PRACTICAL DATA

FOR METALLURGISTS

Practical Data for
Metallurgists
Fifteenth Edition
Welcome to the Practical Data for Metallurgists,
the guide that technical experts, operations
managers and engineering personnel have
turned to for more than 50 years for the latest
metallurgical information. Our guide—which
conforms with information published by AISI and
SAE—includes an updated listing of standard
steels and their chemical compositions,
hardening abilities and tolerances.
At Timken, we use a combination of materials
science, application engineering and processing
capabilities to add value and improve the performance of our customers. Providing you with the
information you need to make informed decisions
about your alloy steel needs is just one way we
help you reach your fullest potential.
For more information about our full line of
Timken® steel, speciality steel and precision
steel components, or to request additional
copies of this guide, call 1-866-284-6536,
fax 1-330-471-7032 or visit our Web site at
www.timken.com/products/alloysteel.

1

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Number
4-35

Steel Chemistries
Chemical Compositions, etc.
Miscellaneous Steel Properties
Relative Tool Steel Properties
Hardenability Band Data
Restricted Hardenability Band Data
Jominy Correlation with Round Bars
Combined Hardenability Charts
Martensite Percent vs. Carbon Content and Hardness
Relationship of Fatigue Strength to Tensile Strength
Carburizing Rates of Carbon and Alloy Steels
Critical Transformation Temperatures and Ms/Mf Points
Hot Working Temperatures

36-39
40-50
51-53
54-57
58-71
72
73
74-78
79-81
82-83

Tubing
General Tolerances
Length Tolerances
Straightness Tolerances
Steamless Steel Tubing Shapes
Tube Size Calculations
OD Cleanups
Formulas for Calculating Surface Cleanup
Formulas for Calculating Camber (Straightness) Cleanup

84-88
89
90-91
92-93
94-97
98
99
99

Bar
General Tolerances
Straightness Tolerances
Weight Table - Rounds and Squares
Reduction Ratios for Round and Square Bars

100
101
102-105
106

Miscellaneous Information
Iron Carbon Phase Diagram
Statistical Process Control (SPC) Information
Handy Physical Constants
Engineering Conversion Factors
Metric-English Stress Conversion Tables
Work-Energy Conversion Tables
Decimal Equivalent Chart
Temperature Conversion Tables
Hardness Conversion Tables
Useful Equations for Hardenable Alloy Steels
Glossary of Metallurgical Terms

107
108-109
110
111-113
114
115
116-117
118-119
120-121
122
123-128

3

STANDARD CARBON STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE
No.

C

Mn

P
Max

S
Max

1005
1006
1008

.06 max
.08 max
.10 max

.35 max
.25/.40
.30/.50

.040
.040
.040

.050
.050
.050

1010
1011
1012
1013
1015
1016
1017
1018

.08/.13
.08/.14
.10/.15
.11/.16
.13/.18
.13/.18
.15/.20
.15/.20

.30/.60
.60/.90
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.60/.90
.30/.60
.60/.90

.040
.040
.040
.030
.040
.040
.040
.040

.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050

1020
1021
1022
1023
1025
1026
1029

.18/.23
.18/.23
.18/.23
.20/.25
.22/.28
.22/.28
.25/.31

.30/.60
.60/.90
.70/1.00
.30/.60
.30/.60
.60/.90
.60/.90

.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040

.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050

1030
1035
1038
1039

.28/.34
.32/.38
.35/.42
.37/.44

.60/.90
.60/.90
.60/.90
.70/1.00

.040
.040
.040
.040

.050
.050
.050
.050

1040
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1049

.37/.44
.40/.47
.40/.47
.43/.50
.43/.50
.43/.50
.46/.53

.60/.90
.60/.90
.70/1.00
.30/.60
.60/.90
.70/1.00
.60/.90

.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040

.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050

1050
1053
1055

.48/.55
.48/.55
.50/.60

.60/.90
.70/1.00
.60/.90

.040
.040
.040

.050
.050
.050

1060
1065

.55/.65
.60/.70

.60/.90
.60/.90

.040
.040

.050
.050

1070
1074
1078

.65/.75
.70/.80
.72/.85

.60/.90
.50/.80
.30/.60

.040
.040
.040

.050
.050
.050

1080
1086

.75/.88
.80/.93

.60/.90
.30/.50

.040
.040

.050
.050

1090
1095

.85/.98
.90/1.03

.60/.90
.30/.50

.040
.040

.050
.050

4

FREE CUTTING RESULPHURIZED STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE
No.

C

Mn

P
Max

S

1117
1118
1126
1132
1137
1138
1140
1141
1144
1146
1151

.14/.20
.14/.20
.23/.29
.27/.34
.32/.39
.34/.40
.37/.44
.37/.45
.40/.48
.42/.49
.48/.55

1.00/1.30
1.30/1.60
.70/1.00
1.35/1.65
1.35/1.65
.70/1.00
.70/1.00
1.35/1.65
1.35/1.65
.70/1.00
.70/1.00

.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030

.08/.13
.08/.13
.08/.13
.08/.13
.08/.13
.08/.13
.08/.13
.08/.13
.24/.33
.08/.13
.08/.13

FREE CUTTING REPHOSPHORIZED
AND RESULPHURIZED STEEL
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE
No.

C

Mn

P

S

1212
1213
1215

.13 max
.13 max
.09 max

.70/1.00
.70/1.00
.75/1.05

.07/.12
.07/.12
.04/.09

.16/.23
.24/.33
.26/.35

NOTE: 12XX grades are customarily furnished without specified silicon content because
of adverse effect on machinability.

HIGH MANGANESE CARBON STEEL
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE
No.

C

Mn

P
Max

S
Max

1522
1524
1526
1527
1541
1547
1548
1552
1566

.18/.24
.19/.25
.22/.29
.22/.29
.36/.44
.43/.51
.44/.52
.47/.55
.60/.71

1.10/1.40
1.35/1.65
1.10/1.40
1.20/1.50
1.35/1.65
1.35/1.65
1.10/1.40
1.20/1.50
.85/1.15

.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030

.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050

5

STANDARD ALLOY STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE
No.

C

Mn

Cr

1330
1335
1340

.28/.33
.33/.38
.38/.43

1.60/1.80
1.60/1.90
1.60/1.90

..............
..............
..............

.............. ..............
.............. ..............
.............. ..............

.............
.............
.............

4023
4027
4037
4047

.20/.25
.25/.30
.35/.40
.45/.50

.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90

..............
..............
..............
..............

..............
..............
..............
..............

.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30

.............
.............
.............
.............

4118
4120a
4130
4137
4140
4142
4145
4150

.18/.23
.18/.23
.28/.33
.35/.40
.38/.43
.40/.45
.43/.48
.48/.53

.70/.90
.90/1.20
.40/.60
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00

.40/.60
.40/.60
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

.08/.15
.13/.20
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............

4320
4340
E4340

.17/.22
.38/.43
.38/.43

.45/ .65
.60/.80
.65/.85

.40/.60
.70/.90
.70/.90

1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00

.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30

.............
.............
.............

4620

.17/.22

.45/.65

..............

1.65/2.00

.20/.30

.............

4820

3.25/3.75

.20/.30

Ni

Mo

Other

.18/.23

.50/.70

..............

50B46§ .44/.49

.75/1.00

.20/.35

.............. ..............

.............

5120
5130
5132
5140
5150
5160
51B60§

.17/.22
.28/.33
.30/.35
.38/.43
.48/.53
.56/.64
.56/.64

.70/.90
.70/.90
.60/.80
.70/.90
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.75/1.00

.70/.90
.80/1.10
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............

51100 .98/1.10
E52100 .98/1.10

.25/.45
.25/.45

.90/1.15
1.30/1.60

.............
.............

............
............

52100

.25/.45

1.35/1.60

.............

............

.............
P  .025
S  .025
P  .025
S  .015

.93/1.05

6

.............

STANDARD ALLOY STEELS – continued
SAE
No.

C

Mn

Cr

6150

.48/.53

.70/.90

.80/1.10

.............

............

V
.15 min

8615
8617
8620
8622
8630
8640
8645

.16/.18
.15/.20
.18/.23
.20/.25
.28/.33
.38/.43
.43/.48

.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.75/1.00

.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60

.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70

.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25

.............
.............
.............
.............
............
.............
.............

8720

.18/.23

.70/.90

.40/.60

.40/.70

.20/.30

.............

8822

.20/.25

.75/1.00

.40/.60

.40/.70

.30/.40

9259
9260

.56/.64
.56/.64

.75/1.00
.75/1.00

.45/.65
.............

.............
.............

§ B  .0005/.003

a

Ni

Mo

Other

.............
Si
............. .70/1.10
............. 1.80/2.20

Formerly PS 15

Unless specified:
Si  .15/.35, P  .035 max (SAE J1268), S  .040 max, Ni  .25 max, Cr  .20 max,
Mo  .06 max
These standard grades can have modifications in chemistry when agreed upon by user
and supplier.

7

PS GRADES (Formerly EX Grades)
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
PS
No.

C

10
.19/.24
16
.20/.25
17
.23/.28
18
.25/.30
19
.18/.23
20
.13/.18
21
.15/.20
31
.15/.20
32
.18/.23
33
.17/.24
34
.28/.33
36
.38/.43
38
.43/.48
39
.48/.53
40
.51/.59
54
.19/.25
55
.15/.20
56
.08/.13
57† .08 max
58
.16/.21
59
.18/.23
61
.23/.28
63
.31/.38
64
.16/.21
65
.21/.26
66
.16/.21
67
.42/.49

Mn

Cr

.95/1.25
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.70/.90
.70/.90
.85/1.25
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.70/1.05
.70/1.00
.70/1.00
1.25 max
1.00/1.30
1.00/1.30
1.00/1.30
.75/1.10
1.00/1.30
1.00/1.30
.40/.70
.80/1.20

.25/.40
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.45/.65
.45/.65
.20 min
.40/.60
.45/.65
.45/.65
.45/.65
.45/.65
.40/.70
.45/.65
.45/.65
17.00/19.00
.45/.65
.70/.90
.70/.90
.45/.65
.70/.90
.70/.90
.45/.75
.85/ 1.20

Ni

Unless Specified:
Si  .15/.35, P  .035 max, S  .040 max

P  .040 max, S  .15/.35, Si  1.00 max

Note: PS Nos. 15, 24 and 30 are now standard grades.
(See SAE Nos. 4120, 4121 and 4715)

8

Mo

Other

.20/.40
.05/.10 ..............
..............
.13/.20 ..............
..............
.13/.20 ..............
..............
.13/.20
B
..............
.08/.15 .0005-.003
..............
.13/.20 ..............
..............
.13/.20 ..............
.70/1.00
.45/.60 ..............
.70/1.00
.45/.60 ..............
.20 min
.05 min ..............
..............
.13/.20 ..............
..............
.13/.20 ..............
..............
.13/.20 ..............
..............
.13/.20 ..............
..............
.13/.20 ..............
..............
.05 min ..............
1.65/2.00
.65/.80 ..............
1.65/2.00
.65/.80 ..............
.............. 1.75/2.25 ..............
.............. .............. ..............
.............. .............. ..............
.............. ..............
B
.............. .............. .0005-.003
.............. .............. ..............
.............. ..............
V
1.65/2.00
.08/.15
.10/.15
..............
.25/.35 ..............

STANDARD H STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges
SAE
No.

a
b

C

Mn

Cr

Ni

Mo

Other

1330 H
1335 H
1340 H
1345 H

.27/.33
.32/.38
.37/.44
.42/.49

1.45/2.05
1.45/2.05
1.45/2.05
1.45/2.05

.............
.............
.............
.............

..............
..............
..............
..............

............
............
............
............

.............
.............
.............
.............

4027 H
4028 Ha
4032 H
4037 H
4042 H
4047 H

.24/.30
.24/.30
.29/.35
.34/.41
.39/.46
.44/.51

.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.60/1.00

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
............

4118 H
4130 H
4135 H
4137 H
4140 H
4142 H
4145 H
4147 H
4150 H
4161 H

.17/.23
.27/.33
.32/.38
.34/.41
.37/.44
.39/.46
.42/.49
.44/.51
.47/.54
.55/.65

.60/1.00
.30/.70
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.65/1.10
.65/1.10
.65/1.10
.65/1.10
.65/1.10
.65/1.10

.30/.70
.75/1.20
.75/1.20
.75/1.20
.75/1.20
.75/1.20
.75/1.20
.75/1.20
.75/1.20
.65/.95

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

.08/.15
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.25/.35

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............

4320 H
4340 H
E4340 H

.17/.23
.37/.44
.37/.44

.40/.70
.55/.90
.60/.95

.35/.65
.65/.95
.65/.95

1.55/2.00
1.55/2.00
1.55/2.00

.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30

.............
.............
.............

4620 H
4718 H

.17/.23
.15/.21

.35/.75
.60/.95

.............
.30/.60

1.55/2.00
.85/1.25

.20/.30
.30/.40

.............
.............

4720 H

.17/.23

.45/.75

.30/.60

.85/1.25

.15/.25

.............

4815 H
4817 H
4820 H

.12/.18
.14/.20
.17/.23

.30/.70
.30/.70
.40/.80

.............
.............
.............

3.20/3.80
3.20/3.80
3.20/3.80

.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30

.............
.............
.............

50B40 Hb
50B44 Hb
5046 H
50B46 Hb
50B50 Hb
50B60 Hb

.37/.44
.42/.49
.43/.50
.43/.50
.47/.54
.55/.65

.65/1.10
.65/1.10
.65/1.10
.65/1.10
.65/1.10
.65/1.10

.30/.70
.30/.70
.13/.43
.13/.43
.30/.70
.30/.70

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

............
............
............
............
............
............

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............

S  .035/.050
B  .0005/.003

9

STANDARD H STEELS – continued
SAE
No.

C

Mn

Cr

Ni

Mo

Other

5120 H
5130 H
5132 H
5135 H
5140 H
5147 H
5150 H
5155 H
5160 H
51B60Hb

.17/.23
.27/.33
.29/.35
.32/.38
.37/.44
.45/.52
.47/.54
.50/.60
.55/.65
.55/.65

.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.50/.90
.50/.90
.60/1.00
.60/1.05
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.65/1.10
.65/1.10

.60/1.00
.75/1.20
.65/1.10
.70/1.15
.60/1.00
.80/1.25
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.60/1.00
.60/1.00

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
.............
..............
..............

6118 H
6150 H

.15/.21
.47/.54

.40/.80
.60/1.00

.40/.80
.75/1.20

.............. ..............
.............. ..............

..............
..............
..............
............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
V
.10/.15
.15 min.

81B45 Hb .42/.49

.70/1.05

.30/.60

.15/.45

.08/.15

..............

8617 H
8620 H
8622 H
8625 H
8627 H
8630 H
86B30 Hb
8637 H
8640 H
8642 H
8645 H
86B45 Hb
8650 H
8655 H
8660 H
8720 H
8740 H

.14/.20
.17/.23
.19/.25
.22/.28
.24/.30
.27/.33
.27/.33
.34/.41
.37/.44
.39/.46
.42/.49
.42/.49
.47/.54
.50/.60
.55/.65
.17/.23
.37/.44

.60/.95
.60/.95
.60/.95
.60/.95
.60/.95
.60/.95
.60/.95
.70/1.05
.70/1.05
.70/1.05
.70/1.05
.70/1.05
.70/1.05
.70/1.05
.70/1.05
.60/.95
.70/1.05

.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65
.35/.65

.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75
.35/.75

.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.20/.30
.20/.30

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

8822 H

.19/.25

.70/1.05

.35/.65

.35/.75

.30/.40

9260 H

.55/.65

.65/1.10

.............

9310 H
94B15 Hb
94B17 Hb
94B30 Hb

.07/.13
.12/.18
.14/.20
.27/.33

.40/.70 1.00/1.45 2.95/3.55
.70/1.05 .25/.55
.25/.65
.70/1.05 .25/.55
.25/.65
.70/1.05 .25/.55
.25/.65

..............
Si
.............. .............. 1.70/2.20
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15

..............
..............
..............
..............

Unless specified:
Si  .15/.35, P  .030 max (SAE J1268), S  .040 max, Cu  .35 max, Ni  .25 max,
Cr  .20 max, Mo  .06 max
b

B  .0005/.003

10

STANDARD CARBON AND
CARBON BORON H STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE
No.
1038 H
1045 H
1522 H
1524 H
1526 H
1541 H
15B21*
15B28H
15B30H
15B35H*
15B37H*
15B41H*
15B48H*
15B62H*

C

Mn

P
Max

S
Max

Si

.34/.43
.42/.51
.17/.25
.18/.26
.21/.30
.35/.45
.17/.24
.25/.34
.27/.35
.31/.39
.30/.39
.35/.45
.43/.53
.54/.67

.50/1.00
.50/1.00
1.00/1.50
1.25/1.75
1.00/1.50
1.25/1.75
.70/1.20
1.00/1.50
.70/1.20
.70/1.20
1.00/1.50
1.25/1.75
1.00/1.50
1.00/1.50

.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030

.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050

.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.40/.60

For electric furnace steels P & S  .025 max and the prefix E is added.
* B  .0005/.003

RESTRICTED HARDENABILITY STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges
SAE
No.

C

Mn

Si

15B21RH*
15B35RH*
3310RH
4027RH
4118RH
4120RH
4130RH
4140RH
4145RH
4161RH
4320RH
4620RH
4820RH
50B40RH*
5130RH
5140RH
5160RH
8620RH
8622RH
8720RH
8822RH
9310RH

.17/.22
.33/.38
.08/.13
.25/.30
.18/.23
.18/.23
.28/.33
.38/.43
.43/.48
.56/.64
.17/.22
.17/.22
.18/.23
.38/.43
.28/.33
.38/.43
.56/.64
.18/.23
.20/.25
.18/.23
.20/.25
.08/.13

.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.40/.60
.70/.90
.70/.90
.90/1.20
.40/.60
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.45/.65
.45/.65
.50/.70
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.45/.65

.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35

Ni

Cr

Unless specified: Cu  .35 max, Ni  .25 max, Cr  .20 max, Mo  .06 max
* B  .0005 /.003

11

Mo

.............
............. .............
.............
............. .............
3.25/3.75 1.40/1.75 .............
.............
............. .20/.30
.............
.40/.60
.08/.15
.............
.40/.60
.13/.20
.............
.80/1.10 .15/.25
.............
.80/1.10 .15/.25
.............
.80/1.10 .15/.25
.............
.70/.90
.25/.35
1.65/2.00
.40/.60
.20/.30
1.65/2.00 ............. .20/.30
3.25/3.75 ............. .20/.30
.............
.40/.60 .............
.............
.80/1.10 .............
.............
.70/.90 .............
.............
.70/.90 .............
.40/.70
.40/.60
.15/.25
.40/.70
.40/.60
.15/.25
.40/.70
.40/.60
.20/.30
.40/.70
.40/.60
.30/.40
3.00/3.50 1.00/1.40 .08/.15

FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE
No.

C

Mn

P
Max

S
Max

1009
1033
1034
1037
1059
1062
1064
1069
1075
1084
1085
1086
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1119
1120
1123
1139
1145
1152
1211
1320
1345
1513
1518
1525
1533
1534
1536
1544
1545
1546
1551
1553
1561
1570
1572
1580
1590

.15 max
.30/.36
.32/.38
.32/.38
.55/.65
.54/.65
.60/.70
.65/.75
.70/.80
.80/.93
.80/.93
.80/.94
.08/.13
.08/.13
.08/.13
.13 max
.13 max
.13 max
.10/.16
.13/.18
.14/.20
.14/.20
.18/.23
.20/.27
.35/.43
.42/.49
.48/.55
.13 max
.18/.23
.43/.48
.10/.16
.15/.21
.23/.29
.30/.37
.30/.37
.30/.37
.40/.47
.43/.50
.44/.52
.45/.56
.48/.55
.55/.65
.65/.75
.65/.76
.75/.88
.85/.98

.60 max
.70/1.00
.50/.80
.70/1.00
.50/.80
.85/1.15
.50/.80
.40/.70
.40/.70
.60/.90
.70/1.00
.30/.50
.50/.80
.60/.90
.30/.60
.60/.90
.70/1.00
.70/1.00
1.00/1.30
.60/.90
1.10/1.40
1.00/1.30
.70/1.00
1.20/1.50
1.35/1.65
.70/1.00
.70/1.00
.60/.90
1.60/1.90
1.60/1.90
1.10/1.40
1.10/1.40
.80/1.10
1.10/1.40
1.20/1.50
1.20/1.50
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
1.00/1.30
.85/1.15
.80/1.10
.75/1.05
.80/1.10
1.00/1.30
.80/1.10
.80/1.10

.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.07/0.12
.07/0.12
.07/0.12
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.07/.12
.040
.035
.030
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040

.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.08/.13
.08/.13
.08/.13
.10/.15
.16/.23
.24/.33
.08/.13
.08/.13
.16/.23
.24/.33
.08/.13
.06/.09
.13/.20
.04/.07
.06/.09
.10/.15
.040
.040
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050
.050

12

FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS – continued
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE
No.

C

Mn

Cr

Ni

Mo

Other

2317
2330
2340
2345
2512
2515
2517
3115
3120
3130
3135
X3140
3140
3145
3150
3215
3220
3230
3240
3245
3250
3310
3311
3312
3316
3325
3335
3340
3415
3435
3450
4012
4024†
4028†
4032
4042
4053
4063
4068
4119
4121a
4125
4131
4135
4147
4161
4317
4337
4419

.15/.20
.28/.33
.38/.43
.43/.48
.09/.14
.12/.17
.15/.20
.13/.18
.17/.22
.28/.33
.33/.38
.38/.43
.38/.43
.43/.48
.48/.53
.10/.20
.15/.25
.25/.35
.35/.45
.40/.50
.45/.55
.08/.13
.10/.16
.08/.13
.14/.19
.20/.30
.30/.40
.35/.45
.10/.20
.30/.40
.45/.55
.09/.14
.20/.25
.25/.30
.30/.35
.40/.45
.50/.56
.60/.67
.63/.70
.17/.22
.18/.23
.23/.28
.28/.33
.33/.38
.45/.50
.56/.64
.15/.20
.35/.40
.18/.23

.40/.60
.60/.80
.70/.90
.70/.90
.45/.60
.40/.60
.45/.60
.40/.60
.60/.80
.60/.80
.60/.80
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.45/.60
.30/.50
.45/.60
.45/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.50/.70
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.45/.65
.60/.80
.45/.65

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
.55/.75
.55/.75
.55/.75
.55/.75
.70/.90
.55/.75
.70/.90
.70/.90
.90/1.25
.90/1.25
.90/1.25
.90/1.25
.90/1.25
.90/1.25
1.40/1.75
1.30/1.60
1.40/1.75
1.40/1.75
1.25/1.75
1.25/1.75
1.25/1.75
.60/.95
.60/.95
.60/.95
.............
.............
..............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.40/.60
.45/.65
.40/.60
.90/1.20
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.70/.90
.40/.60
.70/.90
..............

3.25/3.75
3.25/3.75
3.25/3.75
3.25/3.75
4.75/5.25
4.75/5.25
4.75/5.25
1.10/1.40
1.10/1.40
1.10/1.40
1.10/1.40
1.10/1.40
1.10/1.40
1.10/1.40
1.10/1.40
1.50/2.00
1.50/2.00
1.50/2.00
1.50/2.00
1.50/2.00
1.50/2.00
3.25/3.75
3.25/3.75
3.25/3.75
3.25/3.75
3.25/3.75
3.25/3.75
3.25/3.75
2.75/3.25
2.75/3.25
2.75/3.25
.............
.............
..............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
..............
.............
..............
.............
..............
.............
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
..............

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.15 max
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.15/.25
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.25/.35
.20/.30
.20/.30
.45/.60

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............

S  .035/.050

a

Formerly PS 24

13

FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS – continued
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE
No.

