRESS AND STRAIN QUANTITIES 296
5.6.2 Stress Measures
We introduced the concept of stress in the body through the Cauchy’s formula at the beginning of the
chapter. We used σ to denote the Cauchy stress tensor, which is the true stress in the body. However,
other stress measures may be deﬁned as functions of Cauchy’s stress tensor:
1. The ﬁrst PiolaKirchhoﬀ stress tensor P
P = J σF
−T
where J is the Jacobian determinant, and F the deformation gradient matrix as deﬁned by
Eq. (5.127). The ﬁrst PiolaKirchhoﬀ stress tensor is nonsymmetric.
2. The second PiolaKirchhoﬀ (PK2) stress tensor S
S = J F
−1
σF
−T
where J is the Jacobian determinant, σ the Cauchy (true) stresses, and F the deformation gradient
matrix as deﬁned by Eq. (5.127). The second PiolaKirchhoﬀ stress tensor is symmetric.
The stresses corresponding to the GreenLagrange strains are the second PiolaKirchhoﬀ stresses. The
three dimensional tensor in Cartesian coordinates is
S =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
yx
S
yy
S
yz
S
zx
S
zy
S
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.136)
It can be shown that the PK2 stresses are linearly related to the Cauchy stresses as follows
S = S
0
+J F
−1
σF
−T
(5.137)
where S
0
are the prestresses, J the Jacobian determinant, F the deformation gradient matrix, S the
PK2 stresses, and σ the Cauchy (true) stresses deﬁned as
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
xx
σ
xy
σ
xz
σ
xy
σ
yy
σ
yz
σ
xz
σ
yz
σ
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.138)
From continuity equation, we know that the total mass of the entire body must be conserved:
ρ
1
dΓ
1
= ρ dΓ ⇒ ρ
1
det[F] dΓ = ρ dΓ (5.139a)
⇒ J = det[F] =
dΓ
1
dΓ
=
ρ
ρ
1
(5.139b)
5.6. ALTERNATIVE STRESS AND STRAIN QUANTITIES 297
where dΓ
1
and dΓ are the volumes in the current conﬁguration and reference conﬁguration, respectively;
ρ
1
and ρ are the mass densities in the current and reference conﬁguration, respectively.
Assuming that isochoric deformation takes place (volumepreserving deformation),
J = det[F] =
dΓ
1
dΓ
=
ρ
ρ
1
= 1
. Also, we assume that the prestressed state in the reference conﬁguration, S
0
, is zero. Further, recall
that we restrict our analysis to small deformations and small strains. Under these assumptions, it can
be shown that the PK2 and Cauchy stresses coalesce. Thus, Eq. (5.137) reduces to
S ≈ σ (5.140)
and these stresses are usually expressed in vectorial form as follows
S =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
In short, the Cauchy stress works with the Almansi strain or GreenCauchy strain, and the Green
Lagrange strain works with the second PiolaKirchhoﬀ stress tensor. For small deformation, no diﬀerence
are made between the two of them.
5.7. REFERENCES 298
5.7 References
Allen, D. H., Introduction to Aerospace Structural Analysis , 1985, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
NY.
Curtis, H. D., Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis, 1997, McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
Dole, Charles E. and Lewis, James E., Flight Theory and Aerodynamics: A Practical Guide for Opera
tional Safety, Second Edition, May 2000, John Wiley and Sons.
Johnson, E. R., ThinWalled Structures, 2006, Textbook at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University, Blacksburg, VA.
Keane, Andy and Nair, Prasanth, Computational Approaches for Aerospace Design: The Pursuit of
Excellence, August 2005, John Wiley and Sons.
Kuethe, Arnold M., and Chow, ChuenYen, Foundations of Aerodynamics: Bases of Aerodynamic De
sign, Fifth Edition, November 1997, John Wiley and Sons.
Newman, D., Interactive Aerospace Engineering And Design With CDROM, First Edition, Mass Insti
tute Of Tech, 2004, McgrawHill.
5.8. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 299
5.8 Suggested Problems
Problem 5.1.
Show that the expansion of
det
_
_
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
−λ
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
σ
xx
−λ τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
yx
σ
yy
−λ τ
yz
τ
zx
τ
zy
σ
zz
−λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
leads to the following characteristic equation, which expressed in terms of the stress invariants:
λ
3
−I
σ1
λ
2
+I
σ2
λ −I
σ3
= 0
Problem 5.2.
The state of stress at a point is
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−p τ τ
τ −p τ
τ τ −p
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.141)
where p > 0 and τ > 0.
1. Show that the principal stresses are:
σ
1
= −p + 2 τ σ
2
= −p −τ σ
3
= −p −τ
2. Find the value of p and τ such that:
(a) The von Mises stress is equal to σ
yield
/n, where σ
yield
is the yielding stress of the material and
n the factor of safety.
(b) The principal stress σ
1
is equal to τ.
Hint: Use deﬁnitions for stress invariants and the solution to the cubic equation; then use the von
Mises stress.
5.8. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 300
Problem 5.3.
The state of stress at a point is
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
1
0 0
0 σ
2
0
0 0 σ
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.142)
x
y
z
O
A
B
C
Suppose the stress vector acting on the ACB plane is
T
(ACB)
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
50
10
20
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
MPa
1. Taking OA = 2 ∆ m, OB = 4 ∆ m, and OC = ∆ m (See Figure) ﬁnd σ
1
, σ
2
, and σ
3
.
2. Is this a case of plane stress?
Hint: Find the unit vector normal to surface ACB and use Cauchy’s relationship, then use the
stressstrain relationship.
5.8. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 301
Problem 5.4.
The state of stress at a point is
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10 20 0
20 −20 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10
6
psi (5.143)
Find the principal stresses using:
1. Eigenvalue approach.
2. Mohr’s circle.
Hint: Is this a plane stress problem?
5.8. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 302
Problem 5.5.
Analysis of a particular body indicates that stresses for orthogonal interfaces associated with reference
xyz at a given point are
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
3000 −1000 0
−1000 2000 2000
0 2000 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
kPa (5.144)
1. Is this a state of plane stress?
2. Determine the shear stress σ
ns
vector and its magnitude on the same interface in a direction parallel
to the xaxis. Hint: Find the vector normal to the xaxis and use Cauchy’s relationship.
3. Determine the normal and tangential stress vectors and their magnitudes on the inﬁnitesimal
interface at this point whose unit normal is
ˆ n
s
= 0.60
ˆ
j + 0.8
ˆ
k (5.145)
4. Determine the overall maximum shear stress at the given point. Hint: Find the principal stresses
using the eigenvalue approach.
5. Determine the principal planes related to the principal stresses at the given point. Hint: Find the
principal stresses using the eigenvalue approach.
5.8. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 303
Problem 5.6.
Is the following a valid state of stress
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10 20 −10
20 −20 0
10 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10
6
psi (5.146)
Hint: The body must be in equilibrium.
5.8. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 304
Problem 5.7.
Given the following state of strain at a point
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0.02 0
0.02 −0.01 −0.03
0 −0.03 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.147)
1. Is this a state of plane strain?
2. Determine the maximum engineering strain and the maximum true strain. Hint: Find principal
strains using the eigenvalue approach.
3. Compute the normal strain at the given point in the direction of
ˆ n
(s)
= 0.6
ˆ
i −0.8
ˆ
k (5.148)
Hint: Use the principal strains to ﬁnd the principal stresses.
5.8. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 305
Problem 5.8.
The state of stress at a point is
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−p 0 0
0 −p 0
0 0 −p
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.149)
where p > 0. This is a state of hydrostatic stress, since all of the principal stresses are equal.
1. Find the maximum shear stress.
2. Find the von Mises stress.
Hint: Use deﬁnitions for stress invariants and the solution to the cubic equation; then use the von Mises
stress.
5.8. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 306
Problem 5.9.
Determine the principal stresses and the maximum shear stress for the state of given by the matrix
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
60 −12 0
−12 15 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
MPa (5.150)
1. Using both the Mohr’s circle and the eigenvalue approach, determine
(a) the principal stresses and maximum inplane shear stresses.
(b) the overall maximum shear stresses.
2. Using Cauchy’s relationship to determine the stresses acting on a 45
◦
inclined plane. Hint: Deter
mine the unit vector normal to the plane. Show
ˆ n
(s)
=
1
√
2
ˆ
i +
1
√
2
ˆ
j (5.151)
Chapter 6
Mechanical Behavior of Aerospace
Materials
Instructional Objectives of Chapter 6
After completing this chapter, the reader should be able to:
1. Formulate the stressstrain relationship for elastic materials.
2. Determine the complete elastic ﬁeld ﬁeld of an elastic body.
3. Solve for isothermal and thermal orthotropic elastic body problems.
Elastic behavior may be characterized by the following two conditions:
1. the stress in a material is a unique function of the strain,
2. the material has the property to complete recovery to its natural shape upon removal of the applied
forces.
Nonelastic materials are known as inelastic materials. In fact, two major type of deformation that
occurs in engineering materials are:
1. Elastic: associated with stretching but not breaking of chemical bonds.
2. Inelastic:
(a) Plastic (or Nontime dependent inelastic): atoms change their relative positions.
(b) Creep (or Time dependent inelastic): basically same as plastic but it the deformation is time
dependent.
In this book, we will limit our discussion to linear elastic behavior. The elastic behavior may be linear or
nonlinear. Figure 6.1 shows geometrically these behavior patterns by simple stressstrain curves, with
the relevant loading and unloading paths indicated.
307
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 308
σ
ε
σ
ε
σ
ε
Linear elastic
behavior
Nonlinear
elastic behavior
Inelastic
behavior
Loading
Loading
Loading
Unloading
Unloading
Unloading
Reloading
Figure 6.1: Uniaxial loadingunloading stressstrain curves.
6.1 Constitutive Equations for Elastic Materials
Equations describing stressstrain behavior are often used in engineering analysis and are usually called
stressstrain relationships or constitutive equations. For example, in basic mechanics of materials,
elastic behavior with a linear stressstrain relationship is assumed and used in calculating stresses and
deﬂections in simple components such as beams and shafts. More complex situations of geometry and
loading can be analyzed by employing the same basic assumptions in the form of theory of elasticity,
discussed in Chapter 5.
The constitutive equations take into account a threedimensional behavior of the material. The
constitutive equations may be nonlinear or linear, this is independent from elastic or inelastic behavior
of the material. When analyzing thinwalled structures to determine the deﬂections and stresses, we
often need to determine the appropriate constitutive relationships for the material involved. Here, we
will limit to linear elastic stressstrain relationships.
6.1.1 Hooke’s Law
Symbolically, we can write the constitutive equations for elastic behavior in its most general for as
S = G()
where G is a symmetric tensorvalued function, S and are any of the stress and strain tensors, respec
tively. Throughout this book, we will assume that, in the deformed material, the displacement gradients
are everywhere small compared to unity and the materials follow linear elastic behavior. Within this
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 309
context the constitutive equations for linear elastic behavior are written as
S = C
where the tensor of elastic coeﬃcients has 81 components. It can be shown that due to symmetry of
both stress and strain tensors, C reduces to 36 distinct coeﬃcients (the proof is beyond the scope of this
book):
S = C
S =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
C
15
C
16
C
21
C
22
C
23
C
24
C
25
C
26
C
31
C
32
C
33
C
34
C
35
C
36
C
41
C
42
C
43
C
44
C
45
C
46
C
51
C
52
C
53
C
54
C
55
C
56
C
61
C
62
C
63
C
64
C
65
C
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.1)
where
S =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
2 e
yz
2 e
xz
2 e
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
The 6 6 matrix C is called the elasticconstant matrix and it does not constitute a tensor. In general,
C may depend upon temperature. We shall ignore strainrate eﬀects and consider the elastic coeﬃcients,
components of C, at most function of position. If the elastic coeﬃcients are constants, the material is
said to be homogeneous. These constants are those describing the elastic properties of the material.
Equation (6.1) is known as the Hooke’s Law.
6.1.2 Internal Strain Energy
When loads are applied to a structure, the material of the structural element will deform. In the process
the external work done by the loads will be converted by the action of either normal or shear stress into
internal work called strain energy, provided that no energy is lost in the form of heat. Hence, the strain
energy is stored in the body and we use the symbol U to designate strain energy. The unit of strain
energy is [N–m] in SI and [lb–in] in English. Strain energy is always a positive scalar quantity even if
the stress is compressive because stress and strain are always in the same direction. The strain energy
density is expressed with u and is shown in Fig. 6.2 and has units of [Pa] in SI and [psi] in English.