C

4419H
.17/.23
4422
.20/.25
4427
.24/.29
4608
.06/.11
46B12* .10/.15
4615
.13/.18
4617
.15/.20
.18/.23
X4620
4621
.18/.23
4621H .17/.23
4626
.24/.29
4640
.38/.43
b
4715
.13/.18
4718
.16/.21
4720
.17/.22
4812
.10/.15
4815
.13/.18
4817
.15/.20
5015
.12/.17
50B40* .38/.43
50B44* .43/.48
5045
.43/.48
5046
.43/.48
50B50* .48/.53
5060
.56/.64
50B60* .56/.64
5115
.13/.18
5117
.15/.20
5135
.33/.38
5145
.43/.48
5145H .42/.49
5147
.46/.51
5152
.48/.55
5155
.51/.59
50100 .98/1.10

Mn

Cr

Ni

Mo

Other

.35/.75
.70/.90
.70/.90
.25/.45
.45/.65
.45/.65
.45/.65
.50/.70
.70/.90
.60/1.00
.45/.65
.60/.80
.70/.90
.70/.90
.50/.70
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.30/.50
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.70/.90
.60/.80
.70/.90
.60/1.00
.70/.95
.70/.90
.70/.90
.25/.45

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
.45/.65
.35/.55
.35/.55
..............
..............
..............
.30/.50
.40/.60
.40/.60
.55/.75
.20/.35
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.70/.90
.70/.90
.80/1.05
.70/.90
.60/1.00
.85/1.15
.90/1.20
.70/.90
.40/.60

..............
..............
..............
1.40/1.75
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.55/2.00
.70/1.00
1.65/2.00
.70/1.00
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
3.25/3.75
3.25/3.75
3.25/3.75
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

.45/.60
.35/.45
.35/.45
.15/.25
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.15/.25
.20/.30
.45/.60
.30/.40
.15/.25
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

..............
..............
..............
.............
.............
..............
.............
.............
.............
..............
..............
.............
.............
..............
.............
.............
.............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
V
.15 min
.10 min
.10/.15
.10 min
.15 min
.15 min
.15 min
.15 min
.15 min
.15 min
W

6115
6117
6118
6120
6125
6130
6135
6140
6145
6195

.10/.20
.15/.20
.16/.21
.17/.22
.20/.30
.25/.35
.30/.40
.35/.45
.43/.48
.90/1.05

.30/.60
.70/.90
.50/.70
.70/.90
.60/.90
.60/.90
.60/.90
.60/.90
.70/.90
.20/.45

.80/1.10
.70/.90
.50/.70
.70/.90
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

71360
71660
7260

.50/.70
.50/.70
.50/.70

.30 max
.30 max
.30 max

3.00/4.00
3.00/4.00
.50/1.00

..............
..............
..............

.............. 12.00/15.00
.............. 15.00/18.00
.............. 1.50/2.00

* B  .0005/.003

b

Formerly PS 30

14

FORMERLY STANDARD STEELS – continued
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
SAE
No.

C

Mn

Ni

Mo

Other

8115
81B45*
8625
8627
8632
8635
8637
8641†
8642
86B45*
8647
8650
8653
8655
8660
8715
8717
8719
8735
8740
8742
8745
8750
92501
92542
92551
92611
92621
9310
9315
9317
94B15
94B17
94B30*
9437
9440
94B40*
9442
9445
9447
9747
9763
9840
9845
9850

.13/.18
.43/.48
.23/.28
.25/.30
.30/.35
.33/.38
.38/.43
.38/.43
.40/.45
.43/.48
.45/.50
.48/.53
.50/.56
.51/.59
.56/.64
.13/.18
.15/.20
.18/.23
.33/.38
.38/.43
.40/.45
.43/.48
.48/.53
.45/.55
.51/.59
.51/.59
.55/.65
.55/.65
.08/.13
.13/.18
.15/.20
.13/.18
.15/.20
.28/.33
.35/.40
.38/.43
.38/.43
.40/.45
.43/.48
.45/.50
.45/.50
.60/.67
.38/.43
.43/.48
.48/.53

.70/.90
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.70/.90
.60/.80
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.60/.90
.60/.80
.70/.95
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.45/.65
.45/.65
.45/.65
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.75/1.00
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.90/1.20
.50/.80
.50/.80
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90

.30/.50
.35/.55
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.50/.80
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.............
.60/.80
.............
.10/.25
.25/.40
1.00/1.40
1.00/1.40
1.00/1.40
.30/.50
.30/.50
.30/.50
.30/.50
.30/.50
.30/.60
.30/.50
.30/.50
.30/.50
.10/.25
.10/.25
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90

.20/.40
.20/.40
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
3.00/3.50
3.00/3.50
3.00/3.50
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.40/.70
.40/.70
.85/1.15
.85/1.15
.85/1.15

.08/.15
.08/.15
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.15/.25
.15/.25
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30

438V12* .08/.13
438V14* .10/.15

.75/1.00
.45/.65

.40/.60
.40/.60

1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00

.20/.30
.08/.15

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
V
.03 min
.03 min

* B  .0005/.003
† S  .04/.60

1
2

Cr

Si  1.80/2.20
Si  1.20/1.60

15

16

MIL*

S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S

C

Mn

.38/.43
.65/.85
1.00/1.15 1.60/1.90
.38/.43
.75/1.00
.38/.43
.75/1.00
.28/.33
.70/.90
.38/.43
.50/.70
.28/.33
.40/.60
.23/.28
1.20/1.50
.08/.13
.45/.60
.14/.19
.45/.60
.07/.13
.40/.70
.98/1.10
.25/.45
.48/.53
.70/.90

.025
.035
.025
.025
.025
.025
.025
.040
.025
.025
.025
.025
.025

P
Max

3

2

1

Al  .020 max
Al  .95/1.35
P & S  .025 max if Basic Electric Furnace Steel is specified
4 V  .15 min
† Inactive/Cancelled

Aircraft Quality Steels Except Where Indicated
Cu  .35 max unless specified

* Some MIL numbers cancelled. Replaced by AMS numbers.
** Timken Company mill type.

S-7420
S-85034

S-5000
S-507831
S-5626
S-6049
S-6050†
S-67092
S-6758
S-71083
S-7393†

Solid
or
Tube
.025
.040
.025
.025
.025
.025
.025
.040
.025
.025
.025
.025
.025

S
Max
.15/.35
.70/1.00
.20/.35
.20/.35
.20/.35
.20/.40
.15/.35
1.30/1.70
.20/.35
.20/.35
.20/.35
.20/.35
.20/.35

Si
.70/.90
.20 max
.80/1.10
.40/.60
.40/.60
1.40/1.80
.80/1.10
.40 max.
1.25/1.75
1.25/1.75
1.00/1.40
1.30/1.60
.75/1.20

Cr
1.65/2.00
.25 max
.25 max
.40/.70
.40/.70
..............
.25 max
1.65/2.00
3.25/3.75
3.25/4.00
3.00/3.50
..............
..............

Ni

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

AMS

SAE No.

Nearest Equivalent

.20/.30
6415
E4340
.06 max
.15/.25
6382/6349
4140
.20/.30 6322/6325/6327 8740
.15/.25
6280
8630
.30/.40
6470/6472
..............
.15/.25
637
4130
.35/.45
6425
4625M4**
..............
6250
3310
..............
..............
3316
.08/.15
..............
9310
.............. 6440/6444/6447 52100
..............
6448
6150

Mo

SELECTED MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS

17

S
S
S
S
S or T
S or T
T

S
S
S
S

MIL*

S-86905
S-86953
S-86993,6
S-8707†
S-8844-1
S-8844-26
T-5066

S-115957
S-115957
S-115957,8
S-460478

.48/.55
.47/.55
.41/.49
.38/.45

18/.23
.34/.41
.28/.33
.38/.43
.38/.43
.40/.44
.22/.28

C

.75/1.00
.70/1.00
.60/.90
.75/1.00

.70/1.00
.60/1.00
.80/1.00
.70/.90
.65/.90
.65/.90
.30/.60

Mn

.040
.040
.040
.025

.025
.040
.040
.040
.010
.010
.025

P
Max

7

6

5

P & S  .015 max if consumable vacuum melted steel is specified
V  .05/.10
Al  .040 max
8 V  .20/.30
† Inactive/Cancelled

Aircraft Quality Steels Except Where Indicated
Cu  .35 max unless specified

.025
.040
.040
.040
.010
.010
.025

S
Max

.040
.05/.09
.040
.020

* Some MIL numbers cancelled. Replaced by AMS numbers.
** Timken Company mill type.

Solid
or
Tube

.20/.35
.20/.35
.20/.35
.20/.35

.20/.35
.20/.35
.20/.35
.20/.35
.15/.35
1.45/1.80
.30 max

Si

.80/1.10
.80/1.15
.80/1.15
.95/1.25

.40/.60
.............
.75/.95
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.95
.............

Cr

.............
.............
.............
.............

.40/.70
.............
1.65/2.00
.85/1.15
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
.............

Ni

Mo

.15/.25
.15/.25
.30/.40
.55/.70

.15/.25
.20/.30
.35/.50
.20/.30
.20/.30
.35/.45
.............

SELECTED MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS – continued
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

.............
.............
.............
.............

6274
6300
6411/6427
.............
6414
6257
T5066

AMS

4150
41R50
4142M3V2*
.............

8620
4037
4330M4V1*
984
4340
300M
1025

SAE No.

Nearest Equivalent

18

.07/.13
.07/.13
.11/.17
.14/.20
.07/.13
.08/.13
.13/.18
.15/.20
.17/.23
.15/.20
.28/.33
.28/.33
.33/.38
.11/.17
.15/.20
.17/.22
.17/.23
.35/.40

6250
62601
6263
6264
62652
62663
6270
6272
6274
62753
6280
6281
6282
6290
6292
6294
6299
63004

.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.70/.90
.60/.95
.60/.95
.70/.90
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.45/.65
.45/.65
.45/.65
.40/.70
.70/.90

Mn

2

1

B  .001 max
P & S  .015 max

4

3

B  .0005/.005
P & S  .040 max

P & S  .025 max, Cu  .35 max unless specified

C

AMS
Number

.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.20/.40
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35

Si
1.25/1.75
1.00/1.40
1.00/1.40
1.00/1.40
1.00/1.40
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.35/.65
.30/.50
.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60
.20 max
.20 max
.20 max
.35/.65
.20 max

Cr
3.25/3.75
3.00/3.50
3.00/3.50
3.00/3.50
3.00/3.50
1.65/2.00
.40/.70
.40/.70
.35/.75
.30/.60
.40/.70
.40/.70
.40/.70
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.55/2.00
.25 max

Ni

Mo
.06 max
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.08/.15
.20/.30
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.08/.15
.15/.25
.15/.25
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
.03/.08
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

V

SELECTED AMS ALLOY STEEL SPECIFICATIONS

3310
9310
9315
9317
CV9310
43BV12
8615
8617
..............
94B17
8630
8630
8735
4615
4617
4620
4320H
4037

SAE
Designations

19

.28/.33
.25/.30
.40/.50
.38/.43
.33/.38
.38/.43
.38/.43
.38/.43
.38/.43
.48/.53
.38/.43
.28/.33
.33/.38
.38/.43
.38/.43
.27/.33
.38/.43

6302
63035
6304
6312
6320
63216
6322
6323
6324
6328
6342
6371
6372
6381
6382
6407
64097

.45/.65
.60/.90
.40/.70
.60/.80
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.70/.90
.40/.60
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.75/1.00
.60/.80
.65/.85

Mn

7

6

5

Cu  .50 max
B  .0005/.005
P  .015 max, S  .008 max

P & S  .025 max, Cu  .35 max unless specified
* Special Aircraft Quality – Normalized and Tempered

C

AMS
Number

.55/.75
.55/.75
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.40/.70
.15/.35

Si
1.00/1.50
1.00/1.50
.80/1.10
.20 max
.40/.60
.30/.55
.40/.60
.40/.60
.55/.75
.40/.60
.70/.90
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
.80/1.10
1.00/1.35
.70/.90

Cr
.25 max.
.50 max.
.25 max.
1.65/2.00
.40/.70
.20/.40
.40/.70
.40/.70
.55/.85
.40/.70
.85/1.15
.25 max
.25 max
.25 max
.25 max
1.85/2.25
1.65/2.00

Ni
.40/.60
.40/.60
.45/.65
.20/.30
.20/.30
.08/.15
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.15/.25
.35/.55
.20/.30

Mo

V
.20/.30
.75/.95
.25/.35
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

SELECTED AMS ALLOY STEEL SPECIFICATIONS – continued
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

4640
8735
81B40
8740
8740
8740 Mod
8750
9840
4130
4135
4140
4140
HS220-07
4340*

17-22-AS®
17-22-AV®

SAE
Designations

20

.35/.40
.38/.43
.38/.43
.23/.28
.40/.45
.35/.40
.38/.43
.28/.33
.32/.38
.32/.38
.45/.50
.93/1.05
.98/1.10
.92/1.02
.48/.53

6412
64148
6415
6418
64199
642110
642210
6427
6428
64308
64319
6440
64448
64458
6448

.65/.85
.65/.90
.65/.85
1.20/1.50
.60/.90
.65/.85
.65/.85
.75/1.00
.60/.80
.60/.90
.60/.90
.25/.45
.25/.45
.95/1.25
.70/.90

Mn

10

9

8

P & S  .015 max
P & S  .010 max
B  .0005/.005

P & S  .025 max, Cu  .35 max unless specified
* Premium Aircraft Quality

C

AMS
Number

.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
1.30/1.70
1.45/1.80
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.15/.35
.40/.60
.15/.30
.15/.35
.15/.35
.50/.70
.15/.35

Si
.70/.90
.70/.90
.70/.90
.20/.40
.70/.95
.70/.90
.70/.90
.75/1.00
.65/.90
.65/.90
.90/1.20
1.35/1.60
1.30/1.60
.90/1.15
.80/1.10

Cr
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
.70/1.00
.70/1.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
.40/.70
.25 max
.25 max
.25 max
.25 max

Ni
.20/.30
.20/.30
.20/.30
.35/.45
.30/.50
.15/.25
.15/.25
.35/.50
.30/.40
.30/.40
.90/1.10
.10 max
.08 max
.08 max
.06 max

Mo

V
..............
..............
..............
..............
.05/.10
..............
.01/.06
.05/.10
.17/.23
.17/.23
.08/.15
..............
..............
..............
.15/.30

SELECTED AMS ALLOY STEEL SPECIFICATIONS – continued
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

4337
CV4340
4340
4625M4
CV300M
98B37 Mod
98BV40 Mod
4330M4V1
4335 Mod
4335M4V2
D6-AC
52100
CV52100*
CV51100 Mod
6150

SAE
Designations

21

.38/.43
.38/.43
.38/.43
.21/.26

6470
6471
6472*
6475

* P  .035 max, S  .040 max

C

AMS
Number

.50/.80
.50/.80
.50/.80
.50/.70

Mn

NITRIDING STEELS

.20/.40
.20/.40
.20/.40
.20/.40

Si
1.40/1.80
1.40/1.80
1.40/1.80
1.00/1.25

Cr
.25 max
.25 max
.25 max
3.25/3.75

Ni

Mo
.30/.40
.30/.40
.30/.40
.20/.30

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

.95/1.30
.95/1.30
.95/1.30
1.10/1.40

Al

N

135M or #3
CV Nit #3

Other
Designations

22

.15
.15
.15
.15
.15
.15
.08
.08
.03
.035
.04/.10
.12
.08
.20
.25
.15
.25
.08

.08
.03

201
202
301
302
302B
303
304
TP304
304L
TP304L
TP304H
305
308
309
310
TP310
314
316

TP316
316L

2.00
2.00

5.5/7.5
7.5/10.0
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00

Mn
Max

.75
.75

1.00
1.00
1.00
.75
2.00/3.00
1.00
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
1.00
1.00
1.50
.75
1.50/3.00
.75

Si
Max

* At producers option, reported only when intentionally added.

C
Max

Type
Number

.040
.045

.060
.060
.045
.045
.045
.200
.045
.040
.045
.040
.040
.045
.045
.045
.045
.040
.045
.045

P
Max

.030
.030

.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.15 min
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030

S
Max

16.00/18.00
16.00/18.00

16.00/18.00
17.00/19.00
16.00/18.00
17.00/19.00
17.00/19.00
17.00/19.00
18.00/20.00
18.00/20.00
18.00/20.00
18.00/20.00
18.00/20.00
17.00/19.00
19.00/21.00
22.00/24.00
24.00/26.00
24.00/26.00
23.00/26.00
16.00/18.00

Cr

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS
Ni

11.00/14.00
10.00/14.00

3.50/5.50
4.00/6.00
6.00/8.00
8.00/10.00
8.00/10.00
8.00/10.00
8.00/10.50
8.00/11.00
8.00/12.00
8.00/13.00
8.00/11.00
10.50/13.00
10.00/12.00
12.00/15.00
19.00/22.00
19.00/22.00
19.00/22.00
10.00/14.00

Others
N  0.25 max
N  0.25 max
N  0.10 max
N  0.10 max
.............
Zr, Mo  .60 max*
.............
..............
N  0.10 max
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
Mo  2.00/3.00
N  0.10 max
Mo  2.00/3.00
Mo  2.00/3.00
N  0.10 max

23

2.00
2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00
2.00
2.00

2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00

Mn
Max

H  Grades for high temperature service.
TP  Tubular Products

.08
.08

.04/.10

TP348H

384
385

.08

.04/.10

TP347H

TP348

.04/.10
.08
.08

TP321H
347
TP347

.08

.035
.04/.10
.08
.08
.08

TP316L
TP316H
TP317
321
TP321

348

C
Max

Type
Number

1.00
1.00

.75

.75

1.00

.75

.75
1.00
.75

.75
.75
.75
1.00
.75

Si
Max

.045
.045

.040

.040

.045

.040

.040
.045
.040

.040
.040
.040
.045
.040

P
Max

.030
.030

.030

.030

.030

.030

.030
.030
.030

.030
.030
.030
.030
.030

S
Max

15.00/17.00
11.50/13.50

17.00/20.00

17.00/20.00

17.00/19.00

17.00/20.00

17.00/20.00
17.00/19.00
17.00/20.00

16.00/18.00
..............
18.00/20.00
17.00/19.00
17.00/20.00

Cr

Ni

17.00/19.00
14.00/16.00

9.00/13.00

9.00/13.00

9.00/13.00

9.00/13.00

9.00/13.00
9.00/13.00
9.00/13.00

10.00/15.00
11.00/14.00
11.00/14.00
9.00/12.00
9.00/13.00

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS – continued
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits
Others

Ti  4  C min, .60 max
Cb Ta  10  C min
Cb  Ta  10  C min 
1.00 max
Cb  Ta  8  C min 
1.00 max
Cb  Ta  10  C min
Ta  .10 max
Cb  Ta  10  C min
Cb  Ta  1.00 max
Cb  Ta  8  C min
Ta  .10 max
Cb  Ta  1.00 max
..............
..............

Mo  2.00/3.00
Mo  2.00/3.00
Mo  3.00/4.00
Ti  5  C min, .60 max
Ti  5  C min, .60 max

24

.15
.08
.08
.15
.15
.15
.15
Over .15
Over .15
.12
.12
.20
.60/.75
.75/.95
.95/1.20
.20
Over .10
.10

403
405
TP405
410
TP410
414
416
420
TP420
430
430F
431
440A
440B
440C
TP443
501
502

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.25
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.25
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

Mn
Max

.50
1.00
.75
1.00
.75
1.00
1.00
1.00
.75
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
.75
1.00
1.00

Si
Max
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.060
.040
.030
.040
.060
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040
.040

P
Max
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.150 min
.030
.030
.030
.150 min
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030

S
Max
Cr
11.50/13.00
11.50/14.50
11.50/13.50
11.50/13.50
11.50/13.50
11.50/13.50
12.00/14.00
12.00/14.00
12.00/14.00
16.00/18.00
16.00/18.00
15.00/17.00
16.00/18.00
16.00/18.00
16.00/18.00
18.00/23.00
4.00/6.00
4.00/6.00

Prefix TP denotes tubular products.
Suffixes A, B and C denote differing carbon ranges for the same grade. F denotes a free machining grade.
* At producer’s option, reported only when intentionally added.

C
Max

Type
Number

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

CHROMIUM STAINLESS STEELS
Ni
..............
.60 max
.50 max
.75 max
.50 max
1.25/2.50
..............
..............
.50 max
..............
..............
1.25/2.50
..............
..............
..............
.50 max
..............
.............

Others
Turbine Quality
AI  .10/.30
AI  .10/.30
..............
..............
..............
Zr, Mo  .60 max*
..............
..............
..............
Mo  .60 max*
..............
Mo  .75 max
Mo  .75 max
Mo  .75 max
Cu  .90/1.25
Mo  .40/.65
Mo  .40/.65

25

A
B
C
F11
F12
A
T4
T5†
T7†
T9†
T11†
T21†
T22†
T91**
T1
T1b

Grade

C

.25 max
.30 max
.35 max
.10/.20
.10/.20
.06/.18
.05/.15
.15 max
.15 max
.15 max
.05/.15
.05/.15
.05/.15
.08/.12
.10/.20
.14 max

Mn

.27/.93
.29/1.06
.29/1.06
.30/.80
.30/.80
.27/.63
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.80
.30/.80

See current ASTM specifications for P & S limitations.
† These grades also included in ASTM Specifications A213 and A335.
* The combined elements of Cr, Ni, Mo, V and Cu must not exceed 1%
** Cb  .06/.10, N  .03/.07, Al  .04 max

A209

A192
A200

A182

A106*

ASTM
Number
.10 min
.10 min
.10 min
.50/1.00
.10/.60
.25 max
.50/1.00
.50 max
.50/1.00
.25/1.00
.50/1.00
.50 max
.50 max
.20/.50
.10/.50
.10/.50

Si
.40 max
.40 max
.40 max
1.00/1.50
.80/ 1.25
.............
2.15/2.85
4.00/6.00
6.00/8.00
8.00/10.00
1.00/1.50
2.65/3.35
1.90/2.60
8.00/9.00
.............
.............

Cr

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

.40 max
.40 max
.40 max
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.40 max
.............
.............

Ni

SELECTED ASTM SPECIFICATIONS
Mo
.15 max
.15 max
.15 max
.44/.65
.44/.65
.............
.44/.65
.45/.65
.45/.65
.90/1.10
.44/.65
.80/1.06
.87/1.13
.85/1.05
.44/.65
.44/.65

V
.08 max
.08 max
.08 max
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.18/.25
.............
.............

26

A1
C
T5b
T5c
T12
TP304H‡
TP310H‡
TP316H‡
TP321H‡
TP347H‡
TP348

Grade

C

.27 max
.35 max
.15 max
.12 max
.05/.15
.04/.10
.04/.10
.04/.10
.04/.10
.04/.10
.08 max

Mn

.93 max
.29/1.06
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.61
2.00 max
2.00 max
2.00 max
2.00 max
2.00 max
2.00 max

Si

Cr
.............
.............
4.00/6.00
4.00/6.00
.80/1.25
18.00/20.00
24.00/26.00
16.00/18.00
17.00/20.00
17.00/20.00
17.00/20.00

Ni
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
8.00/11.00
19.00/22.00
11.00/14.00
9.00/13.00
9.00/13.00
9.00/13.00

Mo
.............
.............
.45/.65
.45/.65
.44/.65
.............
.............
2.00/3.00
.............
.............
.............

C

.72/.85
.17/.22
.27/.33
.25/.31
.23/.28

Type

TDS-10®
TDS-30®
TDS-50®
TDS-70®
TDS-90®

.30/ .60
.45/ .65
.60/ .80
.80/1.20
.40/ .60

Mn
..............
.15/.30
.40/.70
.50/.80
.15/.30

Si

..............
.40/ .60
1.00/1.35
1.90/2.40
3.00/3.50

Cr

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

Others

Ni
..............
1.65/2.00
1.85/2.25
.25 max.
..............

..............
.20/.30
.35/.55
.25/.35
.45/.60

Mo

Ti  4  C min, .60 max
Cb  Ta  8  C min,1.00 max
Cb  Ta  10  C min,
Ta  .10 max
Cb  Ta  1.00 max

Ti  4  C min, .70 max

These grades also included in ASTM Specifications A312 and A376.