When an external force acts upon an elastic body and deforms it, the work done by the force is
stored within the body in the form of strain energy. In the case of elastic deformation, the total strain
energy density due to a general state of stress is
u =
1
2
S
T
=
1
2
_
S
xx
xx
+S
yy
yy
+S
zz
zz
+S
xy
xy
+S
xz
xz
+S
yz
yz
_
(6.2)
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 310
σ
ε
u=
σ ε
2
Figure 6.2: Strain energy density.
Then total strain energy due to a general state of stress is
U =
___
Vol
1
2
_
S
xx
xx
+S
yy
yy
+S
zz
zz
+S
xy
xy
+S
xz
xz
+S
yz
yz
_
dVol
(6.3)
Material that have a strain energy function are known as hyperelastic materials.
6.1.3 Anisotropic Materials
An isotropic material has the same material properties in all directions, opposed to an anisotropic
material whose properties diﬀer in various directions. A material is homogeneous if it has the same
properties at every point. Wood is an example of a homogeneous material that can be anisotropic. A
body formed of steel and aluminum portions is an example of a material that is inhomogeneous, but
each portion is isotropic.
Due to the growing importance of composite materials, the linear elastic behavior of anisotropic
materials will be treated here. The physical properties of anisotropic materials are directional, i.e., the
physical response of the material depends on the direction in which it is acted upon. Consider, as an
example, the stiﬀness of the unidirectional composite material: in the ﬁber direction the stiﬀness of the
composite is dominated by the high stiﬀness of the ﬁber. However, in the direction transverse to the
ﬁber, the stiﬀness of the composite is dominated by that of the matrix material, which is far small than
that of the ﬁber. This contrasts with isotropic materials for which the mechanical response is identical
in all directions.
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 311
Anisotropic formulation
The threedimensional anisotropic hookean strain formulation is given by
S =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
C
15
C
16
C
21
C
22
C
23
C
24
C
25
C
26
C
31
C
32
C
33
C
34
C
35
C
36
C
41
C
42
C
43
C
44
C
45
C
46
C
51
C
52
C
53
C
54
C
55
C
56
C
61
C
62
C
63
C
64
C
65
C
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.4)
Under multiaxial and isothermal (constant temperature conditions), an elastic material is one that
possesses a stressfree state with all components of stress being singlevalued functions of the components
of strain. In other words,
S
xx
= S
xx
(
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
yz
,
xz
,
xy
)
S
yy
= S
yy
(
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
yz
,
xz
,
xy
)
S
zz
= S
zz
(
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
yz
,
xz
,
xy
)
S
yz
= S
yz
(
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
yz
,
xz
,
xy
)
S
xz
= S
xz
(
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
yz
,
xz
,
xy
)
S
xy
= S
xy
(
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
yz
,
xz
,
xy
)
(6.5)
where the parenthesis implies dependence only on the current values of the quantities enclosed.
First Law of Thermodynamics of Elastic Solids
For us to fully deﬁne the response of the body, we need three additional constitutive equations. For this
we assume that the following thermodynamic quantities are functions of the strain as well:
internal energy ﬁeld u = u(
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
yz
,
xz
,
xy
)
heat ﬁeld h = h(
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
yz
,
xz
,
xy
)
entropy ﬁeld s = s (
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
yz
,
xz
,
xy
)
(6.6)
The ﬁrst Law of thermodynamics states that at every point in a body there exists an internal energy
per unit volume u
l
such that
du
dt
=
dh
dt
+
dw
dt
where h
l
is the heat addition to the body per unit volume and w is the work done on the body per unit
volume. Assuming that only mechanical work is done on a material element:
dw
dt
= S
xx
˙
xx
+S
yy
˙
yy
+S
zz
˙
zz
+S
yz
˙
yz
+S
x
˙
xz
+S
xy
˙
xy
Equations (6.6) indicate that the heat added to the body is independent of temperature. In fact, most
elastic aerospace metals generate negligible heat in most cases. Thus, an elastic body under quasistatic
conditions behaves as an adiabatic body (there is no heat gain or loss); i.e.,
˙
h = 0. Thus, the ﬁrst law
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 312
of thermodynamics yields to
˙ u = S
xx
˙
xx
+S
yy
˙
yy
+S
zz
˙
zz
+S
yz
˙
yz
+S
x
˙
xz
+S
xy
˙
xy
(6.7)
Now, the time rate of change of the internal energy may be obtained from the change diﬀerentiation of
u = u(
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
yz
,
xz
,
xy
)
du =
∂u
∂
xx
d
xx
+
∂u
∂
yy
d
yy
+
∂u
∂
zz
d
zz
+
∂u
∂
yz
d
yz
+
∂u
∂
xz
d
xz
+
∂u
∂
xy
d
xy
Thus,
˙ u =
∂u
∂
xx
˙
xx
+
∂u
∂
yy
˙
yy
+
∂u
∂
zz
˙
zz
+
∂u
∂
yz
˙
yz
+
∂u
∂
xz
˙
xz
+
∂u
∂
xy
˙
xy
(6.8)
From Eqs. (6.7) and (6.8),
_
S
xx
−
∂u
∂
xx
_
˙
xx
+
_
S
yy
−
∂u
∂
yy
_
˙
yy
+
_
S
zz
−
∂u
∂
zz
_
˙
zz
+
_
S
yz
−
∂u
∂
yz
_
˙
yz
+
_
S
xz
−
∂u
∂
xz
_
˙
xz
+
_
S
xy
−
∂u
∂
xy
_
˙
xy
= 0
Since the strain rate components are independent from each other,
S
xx
=
∂u
∂
xx
S
yy
=
∂u
∂
yy
S
zz
=
∂u
∂
zz
S
yz
=
∂u
∂
yz
S
xz
=
∂u
∂
xz
S
xy
=
∂u
∂
xy
(6.9)
The above equation guarantees energy balance of the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics for an elastic body
under adiabatic conditions.
Second Law of Thermodynamics of Elastic Solids
The second law of thermodynamics states that there exists an entropy per unit volume s such tht
ds
dt
≥
1
T
dh
dt
where T is the absolute temperature, s the total entropy per unit volume, and h the total heat per unit
volume. We can also write this relationship as follows:
˙ s
i
≡ ˙ s −
1
T
˙
h ≥ 0 (6.10)
where s
i
is the internal entropy generation since it represents the total entropy minus a quantity that
arises from the heat added to the body. For adiabatic conditions,
˙
h = 0, thus,
˙ s
i
= ˙ s ≥ 0 (6.11)
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 313
Now using the change rule of diﬀerentiation of
s = s (
xx
,
yy
,
zz
,
yz
,
xz
,
xy
)
˙ s =
∂s
∂
xx
˙
xx
+
∂s
∂
yy
˙
yy
+
∂s
∂
zz
˙
zz
+
∂s
∂
yz
˙
yz
+
∂s
∂
xz
˙
xz
+
∂s
∂
xy
˙
xy
≥ 0
(6.12)
Now, since all strain rates are independent of each other, we let ˙
xx
change in time while all other strain
components don’t. Thus Eq. (6.12) reduces to
˙ s =
∂s
∂
xx
˙
xx
≥ 0 (6.13)
Note that ∂s/∂
xx
and ˙
xx
are independent from each other because the entropy does not depend on the
strain rate but on the strain value. Now, let us consider two diﬀerent possible cases for the strain rate
at the same time:
˙
xx
= c t →
∂s
∂
xx
c t ≥ 0
˙
xx
= −c t → −
∂s
∂
xx
c t ≥ 0
Which implies that Eq. (6.13) can be satisﬁed if and only if
∂s
∂
xx
= 0
Similar, we can show that all other entropy derivatives are zero, as well. Thus, for an elastic body
˙ s
i
= ˙ s = 0
and the second law of thermodynamics is satisﬁed. This indicates that no entropy is generated in an
elastic body, which is consistent with the assumption that all lines of the constitutive equation are
singlevalued; and, thus, all processes in an elastic body are recoverable.
Consequence of the First Law of Thermodynamics
Using the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics, we can write Eq. (6.4) as follows
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
∂u/∂
xx
∂u/∂
yy
∂u/∂
zz
∂u/∂
yz
∂u/∂
xz
∂u/∂
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
C
15
C
16
C
21
C
22
C
23
C
24
C
25
C
26
C
31
C
32
C
33
C
34
C
35
C
36
C
41
C
42
C
43
C
44
C
45
C
46
C
51
C
52
C
53
C
54
C
55
C
56
C
61
C
62
C
63
C
64
C
65
C
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
xx
yy
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.14)
Consider the ﬁrst equation of Eq. (6.14)
S
xx
=
∂u
∂
xx
= C
11
xx
+C
12
yy
+C
13
zz
+C
14
yz
+C
15
xz
+C
16
xy
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 314
Let’s diﬀerentiate once respect to
yy
:
∂S
xx
∂
yy
=
∂
2
u
∂
yy
∂
xx
= C
12
(6.15)
Now consider the second equation of Eq. (6.14)
S
yy
=
∂u
∂
yy
= C
21
xx
+C
22
yy
+C
23
zz
+C
24
yz
+C
25
xz
+C
26
xy
Let’s diﬀerentiate once respect to
xx
:
∂S
yy
∂
xx
=
∂
2
u
∂
xx
∂
yy
= C
21
(6.16)
Since the order of diﬀerentiation is unimportant, Eqs. (6.15) and (6.16) are equal:
∂
2
u
∂
yy
∂
xx
=
∂
2
u
∂
xx
∂
yy
→ C
12
= C
21
Similarly it can be shown that the elasticconstant matrix C is symmetric:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
C
15
C
16
C
21
C
22
C
23
C
24
C
25
C
26
C
31
C
32
C
33
C
34
C
35
C
36
C
41
C
42
C
43
C
44
C
45
C
46
C
51
C
52
C
53
C
54
C
55
C
56
C
61
C
62
C
63
C
64
C
65
C
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
C
15
C
16
C
12
C
22
C
23
C
24
C
25
C
26
C
13
C
23
C
33
C
34
C
35
C
36
C
14
C
24
C
34
C
44
C
45
C
46
C
15
C
25
C
35
C
45
C
55
C
56
C
16
C
26
C
36
C
46
C
56
C
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Thus for a general linearly elastic material, the independent material constants are reduced to 21.
3D Anisotropic Hookean Formulation
The threedimensional anisotropic Hookean strain formulation is given by
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
C
15
C
16
C
12
C
22
C
23
C
24
C
25
C
26
C
13
C
23
C
33
C
34
C
35
C
36
C
14
C
24
C
34
C
44
C
45
C
46
C
15
C
25
C
35
C
45
C
55
C
56
C
16
C
26
C
36
C
46
C
56
C
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.17)
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 315
The above is known as the inverted form of the Hooke’s Law. Then the Hooke’s Law is deﬁned as
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
D
11
D
12
D
13
D
14
D
15
D
16
D
12
D
22
D
23
D
24
D
25
D
26
D
13
D
23
D
33
D
34
D
35
D
36
D
14
D
24
D
34
D
44
D
45
D
46
D
15
D
25
D
35
D
45
D
55
D
56
D
16
D
26
D
36
D
46
D
56
D
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.18)
where matrix D is the elastic compliance material constant matrix and is deﬁned as:
D = C
−1
6.1.4 Elastic Constitutive Relationship for Isotropic Materials
Now let us proceed to obtain the matrices C and D for isotropic materials. Recall that the deformation
of a structure is a function of the applied loads, and the resulting strains at a point are related to the
local state of stress at a point. To better understand the stress and strain relationships, let us consider
a simple uniform rod subjected to a tension test. An axial load P is applied at the end of the rod,
resulting in an axial deﬂection δ. If the rod is elastic, the relationship between axial load P and the axial
deﬂection δ is essentially linear for suﬃciently small deﬂections, and it is the same whether the load is
increasing or decreasing. If the load P is applied at the centroid of the rod’s cross section, then the axial
stress and strain are uniform across all sections, except possibly in the vicinity of the ends. A plot of
stress versus strain will be linear. The slope of the stressstrain diagram is the modulus of elasticity, or
Young’s modulus, E.