.10 min
.10 min
1.00/2.00
.50 max
.50 max
.75 max
.75 max
.75 max
.75 max
.75 max
.75 max

TIMKEN® TUBULAR HOLLOW DRILL STEELS

See current ASTM specifications for P & S limitations

A213

A210

ASTM
Number

SELECTED ASTM SPECIFICATIONS – continued
Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

27

C

Mn

Si

P  .015 max, S  .005 max

.20 max

.20 max.

MP159

.04 max

1.00 max
1.00 max
.15 max

1.00 max
1.00 max
.15 max

..............
.20/.40
.15/.35
.25/1.00

.50 max

.60/.90
.90/1.10
.90/1.10
.30/.60

.50 max

.26/.32
.26/.32
.26/.32
.15 max

13CRS
.03 max
(Super 13Cr)
410
.15 max
420 Mod
.18/.22
MP35N
.025 max

Impact 7
Impact 8
Impact 10
9Cr1Mo

Type

18.00/20.00

12.00/14.00
12.50/14.00
19.00/21.00

11.5/13.5

1.20/1.50
1.00/1.50
.70/.90
8.00/10.00

Cr

Balance

..............
..............
33.00/37.00

4.5/6.5

..............
.15 max
.50/.70
..............

Ni

6.00/8.00

..............
..............
9.00/10.50

..............

.65/.75
.75/.85
.65/.75
.90/1.10

Mo

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

TIMKEN® OIL COUNTRY STEELS
Cb

.25/.75

..............
..............
..............

..............

.02/.05
.02/.05
.02/.05
..............

P  .040 max
P  .020 max
Co  balance
S  .01 max
Co  34.00/38.00
Fe = 8.00/10.00
P  .02 max
S  .01 max

P  .030 max
S  .030 max

Other

28

CORROSION RESISTANT ALLOYS

.03
.03
.03
.03
.03
.04
.04
.03

44LN
DP-3
3RE60
2205
2304
Uranus 50
Ferralium 255
7-Mo PLUS

*Range indicates min to max mass functions.

C max

Designation
2.0
1.0
1.2-2.0*
2.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
2.0

Mn max
1.00
0.75
1.40-2.00*
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.60

Si max
24.0-26.0
24.0-26.0
18.0-19.0
21.0-23.0
21.5-24.5
20.5-22.5
24.0-27.0
26.0-29.0

Cr

Duplex Stainless Steel Ranges and Limits (Not Manufactured by Timken)
Ni
5.50-6.50
5.50-7.50
4.25-5.25
4.50-6.50
3.00-5.50
5.50-8.50
4.50-6.50
3.50-5.20

29

C

.27/.33
.23/.28
.28/.33
.32/.38
.32/.38

Type

HS-220-07
HS-220-18
HS-220-27
HS-220-28
HS-220-30

Mn

1.00/1.30
.60/ .80

Si

.15/.30
.15/.30

Cr
.65/.90
.70/.90

Ni
.40/.70
1.55/2.00

Mo
.15/.25
.20/.30

.60/.80
1.20/1.50
.75/1.00
.60/.80
.60/.90

Mn
.40/.70
1.30/1.70
.15/.35
.15/.35
.40/.60

Si
1.00/1.35
.20/.40
.75/1.00
.65/.90
.65/.90

Cr

Ni
1.85/2.25
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00
1.65/2.00

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

TIMKEN® HIGH STRENGTH STEELS

TM - Trademark of The Timken Company

C

.13/.21
.20/.27

Type

WHS 100TM
WHS 130TM

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

.35/.55
.35/.45
.35/.50
.30/.40
.30/.40

Mo

.03/.08
..............

V

TIMKEN® WELDABLE HIGH STRENGTH STEELS
B

............
............
.05/.10
.17/.23
.17/.23

V

.003 added
..............

30

0.28/0.33
0.28/0.33
0.32/0.36
0.32/0.36
0.31/0.35
0.36/0.40
0.36/0.41
0.36/0.41
0.36/0.40
0.38/0.43

0.53/0.57
0.52/0.57
0.52/0.57
0.52/0.57

MicroTec 3M80
MicroTec 3M80A
MicroTec 3M80B
MicroTec 3M80C
MicroTec 3M85
MicroTec 4M85
MicroTec 4M90
MicroTec 4M90A
MicroTec 4M95
MicroTec 4M95A

MicroTec 5H85
MicroTec 5H90
MicroTec 5H95
MicroTec 5H95A

C

0.10/0.18
0.16/0.20
0.16/0.20
0.16/0.22
0.28/0.33
0.26/0.30
0.28/0.32

MicroTec 2W60
MicroTec 2W65
MicroTec 2W70
MicroTec 2W75
MicroTec 3W70
MicroTec 3W75
MicroTec 3W75A

Type

0.70/0.85
0.70/1.00
1.05/1.25
1.15/1.35

1.30/1.60
1.30/1.50
1.35/1.45
1.35/1.45
1.30/1.50
1.20/1.40
1.10/1.30
1.10/1.30
1.30/1.50
1.35/1.45

1.20/1.60
1.20/1.40
1.40/1.60
1.30/1.70
0.90/1.30
1.00/1.30
0.90/1.20

Mn

0.08/0.12
0.05/0.20
0.08/0.18
0.10/0.20

0.08/0.18
0.08/0.18
0.06/0.10
0.07/0.09
0.10/0.14
0.04/0.10
0.10/0.18
0.10/0.18
0.08/0.12
0.08/0.12

0.05/0.10
0.06/0.10
0.07/0.11
0.10/0.20
0.07/0.18
0.13/0.23
0.13/0.18

V

0.020/0.035
0.025/0.035
0.040/0.060
0.040/0.060

..............
0.025/0.050
0.010 max.
0.005/0.020
0.030/0.050
0.030/0.050
..............
0.030/0.050
0.045 max.
0.030/0.045

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

S

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

TIMKEN® MICROALLOY STEELS
Si

..............
0.15/0.35
0.45/0.65
0.45/0.65

..............
..............
0.40/0.50
0.20/0.30
..............
0.30/0.50
..............
..............
0.50/0.70
0.50/0.65

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............

Cr = .15/.45

N = .008/.015
N = .008/.015

Other

31

.10/.20
.15 max
.15 max
.15 max
.15 max
.12 max
.15 max
.15 max
.15 max
.15 max
.08/.12

C

.045
.030
..............
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.020

P
Max

S
Max
.10/.50
.50/1.00
.50 max
.50 max
.50 max
.50 max
1.00/2.00
1.00/1.50
.50/1.00
.25/1.00
.20/.50

Si
..............
1.00/1.50
.80/1.25
1.90/2.60
4.00/6.00
4.00/6.00
4.00/6.00
4.00/6.00
6.00/8.00
8.00/10.00
8.00/9.50

Cr
.44/.65
.44/.65
.44/.65
.87/1.13
.45/.65
.45/.65
.45/.65
.09/1.10
.45/.65
.90/1.10
.85/1.05

Mo

1
11
..............
22
5
5c
5b
..............
7
9
91

C

.41/.48
.28/.33
.25/.30

Type

17-22-A®
17-22-AS®
17-22-AV®

.45/.65
.45/.65
.60/.90

Mn

.040
.040
.040

.040
.040
.040

S
Max

.55/.75
.55/.75
.55/.75

Si

1.00/1.50
1.00/1.50
1.00/1.50

Cr

Chemical Composition Ranges

P
Max

ASTM
No

.40/.60
.40/.60
.40/.60

Mo

.20/.30
.20/.30
.75/.95

V

..............
6302
6303

AMS
No

*** Ni  .40 max, V  .18/.25, Cb  .06/.10, N  .03/.07, Al  .04 max

.045
.030
..............
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.030
.010

** Ti  4  C min, .70 max

.30/.80
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60
.30/.60

Mn

TIMKEN® HIGH TEMPERATURE ENGINEERING STEELS

*.50 Mo steel also available with .08/.14 C.

.50Mo*
DM®
DM-2
2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo
5 Cr 1/2 Mo
5 Cr 1/2 Mo+Ti**
5 Cr 1/2 Mo+Si
5 Cr 1 Mo+Si
7 Cr 1/2 Mo
9 Cr 1 Mo
T9***

Type

Chemical Composition Range and Limits

TIMKEN® ALLOY STEELS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVICE

32

Type

C

.98/1.10
.90/1.05
.85/1.00
.95/1.10
.95/1.10
.95/1.10
.16/.22
.10/.16
.11/.15
.70/.80
.77/.85
.95/1.20
.89/1.01

* 52100 shown for reference purposes only
** Max Cu .10, Co .25, W .25, P .015, S .010
a Deep hardening steels.

52100*
ASTM-A485-1(#1 Mod.)a
ASTM-A485-2(#2 Mod.)
ASTM-A485-3(T-1)a
ASTM-A485-4(T-2)a
TBS-600TM b
CBS-600TM c
CBS1000MTM d
CBS-50NiL**
TBA-2e
M-50
440C
TBS-9®

Mn

.70/1.00
.70/1.00

Cr
.70/.90
.80/1.20

Ni
1.65/2.00
2.00/2.50

c

b

d

Si
.15/.35
.45/.75
.50/.80
.15/.35
.15/.35
.85/1.20
.90/1.25
.40/.60
.10/.25
.15/.35
.25 max.
1.00 max.
.15/.35

Cr
1.30/1.60
.90/1.20
1.40/1.80
1.10/1.50
1.10/1.50
1.25/1.65
1.25/1.65
.90/1.20
4.00/4.25
.90/1.20
3.75/4.25
16.00/18.00
.40/.60

Through hardening steel for service up to 600 F.
Carburizing steel for service up to 600 F.
Carburizing steel for service up to 1000 F.

.25/.45
.95/1.25
1.40/1.70
.65/.90
1.05/1.35
.60/.80
.40/.70
.40/.60
.15/.35
1.05/1.35
.35 max.
1.00 max.
.50/.80

Mn

Ni

e

Mo
..............
..............
..............
.20/.30
.45/.60
.25/.35
.90/1.10
4.00/5.00
4.00/4.50
1.20/1.40
4.00/4.50
.75 max.
.08/.15

Mo

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
.25/.50
1.13/1.33
..............
.90/1.10
..............
..............

V

.35/.45
.50/.65

Through hardening steel can be air quenched.

..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
..............
2.75/3.25
3.20/3.60
1.30/1.65
.10 max.
..............
.25 max.

Chemical Composition Ranges and Limits

TIMKEN® SPECIAL BEARING STEELS

C

.30/.38
.30/.38

Type

4333M4
4333M6

Chemical Composition Ranges

TIMKEN® TUBING FOR POLYETHYLENE PRODUCTION

33

C

0.83
0.85
0.98
1.02
1.20
1.32
1.02
0.87
0.93
1.08
0.84
0.89
1.57

TM - Trademark of Timken Latrobe Steel

Latrobe Grade

TatmoTM
Double SixTM
HS-29XL®
CorsairTM
CrusaderTM
StarkTM
Tatmo-VNTM
TNWTM
HS-105TM
DynamaxTM
CM-50TM
CM-52TM
DynavanTM

ASTM

M1
M2
M2-HC
M3-1
M3-2
M4
M7
M10
M35
M42
M50
M52
T15

O1
A10

Mn

1.00
1.80

S
0.015
0.015

Si
0.90
1.20

Cr
............
............

Ni
............
1.85

Mo
0.25
1.50

Si

0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.45
0.50
0.45
0.50

0.25
0.28
0.28
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.30
0.25
0.25
0.30
0.25
0.30

Mn
1.75
6.15
6.15
6.00
6.00
5.35
1.75
0.75
6.25
1.50
............
1.10
12.25

W
3.75
4.15
4.15
4.10
4.10
4.50
3.75
4.00
4.20
3.85
4.10
4.00
4.00

Cr

Nominal Chemical Composition

1.15
1.85
1.85
2.40
3.00
3.85
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.20
1.00
1.85
5.00

V

8.50
5.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
4.40
8.50
8.00
5.00
9.50
4.25
4.50
0.50

Mo

TIMKEN LATROBE HIGH-SPEED STEELS

C

1.45
1.35

Type

Graph-Mo®
Graph-Air®

ASTM

Nominal Chemical Composition

TIMKEN® GRAPHITIC TOOL STEELS
W

............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
4.90
8.00
............
............
5.00

Co

............
............

Other

Nitrogen

Alloy Sulfides

Other

............
............

34

TLSTM A2
TLSTM A6
TLSTM A7 Mod
TLSTM MGRTM
TLSTM Chipper Knife
Graph-Air®
TLSTM D2
TLSTM D3
TLSTM D5
TLSTM D7
TLS VertexTM
LescowearTM
TLSTM L6
TLSTM O1
Graph-Mo®
TLSTM S1
TLSTM S5
TLSTM S7
TLSTM 4142HT*

A2
A6
A7 Mod
A8
A8 Mod
A10
D2
D3
D5
D7
............
............
L6
O1
O6
S1
S5
S7
4142

* Prehardened to 28-32 HRC
TM - Trademark of Timken Latrobe Steel

Latrobe Grade

ASTM

C

1.00
0.70
2.60
0.55
0.50
1.35
1.50
2.15
1.50
2.30
1.00
1.13
0.70
0.94
1.45
0.53
0.61
0.50
0.42

0.30
0.30
0.30
0.95
0.95
1.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.40
1.00
1.20
0.25
0.30
0.90
0.25
1.90
0.25
0.30

Si
0.75
2.00
0.60
0.30
0.45
1.80
0.30
0.40
0.35
0.40
0.50
0.30
0.60
1.20
1.00
0.25
0.90
0.75
0.90

Mn
............
............
............
1.25
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
............
0.50
............
2.00
............
............
............

W
5.00
1.00
8.25
5.00
8.00
............
12.00
12.25
11.65
12.50
8.25
7.75
0.70
0.50
............
1.35
0.18
3.25
1.00

Cr

Nominal Chemical Composition

0.25
............
4.50
............
0.45
............
0.90
0.25
............
4.00
0.40
2.40
............
............
............
0.25
0.28
............
............

V
1.00
1.25
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.50
0.75
............
0.80
1.10
2.25
1.55
............
............
0.25
............
1.40
1.40
0.20

Mo

TIMKEN LATROBE COLD WORK DIE STEELS
Ni
............
............
............
............
............
1.85
............
............
............
............
............
............
1.40
............
............
............
............
............
............

Co  2.80

Other

35

TLSTM H10 Mod
TLSTM H11
TLSTM H12
TLSTM H13
Viscount 44®*
TLSTM H14
TLSTM H19
TLSTM H21
TLSTM P20
TLSTM 2714**
TLSTM 2367

H10 Mod
H11
H12
H13
H13
H14
H19
H21
P20
............
............

Si

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.30
0.45
0.65
0.25
0.40

Mn
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.40
0.80
0.25
0.30
0.25
0.80
0.85
0.45

* Viscount 44® is prehardened to 42-46 HRC and Viscount 20® is annealed
** Annealed or prehardened to 38-43 HRC
TM - Trademark of Timken Latrobe Steel

C

0.35
0.40
0.35
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.33
0.33
0.50
0.38

Latrobe Grade

ASTM
............
............
1.30
............
............
4.75
4.25
9.15
............
............
............

W
3.30
5.00
5.00
5.25
5.25
5.25
4.25
3.30
1.75
1.30
5.00

Cr

Nominal Chemical Composition

0.65
0.50
0.30
1.00
1.00
............
2.00
0.45
............
0.10
0.55

V
2.45
1.30
1.40
1.35
1.35
............
............
............
0.40
0.50
3.00

Mo

TIMKEN LATROBE HOT WORK DIE STEELS
Co
2.00
............
............
............
............
............
4.25
............
............
............
............

Ni  1.65

Alloy Sulfides

Other

36

M4

DynavanTM

T15

TM - Trademark of Timken Latrobe Steel

CM-50TM

CM-52TM

M50

M52

HS-105TM

DynamaxTM

M35

M42

Tatmo-VNTM

CrusaderTM

StarkTM

M3-2

TNWTM

CorsairTM

M3-1

M7

Double SixTM

M2

M10

TatmoTM

Timken Latrobe
Grade

M1

ASTM

Wear
Resistance
Toughness

Hot
Hardness

Grindability

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES FOR THE SELECTION
AND USE OF HIGH SPEED STEELS

37

Timken Latrobe
Grade

TLSTM H12

TLSTM H13

TLSTM H14

TLSTM H19

TLSTM H21

TLSTM 2714

TLSTM 2367

H12

H13

H14

H19

H21

TM - Trademark of Timken Latrobe Steel

TLSTM H11

H11

H10 Mod TLSTM H10 Mod

ASTM

Wear
Resistance
Toughness

Temper
Resistance

Machinability

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES FOR THE SELECTION
AND USE OF HOT WORK DIE STEELS

38

TLSTM MGRTM

Graph-Air®

TLSTM D2

TLSTM D3

TLSTM D7

TLS VertexTM

TLSTM L6

TLSTM O1

Graph-Mo®

TLSTM S7

A8

A10

D2

D3

D7

L6

O1

O6

S7

TM - Trademark of Timken Latrobe Steel

TLS

TLSTM A6

A2

A6

A2

Timken Latrobe
Grade

TM

ASTM

Wear
Resistance
Toughness

Dimensional
Stability

Machinability

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES FOR THE SELECTION
AND USE OF COLD WORK DIE STEELS

39

TLSTM S7

TLSTM H13

TLSTM L6

S7

H13

L6

TM - Trademark of Timken Latrobe Steel

TLSTM S5

S5

TM

MGR

TLSTM S1

TLS

TM

Timken Latrobe
Grade

S1

A8

ASTM

Wear
Resistance
Toughness

Dimensional
Stability

Machinability

COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES FOR THE SELECTION
AND USE OF SHOCK STEELS

40

Max.

58
56
55
53
49
43
37
33
30
29
28
27
27
26
26
25
25
24
23
21
...
...
...
...

1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
6
6.5
7
7.5
8
9
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24

51
42
34
29
26
24
23
22
22
21
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

1038 H

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

62
61
59
56
52
46
38
34
33
32
32
31
31
30
30
29
29
28
27
26
25
23
22
21

Max.

55
52
42
34
31
29
28
27
26
26
25
25
25
24
24
23
22
21
20
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

1045 H
50
48
47
46
45
42
39
37
34
32
30
28
27
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Max.
41
41
32
27
22
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

1522 H
51
49
48
47
45
43
39
38
35
34
32
30
29
28
27
26
25
23
22
20
...
...
...
...

Max.
42
42
38
34
29
25
22
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

1524 H

GRADE

53
50
49
47
46
42
39
37
33
31
30
28
27
26
26
24
24
23
22
21
20
...
...
...

Max.
44
42
38
33
26
25
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

1526 H
60
59
59
58
57
56
55
53
52
50
48
46
44
41
39
35
33
32
31
30
30
29
28
26

Max.
53
52
50
47
44
41
38
35
32
29
27
26
25
24
23
23
22
21
20
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

1541 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 1038 H to 15B21 H

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

48
48
47
47
46
45
44
42
40
38
35
32
27
22
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

41
41
40
39
38
36
30
23
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

15B21 H
Max.

41

Max.

53
53
52
51
51
50
49
48
46
43
40
37
34
31
30
29
27
25
25
24
23
22
21
20

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

47
47
46
45
42
32
25
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
....
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

15B28 H

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

55
53
52
51
50
48
43
38
33
29
27
26
25
24
23
22
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Max.

48
47
46
44
32
22
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

15B30 H

58
56
55
54
53
51
47
41
...
30
...
27
...
26
...
25
...
24
...
22
...
20
...
...

Max.
51
50
49
48
39
28
24
22
...
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

15B35 H
58
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
...
45
...
40
...
33
...
29
...
27
...
25
...
23
...
21

Max.
50
50
49
48
43
37
33
26
...
22
...
21
...
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

15B37 H

GRADE

60
59
59
58
58
57
57
56
55
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
46
42
39
36
34
33
31
31

Max.
53
52
52
51
51
50
49
48
44
37
32
28
26
25
25
24
23
22
21
21
20
...
...
...

Min.

15B41 H
63
62
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
53
51
48
45
41
38
34
32
31
30
29
29
28
28

Max.
56
56
55
54
53
52
42
34
31
30
29
28
27
27
26
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
...
...

Min.

15B48 H
...
...
...
...
65
65
64
64
64
63
63
63
62
62
61
60
58
54
48
43
40
37
35
34

Max.

60
60
60
60
59
58
57
52
43
39
37
35
35
34
33
33
32
31
30
30
29
28
27
26

Min.

15B62 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 15B28 H to 1330 H

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

56
56
55
53
52
50
48
45
43
42
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
31
31
30
30

49
47
44
40
35
31
28
26
25
23
22
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

1330 H
Max.

42

58
57
56
55
54
52
50
48
46
44
42
41
40
39
38
37
35
34
33
32
31
31
30
30

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

* Formerly Standard Steels

Max.

51
49
47
44
38
34
31
29
27
26
25
24
23
22
22
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

1335 H

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

60
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
52
51
50
48
46
44
42
41
39
38
37
36
35
35
34
34

Max.

53
52
51
49
46
40
35
33
31
29
28
27
26
25
25
24
23
23
22
22
21
21
20
20

Min.

1340 H

63
63
62
61
61
60
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
49
48
47
46
45
45
45
45

Max.
56
56
55
54
51
44
38
35
33
32
31
30
29
29
28
28
27
27
26
26
25
25
24
24

Min.

1345 H
43
43
42
42
42
42
41
41
41
40
40
40
39
39
38
38
37
37
37
36
36
36
35
35

Max.
36
36
35
35
34
33
32
31
30
30
29
29
28
28
27
27
26
26
26
26
25
25
25
25

Min.

3310 H*

GRADE

47
47
47
46
46
46
45
45
45
45
45
45
45
44
44
44
44
43
43
43
42
42
42
41

Max.
40
39
38
38
37
37
36
35
34
33
33
32
32
32
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
30
30
30

Min.

3316 H*
52
50
46
40
34
30
28
26
25
25
24
23
23
22
22
21
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...

Max.
45
40
31
25
22
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
....
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4028 H
57
54
51
46
39
34
31
29
28
26
26
25
24
24
23
23
23
22
22
21
21
20
...
...

Max.
50
45
36
29
25
23
22
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4032 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 1335 H to 4037 H

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

59
57
54
51
45
38
34
32
30
29
28
27
26
26
26
25
25
25
25
24
24
24
23
23

52
49
42
35
30
26
23
22
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4037 H
Max.

43

Max.

62
60
58
55
50
45
39
36
34
33
32
31
30
30
29
29
28
28
28
27
27
27
26
26

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

55
52
48
40
33
29
27
26
25
24
24
23
23
23
22
22
22
21
20
20
...
...
...
...

Min.

4042 H

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

64
62
60
58
55
52
47
43
40
38
37
35
34
33
33
32
31
30
30
30
30
29
29
29

Max.

57
55
50
42
35
32
30
28
28
27
26
26
25
25
25
25
24
24
23
23
22
22
21
21

Min.

4047 H

48
46
41
35
31
28
27
25
24
23
22
21
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Max.
41
36
27
23
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4118 H
56
55
53
51
49
47
44
42
40
38
36
35
34
34
33
33
32
32
32
31
31
30
30
29

Max.
49
46
42
38
34
31
29
27
26
26
25
25
24
24
23
23
22
21
20
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4130 H

GRADE

58
58
57
56
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
42
41
40
39
38
38
37

Max.
51
50
49
48
47
45
42
40
38
36
34
33
32
31
30
30
29
28
27
27
27
26
26
26

Min.

4135 H
59
59
58
58
57
57
56
55
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
46
45
44
43
42
42
41
41

Max.
52
51
50
49
49
48
45
43
40
39
37
36
35
34
33
33
32
31
30
30
30
29
29
29

Min.

4137 H
60
60
60
59
59
58
58
57
57
56
56
55
55
54
54
53
52
51
49
48
47
46
45
44

Max.

53
53
52
51
51
50
48
47
44
42
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
33
32
32
31
31
30

Min.