All structural materials exhibit the Poisson eﬀect. To understand this eﬀect, let us go back to our
tensile test specimen: when the specimen is stretched in the axial direction, it contracts laterally; if
axially compressed, it expands laterally. If a bar has a circular cross section of unloaded diameter D,
and if the contraction transverse to the pull direction is d, then the transverse strain is
⊥
= −
d
D
(6.19)
Poisson’s ratio ν is a material property that relates the axial strain to the transverse strain, as follows:
ν = −
lateral strain
axial strain
= −
⊥
e
(6.20)
The minus sign is important because the axial strain and accompanying transverse strain are always
opposite in sign. The following properties of the elastic constants can be shown:
E > 0 G > 0 0 < ν <
1
2
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 316
Materials for which
ν ≈ 0 are very compressible
ν ≈
1
2
are very incompressible
Cork is an example of a very compressible material, whereas rubber is very incompressible.
The constitutive relationships for a threedimensional state of stress can be derived by calculating
the strains that accompany the normal and shear stresses considered to act separately in each direction
and then adding the results together. This is an application of the principle of superposition, which
holds for linear elastic behavior. Thus, if a plane diﬀerential element of material is subjected to stress
S
xx
, then the resulting normal strains will be
e
xx
=
S
xx
E
e
yy
= −ν e
xx
= −ν
S
xx
E
e
zz
= −ν e
xx
= −ν
S
xx
E
If a plane diﬀerential element of material is subjected to stress S
yy
, then the resulting normal strains
will be
e
yy
=
S
yy
E
e
xx
= −ν e
yy
= −ν
S
yy
E
e
zz
= −ν e
yy
= −ν
S
yy
E
If a plane diﬀerential element of material is subjected to stress S
zz
, then the resulting normal strains will
be
e
zz
=
S
zz
E
e
xx
= −ν e
zz
= −ν
S
zz
E
e
yy
= −ν e
zz
= −ν
S
zz
E
Now, if the three states of uniaxial stress are combined using the principle of superposition, we obtain
a triaxial state of stress in which the total normal strain in each direction
e
xx
=
S
xx
E
−ν
S
yy
E
−ν
S
zz
E
e
yy
=
S
yy
E
−ν
S
xx
E
−ν
S
zz
E
e
zz
=
S
zz
E
−ν
S
xx
E
−ν
S
yy
E
(6.21)
These results are valid only for isotropic materials, that is, materials whose stiﬀness, strength, and other
properties are the same in all directions. Young’s modulus is the same in both the x and y directions of
a sheet of isotropic material.
In isotropic materials, the shear stresses are independent of the normal strains. Thus
γ
xy
=
S
xy
G
γ
xz
=
S
xz
G
γ
yz
=
S
yz
G
(6.22)
The constant G is called the shear modulus. For isotropic materials it can be shown that
G =
E
2(1 +ν)
(6.23)
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 317
The stressstrain relationship for normal components can be also expressed in matrix form as follows:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
1
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν −ν
−ν 1 −ν
−ν −ν 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.24)
or including all strains and stress, in matrix form,
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
1
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν −ν 0 0 0
−ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
−ν −ν 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0 0
0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0
0 0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.25)
or
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
1
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν −ν 0 0 0
−ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
−ν −ν 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0 0
0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0
0 0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.26)
Thus the number of independent elastic constants reduces to two and the elastic matrix is symmetric
regardless of the existence of a strain energy function. The Hooke’s Law relationship may be inverted
to get
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν
ν 1 −ν ν
ν ν 1 −ν
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.27)
and
S
xy
= Gγ
xy
S
xz
= Gγ
xz
S
yz
= Gγ
yz
(6.28)
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 318
or including all strains and stress, in matrix form,
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν 0 0 0
ν 1 −ν ν 0 0 0
ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.29)
or
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν 0 0 0
ν 1 −ν ν 0 0 0
ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.30)
6.1.5 Elastic StressStrain Relationship for Orthotropic Materials
Materials that possess elastic symmetry about three mutually orthogonal planes, that is, about planes
oriented 90
◦
to each other, are known as orthotropic materials. The threedimensional orthotropic
Hookean strain formulation is given by
S =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
C
11
C
12
C
13
0 0 0
C
12
C
22
C
23
0 0 0
C
13
C
23
C
33
0 0 0
0 0 0 C
44
0 0
0 0 0 0 C
55
0
0 0 0 0 0 C
66
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.31)
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 319
For such materials 9 independent material constants exist. These constants are found as follows
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
E
xx
−
ν
yx
E
yy
−
ν
zx
E
zz
0 0 0
−
ν
xy
E
xx
1
E
yy
−
ν
zy
E
zz
0 0 0
−
ν
xz
E
xx
−
ν
yz
E
yy
1
E
zz
0 0 0
0 0 0
1
G
yz
0 0
0 0 0 0
1
G
xz
0
0 0 0 0 0
1
G
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.32)
or
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
E
xx
−
ν
yx
E
yy
−
ν
zx
E
zz
0 0 0
−
ν
xy
E
xx
1
E
yy
−
ν
zy
E
zz
0 0 0
−
ν
xz
E
xx
−
ν
yz
E
yy
1
E
zz
0 0 0
0 0 0
1
G
yz
0 0
0 0 0 0
1
G
xz
0
0 0 0 0 0
1
G
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.33)
Due to symmetry the following holds:
ν
xy
E
xx
=
ν
yx
E
yy
ν
xz
E
xx
=
ν
zx
E
zz
ν
yz
E
yy
=
ν
zy
E
zz
(6.34)
6.1.6 Temperature Strains in Isotropic Materials
In the material’s elastic region, behavior changes in temperature can cause two eﬀects:
1. Changes in the elastic constants of the material (for isotropic materials E and ν).
2. Changes causes the material to strain in the absence of stress.
Thus, the total material strain can be expressed as follows
total
=
mechanical
+
thermal effect due to changes in elastic constant
+
thermal effect due to material changes
For many structural components, a change in temperature of few hundred degrees Fahrenheit does not
result in much changes in the material’s elastic constants. Thus it is a reasonable assumption to neglect
6.1. CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS FOR ELASTIC MATERIALS 320
this thermal eﬀect:
total
=
mechanical
+
thermal effect due to material changes
The strain caused by a temperature change in the absence of stress is called thermal strain and is denoted
as
t
:
total
=
mechanical
+
t
thermal
(6.35)
For isotropic materials, the thermal strains must be a pure expansion or contraction of the material
with no distortion or shear. This is because normal strain at a point is the same in all directions
in isotropic materials, in which the temperature change does not induce shear strain. The strain is
assumed to be a linear function of the temperature change although it may not be exactly true. However,
the actual thermal strain is nearly linear with temperature change in temperature. Thus response of
isotropic materials to temperature change from T
0
to T (represented by ∆T) is characterized by the
linear coeﬃcient of thermal expansion α:
t
= α∆T + Higher Order Terms ≈ α∆T
where
∆T = T −T
0
Note that since the strains are nondimensional, the units of α must be
α =
1
units of ∆T
Further here we will assume that the temperature change throughout the body is determined by
means of a separate heat transfer analysis. This results in uncoupled thermoelasticity, in which the
temperature ﬁeld T, like the body forces, is prescribed for a given stress problem. Thus the strainstress
relationship for isotropic materials becomes
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
exx
eyy
ezz
γyz
γxz
γxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
1
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν −ν 0 0 0
−ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
−ν −ν 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0 0
0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0
0 0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Sxx
Syy
Szz
Syz
Sxz
Sxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
+α∆T
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
1
1
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.36)
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 321
or its inverse form
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Sxx
Syy
Szz
Syz
Sxz
Sxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν 0 0 0
ν 1 −ν ν 0 0 0
ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
exx
eyy
ezz
γyz
γxz
γxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−
E α∆T
1 −2 ν
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
1
1
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.37)
6.2 Plane Stress and Plane Strain
6.2.1 Consequence of Plane Stress
Recall that for structures with a relatively small thickness, we can use the plane stress assumption. If
we say the structure is confound to the xy plane,
S =
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
0
S
xy
S
yy
0
0 0 0
_
_
(6.38)
Since S
zz
= S
xz
= S
yz
= 0, the Hooke’s Law reduced to
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
1
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν −ν
−ν 1 −ν
−ν −ν 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
1
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
−ν S
yy
S
yy
−ν S
xx
−ν S
xx
−ν S
yy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.39)
γ
xy
=
S
xy
G
(6.40)
Note that due to Poisson eﬀect, the plane stress is accompanied by normal strain in the zdirection. As
it can be seen, the fact that S
zz
= 0,
zz
,= 0:
zz
= −
ν
E
_
S
xx
+S
yy
_
The above will not be zero specially when the body undergoes temperature changes.
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 322
6.2.2 Consequence of Plane strain
Recall that for structures with a relatively large thickness, we can use the plane strain assumption. If
we say the structure is in plane strain in the xy plane,
e =
_
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
0
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
0
0 0 0
_
_
(6.41)
Since e
zz
= γ
xz
= γ
yz
= 0, the inverted Hooke’s Law reduced to
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν
ν 1 −ν ν
ν ν 1 −ν
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(1 −ν) e
xx
+ν e
yy
ν e
xx
+ (1 −ν) e
yy
ν e
xx
+ν e
yy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.42)
S
xy
= Gγ
xy
(6.43)
Note that due to Poisson eﬀect, the plane stress is accompanied by normal stress in the zdirection. As
it can be seen, the fact that e
zz
= 0, S
zz
,= 0:
S
zz
=
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
e
xx
+e
yy
_
6.2.3 von Mises Stress in Plane Strain and Plane Stress
Suppose we have a structure with a plane stress state of stress at a point. For such a case:
S
zz
= 0 e
zz
= −
ν
E
_
S
xx
+S
yy
_
(6.44)
and the von Mises stress for plane stress become be
S
eq
¸
¸
¸
Plane Stress
=
_
S
2
xx
+S
2
yy
−S
yy
S
xx
+ 3 S
2
xy
(6.45)
Suppose we have a structure with a plane strain state of stress at a point. For such a case:
S
zz
=
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
e
xx
+e
yy
_
e
zz
= 0 (6.46)
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 323
and the von Mises stress for plane strain become
S
eq
¸
¸
¸
Plane Strain
=
_
S
2
xx
+S
2
yy
−S
yy
S
xx
+ 3 S
2
xy
−ν (1 −ν) (S
xx
+S
yy
)
2
(6.47)
Thus by comparing the above we can conclude that von Mises stress in plane stress is higher than for
the case of plane strain: S
xx
, S
yy
, and S
zz
,
S
eq
¸
¸
¸
Plane Strain
≤ S
eq
¸
¸
¸
Plane Stress
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 324
Example 6.1.
Consider the following displacement ﬁeld described in Example 5.8:
R = 0.01
_
x
2
+y
2
_
ˆ
i + 0.01 (3 +xz)
ˆ
j −
_
0.006 z
2
_
ˆ
k ft
(6.1a) Ignoring temperature eﬀects and assuming the material is isotropic, determine the stress
tensor at (0,1,3). Assume ν = 0.3 and E = 30 10
6
psi.
The strain tensor was found as
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2 x y +
z
2
0
y +
z
2
0
x
2
0
x
2
−1.2 z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10
−2
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0.025 0
0.025 0 0
0 0 −0.036
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Thus,
e
xx
= 0.0 γ
xy
= 0.05 γ
xz
= 0.0
γ
xy
= 0.05 e
yy
= 0.0 γ
yz
= 0.0
γ
xz
= 0.0 γ
yz
= 0.0 e
zz
= −0.036
The state of stress at a point is given by the stress tensor
S =
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 325
To ﬁnd the stress components we can use the inverted Hooke’s Law relationship
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Sxx
Syy
Szz
Syz
Sxz
Sxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν 0 0 0
ν 1 −ν ν 0 0 0
ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
exx
eyy
ezz
γyz
γxz
γxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Thus
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Sxx
Syy
Szz
Syz
Sxz
Sxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
3 ×10
7
(1 + 0.3)(1 −2 (0.3))
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.7 0.3 0.3 0 0 0
0.3 0.7 0.3 0 0 0
0.3 0.3 0.7 0 0 0
0 0 0 0.2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.2 0
0 0 0 0 0 0.2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.0
0.0
−0.036
0.0
0.0
0.05
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−623077
−623077
−1453850
0
0
576923
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
psi
Thus the three dimensional state of stress for an isotropic related to the given state of
strain is:
S =
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
yx
S
yy
S
yz
S
zx
S
zy
S
zz
_
_
=
_
_
−623 577 0
577 −623 0
0 0 −1454
_
_
ksi
(6.1b) Ignoring temperature eﬀects and assuming the material is orthotropic, determine the
stress tensor at (0,1,3). The material is graphite eopxy (AS/3501).
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 326
From material tables,
E
xx
= 20.00 10
6
psi
E
yy
= 1.3 10
6
psi
E
zz
= 1.6 10
6
psi
G
xy
= 1.03 10
6
psi
G
xz
= 1.03 10
6
psi
G
yz
= 0.90 10
6
psi
ν
xy
= 0.30
ν
xz
= 0.30
ν
yz
= 0.49
From Eq. (6.34):
ν
yx
=
ν
xy
E
xx
E
yy
= 0.0195
ν
zx
=
ν
xz
E
xx
E
zz
= 0.024
ν
zy
=
ν
yz
E
yy
E
zz
= 0.603
The state of stress at a point is given by the stress tensor
S =
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
To ﬁnd the stress components we can use the Hooke’s Law relationship
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
exx
eyy
ezz
γyz
γxz
γxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
Exx
−
νyx
Eyy
−
νzx
Ezz
0 0 0
−
νxy
Exx
1
Eyy
−
νzy
Ezz
0 0 0
−
νxz
Exx
−
νyz
Eyy
1
Ezz
0 0 0
0 0 0
1
Gyz
0 0
0 0 0 0
1
Gxz
0
0 0 0 0 0
1
Gxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Sxx
Syy
Szz
Syz
Sxz
Sxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 327
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.0
0.0
−0.036
0.0
0.0
0.05
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
−6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.05 −0.015 −0.015 0 0 0
−0.015 0.769231 −0.376923 0 0 0
−0.015 −0.376923 0.625 0 0 0
0 0 0 1.11111 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.970874 0
0 0 0 0 0 0.970874
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Sxx
Syy
Szz
Syz
Sxz
Sxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Sxx
Syy
Szz
Syz
Sxz
Sxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.05 −0.015 −0.015 0 0 0
−0.015 0.769231 −0.376923 0 0 0
−0.015 −0.376923 0.625 0 0 0
0 0 0 1.11111 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.970874 0
0 0 0 0 0 0.970874
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 _
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.0
0.0
−0.036
0.0
0.0
0.05
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Sxx
Syy
Szz
Syz
Sxz
Sxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
20.5876 0.913519 1.04502 0 0 0
0.913519 1.88584 1.15923 0 0 0
1.04502 1.15923 2.32418 0 0 0
0 0 0 0.90 0 0
0 0 0 0 1.03 0
0 0 0 0 0 1.03
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.0
0.0
−0.036
0.0
0.0
0.05
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−37620.9
−41732.2
−83670.6
0.0
0.0
51500.0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
psi
Thus the three dimensional state of stress for this orthotropic related to the given state
of strain is:
S =
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
yx
S
yy
S
yz
S
zx
S
zy
S
zz
_
_
=
_
_
−37.6211 51.500 0
51.500 −41.732 0
0 0 −83.671
_
_
ksi
End Example
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 328
Example 6.2.
The state of stress at the surface of a wing is subjected to the following stresses
S =
_
_
S
o
0 S
o
0 S
o
0
S
o
0 S
o
_
_
It is known that S
o
= 1.0 10
6
psi.
(6.2a) Determine the principal state of stress.
The principal stresses are determined by ﬁnding the eigenvalues of the stress tensor:
det
_
_
S
xx
−λ S
xy
S
xz
S
yx
S
yy
−λ S
yz
S
zx
S
zy
S
zz
−λ
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
S
o
−λ 0 S
o
0 S
o
−λ 0
S
o
0 S
o
−λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
which leads to the characteristic equation that can be expressed in terms of the stress
invariants as follows
λ
3
−I
σ1
λ
2
+I
σ2
λ −I
σ3
= 0 (6.48)
where I
σi
’s are the stress invariants.
I
σ1
= S
xx
+S
yy
+S
zz
= 3 S
o
I
σ2
= det
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
yx
S
yy
_
+ det
_
S
xx
S
xz
S
zx
S
zz
_
+ det
_
S
yy
S
yz
S
zy
S
zz
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
S
o
0
0 S
o
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
S
o
S
o
S
o
S
o
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
S
o
0
0 S
o
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 2 S
2
o
I
σ3
= det
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
yx
S
yy
S
yz
S
zx
S
zy
S
zz
_
_
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
S
o
0 S
o
0 S
o
0
S
o
0 S
o
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
Thus, the characteristic equation becomes
λ
3
−3 S
o
λ
2
+S
2
o
λ = (λ)
_
λ
2
−3 S
o
λ +S
2
o
_
= 0
The three roots of the characteristic equation are
λ
1
= 2 S
o
λ
2
= S
o
λ
3
= 0
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 329
and the principal stresses are
S
1
= max[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = 2 S
o
S
3
= min[λ
1
, λ
2
, λ
3
] = 0
S
2
= S
o
As we can see from this problem that when I
σ3
= 0 it is not always a plane
stress problem but if it is a plane stress problem I
σ3
= 0. Thus
S
p
=
_
_
2 S
o
0 0
0 S
o
0
0 0 0
_
_
=
_
_
2 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0
_
_
10
6
psi
(6.2b) Draw the Mohr’s circle for both cases.
The Mohr’s circles for both the given state of stress and the related principal state of
stress will have the same Mohr’s circles. The Mohr’s circle is characteristic of the point
of stress and not any stress transformation. Thus Fig. 6.3 shows the Mohr’s circles for
both cases.
τ
σ
σ
1
=2σ
o
σ
2
=σ
o
σ
3
=0
Figure 6.3: Mohr’s circle case for the principal state of stress.
Furthermore, the Mohr’s circle for the given state of stress will be that related to S
1
and S
3
. This can be seen from the fact that the state of stress is confound to the xz
plane and only normal stresses act on the y plane.
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 330
(6.2c) If the material is isotropic, determine the principal state of strain. Assume ν = 0.3 and
E = 30 10
6
psi.
Let us ﬁrst express the Hooke’s Law:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
1
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν −ν 0 0 0
−ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
−ν −ν 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0 0
0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0
0 0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Now since the strains are related to stresses, two procedures exist for isotropic materials.
First obtain the state of strain for
S =
_
_
S
o
0 S
o
0 S
o
0
S
o
0 S
o
_
_
and then ﬁnding the eigenvalues. The second one is to note that since the principal
strains are invariants and characteristics of a point, and are proportionally related to
stresses for linear isotropic materials, we can obtain the state of strain for
S
p
=
_
_
2 S
o
0 0
0 S
o
0
0 0 0
_
_
Indeed we can show that a state of principal stress will always produce a state of principal
strain and viceversa for orthotropic materials (and note that isotropic materials are a
special case of orthotropic materials). If xyz are orthogonal axes, the principal stresses
can be represented as
S
p
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
0 0
0 S
2
0
0 0 S
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.49)
Where we can see that the only nonzero stresses present are S
1
, S
2
, and S
3
. These are
normal stresses at the new orthogonal plane 123. Note that all shear stresses are zero.
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 331
So we may apply the Hooke’s Law for principal stresses:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
1
e
2
e
3
γ
23
γ
13
γ
12
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
1
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν −ν 0 0 0
−ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
−ν −ν 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0 0
0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0
0 0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Multiplying the above we get
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
1
e
2
e
3
γ
23
γ
13
γ
12
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
E
S
1
−
ν
E
S
2
−
ν
E
S
3
−
ν
E
S
1
+
1
E
S
2
−
ν
E
S
3
−
ν
E
S
1
−
ν
E
S
2
+
1
E
S
3
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Thus, from Hooke’s Law above clearly the only nonzero strains present are the normal
strains and all shear strains are zero for these axes.
By deﬁnition when principal strains are present all shear strains are zero. Then we
must conclude that these normal strain are principal strains. Thus the axes of principal
strain must also be principal axes of stress.
Thus
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
1
e
2
e
3
γ
23
γ
13
γ
12
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
S
o
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2 −ν
−2 ν + 1
−2 ν −ν
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= S
o
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
5.66667 10
−8
1.33333 10
−8
−3.00 10
−8
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.056667
0.01333
−0.03000
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 332
Hence, the state of principal strain is
e
p
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
1
0 0
0 e
2
0
0 0 e
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
_
0.056667 0 0
0 0.01333 0
0 0 −0.03000
_
_
(6.50)
(6.2d) If the material is orthotropic (BoronEpoxy), determine the principal state of strain.
From material tables
1
:
E
xx
= 30.00 10
6
psi
E
yy
= 3.0 10
6
psi
E
zz
= 3.0 10
6
psi
G
xy
= 1.00 10
6
psi
G
xz
= 1.00 10
6
psi
G
yz
= 0.60 10
6
psi
ν
xy
= 0.30
ν
xz
= 0.25
ν
yz
= 0.25
From Eq. (6.34):
ν
yx
=
ν
xy
E
xx
E
yy
= 0.030
ν
zx
=
ν
xz
E
xx
E
zz
= 0.025
ν
zy
=
ν
yz
E
yy
E
zz
= 0.250
Let us ﬁrst express the Hooke’s Law:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
E
xx
−
ν
yx
E
yy
−
ν
zx
E
zz
0 0 0
−
ν
xy
E
xx
1
E
yy
−
ν
zy
E
zz
0 0 0
−
ν
xz
E
xx
−
ν
yz
E
yy
1
E
zz
0 0 0
0 0 0
1
G
yz
0 0
0 0 0 0
1
G
xz
0
0 0 0 0 0
1
G
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
http://www.matweb.com
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 333
Now since the strains are related to stresses. First let us obtain the state of strain for
S =
_
_
S
o
0 S
o
0 S
o
0
S
o
0 S
o
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
8
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
3.333 −1.000 −0.833 0 0 0
−1.000 33.333 −8.333 0 0 0
−0.833 −8.333 33.333 0 0 0
0 0 0 166.667 0 0
0 0 0 0 100.000 0
0 0 0 0 0 100.000
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
o
S
o
S
o
0
S
o
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= S
o
10
−8
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1.5
24.0
24.1667
0.0
100.00
0.0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.015
0.24
0.241667
0.0
1.000
0.0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
The strain tensor is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
1
2
γ
xy
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
xy
e
yy
1
2
γ
yz
1
2
γ
xz
1
2
γ
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.015 0.0 0.5
0.0 0.24 0.0
0.5 0.0 0.241667
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
And the eigenvalues are:
φ
1
= −38.435 10
−8
S
o
φ
2
= 24 10
−8
S
o
φ
3
= 64.1017 10
−8
S
o
Thus the principal state of strain is
e
p
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.64101 0 0
0 0.24 0
0 0 −0.38435
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Now, let us show that for orthotropic materials, the principal strains are not propor
tionally related to stresses. It should be highlighted that this approach is incorrect. Let
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 334
us begin with the principal state of stress:
S
p
=
_
_
2 S
o
0 0
0 S
o
0
0 0 0
_
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
8
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
3.333 −1.000 −0.833 0 0 0
−1.000 33.333 −8.333 0 0 0
−0.833 −8.333 33.333 0 0 0
0 0 0 166.667 0 0
0 0 0 0 100.000 0
0 0 0 0 0 100.000
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2 S
o
S
o
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
1
e
2
e
3
γ
23
γ
13
γ
12
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= S
o
10
−8
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
5.667
31.33
−10.
0.0
0.0
0.0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.05667
0.3133
−0.1000
0.0
0.0
0.0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Thus the principal state of strain is
e
p
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
5.667 0 0
0 31.33 0
0 0 −10.00
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10
−8
S
o
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.05667 0 0
0 0.3133 0
0 0 −0.1000
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Which clearly shows that it is we cannot use the same assumption as for the case of
isotropic materials. This is mainly because the material is dependent in threemutually
orthogonal planes.
End Example
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 335
Example 6.3.
Application 1: Isotropic Material
Consider a solid structure of a Hookean material with negligible body forces and subject to
evenly distributed pressure p
o
in the xdirection. The block is constrained to zero displace
ment at all points in the ydirection but is free to displace in the zdirection. Boundary
conditions are such that the body is free to expand or contract in the x and z directions at
both rigid interfaces.
z
y
FRONT VIEW
(Seen from zaxis)
SIDE VIEW
(Seen from xaxis)
x
y
p
o
a a
b b
h
h
p
o
If the bock is made of isotropic material, determine the isothermal elastic ﬁeld. The mechan
ical properties for the isotropic material are
E = 210 10
9
Pa ν = 0.30
and the geometric properties are:
a = h = 2 b = 1
Take the load as p
o
= 200 lb/in
2
.