4140 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 4042 H to 4142 H

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

62
62
62
61
61
61
60
60
60
59
59
58
58
57
57
56
55
54
53
53
52
51
51
50

55
55
54
53
53
52
51
50
49
47
46
44
42
41
40
39
37
36
35
34
34
34
33
33

Min.

4142 H
Max.

44

Max.

63
63
62
62
62
61
61
61
60
60
60
59
59
59
58
58
57
57
56
55
55
55
55
54

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

56
55
55
54
53
53
52
52
51
50
49
48
46
45
43
42
40
38
37
36
35
35
34
34

Min.

4145 H

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

64
64
64
64
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
62
61
61
60
60
59
59
58
57
57
57
56
56

Max.

57
57
56
56
55
55
55
54
54
53
52
51
49
48
46
45
42
40
39
38
37
37
37
36

Min.

4147 H

65
65
65
65
65
65
65
64
64
64
64
63
63
62
62
62
61
60
59
59
58
58
58
58

Max.
59
59
59
58
58
57
57
56
56
55
54
53
51
50
48
47
45
43
41
40
39
38
38
38

Min.

4150 H
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
64
64
64
64
64
64
63
63
63
63
63
63
63

Max.
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
59
59
59
59
58
58
57
56
55
63
50
48
45
43
42
41

Min.

4161 H

GRADE

48
47
45
43
41
38
36
34
33
31
30
29
28
27
27
26
25
25
24
24
24
24
24
24

Max.
41
38
35
32
29
27
25
23
22
21
20
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4320 H
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
59
59
59
58
58
58
58
57
57
57
57
56
56
56

Max.
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
52
52
52
51
51
50
49
49
48
48
46
45
44
43
42
41
40

Min.

4340 H
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
59
59
59
58
58
58
57
57
57
57
57

Max.
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
53
52
52
52
52
51
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44

Min.

E 4340 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 4145 H to 4620 H

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

48
45
42
39
34
31
29
27
26
25
24
23
22
22
22
21
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...

41
35
27
24
21
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4620 H
Max.

45

51
48
41
33
29
27
25
24
23
22
22
21
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

* Formerly Standard Steels

Max.

45
36
29
24
21
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4626 H*

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

47
47
45
43
40
37
35
33
32
31
30
29
29
28
27
27
27
26
26
25
25
24
24
24

Max.

40
40
38
33
29
27
25
24
23
22
22
21
21
21
20
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4718 H

48
47
43
39
35
32
29
28
27
26
25
24
24
23
23
22
21
21
21
20
...
...
...
...

Max.
41
39
31
27
23
21
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4720 H
45
44
44
42
41
39
37
35
33
31
30
29
28
28
27
27
26
25
24
24
24
23
23
23

Max.
38
37
34
30
27
24
22
21
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4815 H

GRADE

46
46
45
44
42
41
39
37
35
33
32
31
30
29
28
28
27
26
25
25
25
25
24
24

Max.
39
38
35
32
29
27
25
23
22
21
20
20
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4817 H
48
48
47
46
45
43
42
40
39
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
29
28
28
27
27
26
26
25

Max.
41
40
39
38
34
31
29
27
26
25
24
23
22
22
21
21
20
20
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

4820 H
60
60
59
59
58
58
57
57
56
55
53
51
49
47
44
41
38
36
35
34
33
32
30
29

Max.

53
53
52
51
50
48
44
39
34
31
29
28
27
26
25
25
23
21
...
...
...
...
...
...

Min.

50B40 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 4626 H to 50B44 H

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

63
63
62
62
61
61
60
60
59
58
57
56
54
52
50
48
44
40
38
37
36
35
34
33

56
56
55
55
54
52
48
43
38
34
31
30
29
29
28
27
26
24
23
21
20
...
...
...

Min.

50B44 H
Max.

46

Max.

63
62
60
56
52
46
39
35
34
33
33
32
32
31
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
23

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

56
55
45
32
28
27
26
25
24
24
23
23
22
22
21
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

5046 H

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
54
51
47
43
40
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28

Max.

56
54
52
50
41
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
26
25
25
24
23
22
21
20
....
....
....
....

Min.

50B46 H

65
65
64
64
63
63
62
62
61
60
60
59
58
57
56
54
50
47
44
41
39
38
37
36

Max.
59
59
58
57
56
55
52
47
42
37
35
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
22
21
20

Min.

50B50 H
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
65
65
64
64
64
63
63
63
62
60
58
55
53
51
49
47
44

Max.
60
60
60
60
60
59
57
53
47
42
39
37
36
35
34
34
33
31
30
29
28
27
26
25

Min.

50B60 H

GRADE

48
46
41
36
33
30
28
27
25
24
23
22
21
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Max.
40
34
28
23
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

5120 H
56
55
53
51
49
47
45
42
40
38
37
36
35
34
34
33
32
31
30
29
27
26
25
24

Max.
49
46
42
39
35
32
30
28
26
25
23
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

5130 H
57
56
54
52
50
48
45
42
40
38
37
36
35
34
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25

Max.
50
47
43
40
35
32
29
27
25
24
23
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

5132 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 5046 H to 5135 H

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

58
57
56
55
54
52
50
47
45
43
41
40
39
38
37
37
36
35
34
33
32
32
31
30

51
49
47
43
38
35
32
30
28
27
25
24
23
22
21
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

5135 H
Max.

47

Max.

60
59
58
57
56
54
52
50
48
46
45
43
42
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
34
33
33
32

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

53
52
50
48
43
38
35
33
31
30
29
28
27
27
26
25
24
23
21
20
....
....
....
....

Min.

5140 H

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

64
64
63
62
62
61
61
60
60
59
59
58
58
57
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48

Max.

57
56
55
54
53
52
49
45
40
37
35
34
33
32
32
31
30
29
27
26
25
24
22
21

Min.

5147 H

65
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
56
55
53
51
50
48
47
45
43
42
41
40
39
39
38

Max.
59
58
57
56
53
49
42
38
36
34
33
32
31
31
30
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22

Min.

5150 H
....
65
64
64
63
63
62
62
61
60
59
57
55
52
51
49
47
45
44
43
42
41
41
40

Max.
60
59
58
57
55
52
47
41
37
36
35
34
34
33
33
32
31
31
30
29
28
27
26
25

Min.

5155 H

GRADE

....
....
....
65
65
64
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
56
54
52
48
47
46
45
44
43
43
42

Max.
60
60
60
59
58
56
52
47
42
39
37
36
35
35
34
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
28
27

Min.

5160 H
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
65
65
64
64
63
61
59
57
55
53
51
49
47

Max.
60
60
60
60
60
59
58
57
54
50
44
41
40
39
38
37
36
34
33
31
30
28
27
25

Min.

51B60 H
46
44
38
33
30
28
27
26
26
25
25
24
24
23
23
22
22
21
21
20
....
....
....
....

Max.

39
36
28
24
22
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

6118 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 5140 H to 6150 H

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

65
65
64
64
63
63
62
61
61
60
59
58
57
55
54
52
50
48
47
46
45
44
43
42

59
58
57
56
55
53
50
47
43
41
39
38
37
36
35
35
34
32
31
30
29
27
26
25

Min.

6150 H
Max.

48

Max.

63
63
63
63
63
63
62
62
61
60
60
59
58
57
57
56
55
53
52
50
49
47
45
43

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

56
56
56
56
55
54
53
51
48
44
41
39
38
37
36
35
34
32
31
30
29
28
28
27

Min.

81B45 H

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

46
44
41
38
34
31
28
27
26
25
24
23
23
22
22
21
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....

Max.

39
33
27
24
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8617 H

48
47
44
41
37
34
32
30
29
28
27
26
25
25
24
24
23
23
23
23
23
22
22
22

Max.
41
37
32
27
23
21
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8620 H
50
49
47
44
40
37
34
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
26
25
25
24
24
24
24
24
24
24

Max.
43
39
34
30
26
24
22
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8622 H

GRADE

52
51
48
46
43
40
37
35
33
32
31
30
29
28
28
27
27
26
26
26
26
25
25
25

Max.
45
41
36
32
29
27
25
23
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8625 H
54
52
50
48
45
43
40
38
36
34
33
32
31
30
30
29
28
28
28
27
27
27
27
27

Max.
47
43
38
35
32
29
27
26
24
24
23
22
21
21
20
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8627 H
56
55
54
52
50
47
44
41
39
37
35
34
33
33
32
31
30
30
29
29
29
29
29
29

Max.
49
46
43
39
35
32
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
22
21
21
20
20
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8630 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 81B45 H to 86B30 H

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

56
55
55
55
54
54
53
53
52
52
52
51
51
50
50
49
48
47
45
44
43
41
40
39

49
49
48
48
48
48
48
47
46
44
42
40
39
38
36
35
34
32
31
29
28
27
26
25

Min.

86B30 H
Max.

49

Max.

59
58
58
57
56
55
54
53
51
49
47
46
44
43
41
40
39
37
36
36
35
35
35
35

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

52
51
50
48
45
42
39
36
34
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
25
24
24
24
24
23
23

Min.

8637 H

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

60
60
60
59
59
58
57
55
54
52
50
49
47
45
44
42
41
39
38
38
37
37
37
37

Max.

53
53
52
51
49
46
42
39
36
34
32
31
30
29
28
28
26
26
25
25
24
24
24
24

Min.

8640 H

62
62
62
61
61
60
59
58
57
55
54
52
50
49
48
46
44
42
41
40
40
39
39
39

Max.
55
54
53
52
50
48
45
42
39
37
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
28
27
27
26
26
26
26

Min.

8642 H
63
63
63
63
62
61
61
60
59
58
56
55
54
52
51
49
47
45
43
42
42
41
41
41

Max.
56
56
55
54
52
50
48
45
41
39
37
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
28
27
27
27
27

Min.

8645 H

GRADE

63
63
62
62
62
61
61
60
60
60
59
59
59
59
58
58
58
58
57
57
57
57
56
56

Max.
56
56
55
54
54
53
52
52
51
51
50
50
49
48
46
45
42
39
37
35
34
32
32
31

Min.

86B45 H
65
65
65
64
64
63
63
62
61
60
60
59
58
58
57
56
55
53
52
50
49
47
46
45

Max.
59
58
57
57
56
54
53
50
47
44
41
39
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
31
30
30
29
29

Min.

8650 H
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
65
65
64
64
63
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
53

Max.

60
59
59
58
57
56
55
54
52
49
46
43
41
40
39
38
37
35
34
34
33
33
32
32

Min.

8655 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 8637 H to 8660 H

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
65
64
64
63
62
62
61
60
60

60
60
60
60
60
59
58
57
55
53
50
47
45
44
43
42
40
39
38
37
36
36
35
35

Min.

8660 H
Max.

50

Max.

48
47
45
42
38
35
33
31
30
29
28
27
26
26
25
25
24
24
23
23
23
23
22
22

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

41
38
35
30
26
24
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8720 H

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

60
60
60
60
59
58
57
56
55
53
52
50
49
48
46
45
43
42
41
40
39
39
38
38

Max.

53
53
52
51
49
46
43
40
37
35
34
32
31
31
30
29
28
28
27
27
27
27
26
26

Min.

8740 H

50
49
48
46
43
40
37
35
34
33
32
31
31
30
30
29
29
28
27
27
27
27
27
27

Max.
43
42
39
33
29
27
25
24
24
23
23
22
22
22
21
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8822 H
....
....
65
64
63
62
60
58
55
52
49
47
45
43
42
40
38
37
36
36
35
35
35
34

Max.
60
60
57
53
46
41
38
36
36
35
34
34
33
33
32
32
31
31
30
30
29
29
28
28

Min.

9260 H

GRADE

43
43
43
42
42
42
42
41
40
40
39
38
37
36
36
35
35
35
34
34
34
34
33
33

Max.
36
35
35
34
32
31
30
29
28
27
27
26
26
26
26
26
26
25
25
25
25
25
24
24

Min.

9310 H
45
45
44
44
43
42
40
38
36
34
33
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
23
22
22
22

Max.
38
38
37
36
32
28
25
23
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

94B15 H
46
46
45
45
44
43
42
41
40
38
36
34
33
32
31
30
28
27
26
25
24
24
23
23

Max.
39
39
38
37
34
29
26
24
23
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

94B17 H

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 8720 H to 94B30 H

END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

56
56
55
55
54
54
53
53
52
52
51
51
50
49
48
46
44
42
40
38
37
35
34
34

49
49
48
48
47
46
44
42
39
37
34
32
30
29
28
27
25
24
23
23
22
21
21
20

Min.

94B30 H
Max.

51

Min.
50
48
44
40
36
34
32
30
28
27
26
26
26
25
25
25
24
23
23
22
22
21
21
20
55
54
52
49
46
44
41
39
37
35
33
32
32
31
31
31
30
30
30
29
29
28
28
27

42
39
35
30
26
24
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
47
45
41
38
34
31
29
28
26
25
24
23
23
22
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
42
38
30
25
22
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
47
44
38
33
29
27
25
24
23
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
46
42
34
28
24
22
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
51
48
43
37
32
28
26
24
23
22
22
21
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
37
37
37
36
36
35
33
33
32
32
31
31
30
30
29
29
28
28
27
27
27
26
26
26

42
42
42
41
41
41
40
40
39
39
39
39
38
38
37
37
36
36
35
35
35
34
34
34

52
51
50
49
41
33
28
24
23
21
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

57
55
54
53
50
46
42
36
32
28
....
25
....
24
....
23
....
22
....
20
....
....
....
....

42
41
39
33
24
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
.....
....

47
46
44
42
37
30
24
22
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

4130 RH
Max.

Min.

4120 RH
Max.

Min.

4118 RH
Max.

Min.

4027 RH
Max.

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

GRADE

Min.

3310 RH

Max.

15B35 RH

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

15B21 RH

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 15B21 RH to 4130 RH

RESTRICTED END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

52

Min.
54
54
53
53
52
50
47
43
38
35
33
32
31
30
29
28
26
24
23
22
21
20
....
....
59
59
58
58
57
56
55
54
52
50
49
47
45
44
41
38
36
34
33
32
31
30
29
28

42
42
41
40
36
33
32
30
28
27
26
25
24
24
23
23
22
22
21
20
20
....
....
....
47
47
46
45
43
41
40
38
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
25
25
24
23
42
37
30
27
24
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
47
44
40
37
32
29
27
25
24
23
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
42
40
37
34
31
29
27
25
24
23
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
47
46
44
41
39
36
34
32
31
29
28
26
25
24
24
23
22
22
21
21
21
21
21
21

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
59
59
59
58
57
56
54
53
51
49
47
46
45

65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
64
64
64
63
63
62
62
61
60
59
58
57
57

57
57
56
56
55
55
54
53
52
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
44
43
42
40
40
39
38
37

62
62
61
61
60
60
59
59
58
58
58
57
57
56
56
55
54
53
52
51
51
50
50
49

54
54
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
46
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
37
36
35
35
34
33

59
59
59
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
52
51
50
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

50B40 RH
Max.

Min.

4820 RH
Max.

Min.

4620 RH
Max.

Min.

4320 RH
Max.

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

GRADE

Min.

4161 RH

Max.

4145 RH

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

4140 RH

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 4140 RH to 50B40 RH

RESTRICTED END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

53

Max.

55
53
51
49
46
44
42
39
37
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

50
47
44
41
37
35
33
31
29
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

5130 RH

“J”
Distance
Sixteenths
of an Inch

59
58
57
55
53
51
48
46
44
43
41
40
39
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
30
29
29

Max.

54
53
51
49
45
41
38
36
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
....

Min.

5140 RH

65
65
65
65
64
63
62
60
58
56
55
53
51
50
48
47
44
43
42
41
40
39
39
38

Max.
60
60
60
59
58
57
54
50
45
42
40
39
38
37
36
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
29

Min.

5160 RH
47
45
41
38
34
31
29
28
26
25
24
23
23
22
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Max.
42
39
35
30
26
24
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8620 RH

GRADE

49
47
45
41
38
35
32
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
24
23
23
22
22
22
22
22
22
22

Max.
44
41
37
32
29
27
24
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8622 RH
47
45
43
40
36
33
31
29
28
27
26
25
25
24
24
23
23
22
22
21
20
....
....
....

Max.
42
39
37
32
28
26
24
23
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8720 RH
49
48
47
43
40
37
35
33
32
31
30
30
29
28
28
27
27
26
26
26
26
25
25
25

Max.

44
43
40
35
31
29
27
26
25
25
24
23
23
23
22
22
21
20
....
....
....
....
....
....

Min.

8822 RH

These values were adjusted to the nearest Rockwell “C” point, and are used when points are selected and specified

Tabulations of Band Limits – 5130 RH to 9310 RH

RESTRICTED END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY BANDS

42
42
42
41
41
40
40
39
38
37
37
36
35
34
34
33
33
32
32
32
32
32
31
31

37
36
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
29
28
28
28
28
27
27
26
26
26
26
26
25
25

Min.

9310 RH
Max.

INTRODUCTION TO
JOMINY CORRELATION
WITH ROUND BARS
The following correlation of Jominy values with quenching severity
and surface to center hardnesses obtainable in round bars is based
on calculated and practical experience data.
Since practical heat treatment results are subject to several variables
that are always difficult to determine, i.e., surface condition of piece
being quenched, furnace atmosphere, and quenching severity of the
coolant, the metallurgist or heat treater may find some differences in
applying this correlation to his particular heat treatment setup.
However, as experience is gained by their use, it is believed that
these charts will be found helpful as a guide to the selection of steel of
proper hardenability based on Jominy end quench results. As a valueadded service, Timken Company hardenability data will be supplied
upon request, with each heat of steel.

54

1" RD

3/4" RD

1/2" RD

BAR SIZE

1.5

0

2.0

1.5

5.0

0.50
0.35

0.70

SURFACE

1/2 RADIUS

0.20

4
8
JOMINY DISTANCE

12

SURFACE

1/2 RADIUS

CENTER

SURFACE
16

1/2 RADIUS

CENTER

20

0.20
0.35
0.50
0.70
1.0
1.5
2.0
5.0

H VALUE

24


Oil

Oil

Oil

Oil

Water

Water

Brine

Brine
– Ideal Quench

QUENCH

28








No
Moderate
Good
Strong
No
Strong
No
Strong

AGITATION

32

Select proper round bar size to be quenched.
Select the curve most representative of quenching conditions (H value) to be used.
Read the curve to the Jominy Distance.
Insert Rockwell “C” hardness values corresponding to the Jominy Distance.
These are obtained from The Timken Company

CENTER

1.
2.
3.
4.

0.20

INSTRUCTIONS FOR
USE OF CHART

0.35

Hardenability
Data available
with each
shipment of steel.
These hardness
values represent
the approximate
surface-to-center
hardness
obtainable for
the type of steel
being heat
treated.

CHART FOR PREDICTING APPROXIMATE CROSS SECTION HARDNESS OF QUENCHED
ROUND BARS USING JOMINY TEST RESULTS

0.20

1.0
0.70

1.0

1.5 2.0

0.50

1.0

0.70

0.35

0.50

55

4" RD

3" RD

2" RD

0

0.70
2.0

5.0

0.50

2.0

0.50

1.0

0.20

12

16

0.20

0.35

0.70

5.0

5.0
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.70

2.0

5.0

4
8
JOMINY DISTANCE

0.50
1.5

0.35
1.0

SURFACE

1.0

1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE

0.20
0.35
0.50
0.70
1.0
1.5
2.0
5.0

H VALUE

20

1/2 RADIUS

CENTER

0.35
0.70

1-1/2" RD

0.50

CENTER

QUENCH

24


Oil

Oil

Oil

Oil

Water

Water

Brine

Brine
– Ideal Quench

0.20
0.35

BAR SIZE

28








SURFACE

1/2 RADIUS

CENTER

No
Moderate
Good
Strong
No
Strong
No
Strong

AGITATION

32

0.20

56

1.5

1.5

SURFACE

1/2 RADIUS

CENTER

57

8" RD

7" RD

6" RD

5" RD

BAR SIZE

0

4
8
JOMINY DISTANCE

12

16


5.0

20

1.5

24

1.0

0.70

28

5.0

32

0.35

1.5

0.35

1.5

0.35

0.70

1.5

0.35

0.50

SURFACE

1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE
CENTER

1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE
CENTER

1/2 RADIUS

SURFACE
CENTER

1/2 RADIUS

CENTER

EXPLANATION OF COMBINED
HARDENABILITY CHARTS
The following charts present hardenability data for thirteen popular
steels. They may be used to determine the approximate mid-radius
hardness which is developed, in various sized rounds up to 9" in
diameter using a good oil quench (.4-.5 Hv), or rounds up to 15" in
diameter when air cooling. The effect of a subsequent 1000°F 2 hour
temper is also illustrated.
The relationship between hardness and section size was determined
using data from the Jominy end quench test, and air hardenability test,
and controlled cooling tests. It must be remembered that the results
for a particular steel type are based on one chemical analysis and
one austenitizing temperature. Variations of these will affect hardenability, as shown by the Jominy hardenability bands (shaded area).
Therefore, the charts should be used to determine estimated, rather
than exact, hardness values.

USE OF CHARTS
1. Select steel type.
2. Find desired diameter for the quenching medium employed.
3. Read the approximate as-quenched or tempered hardness using
the appropriate curve; read hardness range using hardenability
band.
For example, a 2-inch round made of 1045 type steel will
develop the following mid-radius hardnesses:

As-Cooled
Tempered
1000 °F-2 Hours

Mild Water

Oil .4-.5 Hv

Air

28(25/32) Rc

25(22/29) Rc

91Rb

22.5 Rc

21 Rc

91Rb

58

1045

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

59

5

55° /S

2"

F

F

10

25° /S

3"

2"

S
.023

Si
.22

Cr
.11

Ni
.18

Mo
.04

F

15

12° /S

4"

3"
5"

20

7° /S
F

4"
7"

27

F

6"

~9"

48

F

4"

80° /M
F

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290° /M 200° /M

6"

5"

19° /M
F

4"

Al

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M
F

5"

V

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1550˚ F.

27° /M
F

3"

Cu
.04

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32° /M
F

2"

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

P
.019

NORMALIZED 1600° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

Mn
.79

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.42

HEAT TREATMENT

1340

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

60

5

55° /S

2"

F

F

10

25° /S

3"

2"

P
.011

S
.013

Si
.24

Cr
.08

Ni
.09

Mo
.02

F

15

12° /S

4"

3"
5"

20

7° /S
F

4"
7"

27

F

6"

F

48

~9"

4"

80° /M
F

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290° /M 200° /M

6"

5"

19° /M
F

4"

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M
F

5"

V

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1550˚ F.

27° /M
F

3"

Al
.019

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32° /M
F

2"

Cu
.11

NORMALIZED 1600° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

Mn
1.87

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.40

HEAT TREATMENT

3310

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

61

5

55° /S

2"

F

F

10

25° /S

3"

2"

P
.012

S
.012

Si
.25

Cr
1.56

Ni
3.42

Mo
.05

F

15

12° /S

4"

3"
5"

20

7° /S
F

4"
7"

27

F

6"

~9"

48

F

4"

80° /M
F

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290° /M 200° /M

6"

5"

6" 10" 15"

B

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M
F

5"

W

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

(FROM ASM HANDBOOK)

19° /M
F

4"

V

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1550˚ F.

27° /M
F

3"

Al
.032

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32° /M
F

2"

Cu
.10

NORMALIZED 1700° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

Mn
.54

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.08

HEAT TREATMENT

4027

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

62

5

55°F/S

2"

P
.011

S
.027

Si
.29

Cr
.05

Ni
.09

Mo
.22

10

15

12°F/S

4"

3"
5"

20

7°F/S

4"
7"

6"

27

48

~9"

4"

80°F/M

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290°F/M 200°F/M

6"

5"

19°F/M

4"

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13°F/M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

5"

V

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1600˚ F.

27°F/M

3"

Al
.032

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32°F/M

2"

Cu
.07

NORMALIZED 1650° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1600° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

25°F/S

3"

2"

Mn
.86

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.26

HEAT TREATMENT

4130

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

63

5

55° /S

2"

F

F

10

25° /S

3"

2"

P
.013

S
.020

Si
.30

Cr
.96

Ni
.20

Mo
.21

F

15

12° /S

4"

3"
5"

20

7° /S
F

4"
7"

27

F

6"

~9"

48

F

4"

80° /M
F

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290° /M 200° /M

6"

5"

19° /M
F

4"

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M
F

5"

V

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1600˚ F.

27° /M
F

3"

Al

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32° /M
F

2"

Cu
.12

NORMALIZED 1650° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1600° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

Mn
.51

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.31

HEAT TREATMENT

4140

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

64

5

55°F/S

2"

P
.031

S
.021

Si
.31

Cr
.96

Ni
.13

Mo
.20

10

15

12°F/S

4"

3"
5"

20

7°F/S

4"
7"

6"

27

~9"

48

4"

80°F/M

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290°F/M 200°F/M

6"

5"

19°F/M

4"

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13°F/M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

5"

V

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1550˚ F.

27°F/M

3"

Al

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32°F/M

2"

Cu
.08

NORMALIZED 1600° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

25°F/S

3"

2"

Mn
.82

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.39

HEAT TREATMENT

4320

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

65

5

55° /S

2"

F

F

10

25° /S

3"

2"

P
.010

S
.014

Si
.29

Cr
.50

Ni
1.79

Mo
.23

F

15

12° /S

4"

3"
5"

20

7° /S
F

4"
7"

27

F

6"

F

48

~9"

4"

80° /M
F

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290° /M 200° /M

6"

5"

19° /M
F

4"

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M
F

5"

V

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1700˚ F.

27° /M
F

3"

Al
.021

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32° /M
F

2"

Cu
.09

NORMALIZED 1700° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1700° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

Mn
.61

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.18

HEAT TREATMENT

4340

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

66

5

55°F/S

2"

10

P
.014

S
.015

Si
.30

Cr
.72

Ni
1.75

Mo
.26

15

12°F/S

4"

3"
5"

20

7°F/S

4"
7"

6"

27

~9"

48

4"

80°F/M

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290°F/M 200°F/M

6"

5"

19°F/M

4"

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13°F/M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

5"

V

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1550˚ F.

27°F/M

3"

Al

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32°F/M

2"

Cu
.13

NORMALIZED 1600° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

25°F/S

3"

2"

Mn
.74

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.41

HEAT TREATMENT

4620

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

67

5

55° /S

2"

F

F

10

25° /S

3"

2"

P
.013

S
.019

Si
.32

Cr
.20

Ni
1.75

Mo
.22

F

15

12° /S

4"

3"
5"

20

7° /S
F

4"
7"

27

F

6"

~9"

48

F

4"

80° /M
F

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290° /M 200° /M

6"

5"

19° /M
F

4"

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M
F

5"

V

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1700˚ F.

27° /M
F

3"

Al

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32° /M
F

2"

Cu
.05

NORMALIZED 1700° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1700° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

Mn
.60

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.19

HEAT TREATMENT

5130

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

68

5

55°F/S

2"

P
.022

S
.026

Si
.26

Cr
.98

Ni
.09

Mo
.02

10

15

12°F/S

4"

3"
5"

20

7°F/S

4"
7"

6"

27

~9"

48

4"

80°F/M

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290°F/M 200°F/M

6"

5"

19°F/M

4"

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13°F/M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

5"

V

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1600˚ F.

27°F/M

3"

Al
.019

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32°F/M

2"

Cu
.14

NORMALIZED 1650° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1600° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

25°F/S

3"

2"

Mn
.79

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.30

HEAT TREATMENT

5160

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

69

5

55° /S

2"

F

F

10

25° /S

3"

2"

P
.014

S
.016

Si
.29

Cr
.78

Ni
.07

Mo
.01

F

15

12° /S

4"

3"
5"

20

7° /S
F

4"
7"

27

F

6"

F

48

~9"

4"

80° /M
F

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290° /M 200° /M

6"

5"

19° /M
F

4"

11/4"

/4"
3

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M
F

5"

V

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
400˚ F. TEMPER
1000˚ F. TEMPER
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1550˚ F.

27° /M
F

3"

Al
.023

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32° /M
F

2"

Cu
.05

NORMALIZED 1600° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

Mn
.91

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.58

HEAT TREATMENT

8620

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

70

5

55°F/S

2"

P
.010

S
.014

Si
.30

Cr
.50

Ni
.51

Mo
.19

10

15

12°F/S

4"

3"
5"

20

7°F/S

4"
7"

6"

27

~9"

48

4"

80°F/M

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290°F/M 200°F/M

6"

5"

19°F/M

4"

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13°F/M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M

5"

V

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1700˚ F.

27°F/M

3"

Al
.031

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32°F/M

2"

Cu
.09

NORMALIZED 1700° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1700° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

25°F/S

3"

2"

Mn
.85

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.20

HEAT TREATMENT

9310

BRINELL HARDNESS – 3000 KG.

107

128

150

185

230

283

372

484

614

COOLING
RATE

OIL QUENCH
.4-.5 Hv
MILD WATER
QUENCH

60

70

80

90

20

30

40

50

60

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

TYPE

ROCKWELL
“C” HARDNESS

ROCKWELL
“B” HARDNESS

71

5

55° /S

2"

F

F

10

25° /S

3"

2"

P
.012

S
.015

Si
.30

Cr
1.26

Ni
3.26

Mo
.11

F

15

12° /S

4"

3"
5"

20

7° /S
F

4"
7"

27

F

6"

~9"

48

F

4"

80° /M
F

AIR
QUENCH 1"

290° /M 200° /M

6"

5"

19° /M
F

4"

B

6" 10" 15"

W

13° /M 12°F/M 9°F/M 6°F/M
F

5"

V

11/4"

/4"
3

21/2" 6"
INTERFACE

LEGEND
AS COOLED
1000˚ F. TEMPER-2 HOURS
SAE HARDENABILITY BAND
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE
1550˚ F.

27° /M
F

3"

Al
.044

AIR HARDENABILITY DISTANCE

11/2"

32° /M
F

2"

Cu
.11

NORMALIZED 1700° F. — AUSTENITIZED 1550° F.

ROUND SECTION WITH SAME HARDNESS AT MID-RADIUS

Mn
.58

SIXTEENTHS FROM QUENCHED END OF JOMINY BAR

1"

1"

C
.10

HEAT TREATMENT

72

ROCKWELL C HARDNESS

10

20

30

40

50

60

.10

.20

.30

.40

.50

PERCENT CARBON

.60

.70

Note: Fine divisions added to
simplify use of the graph.

Hodge, J. M. and Orehoski, M. A.
Relationship between hardenability
and percentage of martensite in
some low-alloy steels.
Transactions. AIME, 1946, v. 167,
pp. 627-642.

50% MARTENSITE

80% MARTENSITE

90% MARTENSITE

99.9% MARTENSITE
95% MARTENSITE

AVERAGE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CARBON CONTENT, HARDNESS AND
PERCENTAGE OF MARTENSITE IN QUENCHING

414

552

690

828

TENSILE STRENGTH, MPa
966 1104 1241 1379 1517

1655 1793 1931

EFFECTS OF SURFACE CONDITIONS AND MECHANICAL
NOTCHES ON ENDURANCE OR FATIGUE LIMITS

160

1140

ENDURANCE LIMIT, 1000 psi

828

120
POLISHED

690

100
GROUND

552

80
MACHINED

60

414
276

40
HOT ROLLED,
SEVERLY NOTCHED,
AS FORGED

20

60

80

100

120

140 160
180 200 220
TENSILE STRENGTH, 1000 psi

240

260

138

280

Note: Endurance limits for surfaces exposed to corrosive environment fall
below the band for hot rolled, severly notched, and as forged surfaces.

CONDITIONS WHICH AFFECT
FATIGUE STRENGTH
The fatigue strength of a material depends on many factors of which
the following are considered among the most important: (1) the
strength of the material and the magnitude of the stress being applied
to the material in its application, (2) the surface integrity of the material
including its finish and method of manufacture, magnitude of residual
stress present, and the presence of decarburization, (3) the environment in which the material is exposed in service.
It must be noted that fatigue data such as that represented by the
curves shown above are averages obtained from laboratory tests
which approach ideal conditions and should not be considered more
than a guide.
F.B. Stulen and W.C. Schulte, Metals Engineering Quarterly (Am. Soc. Metals), Vol. 5,
No. 3, Aug. 1965
SAE Fatigue Design Handbook (AE4) - 1968
Proceedings of the International Conference on Fatigue of Metals, (IME-ASME) - 1956

73

ENDURANCE LIMIT, MPa

966

140

CARBURIZING INFORMATION
For .10% Carbon (Approx.) Higher Alloy Carburizing
Steels, i.e., 3310, 9310, etc.
“EFFECTIVE” CASE DEPTH
for
VARIOUS CARBURIZING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES
(Calculated in Inches to .40% CARBON LEVEL)
Carburizing
Time,
Hours

1600°

1650°

1700°

1750°

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

.011"
.015"
.019"
.021"
.024"
.026"
.028"
.030"
.032"
.034"
.036"

.013"
.019"
.023"
.026"
.030"
.033"
.035"
.038"
.040"
.042"
.044"

.016"
.023"
.028"
.033"
.037"
.040"
.043"
.046"
.049"
.052"
.054"

.019"
.027"
.034"
.039"
.044"
.048"
.052"
.056"
.059"
.062"
.065"

12

.037"

.046"

.057"

.068"

16

.043"

.053"

.065"

.078"

20

.048"

.059"

.073"

.088"

24

.052"

.065"

.080"

.096"

30

.059"

.073"

.089"

.108"

Carburizing Temperature (°F)

Note: Case depth tables are based on data published in Metals Progress Data Sheet in
May 1974 by F. E. Harris.

74

CARBURIZING INFORMATION
For .20% Carbon (Approx.) Lower Alloy Carburizing
Steels, i.e., 4017, 4620, 8620, etc.
“EFFECTIVE” CASE DEPTH
for
VARIOUS CARBURIZING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES
(Calculated in Inches to .40% CARBON LEVEL)
Carburizing
Time,
Hours

1600°

1650°

1700°

1750°

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

.013"
.018"
.022"
.025"
.029"
.031"
.034"
.036"
.038"
.040"
.042"

.015"
.022"
.027"
.031"
.034"
.038"
.041"
.044"
.046"
.049"
.051"

.019"
.026"
.032"
.037"
.042"
.045"
.049"
.053"
.056"
.059"
.062"

.022"
.031"
.039"
.045"
.050"
.055"
.059"
.063"
.067"
.071"
.073"

12

.044"

.053"

.065"

.077"

16

.051"

.061"

.075"

.088"

20

.057"

.069"

.084"

.099"

24

.062"

.075"

.092"

.109"

30

.070"

.085"

.103"

.122"

Carburizing Temperature (°F)

Note: Case depth tables are based on data published in Metals Progress Data Sheet in
May 1974 by F. E. Harris

75

PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS
DEW POINT, °F
-20

0

20

40

60

80

100

2

SURFACE CARBON CONCENTRATION, %

Austenite
cementite

Low-carbon
steel

1

760° C
0.6

815° C

Austenite
+ ferrite

870° C

0.4

925° C
980° C
0.2

1040° C
Workpiece
temperature
1150° C

1095° C

0.1
-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

40

DEW POINT, °C
Variation of carbon potential with dew point for an endothermic-based atmosphere
containing 20% CO and 40% H2 in contact with plain carbon steel at various workpiece
temperatures.

76

77

SURFACE CARBON CONCENTRATION, %

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

1

2

0.02

0.04
0.1

0.2

980° C
1040° C

925° C

0.4

CARBON DIOXIDE IN ATMOSPHERE, %

0.06

1095° C

0.6

870° C

815° C

1

760° C

2

Austenite
+ ferrite

Low-carbon
steel

Variation of carbon potential with carbon dioxide concentration for an endothermic-based atmosphere containing 20% CO and
40% H2 in contact with plain carbon steel at various workpiece temperatures.

0.01

Workpiece
temperature
1150° C

Austenite cementite

PROCESS AND QUALITY CONTROL CONSIDERATIONS

4

DETERMINING CARBURIZING TIMES
AND TEMPERATURES
100
80
1,
50
0

F

60

1,
70
0

F

1,
60
0

F

40

1,
90
0

F

1,
80
0

F

20

10

TIME AT HEAT, Hr

6
4

400

2

200

1

100

CASE DEPTH, 0.001 in.

8

80
60
40

20

10
11

12

13

14

15

PARAMETER, P

TO USE THE CHART
In the upper grid, select a point (time and temperature) for which the case
depth results are known. Go vertically down from that point to the known
case depth and plot the point. Pass a line through this point parallel to the
dashed line shown. Projecting a line vertically upward from any point on
this line into the grid will give the combinations of time and temperature
that will result in the same depth of case. For instance, a vertical line drawn
upward from the dashed line at 100 thousandths indicates that a 0.100 in.
case will be produced by 6 hr. at 1900°F, 11 hr. at 1800°F, or 22 hr. at
1700°F. Shop experience of the Cook Heat Treat Co., Houston, is depicted
by this line and its related points.
Adapted from information provided by Charles F. Lewis, Cook Heat
Treating Co., Div. Lindberg Corp.

78

79

1325
1315
1340
1325

1285
1280
1285
1265

1290
1260

1355
1350
1345
1355
1355
1355

2317
2330
2340
2345

2512
2515

3115
3120
3130
3140
3141
3150

1370
1350
1350
1350
1350
1350
1340
.............
.............

1015
1020
1030
1035
1040
1045
1050
1065
1090

1330
1335
1340
1345

Ac1

SAE
No.

1500
1480
1460
1410
1410
1380

1400
1400

1435
1360
1350
1335

1470
1460
1420
1420

1565
1555
1485
1475
1460
1440
1420
.............
.............

Ac3

Heating (°F)

1480
1445
1360
1275
1300
1275

1150
1160

1265
1205
1185
1125

1340
1340
1310
1300

1545
1515
1465
1440
1420
1405
1390
.............
.............

Ar3

Ar1

1240
1230
1220
1225
1215
1215

1060
1090

1065
910/1050
1060
1040

1160
1165
1160
1160

1270
1270
1270
1270
1270
1270
1270
.............
.............

Cooling (°F)

.............
.............
.............
1550
.............
.............

.............
.............

.............
.............
1450
.............

.............
1550
.............
.............

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
1500
1625

Quench
Temp °F

.............
.............
.............
630
.............
.............

.............
.............

.............
.............
580
.............

.............
640
.............
.............

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
525
420

Ms (°F)

.............
.............
.............
440
.............
.............

.............
.............

.............
.............
400
.............

.............
450
.............
.............

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
300
175

Mf (°F)

3115
3120
3130
3140
3141
3150

2512
2515

2317
2330
2340
2345

1330
1335
1340
1345

1015
1020
1030
1035
1040
1045
1050
1065
1090

SAE
No.

APPROXIMATE CRITICAL TEMPERATURES AND Ms/Mf POINTS
OF CARBON AND ALLOY STEELS

80

1335
1335

1360
1340
1340
1310
1360
1365
1385
1380
1380
.............
1390
.............
1355
1350
.............
1340
1300
1325
.............
1285
1285
1290

1360
1370
1380
1360

3310
3316

4027
4032
4042
4053
4063
4068
4118
4130
4140
4147
4150
4160
4320
4340
4342
4615
4620
4640
4695*
4718
4815
4820

5045
5060
5120
5140

1430
1410
1525
1450

1500
1500
1460
1400
1390
1395
1500
1475
1460
.............
1450
.............
1485
1425
.............
1485
1490
1400
.............
1510
1450
1440

1440
1425

Ac3

Ar3

1305
1305
1460
1345

1400
1350
1340
1320
1220
1215
1410
1350
1370
.............
1290
.............
1330
1220
.............
1400
1335
1220
.............
1410
1310
1260

1235
1235

* Represents the case of 4600 grades of carburizing steels

Ac1

SAE
No.
Ar1

1255
1285
1305
1230

1230
1250
1210
1200
1190
1195
1275
1250
1280
.............
1245
.............
840/1170
725/1210
.............
1200
1220
875/1130
.............
1200
860/1110
825/1110

1160
1160

Cooling (°F)

.............
.............
.............
1550

.............
.............
1500
.............
1500
.............
.............
1600
1500
1500
.............
1575
.............
1550
1500
.............
.............
1550
1550
.............
.............
.............

.............
.............

Quench
Temp °F

.............
.............
.............
630

.............
.............
610
.............
445
.............
.............
710
640
590
.............
500
.............
550
530
.............
.............
640
255
.............
.............
.............

.............
.............

Ms (°F)

CRITICAL TEMPERATURES AND Ms/Mf POINTS – continued

Heating (°F)

.............
.............
.............
460

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
550
425
.............
.............
.............
.............
330
.............
.............
.............
490
.............
.............
.............
.............

.............
.............

Mf (°F)

5045
5060
5120
5140

4027
4032
4042
4053
4063
4068
4118
4130
4140
4147
4150
4160
4320
4340
4342
4615
4620
4640
4695*
4718
4815
4820

3310
3316

SAE
No.

81

1515
1370
1440
1435
1380
1275

1645
1480
1600
1700
1415
1415

1490
1455
.............
1435

1520
1450
1410

1550
1525
1480
1435
1390
.............

1560
1530
.............
1450

1415
1415

Ac3

1430
1350
1460
1525
1365
1260

1305
1290
.............
1280

1400
1300
1265

1455
1400
1340
1275
1240
.............

1430
1440
.............
1375

1320
1320

Ar1

1350
1245
1280
1230
1275
1150

830/1080
800
.............
1190

1200
1180
1190

1265
1200
1210
1170
1195
.............

1270
1300
.............
1275

1300
1270

Cooling (°F)

Ar3

.............
.............
.............
.............
1450
1460

.............
.............
1700
1575

.............
.............
.............

.............
.............
1600
.............
.............
1500

1650
1740
1550
.............

.............
1560
1650
1740

Quench
Temp °F

.............
.............
.............
.............
410
325

.............
.............
170
620

.............
.............
.............

.............
.............
690
.............
.............
275

305
260
620
.............

.............
345
305
260

Ms (°F)

............
............
............
............
............
............

............
............
............
410

............
............
............

.............
.............
540
............
............
............

.............
.............
460
.............

.............
.............
.............
.............

Mf (°F)

9 Cr 1 Mo
17-22-A®
17-22-AS®
17-22-AV®
Graph Mo®
Graph Air®

9310
9317
9395*
9442

8720
8740
8750

8615
8620
8630
8640
8650
8695*

6117
6120
6140
6150

52100
52100

51100

SAE
No.

Note: (1) All data in this table is empirically derived unless noted otherwise.
(2) When two temperatures are given for Ar1, the higher represents the pearlitic reaction and the lower represents the bainitic reaction.
(3) See USEFUL EQUATIONS FOR HARDENABLE ALLOY STEELS (see Table of Contents) for formulas to calculate approximate critical temperatures and Ms points.

* Represents the case of 8600 and 9300 grades of carburizing steels, respectively.

9 Cr 1 Mo
17-22-A®
17-22-AS®
17-22-AV®
Graph Mo®
Graph Air®

1315
1300
.............
1350

9310
9317
9395*
9442

1360
1350
1350
1350
1325
.............

8615
8620
8630
8640
8650
8695*

1380
1350
1350

1400
1410
.............
1380

6117
6120
6140
6150

8720
8740
8750

1385
1340

Ac1

51100
52100
52100
52100

SAE
No.

CRITICAL TEMPERATURES AND Ms/Mf POINTS – continued

Heating (°F)

RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM
HOT WORKING TEMPERATURES
FOR STEELS
SAE
No.

Temperature
(°F)

SAE
No.

Temperature
(°F)

1008
1010
1015
1040

2250
2250
2250
2200

4320
4337
4340

2200
2200
2200

1118
1141

2250
2200

4422
4427

2250
2250

4520

2250

1350

2200

2317
2340

2250
2200

4615
4620
4640

2300
2300
2200

2512

2250

4718

2250

3115
3135
3140

2250
2200
2200

4820

2250

5060

2150

3240

2200

3310
3316
3335

2250
2250
2250

5120
5140
5160

2250
2200
2150

51100
52100

2050
2050

4017
4032
4047
4063

2300
2200
2200
2150

6120
6135
6150

2250
2250
2200

4130
4132
4135
4140
4142

2200
2200
2200
2200
2200

8617
8620
8630
8640
8650

2250
2250
2200
2200
2200

82

RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM
HOT WORKING TEMPERATURES
FOR STEELS – continued

SAE
No.

Temperature
(°F)

Timken
Type

Temperature
(°F)

8720
8735
8740

2250
2200
2200

2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo
5 Cr 1/2 Mo (.05C)
5 Cr 1/2 Mo (.15C)

2250
2250
2250

9310

2250

302
303
304
309
310
316
317
321
347

2200
2200
2200
2150
2050
2150
2150
2150
2150

5 Cr 1/2 Mo (.25C)
5 Cr 1/2 Mo + Ti
5 Cr 1/2 Mo + Si
7 Cr 1/2 Mo
9 Cr 1 Mo

2250
2100
2200
2250
2200

8 1/2 Ni

2200

Graph-Mo®
Graph-Air®

1950
1925

410
416
420
430
440A
440C
443
446

2200
2200
2200
2100
2100
2050
2100
1900

5 Cr Mo (1.00C)
5Cr Mo W (1.00W)

2050
2300

10105
Niriding #3

2050
2200

17-22A®
17-22AS®
17-22AV®

2200
2200
2250

C-Mo
DM

2300
2300

DM-2

2300

A 485-1
A 485-2
A 485-3
A 485-4

2050
2050
2100
2100

TBS-600

2050

CBS-600
CBS-1000M

2250
2200

NOTE: Information obtained from hot-twist test data publshed in “Evaluating The
Forgeability of Steels” (3rd edition,The Timken Company) occasionally modified by
actual Forge Shop experience.

83

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCES
Standard Timken Company Tolerances
HOT ROLLED, ROUND1
OD Tolerances
As rolled or single thermal treatment:
• inches
TOD   (.0045 OD  .005) or .015 min.
• mm
TOD   (.0045 OD  .13) or .38 min.
• over 10.75 inches (273mm) to 12.0 inches (305mm)
inches TOD  .095
mm
TOD  2.41
• greater than 12.00 inches (305mm)—refer to mill
Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered:
• inches
TOD  1.5 (.0045 OD  .005) or .023 min.
• mm
TOD  1.5 (.0045 OD  .13) or .58 min.
• over 10.75 inches (273mm) and over
inches TOD  .113
mm
TOD  2.87
Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions)
OD to wall ratio over 10:1 or over 10.75 to 12.0 inch OD
(all OD to wall ratios). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10%
OD to wall ratio of 10:1 or less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.5%
Note: Minimum wall tolerance is .020 inch (.51mm).

OD - Outside Diameter
T - Tolerance
ID - Inside Diameter
W - Wall Thickness
1 Hot rolled and rough turned tubes can be purchased to outside diameter (OD) and wall
thickness (W) only.
Timken Company guaranteed tube sizes are calculated using Timken Company
tolerances.

84

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCE – continued
Standard Timken Company Tolerances
ROUGH TURNED, ROUND1
OD Tolerances
As turned or single thermal treatment:
• under 6.75 inches (171.5mm)
inches TOD  .005
mm
TOD  .13
• 6.75 inches (171.5mm) and over
inches TOD  .010
mm
TOD  .25
Straightened and/or tempered or stress relieved after
rough turning:
inches
mm

TOD  .010
TOD  .25

Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered:
• Under 6.75 inches (171.5mm)
Heat Treated Before Rough Turned
TOD  .010 inches (.25mm)
Heat Treated After Rough Turned
TOD  .015 inches (.38mm)
• 6.75 inches (171.5mm) and over
Heat Treated Before Rough Turned
TOD  .020 inches (.51mm)
Heat Treated After Rough Turned
TOD  .030 inches (.76mm)
Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions)
OD to wall ratio over 10:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.5%
OD to wall ratio of 10:1 or less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.0%
Note: Minimum wall tolerance is .020 inch (.51mm).