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 336
For an elastic body under isothermal conditions, the problem reduces to one of characterizing
the stresses, S, strains, e, and displacements, R. This is a set of 15 unknowns at all point in
the body:
6 stress components (S
xx
, S
yy
, S
zz
, S
yz
, S
xz
, S
xy
)
6 strain components (e
xx
, e
yy
, e
zz
, e
yz
, e
xz
, e
xy
)
3 displacements (U, V, W)
These are solved using 15 ﬁeld equations:
3 equilibrium equations
6 straindisplacement equations
6 stressstrain equations
Along with the boundary conditions.
From the geometry of the problem it is assumed that at all points in the body the displacement
ﬁeld (displacement boundary conditions) is:
U(x, y, z) = u(x)
V (x, y, z) = 0
W(x, y, z) = w(z)
The displacement gradients are then found as:
g
1
=
∂U
∂x
=
∂u
∂x
g
4
=
∂U
∂y
= 0 g
7
=
∂U
∂z
= 0
g
2
=
∂V
∂x
= 0 g
5
=
∂V
∂y
= 0 g
8
=
∂V
∂z
= 0
g
3
=
∂W
∂x
= 0 g
6
=
∂W
∂y
= 0 g
9
=
∂W
∂z
=
∂w
∂z
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 337
Thus the resulting straindisplacement relationship is obtained using the LagrangeGreen
equations:
1
= e
xx
= g
1
=
∂u
∂x
2
= e
yy
= g
5
= 0
3
= e
zz
= g
9
=
∂w
∂z
4
= 2 e
yz
= g
6
+g
8
= 0
5
= 2 e
xz
= g
3
+g
7
= 0
6
= 2 e
xy
= g
2
+g
4
= 0
Now the stressstrain relationship for isotropic Hookean strain is obtained using the inverted
Hooke’s law:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν 0 0 0
ν 1 −ν ν 0 0 0
ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν 0 0 0
ν 1 −ν ν 0 0 0
ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
0
3
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 338
Thus,
S
1
= S
xx
=
(1 −ν) E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
+
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
zz
S
2
= S
yy
=
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
(e
xx
+e
zz
)
S
3
= S
zz
=
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
+
(1 −ν) E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
zz
S
4
= S
yz
= 0
S
5
= S
xz
= 0
S
6
= S
xy
= 0
Now, substituting the stress components into the three equilibrium equations which must be
satisﬁed at all point inside the body:
∂S
xx
∂x
+
∂S
yx
∂y
+
∂S
zx
∂z
+b
x
= 0 →
∂S
xx
∂x
= 0
∂S
xy
∂x
+
∂S
yy
∂y
+
∂S
zy
∂z
+b
y
= 0 →
∂S
yy
∂y
= 0
∂S
xz
∂x
+
∂S
yz
∂y
+
∂S
zz
∂z
+b
z
= 0 →
∂S
zz
∂z
= 0
Recall, all body forces are neglected.
Now in other to complete ﬁnd the unknowns we need to apply stress boundary conditions:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(a) On the surface deﬁned by x = a, ˆ n =
ˆ
i, and T = −p
o
ˆ
i
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−p
o
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
xx
(a, y, z) = −p
o
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(a, y, z) = S
xz
(a, y, z) = 0
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 339
(b) On the surface deﬁned by x = −a, ˆ n = −
ˆ
i, and T = p
o
ˆ
i
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
p
o
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
−1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−S
xx
−S
xy
−S
xz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
xx
(−a, y, z) = −p
o
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(−a, y, z) = S
xz
(−a, y, z) = 0
Yields the same results as in (a).
(c) On the surface deﬁned by z = b, ˆ n =
ˆ
k, and T = 0
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
1
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
zz
(x, y, b) = 0
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
yz
(x, y, b) = S
xz
(x, y, b) = 0
(d) On the surface deﬁned by z = −b, ˆ n = −
ˆ
k, and T = 0
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
−1
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−S
xz
−S
yz
−S
zz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
zz
(x, y, −b) = 0
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
yz
(x, y, −b) = S
xz
(x, y, −b) = 0
Yields the same results as in (c).
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 340
Now we use the equilibrium and stress boundary conditions. From equilibrium conditions:
∂S
xx
∂x
= 0 → S
xx
= c
1
= c
1
(y, z) = constant
∂S
yy
∂y
= 0 → S
yy
= c
2
= c
2
(x, z) = constant
∂S
zz
∂z
= 0 → S
zz
= c
3
= c
3
(x, y) = constant
From stress boundary conditions,
S
xx
(a, y, z) = −p
o
and c
1
= −p
o
S
zz
(x, y, b) = 0 and c
3
= 0
In order to obtain the constant c
2
, let us use the stressstrain relationships. Let us begin
with the third equation:
S
zz
= 0 =
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
+
(1 −ν) E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
zz
→ e
zz
= −
ν
(1 −ν)
e
xx
Let us proceed to use the ﬁrst equation:
S
xx
= −p
o
=
(1 −ν) E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
+
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
zz
=
(1 −ν) E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
+
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
−
ν
(1 −ν)
e
xx
_
From the above equation we can obtain the value of e
xx
:
e
xx
= −
(1 −ν
2
)
E
p
o
Thus e
zz
is then
e
zz
= −
ν
(1 −ν)
e
xx
= −
ν
(1 −ν)
_
−
(1 −ν
2
)
E
p
o
_
=
ν (1 +ν)
E
p
o
From the second stressstrain equation, we can solve for S
yy
:
S
yy
=
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
(e
xx
+e
zz
) =
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
−
(1 −ν
2
)
E
p
o
+
ν (1 +ν)
E
p
o
_
= −ν p
o
Thus,
c
2
= −ν p
o
With this we have completed the stress and strain ﬁelds but the displacements are know
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 341
remaining. Although we know that V = 0, U and W are remaining. Let us use the strain
displacement equations for this purpose:
e
xx
=
∂U
∂x
→
∂U
∂x
= −
(1 −ν
2
)
E
p
o
→ U = −
(1 −ν
2
)
E
p
o
x +f
1
(y, z)
Also,
g
4
=
∂U
∂y
= 0 → U = constant
g
7
=
∂U
∂z
= 0 → U = constant
Which implies that f
1
(y, z) = k
1
= constant:
U(x, y, z) = −
(1 −ν
2
)
E
p
o
x +k
1
Let us assume that U(0, 0, 0) = 0 and thus k
1
= 0. Thus
U(x, y, z) = u(x) = −
(1 −ν
2
)
E
p
o
x
Now, we proceed to ﬁnd W:
e
zz
=
∂W
∂z
→
∂W
∂z
=
ν (1 +ν)
E
p
o
→ W =
ν (1 +ν)
E
p
o
z +f
2
(x, y)
Also,
g
3
=
∂W
∂x
= 0 → W = constant
g
6
=
∂W
∂y
= 0 → W = constant
Which implies that f
2
(y, z) = k
2
= constant:
W(x, y, z) =
ν (1 +ν)
E
p
o
z +k
2
Let us assume that W(0, 0, 0) = 0 and thus k
2
= 0. Thus
W(x, y, z) = w(z) =
ν (1 +ν)
E
p
o
z
In summary, the state of stress is
S =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−p
o
0 0
0 −ν p
o
0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−200 0 0
0 −60 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
psi
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 342
The state of strain is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
xy
e
xz
e
xy
e
yy
e
yz
e
xz
e
yz
e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−
(1 −ν
2
)
E
p
o
0 0
0
ν (1 +ν)
E
p
o
0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−5.97567 0 0
0 2.561 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
µ
The displacement ﬁeld is
R =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
U(x, y, z)
V (x, y, z)
W(x, y, z)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−
(1 −ν
2
)
E
p
o
x
0
ν (1 +ν)
E
p
o
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−5.975667 10
−6
x
0
2.561 10
−6
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
End Example
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 343
Example 6.4.
Application 2: Isotropic Material
Consider a solid structure of a Hookean material with negligible body forces and subject to
evenly distributed pressure σ in the xdirection. The block is bound in the y and zdirection
by rigid walls at y = b +t, y = −b −t, z = a +w, z = −a −w, but free to expand/contract
in the xplane.
y
z
σ
σ
w
w
t t
x
z
FRONT VIEW
(Seen from xaxis)
SIDE VIEW
(Seen from yaxis)
a
a
b
b
h h
Assume the material is isotropic with the following mechanical properties:
E = 210 10
9
Pa ν = 0.30
The geometric properties are:
2 a = 2 b = 2 h = 0.127 m t = w = 0.0381 mm
(6.4a) What is the needed pressure σ
1
to make contact between the solid cube structure and
the rigid walls? Take σ = σ
1
.
From the geometry of the problem it is assumed that at all points in the body the
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 344
displacement ﬁeld (displacement boundary conditions) is:
U
1
(x, y, z) = u
1
(x)
V
1
(x, y, z) = v
1
(y)
W
1
(x, y, z) = w
1
(z)
The displacement gradients are then found as:
g
1
=
∂U
1
∂x
=
∂u
1
∂x
g
4
=
∂U
1
∂y
= 0 g
7
=
∂U
1
∂z
= 0
g
2
=
∂V
1
∂x
= 0 g
5
=
∂V
1
∂y
=
∂v
1
∂y
g
8
=
∂V
1
∂z
= 0
g
3
=
∂W
1
∂x
= 0 g
6
=
∂W
1
∂y
= 0 g
9
=
∂W
1
∂z
=
∂w
1
∂z
Thus the resulting straindisplacement relationship is obtained using the Lagrange
Green equations:
1
= e
xx
= g
1
=
∂u
1
∂x
2
= e
yy
= g
5
=
∂v
1
∂y
3
= e
zz
= g
9
=
∂w
1
∂z
4
= 2 e
yz
= g
6
+g
8
= 0
5
= 2 e
xz
= g
3
+g
7
= 0
6
= 2 e
xy
= g
2
+g
4
= 0
Now the stressstrain relationship for isotropic Hookean strain is obtained using the
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 345
inverted Hooke’s law:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν 0 0 0
ν 1 −ν ν 0 0 0
ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν 0 0 0
ν 1 −ν ν 0 0 0
ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Thus,
S
1
= S
xx
=
(1 −ν) E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
+
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
(e
yy
+e
zz
)
S
2
= S
yy
=
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
(e
xx
+e
zz
) +
(1 −ν) E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
yy
S
3
= S
zz
=
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
(e
xx
+e
yy
) +
(1 −ν) E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
zz
S
4
= S
yz
= 0
S
5
= S
xz
= 0
S
6
= S
xy
= 0
Now, substituting the stress components into the three equilibrium equations which
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 346
must be satisﬁed at all point inside the body:
∂S
xx
∂x
+
∂S
yx
∂y
+
∂S
zx
∂z
+b
x
= 0 →
∂S
xx
∂x
= 0
∂S
xy
∂x
+
∂S
yy
∂y
+
∂S
zy
∂z
+b
y
= 0 →
∂S
yy
∂y
= 0
∂S
xz
∂x
+
∂S
yz
∂y
+
∂S
zz
∂z
+b
z
= 0 →
∂S
zz
∂z
= 0
Recall, all body forces are neglected.
Now in other to complete ﬁnd the unknowns we need to apply stress boundary condi
tions: _
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(a) On the surface deﬁned by x = h, ˆ n =
ˆ
i, and T = −σ
1
ˆ
i
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−σ
1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
xx
(h, y, z) = −σ
1
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(h, y, z) = S
xz
(h, y, z) = 0
(b) On the surface deﬁned by x = −h, ˆ n = −
ˆ
i, and T = σ
1
ˆ
i
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
σ
1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
−1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−S
xx
−S
xy
−S
xz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
xx
(−h, y, z) = −σ
1
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(−h, y, z) = S
xz
(−h, y, z) = 0
Yields the same results as in (a).
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 347
(c) On the surface deﬁned by z = a, ˆ n =
ˆ
k, and T = 0
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
1
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
zz
(x, y, a) = 0
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
yz
(x, y, a) = S
xz
(x, y, a) = 0
(d) On the surface deﬁned by z = −a, ˆ n = −
ˆ
k, and T = 0
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
−1
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−S
xz
−S
yz
−S
zz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
zz
(x, y, −a) = 0
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
yz
(x, y, −a) = S
xz
(x, y, −a) = 0
Yields the same results as in (c).
(e) On the surface deﬁned by y = b, ˆ n =
ˆ
j, and T = 0
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
0
1
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
yy
(x, b, z) = 0
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(x, b, z) = S
yz
(x, b, z) = 0
(f) On the surface deﬁned by y = −b, ˆ n = −
ˆ
j, and T = 0
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
0
−1
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−S
xy
−S
yy
−S
yz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
yy
(x, −b, z) = 0
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 348
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(x, −b, z) = S
yz
(x, −b, z) = 0
Now we use the equilibrium and stress boundary conditions. From equilibrium condi
tions:
∂S
xx
∂x
= 0 → S
xx
= c
1
= c
1
(y, z) = constant
∂S
yy
∂y
= 0 → S
yy
= c
2
= c
2
(x, z) = constant
∂S
zz
∂z
= 0 → S
zz
= c
3
= c
3
(x, y) = constant
From stress boundary conditions,
S
xx
(h, y, z) = −σ
1
and c
1
= −σ
1
S
yy
(x, b, z) = 0 and c
2
= 0
S
zz
(x, y, a) = 0 and c
3
= 0
Now, let us use the stressstrain relationships (using the Hooke’s Law):
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
1
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν −ν 0 0 0
−ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
−ν −ν 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0 0
0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν) 0
0 0 0 0 0 2(1 +ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−σ
1
0
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Multiplying the above we get
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
σ
1
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1
ν
ν
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Thus, while there is no contact between the solid structure and the rigid walls, the state
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 349
of stress is
S =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−σ
1
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Note that since the above is a principal state of stress, the result will be a principal
state of strain. Thus the associated state of strain is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
0 0
0 e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
σ
1
E
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 0 0
0 ν 0
0 0 ν
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
We can see that e
yy
= e
zz
. The strain needed for the solid cube to make with the rigid
wall is
e
yy
=
ﬁnal expansion in y −initial expansion in y
initial expansion in y
=
(2 b + 2 t) −(2 b)
2 b
=
2 (0.0381 10
−3
)
0.127
= 0.0006
Thus
e
yy
= e
zz
= 0.0006
The needed pressure can be calculated from the second or third equation in the Hooke’s
Law
e
yy
= e
zz
=
σ
1
E
ν → σ
1
=
e
yy
E
ν
= 420 MPa
Thus for contact to occur between the cube and the rigid walls, a compression of 420
MPa need to be applied in the xdirection. The normal strain in the xdirection is
e
xx
=
S
xx
E
= −0.002
Thus the stress and strain tensors are
S
¸
¸
¸
at rigid wall
=
_
_
−420 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
MPa
e
¸
¸
¸
at rigid wall
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−2000 0 0
0 600 0
0 0 600
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
µ
With this we have completed the stress and strain ﬁelds but the displacements are know
remaining. Let us use the straindisplacement equations for this purpose:
e
xx
=
∂U
1
∂x
→
∂U
1
∂x
= −0.002 → U
1
(x) = −0.002 x +f
1
(y, z)
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 350
Also,
g
4
=
∂U
1
∂y
= 0 → U
1
= constant
g
7
=
∂U
1
∂z
= 0 → U
1
= constant
Which implies that f
1
(y, z) = k
1
= constant:
U
1
(x, y, z) = −0.002x +k
1
Let us assume that U
1
(0, 0, 0) = 0 and thus k
1
= 0. Thus
U
1
(x, y, z) = u
1
(x) = −0.002 x
Now, we proceed to ﬁnd V
1
:
e
yy
=
∂V
1
∂y
→
∂V
1
∂y
= 0.0006 → V
1
= 0.0006 y +f
2
(x, z)
Also,
g
2
=
∂V
1
∂x
= 0 → V
1
= constant
g
8
=
∂V
1
∂z
= 0 → V
1
= constant
Which implies that f
2
(y, z) = k
2
= constant:
V
1
(x, y, z) = 0.0006 y +k
2
We know that V
1
(0, b +t, 0) = V
1
(0, 0.063538, 0) = 0 and thus k
2
= −0.00006096. Thus
V
1
(x, y, z) = v
1
(y)(x) = 0.0006 y −0.00006096
Now, we proceed to ﬁnd W
1
:
e
zz
=
∂W
1
∂z
→
∂W
1
∂z
= 0.0006 → W
1
= 0.0006 z +f
3
(x, y)
Also,
g
3
=
∂W
1
∂x
= 0 → W
1
= constant
g
6
=
∂W
1
∂y
= 0 → W
1
= constant
Which implies that f
3
(y, z) = k
3
= constant:
W
1
(x, y, z) = 0.0006 z +k
3
Let us assume that W
1
(0, 0, a +w) = W
1
(0, 0, 0.0635) = 0 and thus k
3
= −0.00006096.
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 351
Thus
W
1
(x, y, z) = w
1
(z) = 0.0006 z −0.00006096
Thus, the displacement ﬁeld is
R
¸
¸
¸
at rigid wall
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
U
1
(x, y, z)
V
1
(x, y, z)
W
1
(x, y, z)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−0.002000 x
0.000600 y −0.00006096
0.000600 z −0.00006096
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.4b) If σ
2
= 600 MPa, determine the isothermal elastic ﬁeld. Take σ = σ
2
.
A total pressure of σ
1
= 420 MPa are necessary to bring the block to have contact with
the rigid walls. Once the block reaches the rigid walls, the problem changes. As the
solid block reaches the rigid walls, the geometry is:
y
z
σ
σ
x
z
FRONT VIEW
(Seen from xaxis)
SIDE VIEW
(Seen from yaxis)
a+w
b+t
h´ h´
b+t
a+w
In order to ﬁnd the value of h
, let us use the deﬁnition of the strain in the xdirection.
We know that just when the block hits the walls:
e
xx
¸
¸
¸
at rigid walls
=
ﬁnal expansion in x −initial expansion in x
initial expansion in x
=
2 h
−2 h
2 h
= −0.002
Thus
h
= (−0.002)(h) +h = 0.063373
Since σ
2
> σ
1
, the block has reached the rigid walls, and the excessive pressure the
block is experiencing will be:
∆σ = (600 −420) = 180 MPa
Also, there will be no further deformation in the y and z direction (because of the rigid
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 352
walls) and thus the displacement ﬁeld is
U
2
(x, y, z) = u
2
(x)
V
2
(x, y, z) = 0
W
2
(x, y, z) = 0
The displacement gradients are then found as:
g
1
=
∂U
2
∂x
=
∂u
2
∂x
g
4
=
∂U
2
∂y
= 0 g
7
=
∂U
2
∂z
= 0
g
2
=
∂V
2
∂x
= 0 g
5
=
∂V
2
∂y
= 0 g
8
=
∂V
2
∂z
= 0
g
3
=
∂W
2
∂x
= 0 g
6
=
∂W
2
∂y
= 0 g
9
=
∂W
2
∂z
= 0
Thus the resulting straindisplacement relationship is obtained using the Lagrange
Green equations:
1
= e
xx
= g
1
=
∂u
2
∂x
2
= e
yy
= g
5
= 0
3
= e
zz
= g
9
= 0
4
= 2 e
yz
= g
6
+g
8
= 0
5
= 2 e
xz
= g
3
+g
7
= 0
6
= 2 e
xy
= g
2
+g
4
= 0
Now the stressstrain relationship for isotropic Hookean strain is obtained using the
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 353
inverted Hooke’s law:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν 0 0 0
ν 1 −ν ν 0 0 0
ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −ν ν ν 0 0 0
ν 1 −ν ν 0 0 0
ν ν 1 −ν 0 0 0
0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0 0
0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
0
0 0 0 0 0
1−2 ν
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
0
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Thus,
S
1
= S
xx
=
(1 −ν) E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
S
2
= S
yy
=
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
S
3
= S
zz
=
ν E
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
S
4
= S
yz
= 0
S
5
= S
xz
= 0
S
6
= S
xy
= 0
Now, substituting the stress components into the three equilibrium equations which
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 354
must be satisﬁed at all point inside the body:
∂S
xx
∂x
+
∂S
yx
∂y
+
∂S
zx
∂z
+b
x
= 0 →
∂S
xx
∂x
= 0
∂S
xy
∂x
+
∂S
yy
∂y
+
∂S
zy
∂z
+b
y
= 0 →
∂S
yy
∂y
= 0
∂S
xz
∂x
+
∂S
yz
∂y
+
∂S
zz
∂z
+b
z
= 0 →
∂S
zz
∂z
= 0
Recall, all body forces are neglected.
Now in other to complete ﬁnd the unknowns we need to apply stress boundary condi
tions: _
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
The block is only free to move in the x direction, thus:
(a) On the surface deﬁned by x = h
, ˆ n =
ˆ
i, and T = −∆σ
ˆ
i
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−∆σ
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
xx
(h
, y, z) = −∆σ
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(h
, y, z) = S
xz
(h
, y, z) = 0
(b) On the surface deﬁned by x = −h
, ˆ n = −
ˆ
i, and T = ∆σ
ˆ
i
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
∆σ
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
−1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−S
xx
−S
xy
−S
xz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
xx
(−h
, y, z) = −∆σ
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(−h
, y, z) = S
xz
(−h
, y, z) = 0
Yields the same results as in (a).
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 355
Now we use the equilibrium and stress boundary conditions. From equilibrium condi
tions:
∂S
xx
∂x
= 0 → S
xx
= c
1
= c
1
(y, z) = constant
∂S
yy
∂y
= 0 → S
yy
= c
2
= c
2
(x, z) = constant
∂S
zz
∂z
= 0 → S
zz
= c
3
= c
3
(x, y) = constant
From stress boundary conditions,
S
xx
(h, y, z) = −∆σ and c
1
= −∆σ
Now, using Hooke’s Law:
S
xx
= −∆σ =
E(1 −ν)
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
= −180 MPa → e
xx
= −.000635
Also
S
yy
=
E ν
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
= −77 MPa
S
zz
=
E ν
(1 +ν)(1 −2 ν)
e
xx
= −77 MPa
Also, note that the total stress and strain are
S = S
¸
¸
¸
before rigid wall
+S
¸
¸
¸
after rigid wall
e = e
¸
¸
¸
before rigid wall
+e
¸
¸
¸
after rigid wall
and the total stress and strain acting in the xdirection are:
S
xx
¸
¸
¸
total
= S
xx
¸
¸
¸
before contact
+S
xx
¸
¸
¸
after contact
= −420 −180 = −600 MPa
e
xx
¸
¸
¸
total
= e
xx
¸
¸
¸
before contact
+e
xx
¸
¸
¸
after contact
= −0.00200 −0.000635 = −0.002635
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 356
When σ = σ
2
= 600 MPa, the stress and strain ﬁelds are
S = S
¸
¸
¸
before rigid wall
+S
¸
¸
¸
after rigid wall
=
_
_
−420 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
_
+
_
_
−180 0 0
0 −77 0
0 0 −77
_
_
MPa
=
_
_
−600 0 0
0 −77 0
0 0 −77
_
_
MPa
e = e
¸
¸
¸
before rigid wall
+e
¸
¸
¸
after rigid wall
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−0.002 0 0
0 0.0006 0
0 0 0.0006
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
+
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−0.000635 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−2637 0 0
0 600 0
0 0 600
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
µ
With this we have completed the stress and strain ﬁelds but the displacements are know
remaining. Let us solve this after the block has reached the rigid wall and thus
R
¸
¸
¸
total
= R
¸
¸
¸
at rigid wall
+R
¸
¸
¸
after rigid wall
We know that V
2
= W
2
= 0. Only, U
2
remains. Let us use the straindisplacement
equations for this purpose:
e
xx
=
∂U
2
∂x
→
∂U
2
∂x
= −0.000635 → U
2
(x) = −0.000635 x +f
1
(y, z)
Also,
g
4
=
∂U
2
∂y
= 0 → U
2
= constant
g
7
=
∂U
2
∂z
= 0 → U
2
= constant
Which implies that f
1
(y, z) = k
1
= constant:
U
2
(x, y, z) = −0.000635 x +k
1
We know that the displacement when the block just hits the yz walls must be same to
displacement when the expansion begins:
U
1
(0.063373, 0, 0) = U
2
(0.063373, 0, 0)
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 357
However, let us make the new displacement independent from U
1
, in other words, let
U
2
(0.063373, 0, 0) = 0. As a consequence,
k
1
= 4.02419 10
−5
Thus, the displacement ﬁeld is
R
¸
¸
¸
after rigid wall
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
U
2
(x, y, z)
V
2
(x, y, z)
W
2
(x, y, z)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−0.000635 x + 4.02419 10
−5
0.00
0.00
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
End Example
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 358
Example 6.5.