OD - Outside Diameter
T - Tolerance
ID - Inside Diameter
W - Wall Thickness
1 Hot rolled and rough turned tubes can be purchased to outside diameter (OD) and wall
thickness (W) only.
Timken Company guaranteed tube sizes are calculated using Timken Company
tolerances.

85

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCE – continued
Standard Timken Company Tolerances
COLD DRAWN, ROUND2
OD Tolerances
As drawn:
inches
TOD/ID   (.0023 OD  .003) or .004 min.
mm
TOD/ID   (.0023 OD  .08) or .10 min.
Drawn and annealed, normalized, tempered or
stress relieved:
inches
TOD/ID  1.8 (.0023 OD  .003) or .007 min.
mm
TOD/ID  1.8 (.0023 OD  .08) or .18 min.
Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered
(OD & wall or ID & wall dimensions only):
inches
TOD/ID  2.5 (.0023 OD  .003) or .010 min.
mm
TOD/ID  2.5 (.0023 OD  .08) or .25 min.
Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered
(OD & ID dimensions only):
inches
TOD/ID  3.75 (.0023 OD  .003) or .015 min.
mm
TOD/ID  3.75 (.0023 OD  .08) or .38 min.
Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions)
OD to wall ratio over 10:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.5%
OD to wall ratio 10:1 to 4:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6%
OD to wall ratio under 4:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.5%
Note: (1) Minimum wall tolerance is .012 inch (.30mm)
(2) When ID is under 1.000 inch (25.4mm), inquiry basis
(3) Walls 6% of OD and lighter, inquiry basis
(4) When OD & ID dimensions, use 7.5% wall
OD - Outside Diameter
T - Tolerance
ID - Inside Diameter
W - Wall Thickness
2 Tubes with a final OD/W ratio less than 4:1 or a nominal finish wall size greater than
1.250 inches (31.75mm) will have a hot rolled ID and will be produced to cold drawn OD
tolerances and hot rolled wall tolerances.
ASTM A-519 tolerances are acceptable except for cold finished sizes smaller than
2.500 inches (63.50mm) diameter, where Timken Company tolerances apply.

86

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCE – continued
Standard Timken Company Tolerances
ROTOROLLED®, ROUND
OD Tolerances
As Rotorolled®:
inches
TOD/ID   (.0024 OD  .0016) or .005 min. OD 
.010 min. ID
mm
TOD/ID   (.0024 OD  .041) or .13 min.
Rotorolled® and annealed, normalized, tempered or
stress relieved:
inches
TOD/ID   (.0024 OD  .007) or .010 min.
mm
TOD/ID   (.0024 OD  .18) or .25 min.
Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered
(OD & wall or ID & wall dimensions only):
inches
TOD/ID  2 (.0024 OD  .0016) or .010 min.
mm
TOD/ID  2 (.0024 OD  .041) or .25 min.
Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered
(OD & ID dimensions only):
inches
TOD/ID  3 (.0024 OD  .0016) or .015 min.
mm
TOD/ID  3 (.0024 OD  .041) or .38 min.
Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions)
All wall thicknesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5%
Note: Minimum wall tolerance is .012 inches (.30mm)

OD - Outside Diameter

T - Tolerance

ID - Inside Diameter

87

W - Wall Thickness

MECHANICAL TUBING TOLERANCES
Special Processed Tubing Tolerances
COLD DRAWN, SHAPED (Square, Rectangular or Oval)
OD Tolerances
As drawn or tempered:
inches
TOD/ID  .005 OD or .020 min.
mm
TOD  .005 OD or .51 min.
Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered:
inches
TOD/ID  .01 OD or .040 min.
mm
TOD/ID  .01 OD or 1.02 min.
Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions)
All wall thicknesses 10% at center of flats

COLD DRAWN, SHAPED3 (Dissimilar OD and ID Configuration)
OD Tolerances
As drawn or tempered:
inches
TOD/ID  .005 OD or .010 min.
mm
TOD/ID  .005 OD or .25 min.
Quenched and tempered, or normalized and tempered:
inches
TOD/ID  .01 OD or .020 min.
mm
TOD/ID  .01 OD or .51 min.
Wall Tolerances (All Thermal Conditions)
All wall thicknesses 10% at center of flats

OD - Outside Diameter
T - Tolerance
ID - Inside Diameter
W - Wall Thickness
3 When corner radii and twist are important, they must be reviewed by our mill before we
accept the order.

88

LENGTH TOLERANCES
All Conditions – Seamless Steel Tubing
Random Lengths
Tubing shipped on random-length orders has a length spread of 7
feet (2.1 meters) with a mean length 10 feet to 26 feet (3 to 8 meters)
unless otherwise specified.
Multiple Lengths
For tubing ordered in multiple lengths, it is standard practice for the
customer to make their own allowances for loss of steel due to cutting
operations. These allowances will vary from one customer to another
due to their cutting practices and the amount of facing required on the
ends of the part. Therefore, tubing is furnished to the multiple length
as specified by the individual customer.
In Inches

Specified Length
4 feet and under
4 feet and under
4 feet and under
Over 4 feet to 10 feet, incl.
Over 4 feet to 10 feet, incl.
Over 10 feet to 24 feet, incl.
Over 24 feet to 34 feet, incl.
Over 34 feet to 44 feet, incl.

Specified Size
Outside Diameter
Up to 2 inches incl.
Over 2 inches to
4 inches incl.
Over 4 inches
Up to 2 inches incl.
Over 2 inches
All
All
All

Permissible
Variations
Over

Under

1/16 inch
3/32 inch

0
0

1/8 inch
3/32 inch
1/8 inch
3/16 inch
5/16 inch
7/16 inch

0
0
0
0
0
0

In Meters

Specified Length
1 meter and under
1 meter and under
1 meter and under
Over 1 meter to 3 meters
Over 1 meter to 3 meters
Over 3 meters to 7 meters
Over 7 meters to 10 meters
Over 10 meters to 13 meters

Specified Size
Outside Diameter
Up to 50mm incl.
Over 50mm to
100mm incl.
Over 100mm
Up to 50mm incl.
Over 50mm
All
All
All

89

Permissible
Variations
Over

Under

1mm
2mm

0
0

3mm
2mm
3mm
5mm
8mm
11mm

0
0
0
0
0
0

STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCES
All Conditions – Seamless Steel Tubing
Straightness tolerances (T) should not exceed those shown in the
tables below. The tolerance (T) for any 3-foot (1 meter) length is
measured as shown in Figure 1. The total tolerance, the maximum
curvature in the total length, is measured as shown in Figure 2. The
table applies to lengths not exceeding 22 feet (6.7 meters).
The tolerances shown apply to conventional steel grades of as rolled,
annealed, and heat treated tubing up to 302 Brinell maximum or micro
alloy grades with a hardness of 229 Brinell or below. Heat treated
tubes with a Brinell hardness of 302 maximum up to 401 maximum
or micro alloy grades with a Brinell hardness exceeding 229 will have
tolerance (T) twice the values shown in the table. Tubes with lighter
walls, or with hardness exceeding 401 Brinell maximum, or weighing
greater than 140 pounds per foot, require agreement on tolerances at
time of order.

FIGURE 1
Measuring technique for straightness in any three feet

T max
Three foot (one meter) straight-edge

FIGURE 2
Measuring technique for overall straightness
L

T max
Surface plate

90

91

.060 inch

OD over 8 inches to 11 inches
inclusive. Wall thickness, over
4% of OD

.85mm

1.25mm

1.65mm

OD over 125mm to 200mm inclusive.
Wall thickness, over 4% of OD

OD over 200mm to 280mm inclusive.
Wall thickness, over 4% of OD

Specified Size

OD 125mm and smaller. Wall
thickness, over 3% of OD

Maximum
Curvature
in 1 meter

.045 inch

OD over 5 inches to 8 inches
inclusive. Wall thickness, over
4% of OD

In Meters

.030 inch

Maximum
Curvature
in any 3 feet

OD 5 inches and smaller. Wall
thickness, over 3% of OD

Specified Size

In Inches

Maximum Curvature
for Lengths
Under 1.5 meters
Ratio of .85mm
per meter
Ratio of 1.25mm
per meter
Ratio of 1.65mm
per meter

.55mm  length in meters
.85mm  length in meters
1.25 mm  length in meters

Ratio of 0.020 inch
per foot

Maximum Curvature
in Total Lengths of
1.5 meters or more

.045 inch  length in feet
3

Ratio of .010 inch
per foot

.020 inch  length in feet
3
.030 inch  length in feet
3

Ratio of 0.015 inch
per foot

Maximum Curvature
for Lengths
Under 5 feet

Maximum Curvature
in Total Lengths
of 5 feet or more

STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCES – continued
All Conditions—Seamless Steel Tubing

SEAMLESS STEEL TUBING SHAPES

W  10.68 (D  t) t
M  .02466 (D  t) t
A   (D  t) t

W  10.68 (D  et) et
M  .02466 (D  et) et
et  D  1.050 d
2
ed  1.050 d

W  11.27 (D  t) t
M  .02601 (D  t) t
eD  1.027 D
ed  1.027 d

W  10.68 (eD  et) et
M  .02466 (eD  et) et
et  1.050 D  d
2
eD  1.050 D

W  11.78 (D  t) t
M  .02719 (D  t) t
eD  1.050 D
ed  1.050 d

W  10.68 (D  et) et
M  .02466 (D  et) et
et  D  1.128 d
2
ed  1.128 d

W  13.60 (D  t) t
M  .03138 (D  t) t
eD  1.128 D
ed  1.128 d

W  10.68 (D  et) et
M  .02466 (D  et) et
et  D  1.027 d
2
ed  1.027 d

92

SEAMLESS STEEL TUBING SHAPES – continued

W  10.68 (eD  et) et
M  .02466 (eD  et) et
et  1.027 D  d
2
eD  1.027 D

W  13.60 (D  t) t
M  .03138 (D  t) t
eD  1.128 D
ed  1.128 d

W  10.68 (D  et) et
M  .02466 (D  et) et
et  D  .7425 d
2
ed  .7425 d

W  5.34 (D1  D2  2t) t
M  .01233 (D1  D2  2t) t
eD  D1  D2
2
ed  d1  d2
2

Legend
A  Tubing cross sectional area.
Round OD and ID.

ed  Equivalent round inside diameter in inches (or millimeters)

W  Weight in pounds per foot

et  Equivalent wall thickness in
inches (or millimeters)

M  Mass in kilograms per meter

D1  Major outside diameter of oval
tube in inches (or millimeters)

D  Outside diameter or distance
across flats in inches
(or millimeters)

d1  Major inside diameter of oval
tube in inches (or millimeters)

d  Inside diameter or distance
across flats in inches
(or millimeters)
t

D2  Minor outside diameter of oval
tube in inches (or millimeters)
d2  Minor inside diameter of oval
tube in inches (or millimeters)

Wall thickness in inches
(or millimeters)

eD  Equivalent round outside diameter in inches (or millimeters)

93

TUBE SIZE CALCULATIONS
How Mechanical Tube Sizes Are Calculated
The Timken Company has pioneered a method to determine the most
economical tube size, which insures that all part dimensions will clean
up during machining. This program has the capability to determine
what we call a “guaranteed” tube size for either full or bright metal
cleanup on the outer diameter and/or the inner diameter, based on the
condition of the tube.
The guaranteed tube size is based on the part’s critical finished dimensions and critical machining position. The required critical dimensions
are: 1) maximum finished OD, 2) minimum finished ID, and 3) maximum
finished part length. All applicable tolerances and surface finishes
(“machined” or “ground”) should be included. The critical machining
position is based on whether the tube is chucked on the tube OD or
the tube ID during the initial machining operation.
Critical finished part dimensions and machining position influence the
amount of cleanup, the size tolerances and the tube eccentricity variables. These variables are then factored into the tube size calculation.

Cleanup Allowance
“Cleanup allowance” must be added to the finished OD dimension
or subtracted from the finished ID dimension to provide for the
elimination of surface imperfections, decarburization and camber
(out-of-straightness). Other allowances specific to the application
may be needed. (See table, page 98.)

Examples of Tube Size Calculation
Finished Part Dimensions
4.995 inches .005 inch OD  4.005
inches .005 inch ID  7 inches. Part is
cut to length and held on one end. Allowance for camber is made for parts over
3 inches, measured from the end of the
part to the face of the chuck. Examples
on page 96 are for a hot rolled tube using
Timken Company cleanup allowances.

94

7 inches

TUBE SIZE CALCULATIONS – continued

Figure 1
Cross section of finished part
requiring full cleanup of OD
and ID surfaces.

Figure 2
Finished part with addition of
cleanup stock to OD. (Refer to
Example 1, Operation 1, page 96.)

Figure 3
Finished part showing cleanup
stock added to ID. (Refer to
Example 1, Operaton 2.)

Figure 4
Finished part with cleanup
allowance added to OD and ID
determines minimum wall required
for part to clean up. (Refer to
Example 1, Operation 3.) Were it
not for eccentricity, this would be
the recommended tube size.

Figure 5
Same tube size machined true
to OD showing effect of tube
eccentricity. Tube ID is
eccentric in relation to tube
OD. Note that cleanup stock
(dashed line) has been
eliminated at A due to tube
eccentricity. Part would not
clean up at this point.

Figure 6
Here enough stock has been
added to ID to protect cleanup
stock required at minimum wall
point A. (Refer to Example 1,
Operations 4 and 5.)

When machining true to the ID, similar considerations apply except
that stock to compensate for eccentricity is added to the tube OD.
(See Example 2, page 97.)

95

96

Tube OD (Operation 1)
Minus tube ID (Operation 2)

3. Determine minimum wall required
(see Figure 4)         

5.109 in
1.274 in
3.835 in

.589 in
.925
.637 in

5.109 in
3.931 in
1.178 in
2
.589 in

4.000 in
.042 in
.027 in
3.931 in

5.000 in
.054 in
.027 in
.028 in
5.109 in

Theoretical Foot Weight: 30.42 lbs.

Tube OD (Operation 1)
Minus average wall doubled
Required tube ID

5. Determine nominal tube ID
(see Figure 6)

Guaranteed Tube Size: 5.109 inches OD .028 inches  .637 inches 7.5%

Minimum tube wall
Divide by the complement of minus tolerance
Average tube wall

4. Determine average wall required
(see Figure 6)

Divide by 2
Minimum tube wall

Minimum machined ID
Minus cleanup stock
Minus camber allowance
Maximum tube ID

2. Determine maximum tube ID
(see Figure 3)

Formula

Maximum machined OD
Plus cleanup stock
Plus camber allowance
Plus OD negative tolerance
Nominal tube OD

1. Determine nominal tube OD
(see Figure 2, page 95)

Operation

Example 1 – Machined True to OD

TUBE SIZE CALCULATIONS – continued

Example         

129.77mm
32.34mm
97.43mm

14.95mm
.925
16.17mm

129.77mm
99.84mm
29.93mm
2
14.96mm

101.60mm
1.07mm
.69mm
99.84mm

127.00mm
1.37mm
.69mm
.71mm
129.77mm

97

Minimum tube OD (Operation 1)
Minus nominal tube ID (Operation 2)

3. Determine minimum wall required          

3.861 in
1.306 in
5.167 in

.604 in
.925
.653 in

5.069 in
3.861 in
1.208 in
2
.604 in

4.000 in
.054 in
.027 in
.028 in
.030 in
3.861 in

5.000 in
.042 in
.027 in
5.069 in

Theoretical Foot Weight: 31.48 lbs.

Nominal tube ID (Operation 2)
Plus average wall doubled
Nominal tube OD

5. Determine nominal tube OD

Guaranteed Tube Size: 5.167 inches OD .028 inches  .653 inches 7.5%

Minimum tube wall (Operation 3)
Divide by the complement of minus tolerance
Average tube wall

4. Determine average wall required

Divide by 2
Minimum tube wall

Minimum machined ID
Minus minimum OD cleanup
Minus camber allowance
Minus OD tolerance
Minus (if hot rolled)
Nominal tube ID

2. Determine nominal tube ID

Formula

Maximum machined OD
Plus ID cleanup stock
Plus camber allowance
Minimum tube OD

1. Determine minimum tube OD

Operation

to the tube OD. This will result in a larger recommended tube size.
Example          

98.07mm
33.19mm
131.26mm

15.35mm
.925
16.59mm

128.76mm
98.07mm
30.69mm
2
15.35mm

101.60mm
1.37mm
.69mm
.71mm
.76mm
98.07mm

127.00mm
1.07mm
.69mm
128.76mm

When machining true to the ID, similar considerations apply, except that stock to compensate for tube eccentricity is added

Example 2 – Machined True to ID

TUBE SIZE CALCULATIONS – continued

98

Cleanup (inches)

228.00

254.00

279.40

304.80

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0
6.0

7.0

8.0

12.0

0.762
0.508
0.254

0.03

0.02

0.01

Note: Total stock removal is calculated for the tube diameter

Outside Diameter (inches)

1.016

0.04

11.0

1.270

0.05

10.0

1.524

0.06

9.0

1.778

0.07

2.032

2.286

HR-CD-ID Cleanup

2.540

0.09

0.08

2.794

3.048

3.302

3.556

0.10

CD-OD
Cleanup

3.810

0.11

0.12

0.13

0.14

0.15

HR-OD
Clean-up

4.064

152.40 177.80 203.20
4.318

127.00

Outside Diameter (mm)

0.16

101.60
4.572

76.20

0.17

50.80

0.18

25.40

HOT ROLLED AND COLD DRAWN MECHANICAL TUBING CLEANUPS
FOR FULL SURFACE INTEGRITY AND BASE METAL

Cleanup (mm)

FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING
SURFACE CLEANUP
Hot Rolled OD Cleanup  [.022e.18 OD]
Cold Drawn OD Cleanup  .86[.022e.18 OD]
Hot Rolled and Cold Drawn ID Cleanup  .78[.022e.18 OD]

FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING
CAMBER (STRAIGHTNESS) CLEANUP
Chucked on one end:
• Part length 3 inches or less—no camber added
• Part length over 3 inches—double the part length to calculate camber.
Chucked on both ends:
• Length 6 inches or less—no camber added
• Length over 6 inches—use formulas below (do not double part length).
Formulas (Calculate all length dimensions in inches):
A) OD 5.000 inches  (171  length)  444  (1.03  length squared)
100,000
B) OD
5.000 inches  (222  length)  222  (1.13  length squared)
100,000
C) OD 5.000 inches and Part Length 60 inches  450  (25  length)
30,000
D) OD 5.000 inches and Part Length 60 inches:
Use formula C  .030 inches

99

BAR CROSS SECTIONAL TOLERANCES
FOR HOT ROLLED STEEL BARS
Specified Size of
Rounds or Squares
(inches)
To 5/16 incl.
Over 5/16 to 7/16 incl.
Over 7/16 to 5/8 incl.
Over 5/8 to 7/8 incl.
Over 7/8 to 1 incl.
Over 1 to 1-1/8 incl.
Over 1-1/8 to 1-1/4 incl.
Over 1-1/4 to 1-3/8 incl.
Over 1-3/8 to 1-1/2 incl.
Over 1-1/2 to 2 incl.
Over 2 to 2-1/2 incl.
Over 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 incl.
Over 3-1/2 to 4-1/2 incl.
Over 4-1/2 to 5-1/2 incl.
Over 5-1/2 to 6-1/2 incl.
Over 6-1/2 to 8-1/4 incl.
Over 8-1/4 to 9-1/2 incl.
Over 9-1/2 to 10 incl.

Variation from Size
Over
(inches)

Under
(inches)

Out-of-Round
or Square
(inches)

.005
.006
.007
.008
.009
.010
.011
.012
.014
1/64
1/32
3/64
1/16
5/64
1/8
5/32
3/16
1/4

.005
.006
.007
.008
.009
.010
.011
.012
.014
1/64
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

.008
.009
.010
.012
.013
.015
.016
.018
.021
.023
.023
.035
.046
.058
.070
.085
.100
.120

BAR LENGTH TOLERANCES FOR
HOT ROLLED STEEL BARS
Specified Sizes of
Rounds, Squares,
Hexagons, Octagons
(inches)
Up to 3-1/2, incl.
Over 3-1/2 to 5, incl.
Over 5 to 12 incl.

10' to
20'
Excl.

20' to
30'
Excl.

30' to
40'
Excl.

40' to
60'
Excl.

1-1/2
2
2-1/2

1-3/4
2-1/4
2-3/4

2-1/4
2-5/8
3

2-3/4
3
3-1/4

No Tolerance Under

100

STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCE
HOT ROLLED STEEL BARS
Rounds, Squares, Hexagons, Octagons,
Flats, and SpringFlats
Measurement is taken on the concave side of the bar
with a straight edge.
Normal Straightness
1⁄4"

Special Straightness
1⁄8"

in any 5 ft.
and

⁄"

14

in any 5 ft.
and

length in ft.
5

⁄"

18

length in ft.
5

Note: Because of warpage, straightness tolerances do not apply to bars if any
subsequent heating operation or controlled cooling has been performed.
Note: Tolerances shown are based upon ASTM A29

MACHINING ALLOWANCE
FOR HOT ROLLED BARS
Minimum Stock Removal (diameter)
Standard Grades
Resulfursized Grades

2% per side
3% per side

Note: Based on bars within special straightness tolerance. Since straightness is a
function of length, additional machining allowance may be required for turning
on centers.

101

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR
ROUNDS AND SQUARES
Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs.

Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs.

Size

Sq. Cor.
Squares

Rounds

Size

Sq. Cor.
Squares

Rounds

1/8"
9/64"
5/32"
11/64"

.0531
.0672
.0830
.1004

.0417
.0528
.0652
.0789

3/4"
49/64"
25/32"
51/64"

1.9125
1.9930
2.0752
2.1590

1.5021
1.5653
1.6299
1.6957

3/16"
13/64"
7/32"
15/64"

.1195
.1403
.1627
.1868

.0939
.1102
.1278
.1467

13/16"
53/64"
27/32"
55/64"

2.2445
2.3317
2.4205
2.5110

1.7629
1.8313
1.9011
1.9721

1/4"
17/64"
9/32"
19/64"

.2125
.2399
.2689
.2997

.1669
.1884
.2112
.2354

7/8"
57/64"
29/32"
59/64"

2.6031
2.6969
2.7924
2.8895

2.0445
2.1182
2.1931
2.2694

5/16"
21/64"
11/32"
23/64"

.3320
.3661
.4018
.4391

.2608
.2875
.3155
.3449

15/16"
61/64"
31/32"
63/64"

2.9883
3.0887
3.1908
3.2946

2.3470
2.4259
2.5061
2.5876

3/8"
25/64"
13/32"
27/64"

.4781
.5188
.5611
.6051

.3755
.4075
.4407
.4753

1"
1-1/32"
1-1/16"
1-3/32"

3.400
3.616
3.838
4.067

2.6704
2.8399
3.0146
3.1945

7/16"
29/64"
15/32"
31/64"

.6508
.6981
.7471
.7977

.5111
.5483
.5867
.6265

1-1/8"
1-5/32"
1-3/16"
1-7/32"

4.303
4.546
4.795
5.050

3.3797
3.5700
3.7656
3.9664

1/2"
33/64"
17/32"
35/64"

.8500
.9040
.9596
1.0168

.6676
.7100
.7536
.7986

1-1/4"
1-9/32"
1-5/16"
1-11/32"

5.313
5.581
5.587
6.139

4.1724
4.3836
4.6001
4.8218

9/16"
37/64"
19/32"
39/64"

1.0758
1.1364
1.1986
1.2625

.8449
.8925
.9414
.9916

1-3/8"
1-13/32"
1-7/16"
1-15/32"

6.428
6.724
7.026
7.335

5.0486
5.2807
5.5180
5.7606

5/8"
41/64"
21/32"
43/64"

1.3281
1.3954
1.4643
1.5348

1.0431
1.0959
1.1500
1.2054

1-1/2"
1-17/32"
1-9/16"
1-19/32"

7.650
7.972
8.301
8.636

6.0083
6.2612
6.5194
6.7838

11/16"
45/64"
23/32"
47/64"

1.6070
1.6809
1.7564
1.8336

1.2622
1.3202
1.3795
1.4401

1-5/8"
1-21/32"
1-11/16"
1-23/32"

8.978
9.327
9.682
10.044

7.0514
7.3252
7.6043
7.8885

“Round Cornered” squares differ in weight from above schedule.

102

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR
ROUNDS AND SQUARES – continued
Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs.
Size

Sq. Cor.
Squares

Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs.

Rounds

Size

Sq. Cor.
Squares

Rounds

1-3/4"
1-25/32"
1-13/16"
1-27/32"

10.413
10.788
11.170
11.558

8.1780
8.4726
8.7725
9.0776

3"
3-1/32"
3-1/16"
3-3/32"

30.600
31.241
31.888
32.542

24.033
24.537
25.045
25.559

1-7/8"
1-29/32"
1-15/16"
1-31/32"

11.953
12.355
12.763
13.178

9.3880
9.7035
10.0243
10.3502

3-1/8"
3-5/32"
3-3/16"
3-7/32"

33.203
33.871
34.545
35.225

26.078
26.602
27.131
27.666

2"
2-1/32"
2-1/16"
2-3/32"

13.600
14.028
14.463
14.905

10.6814
11.0178
11.3595
11.7063

3-1/4"
3-9/32"
3-5/16"
3-11/32"

35.913
36.606
37.307
38.014

28.206
28.751
29.301
29.856

2-1/8"
2-5/32"
2-3/16"
2-7/32"

15.353
15.808
16.270
16.738

12.0583
12.4156
12.7781
13.1458

3-3/8"
3-13/32"
3-7/16"
3-15/32"

38.728
39.449
40.176
40.910

30.417
30.983
31.554
32.130

2-1/4"
2-9/32"
2-5/16"
2-11/32"

17.213
17.694
18.182
18.677

13.5187
13.8968
14.2802
14.6687

3-1/2"
3-9/16"
3-5/8"
3-11/16"

41.650
43.151
44.678
46.232

32.712
33.891
35.090
36.311

2-3/8"
2-13/32"
2-7/16"
2-15/32"

19.178
19.686
20.201
20.722

15.0625
15.4615
15.8657
16.2751

3-3/4"
3-13/16"
3-7/8"
3-15/16"

47.813
49.420
51.053
52.713

37.552
38.814
40.097
41.401

2-1/2"
2-17/32"
2-9/16"
2-19/32"

21.250
21.785
22.326
22.874

16.6898
17.1096
17.5346
17.9650

4"
4-1/16"
4-1/8"
4-3/16"

54.400
56.113
57.853
59.620

42.726
44.071
45.438
46.825

2-5/8"
2-21/32"
2-11/16"
2-23/32"

23.428
23.989
24.557
25.131

18.4004
18.8410
19.2870
19.7382

4-1/4"
4-5/16"
4-3/8"
4-7/16"

61.413
63.232
65.078
66.951

48.233
49.662
51.112
52.583

2-3/4"
2-25/32"
2-13/16"
2-27/32"

25.713
26.300
26.895
27.496

20.1946
20.656
21.123
21.595

4-1/2"
4-9/16"
4-5/8"
4-11/16"

68.850
70.776
72.728
74.707

54.075
55.587
57.121
58.675

2-7/8"
2-29/32"
2-15/16"
2-31/32"

28.103
28.717
29.338
29.996

22.072
22.555
23.042
23.535

4-3/4"
4-13/16"
4-7/8"
4-15/16"

76.713
78.745
80.803
82.888

60.250
61.846
63.463
65.100

“Round Cornered” squares differ in weight from above schedule.

103

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR
ROUNDS AND SQUARES – continued
Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs.
Size

Sq. Cor.
Squares

Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs.

Rounds

Size

Sq. Cor.
Squares

Rounds

5"
5-1/16"
5-1/8"
5-3/16"

85.000
87.138
89.303
91.495

66.759
68.438
70.139
71.860

7-1/2"
7-9/16"
7-5/8"
7-11/16"

191.25
194.45
197.68
200.93

150.21
152.72
155.26
157.81

5-1/4"
5-5/16"
5-3/8"
5-7/16"

93.713
95.957
98.228
100.526

73.602
75.364
77.148
78.953

7-3/4"
7-13/16"
7-7/8"
7-15/16"

204.21
207.52
210.85
214.21

160.39
162.99
165.60
168.24

5-1/2"
5-9/16"
5-5/8"
5-11/16"

102.850
105.20
107.58
109.98

80.778
82.62
84.49
86.38

8"
8-1/16"
8-1/8"
8-3/16"

217.60
221.01
224.45
227.92

170.90
173.58
176.29
179.01

5-3/4"
5-13/16"
5-7/8"
5-15/16"

112.41
114.87
117.35
119.86

88.29
90.22
92.17
94.14

8-1/4"
8-5/16"
8-3/8"
8-7/16"

231.41
234.93
238.48
242.05

181.75
184.52
187.30
190.11

6"
6-1/16"
6-1/8"
6-3/16"

122.40
124.96
127.55
130.17

96.13
98.15
100.18
102.24

8-1/2"
8-9/16"
8-5/8"
8-11/16"

245.65
249.28
252.93
256.61

192.93
195.78
198.65
201.54

6-1/4"
6-5/16"
6-3/8"
6-7/16"

132.81
135.48
138.18
140.90

104.31
106.41
108.53
110.66

8-3/4"
8-13/16"
8-7/8"
8-15/16"

260.31
264.04
267.80
271.59

204.45
207.38
210.33
213.31

6-1/2"
6-9/16"
6-5/8"
6-11/16"

143.65
146.43
149.23
152.06

112.82
115.00
117.20
119.43

9"
9-1/16"
9-1/8"
9-3/16"

275.40
279.2
283.1
287.0

216.30
219.3
222.4
225.4

6-3/4"
6-13/16"
6-7/8"
6-15/16"

154.91
157.79
160.70
163.64

121.67
123.93
126.22
128.52

9-1/4"
9-5/16"
9-3/8"
9-7/16"

290.9
294.9
298.8
302.8

228.5
231.6
234.7
237.8

7"
7-1/16"
7-1/8"
7-3/16"

166.60
169.59
172.60
175.64

130.85
133.19
135.56
137.95

9-1/2"
9-9/16"
9-5/8"
9-11/16"

306.8
310.9
315.0
319.1

241.0
244.2
247.4
250.6

7-1/4"
7-5/16"
7-3/8"
7-7/16"

178.71
181.81
184.93
188.08

140.36
142.79
145.24
147.71

9-3/4"
9-13/16"
9-7/8"
9-15/32"

323.2
327.4
331.6
335.8

253.9
257.1
260.4
263.7

“Round Cornered” squares differ in weight from above schedule.

104

MASTER WEIGHT TABLES FOR
ROUNDS AND SQUARES – continued
Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs.

Weight Per Ft. - in Lbs.

Sq. Cor.
Squares

Rounds

Size

Sq. Cor.
Squares

Rounds

10"
10-1/16"
10-1/8"
10-3/16"

340.0
344.3
348.5
352.9

267.0
270.4
273.8
277.1

11-3/4"
11-13/16"
11-7/8"
11-15/16"

469.4
474.4
479.5
484.5

368.7
372.6
376.6
380.5

10-1/4"
10-5/16"
10-3/8"
10-7/16"

357.2
361.6
366.0
370.4

280.6
284.0
287.4
290.9

12"
12-1/16"
12-1/8"
12-3/16"

489.6
494.6
499.8
505.0

384.5
388.5
392.5
396.6

10-1/2"
10-9/16"
10-5/8"
10-11/16"

374.9
379.3
383.8
388.4

294.4
297.9
301.5
305.0

12-1/4"
12-5/16"
12-3/8"
12-7/16"

510.2
515.4
520.6
525.9

400.7
404.8
408.9
413.0

10-3/4"
10-13/16"
10-7/8"
10-15/16"

392.9
397.5
402.1
406.7

308.6
312.2
315.8
319.5

12-1/2"
13"
13-1/2"
14"

531.2
575
620
666

417.2
451
487
523

11"
11-1/16"
11-1/8"
11-3/16"

411.4
416.1
420.8
425.5

323.1
326.8
330.5
334.2

14-1/2"
15"
15-1/2"
16"

715
765
817
871

561
601
642
684

11-1/4"
11-5/16"
11-3/8"
11-7/16"

430.3
435.1
439.9
448.8

337.9
341.7
345.5
349.3

16-1/2"
17"
17-1/2"
18"

926
982
1040
1102

727
772
818
865

11-1/2"
11-9/16"
11-5/8"
11-11/16"

449.6
454.6
459.5
464.4

353.1
357.0
360.9
364.8

18-1/2"
19"
19-1/2"
20"

1164
1227
1293
1360

914
964
1015
1068

Size

“Round Cornered” squares differ in weight from above schedule.

105

REDUCTION RATIOS
FOR ROUND BARS
As Cast Size

As Cast Size

14" x 11.75"

Product
Diameter
(inches)

28"
Square

5.1
5.5
5.9



6.500
6.000
5.500

23.6
27.7
33.0

5.0
5.8
6.9

12.500
12.000
11.500

6.4
6.9
7.5



1.6

5.000
4.500
4.000

39.9
49.3
62.4

8.4
10.3
13.1

11.000
10.500
10.000

8.2
9.1
10.0

1.7
1.9
2.1

3.500
3.000
2.500

81.5
110.9
159.7

17.1
23.3
33.5

9.500
9.000
8.500

11.1
12.3
13.8

2.3
2.6
2.9

2.000
1.500
1.000

249.6
443.7
998.2

52.4
93.1
209.4

8.000
7.500
7.000

15.6
17.7
20.4

3.3
3.7
4.3

Product
Diameter
(inches)

28"
Square

14.000
13.500
13.000

14" x 11.75"

REDUCTION RATIOS
FOR SQUARE BARS
As Cast Size

As Cast Size

14" x 11.75"

Product
Diameter
(inches)

28"
Square

4.0
4.3
4.6



6.500
6.000
5.500

18.6
21.8
25.9

3.9
4.6
5.4

12.500
12.000
11.500

5.0
5.4
5.9



1.2

5.000
4.500
4.000

31.4
38.7
49.0

6.6
8.1
10.3

11.000
10.500
10.000

6.5
7.1
7.8

1.4
1.5
1.6

3.500
3.000
2.500

64.0
87.1
125.4

13.4
18.3
26.3

9.500
9.000
8.500

8.7
9.7
10.9

1.8
2.0
2.3

2.000
1.500
1.000

196.0
348.4
784.0

41.1
73.1
164.5

8.000
7.500
7.000

12.3
13.9
16.0

2.6
2.9
3.4

Product
Diameter
(inches)

28"
Square

14.000
13.500
13.000

106

14" x 11.75"

IRON CARBON PHASE DIAGRAM
Temperature
°F 

CM

3000
2802
2800
2720 

+L

Temperature
°C

= Austenite
= Ferrite
= Delta iron
= Cementite

1539
1492 

L 

+

2600
2552

+L

1400

2400

2200

L + Fe3C
2066° F

2066
2000

1130

Fe3C

1800
1670
1600
1400
1333
1200
1000
410

910

+ Fe3C
+

0.025

A1,2,3

1333° F

Pearlite
and
Ferrite

Austenite
to Pearlite

760
723

Pearlite and Cementite
+ Fe3C
Magnetic change of Fe3C

0.008%
0.50%

6.67
0.83% 1%

Hypo-eutectoid

2%

3%

4%

Hyper-eutectoid
Steel

Cast Iron

107

5%

210

6% 65%


CALCULATIONS FOR X AND R CHARTS
AND CAPABILITY
CONTROL CHARTS FOR
VARIABLES

PROCESS CAPABILITY


Calculate the Average (X) and
Range (R) of each subgroup

Estimated σ
ˆ
– (σ)
σˆ  R/d2

X1  X2  . . . . . Xn

X
n

Estimated Process Capability (Cp)

R  Xmax  Xmin

Cp 


Calculate the Average Range (R)

and the process Average (X)

=

X

USL  LSL
6σˆ

Estimated Capability Ratio (Cr)

X1  X2  . . . . . Xk
k

Cr  1/Cp  100 (%)

R1  R2  . . . . . Rk

R
k

Estimated Process Capability (Cpk)

=

=

CPU 

USL  X
3σˆ

CPL 

X  LSL
3σˆ

Calculate the Control Limits

=

_
UCL X  X  A2R
=
_

LCL X  X  A2R


UCLR  D4R

LCLR  D3R

CPK  Minimum of CPU or CPL

Note:A2, D3, D4, d2 factors are dependent on subgroup size (n). See factor values table.
Note:Calculations of Process capability (Cp, Cpk, Cr) are only valid for stable processes.

FACTOR VALUES
N
D4

=

2

3

4

3.27

2.57

2.28

5

6

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
12

2.11 2.00 1.72

D3

*

*

*

A2

1.86

1.02

0.73

0.58 0.48 0.27

*

*

0.26

d2

1.13

1.69

2.06

2.33 2.53 3.26

-3s

* No constant for subgroup sizes below 7.

108

-2s

-1s

X
+1s
68.3%
95.4%
99.7%

+2s +3s

CONTROL CHARTS FOR ATTRIBUTES
The p Chart

The u Chart


number of rejects in subgroup
p
number inspected in subgroups


total nonconformities
u
total units inspected

_

_

_

3√u

UCLu  u 

– 3√p ( 1 p )
UCLP  P 

√n

√n

_

_

_

3√ p ( 1 p )

LCLP  P 

3√u

LCLu  u 

The np Chart

The c Chart

np  Number of non-conforming
units within a sample

c  The count (number) of
nonconformities within a
sample

√n

√n

–  Average number of
np
nonconforming units per
sample


c  Average number of nonconfomities per sample

–  3 √ np
–(1p
–)
UCLnp  np

UCLc  c  3 √ c

–  3 √ np
–(1p
–)
LCL np  np

LCL c  c  3 √ c

IDENTIFICATION OF OUT-OF CONTROL CONDITIONS
(Each point is a subgroup)

One or
More Points
Outside
Control
Limits.

A Run Of
7 Or More
Points
Increasing.

A Run Of
7 Or More
Points
Decreasing.

A Run Of
7 Or More
Points On
Either Side
Of Aim Size.

109

HANDY PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
Acceleration of gravity, g
Density of water

32.17 ft/s2  9.807 m/s2
62.4 lbm/ft3  1 g/cm3
1 gal H2O  8.345 lbm

Gas Constant, R
Gas volume (STP: 68°F, 1 atm)
Joule’s Constant, J
Poisson’s ratio, µ

1545 ft-lbf/pmole-R  8.314 J/gmole-K
359 ft3/pmole  .02241 m3/gmole
778 ft-lbf/BTU
.3 (for steel)

STEEL CONSTANTS
Fe-Fe3C eutectoid composition
Fe-Fe3C eutectoid temperature

0.77 w/o carbon
1340°F (727°C)

Modulus of Elasticity (steel)

30  106 psi

Densities:
Carbon & Low-Alloy Steels
304 SS
Tool Steels
Moly High Speed
Multiphase Alloys

0.283 lbm/in3  7.84 g/cm3
0.29 lbm/in3  7.88 g/cm3
Carbon Steels  1.000
Carbon Steels  1.035
Carbon Steels  1.074

Steel Tensile Strength (psi)

~ 500  Brinell Number

COMPARISON MATERIALS
Material

Density
(g/cm3)

Modulus of
Elasticity (psi)

Poisson’s
Ratio

Aluminum Alloys
Nickel-base Superalloys
Titanium Alloys

2.6-2.9
8.0-8.9
4.4-5.0

10.0  106
28.5  31.0  106
15.0  16.8  106

0.33
0.31
0.34

SI PREFIXES
giga
mega
kilo
hecto
deka
deci
centi
milli
micro
nano

G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m
µ
n

110

109
106
103
102
101
101
102
103
106
109

ENGINEERING CONVERSION FACTORS
Explanation of Dimensional Units
All table entries are categorized according to their specific combination
of basic dimensions of Length [L], Mass [M] and Time [t]. For example,
all units of force have the dimensions [M][L][t]2. The following better
illustrates this convention:
Force  [M][L][t]2 
(Mass)  (Acceleration)
1 kgf  (1 kg)  (9.80665 m/s2)

Example Conversion
Meters to Yards
(50 m)  (3.28084 ft/m)  (1/3 yd/ft)  54.68066 yd

Significant Digits
The convention is to retain the number of digits which correctly infers
the known accuracy of the numbers involved. Normally, this means
using the same number of significant digits as occur in the original
number. For the above example, the answer would therefore be
rounded to 55 yards.
When the accuracy of the measurement is known, additional digits
may become significant. For example, if the measurement of 50
meters is known to be accurate to .01 meters (.0109 yards), then the
conversion result may be rounded to 54.68 yards.

111

CONVERSION FACTORS
EQUATION: A ⴛ B ⴝ C
A
Area [L]2
ft2
in2
in2

B
0.092903
645.16
6.45160

C
m2
mm2
cm2

Energy, Work or Heat [M] [L]2 [t]ⴚ2
Btu
1.05435
Btu
0.251996
Calories (cal)
4.184*
ft-lbf
1.355818
ft-lbf
0.138255
hp-hr
2.6845
KWH
3.600
m-kgf
9.80665*
N-m
1.

kJ
kcal
Joules (J)
J
kgf-m
MJ
MJ
J
J

Flow Rate [L]3 [t]ⴚ1
ft3/min
ft3/min
gal/min

gal/min
l/s
l/s

7.4805
0.471934
0.063090

Force or Weight [M] [L] [t]ⴚ2
kgf
9.80665*
lbf
4.44822
lbf
0.453592

Newton (N)
N
Kgf

Fracture Toughness
ksi√in

1.098800

MPa√m

Heat Content
Btu/lbm
Btu/lbm
Btu/ft3

0.555556
2.324444
0.037234

cal/g
J/g
MJ/m3

Heat Flux
Btu/hr-ft2
Btu/hr-ft2
cal/s-cm2

7.5346 E-5
3.1525
4.184*

cal/s-cm2
W/m2
W/cm2

Length [L]
Foot (ft)
Inch (in)
Mile (mi)

0.304800
25.4000
1.609344

Meter (m)
Millimeter (mm)
Kilometer (km)

* Indicates exact conversion(s)

112

CONVERSION FACTORS – continued
EQUATION: A ⴛ B ⴝ C
A

B

C

Mass Density [M] [L]ⴚ3
lbm/in3
lbm/ft3

27.68
16.0184

g/cm3
kg/m3

Power [M] [L]2 [t]ⴚ3
Btu/hr
ft-lbf/s
Horsepower (hp)
Horsepower

0.292875
1.355818
745.6999
550.*

Watt (W)
W
W
ft-lbf/s

Pressure (fluid) [M] [L]ⴚ1 [t]ⴚ2
Atmosphere (atm)
14.696
atm
1.01325 E5*
lbf/ft2
47.88026
lbf/in2
27.6807

lbf/in2
Pascal (Pa)
Pa
in. H2O at 39.2°F

Stress [M] [L]ⴚ1 [t]ⴚ2
kgf/cm2
ksi
N/mm2
kgf/mm2

9.80665 E-2*
6.89476
1.
1.42231

MPa
MPa
MPa
ksi

Volume [L]3 & Capacity
in3
ft3
ft3
ft3
Gallon

16.3871
0.028317
7.4805
28.3168
3.785412

cm3
m3
Gallon
Liter (l)
Liter

Specific Heat
Btu/lbm-°F

1.

cal/g-°C

Temperature*
Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit
Celsius
Rankine

(°F32)/1.8
°F459.67
°C273.16
R/1.8

Celsius
Rankine
Kelvin
Kelvin

Thermal Conductivity
Btu-ft/hr-ft2-°F

14.8816

cal-cm/hr-cm2-°C

* Indicates exact conversion(s)

113

METRIC-ENGLISH STRESS
CONVERSION TABLE
Kg Per Sq Mm to Psi to M Pa
M Pa

Kg
per
sq
mm

Psi

M Pa

Kg
per
sq
mm

Psi

14,223
15,646
17,068
18,490
19,913

98.1
107.9
117.7
127.5
137.3

50
51
52
53
54

71,117
72,539
73,962
75,384
76,806

490.3
500.1
510.0
519.8
529.6

90
91
92
93
94

128,011
129,433
130,855
132,278
133,700

15
16
17
18
19

21,335
22,757
24,180
25,602
27,024

147.1
156.9
166.7
176.5
186.3

55
56
57
58
59

78,229
79,651
81,073
82,496
83,918

539.4
549.2
559.0
568.8
578.6

95
96
97
98
99

135,122
136,545
137,967
139,389
140,812

20
21
22
23
24

28,447
29,869
31,291
32,714
34,136

196.1
205.9
215.7
225.6
235.4

60
61
62
63
64

85,340
86,763
88,185
89,607
91,030

588.4
598.2
608.0
617.8
622.6

25
26
27
28
29

35,558
36,981
38,403
39,826
41,248

245.2
255.0
264.8
274.6
284.4

65
66
67
68
69

92,452
93,874
95,297
96,719
98,141

30
31
32
33
34

42,670
44,093
45,515
46,937
48,360

294.2
304.0
313.8
323.6
333.4

70
71
72
73
74

35
36
37
38
39

49,782
51,204
52,627
54,049
55,471

343.2
353.0
362.8
372.7
382.5

40
41
42
43
44

56,894
58,316
59,738
61,161
62,583

45
46
47
48
49

64,005
65,428
66,850
68,272
69,695

Kg
per
sq
mm

Psi

10
11
12
13
14

Kg
per
sq
mm

Psi

M Pa

882.6
892.4
902.2
912.0
921.8

130
131
132
133
134

184,904
186,327
187,749
189,171
190,594

1274.9
1284.7
1294.5
1304.3
1314.1

931.6
941.4
951.2
961.0
970.9

135
136
137
138
139

192,016
193,438
194,861
196,283
197,705

1323.9
1333.7
1343.5
1353.3
1363.1

100
101
102
103
104

142,234 980.7 140 199,128
143,656 990.5 141 200,550
145,079 1000.3 142 201,972
146,501 1010.1 143 203,395
147,923 1020.0 144 204,817

1372.9
1382.7
1392.5
1402.4
1412.2

637.4
647.2
657.0
666.9
676.7

105
106
107
108
109

149,346
150,768
152,190
153,613
155,035

1029.7
1039.5
1049.3
1059.1
1068.9

145
146
147
148
149

206,239
207,662
209,084
210,506
211,929

1422.0
1431.8
1441.6
1451.4
1461.2

99,564
100,986
102,408
103,831
105,253

686.5
696.3
706.1
715.9
725.7

110
111
112
113
114

156,457
157,880
159,302
160,724
162,147

1078.7
1088.5
1098.3
1108.2
1118.0

150
151
152
153
154

213,351
214,773
216,196
217,618
219,040

1471.0
1480.8
1490.6
1500.4
1510.2

75
76
77
78
79

106,675
108,098
109,520
110,943
112,365

735.5
745.3
755.1
764.9
774.7

115
116
117
118
119

163,569
164,991
166,414
167,836
169,258

1127.8
1137.6
1147.4
1157.2
1167.0

155
156
157
158
159

220,463
221,885
223,307
224,730
226,152

1520.0
1529.8
1539.6
1549.5
1559.3

393.3
402.1
411.9
421.7
431.5

80
81
82
83
84

113,787
115,210
116,632
118,054
119,477

784.5
794.3
804.1
814.0
823.8

120
121
122
123
124

170,681
172,103
173,525
174,948
176,370

1176.8
1186.6
1196.4
1206.2
1216.0

441.3
451.1
460.9
470.7
480.5

85
86
87
88
89

120,899
122,321
123,744
125,166
126,588

833.6
843.4
853.2
863.0
872.8

125
126
127
128
129

177,792
179,215
180,637
182,059
183,482

1225.8
1235.6
1245.4
1255.3
1265.1

114

M Pa

WORK-ENERGY CONVERSION TABLE
ft.-lbf

0.7376
1.4751
2.2127
2.9502
3.6878
4.4254
5.1629
5.9005
6.6381
7.3756
8.1132
8.8507
9.5883
10.3259
11.0634
11.8010
12.5386
13.2761
14.0137
14.7512
15.4888
16.2264
16.9639
17.7015
18.4391
19.1766
19.9142
20.6517
21.3893
22.1269
22.8644
23.6020
24.3396
25.0771
25.8147
26.5522
27.2898
28.0274
28.7649
29.5025
30.2400
30.9776
31.7152
32.4527
33.1903
33.9279
34.6654
35.4030
36.1405
36.8781

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

joules

ft.-lbf

1.356
2.712
4.067
5.423
6.779
8.135
9.491
10.847
12.202
13.558
14.914
16.270
17.626
18.981
20.337
21.693
23.049
24.405
25.761
27.116
28.472
29.828
31.184
32.540
33.895
35.251
36.607
37.963
39.319
40.675
42.030
43.386
44.742
46.098
47.454
48.809
50.165
51.521
52.877
54.233
55.589
56.944
58.300
59.656
61.012
62.368
63.723
65.079
66.435
67.791

37.6157
38.3532
39.0908
39.8284
40.5659
41.3035
42.0410
42.7786
43.5162
44.2537
44.9913
45.7289
46.4664
47.2040
47.9415
48.6791
49.4167
50.1542
50.8918
51.6294
52.3669
53.1045
53.8420
54.5796
55.3172
56.0547
56.7923
57.5298
58.2674
59.0050
59.7425
60.4801
61.2177
61.9552
62.6928
63.4303
64.1679
64.9055
65.6430
66.3806
67.1182
67.8557
68.5933
69.3308
70.0684
70.8060
71.5435
72.2811
73.0186
73.7562

Examples: 1 ft-lbf  1.356 joules
1 joule  0.7376 ft-lbf

115

joules

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

69.147
70.503
71.858
73.214
74.570
75.926
77.282
78.637
79.993
81.349
82.705
84.061
85.417
86.772
88.128
89.484
90.840
92.196
93.551
94.907
96.263
97.619
98.975
100.331
101.686
103.042
104.398
105.754
107.110
108.465
109.821
111.177
112.533
113.889
115.245
116.600
117.956
119.312
120.668
122.024
123.379
124.735
126.091
127.447
128.803
130.159
131.514
132.870
134.226
135.582

TABLES FOR CONVERSION FROM
INCHES INTO MILLIMETERS
Inches

1

1

⁄64

3

⁄64

5

⁄64

7

⁄64

9

⁄64

Millimeters

⁄32

1

⁄16
3

⁄32

1

⁄8
5

⁄32
11

⁄64

3

⁄16
7

13

⁄64

15

⁄64

17

⁄64

19

⁄64

21

⁄64

23

⁄64

25

⁄64

27

⁄64

29

⁄64

31

⁄64

⁄32

1

⁄4
9

⁄32

5

⁄16
11

⁄32

3

⁄8
13

⁄32

7

⁄16
15

⁄32

1

⁄2

.015625
.031250
.046875
.062500
.078125
.093750
.109375
.125000
.140625
.156250
.171875
.187500
.203125
.218750
.234375
.250000
.265625
.281250
.296875
.312500
.328125
.343750
.359375
.375000
.390625
.406250
.421875
.437500
.453125
.468750
.484375
.500000

* On the basis of the conversion factor 1 in.  25.4 mm.