Application 3: Isothermal Orthotropic Material
Consider a solid structure of a Hookean material with negligible body forces and subject to
evenly distributed pressure σ in the xdirection. The block is bound in the y and zdirection
by rigid walls at y = b +t, y = −b −t, z = a +w, z = −a −w, but free to expand/contract
in the xplane.
y
z
σ
σ
w
w
t t
x
z
FRONT VIEW
(Seen from xaxis)
SIDE VIEW
(Seen from yaxis)
a
a
b
b
h h
Assume the orthotropic material is GlassEpoxy (Scothply 1002) . The geometric properties
are:
2 a = 2 b = 2 h = 0.127 m t = w = 0.0381 mm
What is the needed pressure, σ, to make contact between the Hookean solid cube structure
and all the rigid walls?
Before we proceed let us obtain the mechanical properties for GlassEpoxy; hence, from
material tables:
E
xx
= 5.6 10
6
psi E
yy
= 1.2 10
6
psi E
zz
= 1.3 10
6
psi
G
xy
= 0.60 10
6
psi G
xz
= 0.60 10
6
psi G
yz
= 0.50 10
6
psi
ν
xy
= 0.26 ν
xz
= 0.25 ν
yz
= 0.34
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 359
Converting to SI units
2
:
E
xx
= 38.612 GPa E
yy
= 8.274 GPa E
zz
= 8.9635 GPa
G
xy
= 4.137 GPa G
xz
= 4.137 GPa G
yz
= 3.4475 GPa
The remaining mechanical properties are obtained from Eq. (6.34):
ν
yx
=
ν
xy
E
xx
E
yy
= 0.0557143 ν
zx
=
ν
xz
E
xx
E
zz
= 0.0580357 ν
zy
=
ν
yz
E
yy
E
zz
= 0.368333
From the geometry of the problem it is assumed that at all points in the body the displacement
ﬁeld (displacement boundary conditions) is:
U
1
(x, y, z) = u
1
(x)
V
1
(x, y, z) = v
1
(y)
W
1
(x, y, z) = w
1
(z)
The displacement gradients are then found as:
g
1
=
∂U
1
∂x
=
∂u
1
∂x
g
4
=
∂U
1
∂y
= 0 g
7
=
∂U
1
∂z
= 0
g
2
=
∂V
1
∂x
= 0 g
5
=
∂V
1
∂y
=
∂v
1
∂y
g
8
=
∂V
1
∂z
= 0
g
3
=
∂W
1
∂x
= 0 g
6
=
∂W
1
∂y
= 0 g
9
=
∂W
1
∂z
=
∂w
1
∂z
Thus the resulting straindisplacement relationship is obtained using the LagrangeGreen
equations:
1
= e
xx
= g
1
=
∂u
1
∂x
2
= e
yy
= g
5
=
∂v
1
∂y
3
= e
zz
= g
9
=
∂w
1
∂z
4
= 2 e
yz
= g
6
+g
8
= 0
5
= 2 e
xz
= g
3
+g
7
= 0
6
= 2 e
xy
= g
2
+g
4
= 0
2
1 psi = 6895 Pa
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 360
Now the stressstrain relationship for Hookean body is obtained using the Hooke’s law:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
xx
yy
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
E
xx
−
ν
yx
E
yy
−
ν
zx
E
zz
0 0 0
−
ν
xy
E
xx
1
E
yy
−
ν
zy
E
zz
0 0 0
−
ν
xz
E
xx
−
ν
yz
E
yy
1
E
zz
0 0 0
0 0 0
1
G
yz
0 0
0 0 0 0
1
G
xz
0
0 0 0 0 0
1
G
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
−9
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.0258987 −0.00673366 −0.00647467 0 0 0
−0.00673366 0.120861 −0.0410926 0 0 0
−0.00647467 −0.0410926 0.111564 0 0 0
0 0 0 0.290065 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.241721 0
0 0 0 0 0 0.241721
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Or in its inverted form:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
9
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
40.4261 3.48665 3.63041 0 0 0
3.48665 9.75924 3.797 0 0 0
3.63041 3.797 10.5728 0 0 0
0 0 0 3.4475 0 0
0 0 0 0 4.137 0
0 0 0 0 0 4.137
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 361
Thus,
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
S
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
9
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
40.4261 3.48665 3.63041 0 0 0
3.48665 9.75924 3.797 0 0 0
3.63041 3.797 10.5728 0 0 0
0 0 0 3.4475 0 0
0 0 0 0 4.137 0
0 0 0 0 0 4.137
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(All values in GPa)
S
1
= S
xx
= 40.4261 e
xx
+ 3.48665 e
yy
+ 3.63041 e
zz
S
2
= S
yy
= 3.48665 e
xx
+ 9.75924 e
yy
+ 3.797 e
zz
S
3
= S
zz
= 3.63041 e
xx
+ 3.797 e
yy
+ 10.5728 e
zz
S
4
= S
yz
= 0
S
5
= S
xz
= 0
S
6
= S
xy
= 0
Now, substituting the stress components into the three equilibrium equations which must be
satisﬁed at all point inside the body:
∂S
xx
∂x
+
∂S
yx
∂y
+
∂S
zx
∂z
+b
x
= 0 →
∂S
xx
∂x
= 0
∂S
xy
∂x
+
∂S
yy
∂y
+
∂S
zy
∂z
+b
y
= 0 →
∂S
yy
∂y
= 0
∂S
xz
∂x
+
∂S
yz
∂y
+
∂S
zz
∂z
+b
z
= 0 →
∂S
zz
∂z
= 0
Recall, all body forces are neglected.
Now in other to complete ﬁnd the unknowns we need to apply stress boundary conditions:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 362
(a) On the surface deﬁned by x = h, ˆ n =
ˆ
i, and T = −σ
1
ˆ
i
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−σ
1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
xx
(h, y, z) = −σ
1
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(h, y, z) = S
xz
(h, y, z) = 0
(b) On the surface deﬁned by x = −h, ˆ n = −
ˆ
i, and T = σ
1
ˆ
i
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
σ
1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
−1
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−S
xx
−S
xy
−S
xz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
xx
(−h, y, z) = −σ
1
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(−h, y, z) = S
xz
(−h, y, z) = 0
Yields the same results as in (a).
(c) On the surface deﬁned by z = a, ˆ n =
ˆ
k, and T = 0
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
1
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
zz
(x, y, a) = 0
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
yz
(x, y, a) = S
xz
(x, y, a) = 0
(d) On the surface deﬁned by z = −a, ˆ n = −
ˆ
k, and T = 0
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
−1
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−S
xz
−S
yz
−S
zz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
zz
(x, y, −a) = 0
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 363
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
yz
(x, y, −a) = S
xz
(x, y, −a) = 0
Yields the same results as in (c).
(e) On the surface deﬁned by y = b, ˆ n =
ˆ
j, and T = 0
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
0
1
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
yy
(x, b, z) = 0
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(x, b, z) = S
yz
(x, b, z) = 0
(f) On the surface deﬁned by y = −b, ˆ n = −
ˆ
j, and T = 0
_
_
_
T
x
T
y
T
z
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
S
xx
S
xy
S
xz
S
xy
S
yy
S
yz
S
xz
S
yz
S
zz
_
_
_
_
_
0
−1
0
_
_
_
=
_
_
_
−S
xy
−S
yy
−S
yz
_
_
_
Thus,
S
yy
(x, −b, z) = 0
and from the stressstrain relationship,
S
xy
(x, −b, z) = S
yz
(x, −b, z) = 0
Now we use the equilibrium and stress boundary conditions. From equilibrium conditions:
∂S
xx
∂x
= 0 → S
xx
= c
1
= c
1
(y, z) = constant
∂S
yy
∂y
= 0 → S
yy
= c
2
= c
2
(x, z) = constant
∂S
zz
∂z
= 0 → S
zz
= c
3
= c
3
(x, y) = constant
From stress boundary conditions,
S
xx
(h, y, z) = −σ
1
and c
1
= −σ
1
S
yy
(x, b, z) = 0 and c
2
= 0
S
zz
(x, y, a) = 0 and c
3
= 0
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 364
Now, let us use the stressstrain relationships (using the Hooke’s Law):
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
−9
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.0258987 −0.00673366 −0.00647467 0 0 0
−0.00673366 0.120861 −0.0410926 0 0 0
−0.00647467 −0.0410926 0.111564 0 0 0
0 0 0 0.290065 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.241721 0
0 0 0 0 0 0.241721
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−σ
1
0
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Multiplying the above we get
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= σ
1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−0.0258987
0.00673366
0.00647467
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10
−9
Thus, while there is no contact between the solid structure and the rigid walls, the state of
stress is
S =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−σ
1
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Note that since the above is a principal state of stress, the result will be a principal state of
strain. Thus the associated state of strain is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
0 0
0 e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= σ
1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−0.0258987 0 0
0 0.00673366 0
0 0 0.00647467
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10
−9
Note that e
yy
,= e
zz
. This implies that the block will reach twoopposite side rigid walls either
in the y or in the z direction ﬁrst. The strain needed for the solid cube to make with the
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 365
rigid wall is
e
yy
=
ﬁnal expansion in y −initial expansion in y
initial expansion in y
=
(2 b + 2 t) −(2 b)
2 b
=
2 (0.0381 10
−3
)
0.127
= 0.0006
e
zz
=
ﬁnal expansion in z −initial expansion in z
initial expansion in z
=
(2 a + 2 w) −(2 a)
2 a
=
2 (0.0381 10
−3
)
0.127
= 0.0006
Thus
e
yy
= e
zz
= 0.0006
The needed pressure is calculated using both the second and third equation in the Hooke’s
Law
e
yy
= 0.00673366 σ
1
10
−9
→ σ
1
= 89.1046 MPa
e
zz
= 0.00647467 σ
1
10
−9
→ σ
1
= 92.6688 MPa
Thus, when σ = 89.1046 MPa, the block has already made contact with the rigid wall in the
ydirection; and when σ ≥ 92.67 MPa, the block has made contact with both walls.
End Example
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 366
Example 6.6.
Application 4: Nonisothermal Orthotropic Material
Redo Example 6.5 but considering a decrease in temperature of 100
◦
C from its initial tem
perature.
The mechanical properties for GlassEpoxy (Scothply 1002) are:
E
xx
= 38.612 GPa E
yy
= 8.274 GPa E
zz
= 8.9635 GPa
G
xy
= 4.137 GPa G
xz
= 4.137 GPa G
yz
= 3.4475 GPa
α
xx
= 8.64 µm/m
◦
C α
yy
= 22.14 µm/m
◦
C α
zz
= 22.14 µm/m
◦
C
ν
yx
=
ν
xy
E
xx
E
yy
= 0.0557143 ν
zx
=
ν
xz
E
xx
E
zz
= 0.0580357 ν
zy
=
ν
yz
E
yy
E
zz
= 0.368333
From the geometry of the problem it is assumed that at all points in the body the displacement
ﬁeld (displacement boundary conditions) is:
U
1
(x, y, z) = u
1
(x)
V
1
(x, y, z) = v
1
(y)
W
1
(x, y, z) = w
1
(z)
The resulting straindisplacement relationship is obtained using the LagrangeGreen equa
tions:
1
= e
xx
= g
1
=
∂u
1
∂x
2
= e
yy
= g
5
=
∂v
1
∂y
3
= e
zz
= g
9
=
∂w
1
∂z
4
= 2 e
yz
= g
6
+g
8
= 0
5
= 2 e
xz
= g
3
+g
7
= 0
6
= 2 e
xy
= g
2
+g
4
= 0
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 367
Now the stressstrain relationship for Hookean body is obtained using the Hooke’s law:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
xx
yy
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
E
xx
−
ν
yx
E
yy
−
ν
zx
E
zz
0 0 0
−
ν
xy
E
xx
1
E
yy
−
ν
zy
E
zz
0 0 0
−
ν
xz
E
xx
−
ν
yz
E
yy
1
E
zz
0 0 0
0 0 0
1
G
yz
0 0
0 0 0 0
1
G
xz
0
0 0 0 0 0
1
G
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
S
yy
S
zz
S
yz
S
xz
S
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
+
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
α
xx
α
yy
α
zz
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
∆T
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
−9
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.0258987 −0.00673366 −0.00647467 0 0 0
−0.00673366 0.120861 −0.0410926 0 0 0
−0.00647467 −0.0410926 0.111564 0 0 0
0 0 0 0.290065 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.241721 0
0 0 0 0 0 0.241721
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Sxx
Syy
Szz
Syz
Sxz
Sxy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
+
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
8.64
22.14
22.14
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
×10
−6
(−100)
Or in its inverted form:
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
9
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
40.4261 3.48665 3.63041 0 0 0
3.48665 9.75924 3.797 0 0 0
3.63041 3.797 10.5728 0 0 0
0 0 0 3.4475 0 0
0 0 0 0 4.137 0
0 0 0 0 0 4.137
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
8.64
22.14
22.14
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
×10
−6
(−100)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 368
Thus, (All values in GPa)
S
1
= S
xx
= 40.4261 e
xx
+ 3.48665 e
yy
+ 3.63041 e
zz
−40.4261 α
xx
∆T −3.48665 α
yy
∆T −3.63041 α
zz
∆T
= 40.4261 e
xx
+ 3.48665 e
yy
+ 3.63041 e
zz
+ 50685.4
S
2
= S
yy
= 3.48665 e
xx
+ 9.75924 e
yy
+ 33026.
= 3.48665 e
xx
+ 9.75924 e
yy
+ 3.797 e
zz
−3.48665 α
xx
∆T −9.75924 α
yy
∆T −3.797 α
zz
∆T
S
3
= S
zz
= 3.63041 e
xx
+ 3.797 e
yy
+ 10.5728 e
zz
−3.63041 α
xx
∆T −3.797 α
yy
∆T −10.5728 α
zz
∆T
= 3.63041 e
xx
+ 3.797 e
yy
+ 10.5728 e
zz
+ 34951.3
S
4
= S
yz
= 0
S
5
= S
xz
= 0
S
6
= S
xy
= 0
Now, substituting the stress components into the three equilibrium equations which must be
satisﬁed at all point inside the body:
∂S
xx
∂x
+
∂S
yx
∂y
+
∂S
zx
∂z
+b
x
= 0 →
∂S
xx
∂x
= 0
∂S
xy
∂x
+
∂S
yy
∂y
+
∂S
zy
∂z
+b
y
= 0 →
∂S
yy
∂y
= 0
∂S
xz
∂x
+
∂S
yz
∂y
+
∂S
zz
∂z
+b
z
= 0 →
∂S
zz
∂z
= 0
Recall, all body forces are neglected.
From the previous example:
∂S
xx
∂x
= 0 → S
xx
= c
1
= c
1
(y, z) = constant
∂S
yy
∂y
= 0 → S
yy
= c
2
= c
2
(x, z) = constant
∂S
zz
∂z
= 0 → S
zz
= c
3
= c
3
(x, y) = constant
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 369
From stress boundary conditions,
S
xx
(h, y, z) = −σ
1
and c
1
= −σ
1
S
yy
(x, b, z) = 0 and c
2
= 0
S
zz
(x, y, a) = 0 and c
3
= 0
Now, let us use the stressstrain relationships (using the Hooke’s Law):
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
4
5
6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= 10
−9
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0.0258987 −0.00673366 −0.00647467 0 0 0
−0.00673366 0.120861 −0.0410926 0 0 0
−0.00647467 −0.0410926 0.111564 0 0 0
0 0 0 0.290065 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.241721 0
0 0 0 0 0 0.241721
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−σ1
0
0
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
+
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
8.64
22.14
22.14
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
×10
−6
(−100)
Multiplying the above we get
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
e
yy
e
zz
γ
yz
γ
xz
γ
xy
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= σ
1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−0.0258987
0.00673366
0.00647467
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10
−9
+
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−0.000864
−0.002214
−0.002214
0
0
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Thus, while there is no contact between the solid structure and the rigid walls, the state of
stress is
S =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
S
xx
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−σ
1
0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Note that since the above is a principal state of stress, the result will be a principal state of
6.2. PLANE STRESS AND PLANE STRAIN 370
strain. Thus the associated state of strain is
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
e
xx
0 0
0 e
yy
0
0 0 e
zz
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=σ
1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−0.0258987 0 0
0 0.00673366 0
0 0 0.00647467
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10
−9
+
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−0.000864 0 0
0 −0.002214 0
0 0 −0.002214
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Note that e
yy
,= e
zz
. This implies that the block will reach twoopposite side rigid walls either
in the y or in the z direction ﬁrst. The strain needed for the solid cube to make with the
rigid wall is
e
yy
=
ﬁnal expansion in y −initial expansion in y
initial expansion in y
= 0.0006
e
zz
=
ﬁnal expansion in z −initial expansion in z
initial expansion in z
= 0.0006
Thus
e
yy
= e
zz
= 0.0006
The needed pressure is calculated using both the second and third equation in the Hooke’s
Law
e
yy
= 0.00673366 σ
1
10
−9
−0.002214 → σ
1
= 417.901 MPa
e
zz
= 0.00647467 σ
1
10
−9
−0.002214 → σ
1
= 434.617 MPa
Thus, when σ = 417.901 MPa, the block has already made contact with the rigid wall in the
ydirection; and when σ ≥ 434.617 MPa, the block has made contact with both walls.
End Example
6.3. REFERENCES 371
6.3 References
Allen, D. H., Introduction to Aerospace Structural Analysis , 1985, John Wiley and Sons, New York,
NY.
Curtis, H. D., Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis, 1997, McGraw Hill, New York, NY.
Johnson, E. R., ThinWalled Structures, 2006, Textbook at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University, Blacksburg, VA.
Keane, Andy and Nair, Prasanth, Computational Approaches for Aerospace Design: The Pursuit of
Excellence, August 2005, John Wiley and Sons.
Shames, I. H., and Dym, C. L., Energy and Finite Element Methods in Structural Mechanics, 1985,
Taylor & Francis.
Sun, C. T., Mechanics of Aircraft Structures, Second Edition 2006, John Wiley and Sons
6.4. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 372
6.4 Suggested Problems
Problem 6.1.
The state of stress at a point is
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−p τ τ
τ −p τ
τ τ −p
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.51)
where p > 0 and τ > 0. Determine the state of principal strain for an isotropic and for an orthotropic
materials.
6.4. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 373
Problem 6.2.
The state of stress at a point is
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
σ
1
0 0
0 σ
2
0
0 0 σ
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.52)
x
y
z
O
A
B
C
Suppose the stress vector acting on the ACB plane is
T
(ACB)
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
50
10
20
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
MPa
1. Determine the state of strain if the material is steel and glassepoxy (use values used in chapter).
2. Is this a case of plane strain, plane stress, or neither of these special cases.
3. Determine the strain vector acting along the AC segment.
6.4. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 374
Problem 6.3.
The state of stress at a point is
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10 20 0
20 −20 0
0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10
6
psi (6.53)
Find the principal strains if the material is Titanium (Ti3Al2.5V, UNS R56320; ASTM Grade 9; Half
64) using:
1. Eigenvalue approach.
2. Mohr’s circle.
6.4. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 375
Problem 6.4.
Analysis of a particular body, made of Titanium (Ti3Al2.5V, UNS R56320; ASTM Grade 9; Half 64),
indicates that stresses for orthogonal interfaces associated with reference xyz at a given point are
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
3000 −1000 0
−1000 2000 2000
0 2000 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
kPa (6.54)
1. Determine the shear strain vector acting on the same interface in a direction parallel to the xaxis.
2. Determine the normal and shear strain vectors and magnitudes on the inﬁnitesimal interface at
this point whose unit normal is
ˆ n
s
= 0.60
ˆ
j + 0.8
ˆ
k (6.55)
3. Determine the overall maximum shear strain at the given point.
6.4. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 376
Problem 6.5.
Is the following a valid state of strain
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
10 20 −10
20 −20 0
10 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
µ (6.56)
6.4. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 377
Problem 6.6.
Given the following state of strain at a point
e =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0.02 0
0.02 −0.01 −0.03
0 −0.03 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.57)
1. Is this a state of plane strain?
2. Determine the maximum engineering strain and the maximum true strain. Hint: Find principal
strains using the eigenvalue approach.
3. Compute the normal strain at the given point in the direction of
ˆ n
(s)
= 0.6
ˆ
i −0.8
ˆ
k (6.58)
4. Determine the von Mises stress for the given point of strain if ν = 0.3 and E = 30 10
6
psi.
6.4. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 378
Problem 6.7.
The state of stress at a point is
σ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−p 0 0
0 −p 0
0 0 −p
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.59)
where p > 0. This is a state of hydrostatic stress, since all of the principal stresses are equal. Assume
isotropic properties.
1. Find the maximum shear strain.
2. Find the maximum normal strain.
6.4. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 379
Problem 6.8.
Consider a solid structure of a Hookean material with negligible body forces and subject to evenly
distributed shear τ
o
acting on the xplanes only. The block is bound only in the zdirection by rigid
walls at z = h, z = −h, but free to expand/contract in the x and y planes.
x
z
FRONT VIEW
(Seen from xaxis)
SIDE VIEW
(Seen from yaxis)
y
z
a a
b b
h
h
τ
o
τ
o
Assume the orthotropic material is graphiteepoxy (T300/934). The geometric properties are:
2 a = 2 b = 2 h = 0.200 m
What is the needed shear pressure τ
o
if the maximum strain allowed in any given direction is 0.001?
6.4. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 380
Problem 6.9.
Consider a solid structure of a Hookean material with negligible body forces and subject to evenly
distributed shear σ
o
in the ydirection. The block is bound only in the ydirection by rigid wall at
y = −h, but free to expand/contract in the all other directions.
z
y
FRONT VIEW
(Seen from zaxis)
SIDE VIEW
(Seen from xaxis)
x
y
σ
o
a a
b b
h
h
σ
o
Assume the orthotropic material is graphiteepoxy (T300/934). The geometric properties are:
2 a = 2 b = 2 h = 0.200 m
What is the needed pressure, σ
o
, if the maximum normal strain allowed in any given direction is 0.001?
6.4. SUGGESTED PROBLEMS 381
Problem 6.10.
Consider a solid structure of a Hookean material with negligible body forces and subject to evenly
distributed pressure σ
o
in the xdirection. The block is bound in the y and zdirection by rigid walls at
y = b + 2t, y = −b −2t, z = a +w, z = −a −w, but free to expand/contract in the xplane.
y
z
w
w
2t
2t
x
z
FRONT VIEW
(Seen from xaxis)
SIDE VIEW
(Seen from yaxis)
a
a
b
b
h h
σ
o
σ
o
Considering a increase in temperature of 100
◦
C from its initial temperature. Assume the orthotropic
material is graphiteepoxy (T300/934). The geometric properties are:
2 a = 2 b = 2 h = 0.200 m t = w = 0.010 m
What is the needed pressure, σ
o
, to make contact between the Hookean solid cube structure and all the
rigid walls?
Chapter 7
Advanced Beam Theories
Instructional Objectives of Chapter 7
After completing this chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Discuss the consequences and apply the elementary beam theory: EulerBernoulli Beam
Theory.
2. Discuss the consequences and apply the Timoshenko Beam Theory.
3. Discuss the consequences and apply the BeamPlane Elasticity Solution using Airy’s
Stress Function.
4. Apply Prandtl’s torsional theory.
5. Describe the entire elasticity ﬁeld for a given beam subject to various loading and
boundary conditions.
For many structural problems, it can be cumbersome to work with the threedimensional model or
even challenging to obtain an analytical solution. However, we can model most structural components
using one and twodimensional model by using beams, plates or shells. In fact, we can often idealize
many aerospace structural components as using beams. A beam can be deﬁned as a structure having
one of its dimensions much larger than the other two. The axis of the beam is deﬁned along that longer
dimension and the crosssection normal to this axis is assumed to smoothly vary along the span of the
beam. Some examples of aeronautical structures modeled as thinwalled beams are wings and fuselages.
In this chapter we discuss the beam theory to analyze various types of beams. Beam theory is the
solid mechanics theory describing beams and it plays an important role in structural analysis as it is
a simple tool to analyze numerous structures. Although nowadays we have threedimensional ﬁnite
element computer codes to analyze loads and deﬂections, beam models help us in the predesign stage
as they provide valuable insight into the behavior of the structure. Such calculations are also very useful
in