116

.396875
.793750
1.190625
1.587500
1.984375
2.381250
2.778125
3.175000
3.571875
3.968750
4.365625
4.762500
5.159375
5.556250
5.953125
6.350000
6.746875
7.143750
7.540625
7.937500
8.334375
8.731250
9.128125
9.525000
9.921875
10.318750
10.715625
11.112500
11.509375
11.906250
12.303125
12.700000

TABLES FOR CONVERSION – continued
Inches

Millimeters

33

⁄64

17

9

⁄32
35

⁄64

37

⁄64

39

⁄64

41

⁄64

43

⁄64

45

⁄64

47

⁄64

49

⁄64

51

⁄64

53

⁄64

55

⁄64

57

⁄64

59

⁄64

61

⁄64

63

⁄64

⁄16
19

⁄32

5

⁄8
21

11

⁄32

⁄16
23

⁄32

3

⁄4
25

13

⁄32

⁄16
27

⁄32

7

⁄8
29

15

⁄32

⁄16
31

⁄32

1
(All the values in these tables are exact).

117

.515625
.531250
.546875
.562500
.578125
.593750
.609375
.625000
.640625
.656250
.671875
.687500
.703125
.718750
.734375
.750000
.765625
.781250
.796875
.812500
.828125
.843750
.859375
.875000
.890625
.906250
.921875
.937500
.953125
.968750
.984375
1.000000

13.096875
13.493750
13.890625
14.287500
14.684375
15.081250
15.478125
15.875000
16.271875
16.668750
17.065625
17.462500
17.859375
18.256250
18.653125
19.050000
19.446875
19.843750
20.240625
20.637500
21.034375
21.431250
21.828125
22.225000
22.621875
23.018750
23.415625
23.812500
24.209375
24.606250
25.003125
25.400000

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION TABLES
Albert Sauveur type of table. Values revised.
—459.4 to 0
F

0 to 100

C

F/C

C

-273
-268
-262
-257
-251

-459.4
-450
-440
-430
-420

-17.8
-17.2
-16.7
-16.1
-15.6

-246
-240
-234
-229
-223

-410
-400
-390
-380
-370

-218
-212
-207
-201
-196

-360
-350
-340
-330
-320

-190
-184
-179
-173
-169

F/C

100 to 1000

F

C

F/C

F

C

F/C

F

C

0
1
2
3
4

32
33.8
35.6
37.4
39.2

10.0
10.6
11.1
11.7
12.2

50
51
52
53
54

122.0
123.8
125.6
127.4
129.2

38
43
49
54
60

100
110
120
130
140

212
230
248
266
284

260
266
271
277
282

F/C

500 932
510 950
520 968
530 986
540 1004

-15.0
-14.4
-13.9
-13.3
-12.8

5
6
7
8
9

41.0
42.8
44.6
46.4
48.2

12.8
13.3
13.9
14.4
15.0

55
56
57
58
59

131.0
132.8
134.6
136.4
138.2

66
71
77
82
88

150
160
170
180
190

302
320
338
356
374

288
293
299
304
310

550
560
570
580
590

1022
1040
1058
1076
1094

-12.2
-11.7
-11.1
-10.6
-10.0

10
11
12
13
14

50.0
51.8
53.6
55.4
57.2

15.6
16.1
16.7
17.2
17.8

60
61
62
63
64

140.0
141.8
143.6
145.4
147.2

93
99
100
104
110

200
210
212
220
230

392
410
413.6
428
446

316
321
327
332
338

600
610
620
630
640

1112
1130
1148
1166
1184

-310
-300
-290
-280
-273 -459.4

-9.4
-8.9
-8.3
-7.8
-7.2

15
16
17
18
19

59.0
60.8
62.6
64.4
66.2

18.3
18.9
19.4
20.0
20.6

65
66
67
68
69

149.0
150.8
152.6
154.4
156.2

116
121
127
132
138

240
250
260
270
280

464
482
500
518
536

343
349
354
360
366

650
660
670
680
690

1202
1220
1238
1256
1274

-168
-162
-157
-151
-146

-270
-260
-250
-240
-230

-454
-436
-418
-400
-382

-6.7
-6.1
-5.6
-5.0
-4.4

20
21
22
23
24

68.0
69.8
71.6
73.4
75.2

21.1
21.7
22.2
22.8
23.3

70
71
72
73
74

158.0
159.8
161.6
163.4
165.2

143
149
154
160
166

290
300
310
320
330

554
572
590
608
626

371
377
382
388
393

700
710
720
730
740

1292
1310
1328
1346
1364

-140
-134
-129
-123
-118

-220
-210
-200
-190
-180

-364
-346
-328
-310
-292

-3.9
-3.3
-2.8
-2.2
-1.7

25
26
27
28
29

77.0
78.8
80.6
82.4
84.2

23.9
24.4
25.0
25.6
26.1

75
76
77
78
79

167.0
168.8
170.6
172.4
174.2

171
177
182
188
193

340
350
360
370
380

644
662
680
698
716

399
404
410
416
421

750
760
770
780
790

1382
1400
1418
1436
1454

-112
-107
-101
-96
-90

-170
-160
-150
-140
-130

-274
-256
-238
-220
-202

-1.1
- .6
0
.6
1.1

30
31
32
33
34

86.0
87.8
89.6
91.4
93.2

26.7
27.2
27.8
28.3
28.9

80
81
82
83
84

176.0
177.8
179.6
181.4
183.2

199
204
210
216
221

390
400
410
420
430

734
752
770
788
806

427
432
438
443
449

800
810
820
830
840

1472
1490
1508
1526
1544

-84
-79
-73
-68
-62

-120
-110
-100
-90
-80

-184
-166
-148
-130
-112

1.7
2.2
2.8
3.3
3.9

35 95.0
36 96.8
37 98.6
38 100.4
39 102.2

29.4
30.0
30.6
31.1
31.7

85
86
87
88
89

185.0
186.8
188.6
190.4
192.2

227
232
238
243
249

440
450
460
470
480

824
842
860
878
896

454
460
466
471
477

850
860
870
880
890

1562
1580
1598
1616
1634

-57
-51
-46
-40
-34

-70
-60
-50
-40
-30

-94
-76
-58
-40
-22

4.4
5.0
5.6
6.1
6.7

40
41
42
43
44

104.0
105.8
107.6
109.4
111.2

32.2
32.8
33.3
33.9
34.4

90
91
92
93
94

194.0
195.8
197.6
199.4
201.2

254

490 914 482
488
493
499
504

900
910
920
930
940

1652
1670
1688
1706
1724

-29
-23
-17.8

-20
-10
0

-4
14
32

7.2
7.8
8.3
8.9
9.4

45
46
47
48
49

113.0
114.8
116.6
118.4
120.2

35.0 95
35.6 96
36.1 97
36.7 98
37.2 99
37.8 100

203.0
204.8
206.6
208.4
210.2
212.0

510
516
521
527
532
538

950
960
970
980
990
1000

1742
1760
1778
1796
1814
1832

Look up reading in middle column. If in degress Celsius, read Fahrenheit equivalent in
right hand column; if in Fahrenheit degrees, read Celsius equivalent in left hand column.

118

F

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION TABLES – continued
Albert Sauveur type of table. Values revised.
1000 to 2000

2000 to 3000

C

F/C

F

C

F/C

F

C

F/C

538
543
549
554
560

1000
1010
1020
1030
1040

1832
1850
1868
1886
1904

816
821
827
832
838

1500
1510
1520
1530
1540

2732
2750
2768
2786
2804

F

C

F/C

F

1093
1099
1104
1110
1116

2000
2010
2020
2030
2040

3632
3650
3668
3686
3704

1371
1377
1382
1388
1393

2500
2510
2520
2530
2540

4532
4650
4568
4586
4604

566
571
577
582
588

1050
1060
1070
1080
1090

1922
1940
1958
1976
1994

843
849
854
860
866

1550
1560
1570
1580
1590

2822
2840
2858
2876
2894

1121
1127
1132
1138
1143

2050
2060
2070
2080
2090

3722
3740
3758
3776
3794

1399
1404
1410
1416
1421

2550
2560
2570
2580
2590

4622
4640
4658
4676
4694

593
599
604
610
616

1100
1110
1120
1130
1140

2012
2030
2048
2066
2084

871
877
882
888
893

1600
1610
1620
1630
1640

2912
2930
2948
2966
2984

1149
1154
1160
1166
1171

2100
2110
2120
2130
2140

3812
3830
3848
3866
3884

1427
1432
1438
1443
1449

2600
2610
2620
2630
2640

4712
4730
4748
4766
4784

621
627
632
638
643

1150
1160
1170
1180
1190

2102
2120
2138
2156
2174

899
904
910
916
921

1650
1660
1670
1680
1690

3002
3020
3038
3056
3074

1177
1182
1188
1193
1199

2150
2160
2170
2180
2190

3902
3920
3938
3956
3974

1454
1460
1466
1471
1477

2650
2660
2670
2680
2690

4802
4820
4838
4856
4874

649
654
660
666
671

1200
1210
1220
1230
1240

2192
2210
2228
2246
2264

927
932
938
943
949

1700
1710
1720
1730
1740

3092
3110
3128
3146
3164

1204
1210
1216
1221
1227

2200
2210
2220
2230
2240

3992
4010
4028
4046
4064

1482
1488
1493
1499
1504

2700
2710
2720
2730
2740

4892
4910
4928
4946
4964

677
682
688
693
699

1250
1260
1270
1280
1290

2282
2300
2318
2336
2354

954
960
966
971
977

1750
1760
1770
1780
1790

3182
3200
3218
3236
3254

1232
1238
1243
1249
1254

2250
2260
2270
2280
2290

4082
4100
4118
4136
4154

1510
1516
1521
1527
1532

2750
2760
2770
2780
2790

4982
5000
5018
5036
5054

704
710
716
721
727

1300
1310
1320
1330
1340

2372
2390
2408
2426
2444

982
988
993
999
1004

1800
1810
1820
1830
1840

3272
3290
3308
3326
3344

1260
1266
1271
1277
1282

2300
2310
2320
2330
2340

4172
4190
4208
4226
4244

1538
1543
1549
1554
1560

2800
2810
2820
2830
2840

5072
5090
5108
5126
5144

732
738
743
749
754

1350
1360
1370
1380
1390

2462
2480
2498
2516
2534

1010
1016
1021
1027
1032

1850
1860
1870
1880
1890

3362
3380
3398
3416
3434

1288
1293
1299
1304
1310

2350
2360
2370
2380
2390

4262
4280
4298
4316
4334

1566
1571
1577
1582
1588

2850
2860
2870
2880
2890

5162
5180
5198
5216
5234

760
766
771
777
782

1400
1410
1420
1430
1440

2552
2570
2588
2606
2624

1038
1043
1049
1054
1060

1900
1910
1920
1930
1940

3452
3470
3488
3506
3524

1316
1321
1327
1332
1338

2400
2410
2420
2430
2440

4352
4370
4388
4406
4424

1593
1599
1604
1610
1616

2900
2910
2920
2930
2940

5252
5270
5288
5306
5324

788
793
799
804
810

1450
1460
1470
1480
1490

2642
2660
2678
2696
2714

1066
1071
1077
1082
1088
1093

1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000

3542
3560
3578
3596
3614
3632

1343
1349
1354
1360
1366

2450
2460
2470
2480
2490

4442
4460
4478
4496
4514

1621
1627
1632
1638
1643
1649

2950
2960
2970
2980
2990
3000

5342
5360
5378
5396
5414
5432

Look up reading in middle column. If in degress Celsius, read Fahrenheit equivalent in
right hand column; if in Fahrenheit degrees, read Celsius equivalent in left hand column.

119

HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLES
BASED ON BRINELL
(APPROXIMATE)
BRINELL HARDNESS
Diameter Tungsten
mm
Carbide
3000 Kg 10 mm Ball

ROCKWELL HARDNESS
A-Scale
60 Kg
Brale

B-Scale
100 Kg
1/16" Ball

Diamond
Pyramid
C-Scale
Hardness
150 Kg Superficial Number
Brale
30 N
(Vickers)

Approx.
Tensile
Stength
1000 psi

....
....
....
....
....

....
....
....
....
757

86.5
86.0
85.6
85.0
84.4

....
....
....
....
....

70.0
69.0
68.0
67.0
65.9

86.0
85.0
84.4
83.6
82.7

1076
1004
940
900
860

....
....
....
....
....

2.25
....
....
2.35
2.40

745
722
710
682
653

84.1
83.4
83.0
82.2
81.2

....
....
....
....
....

65.3
64.0
63.3
61.7
60.0

82.2
81.1
80.4
79.0
77.5

840
800
780
737
697

....
....
....
....
....

2.45
2.50
2.55
2.60
2.65

627
601
578
555
534

80.5
79.8
79.1
78.4
77.8

....
....
....
....
....

58.7
57.3
56.0
54.7
53.5

76.3
75.1
73.9
72.7
71.6

667
640
615
591
569

323
309
297
285
274

2.70
2.75
2.80
2.85
2.90

514
495
477
461
444

76.9
76.3
75.6
74.9
74.2

....
....
....
....
....

52.1
51.0
49.6
48.5
47.1

70.3
69.4
68.2
67.2
65.8

547
528
508
491
472

263
253
243
235
225

2.95
3.00
3.05
3.10
3.15

429
415
401
388
375

73.4
72.8
72.0
71.4
70.6

....
....
....
....
....

45.7
44.5
43.1
41.8
40.4

64.6
63.5
62.3
61.1
59.9

455
440
425
410
396

217
210
202
195
188

3.20
3.25
3.30
3.35
3.40

363
352
341
331
321

70.0
69.3
68.7
68.1
67.5

....
(110.0)
(109.0)
(108.5)
(108.0)

39.1
37.9
36.6
35.5
34.3

58.7
57.6
56.4
55.4
54.3

383
372
360
350
339

182
176
170
166
160

3.45
3.50
3.55
3.60
3.65

311
302
293
285
277

66.9
66.3
65.7
65.3
64.6

(107.5)
(107.0)
(106.0)
(105.5)
(104.5)

33.1
32.1
30.9
29.9
28.8

53.3
52.2
51.2
50.3
49.3

328
319
309
301
292

155
150
145
141
137

120

HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLES – continued
BRINELL HARDNESS
Diameter Tungsten
mm
Carbide
3000 Kg 10 mm Ball

ROCKWELL HARDNESS
A-Scale
60 Kg
Brale

B-Scale
100 Kg
1/16" Ball

Diamond
Pyramid
C-Scale
Hardness
150 Kg Superficial Number
Brale
30 N
(Vickers)

Approx.
Tensile
Stength
1000 psi

3.70
3.75
3.80
3.85
3.90

269
262
255
248
241

64.1
63.6
63.0
62.5
61.8

(104.0)
(103.0)
(102.0)
(101.0)
100.0

27.6
26.6
25.4
24.2
22.8

48.3
47.3
46.2
45.1
43.9

284
276
269
261
253

133
129
126
122
118

3.95
4.00
4.05
4.10
4.15

235
229
223
217
212

61.4
60.8
59.7
59.2
58.5

99.0
98.2
97.3
96.4
95.5

21.7
20.5
(18.8)
(17.5)
(16.0)

42.9
41.9
....
....
....

247
241
234
228
222

115
111
....
105
102

4.20
4.25
4.30
4.35
4.40

207
201
197
192
187

57.8
57.4
56.9
56.5
55.9

94.6
93.8
92.8
91.9
90.7

(15.2)
(13.8)
(12.7)
(11.5)
(10.0)

....
....
....
....
....

218
212
207
202
196

100
98
95
93
90

4.45
4.50
4.55
4.60
4.65

183
179
174
170
167

55.5
55.0
53.9
53.4
53.0

90.0
89.0
87.8
86.8
86.0

(9.0)
(8.0)
(6.4)
(5.4)
(4.4)

....
....
....
....
....

192
188
182
178
175

89
87
85
83
81

4.70
4.80
4.90
5.00
5.10

163
156
149
143
137

52.5
51.0
49.9
48.9
47.4

85.0
82.9
80.8
78.7
76.4

(3.3)
(.9)
....
....
....

....
....
....
....
....

171
163
156
150
143

79
76
73
71
67

5.20
5.30
5.40
5.50
5.60

131
126
121
116
111

46.0
45.0
43.9
42.8
41.9

74.0
72.0
69.8
67.6
65.7

....
....
....
....
....

....
....
....
....
....

137
132
127
122
117

65
63
60
58
56

Values in ( ) are beyond normal range and are given for information only.
The Brinell values in this table are based on the use of a 10mm tungsten carbide ball; at
hardness levels of 429 Brinell and below, the values obtained with the tungsten carbide
ball, the Hultgren ball, and the standard ball are the same.

121

USEFUL EQUATIONS FOR
HARDENABLE ALLOY STEELS
Ae1 (°F) ~ 1333  25  Mn  40  Si  42  Cr  26  Ni ............... (1)
Ae3 (°F) ~ 1570  323  C  25  Mn  80  Si  3  Cr  32  Ni .. (2)
Ac1 (°C) ~ 723  10.7  Mn  29.1  Si  16.9  Cr  16.9  Ni 
290  As  6.38  W ........................................................... (3)
Ac3 (°C) ~ 910  203  √C  44.7  Si  15.2  Ni  31.5  Mo 
104  V  13.1  W.............................................................. (4)
Ms (°F) ~ 930  600  C  60  Mn  20  Si  50  Cr  30 
Ni  20  Mo  20  W........................................................ (5)
M10 (°F) ~ Ms  18 ................................................................................. (6)
M50 (°F) ~ Ms  85 ................................................................................. (7)
M90 (°F) ~ Ms  185 ............................................................................... (8)
Mf (°F) ~ Ms  387................................................................................ (9)
Bs (°F) ~ 1526  486  C  162  Mn  126  Cr  67  Ni 
149  Mo ............................................................................ (10)
B50 (°F) ~ Bs  108 ............................................................................. (11)
Bf (°F) ~ Bs  216 ............................................................................. (12)
Carburized Case Depth (in.) ~ .025√t, for 1700°F ............................... (13)
Carburized Case Depth (in.) ~ .021√t, for 1650°F ............................... (14)
Carburized Case Depth (in.) ~ .018√t, for 1600°F ............................... (15)
(t  time in hours)

___________________________________________________________________________
Note:
1 & 2:
3 & 4:
5:
6-12:
13-15:

Each equation above is subject to the chemistry limitations under which
it was developed.
R. A. Grange, Metal Progress, 79, April 1961, p 73.
K. W. Andrews, JISI, 203, 1965, p 721.
E. S. Rowland and S. R. Lyle, Trans. ASM, 37, 1946, p 27.
W. Steven and A. G. Haynes, JISI, 183, 1956, p 349.
F. E. Harris, Metal Progress, 44, August 1943, p 265.

122

GLOSSARY OF
METALLURGICAL TERMS
Alloying Elements
ALUMINUM - Al
is used to deoxidize steel and control grain size. Grain size control is
effected by forming a fine dispersion with nitrogen and oxygen which
restricts austenite grain growth. Aluminum is also an extremely effective
nitride former in nitriding steels.
BORON - B
is usually added between .0005-.003% to significantly increase the hardenability, especially for low carbon alloys. It does not affect the strength
of ferrite, therefore not sacrificing ductility, formability or machinability
in the annealed state.
CALCIUM - Ca
is used in certain steels to control the shape, size and distribution of
oxide and/or sulfide inclusions. Benefits may include improved ductility,
impact strength and machinability.
CARBON - C
is the most important alloying element which is essential for the formation
of cementite, pearlite, spheriodite, bainite, and iron-carbon martensite.
Compared to steels with similar microstructures, strength, hardness,
hardenability, and ductile-to-brittle transition temperature are increased
with increasing carbon content up to approximately .60%. Toughness
and ductility of pearlitic steels are decreased with increasing carbon
content.
CHROMIUM - Cr
is used in low alloy steels to increase 1) resistance to corrosion and
oxidation, 2) high temperature strength, 3) hardenability, and 4) abrasion
resistance in high carbon alloys. Straight chromium steels are susceptible
to temper embrittlement and can be brittle.
COPPER - Cu
is detrimental to hot workability and subsequent surface quality. It is used
in certain steels to improve resistance to atmospheric corrosion.
LEAD - Pb
improves machinability. It does not dissolve in steel but stays as globules.
Environmental concerns are resulting in a decreased usage of lead in
the steel industry.
MANGANESE - Mn
is important because it deoxidizes the melt and facilitates hot working of
the steel by reducing the susceptibility to hot shortness. It combines with
sulfur to form MnS stringers which increases machinability. Manganese
contributes to the effectiveness of normalizing for strengthening, to the
formation of fine pearlite, and lowers the Ms temperature, therefore
increasing the probability of retained austenite.

123

GLOSSARY – continued
MOLYBDENUM - Mo
increases hardenability of steels and helps maintain a specified hardenability. It increases high temperature tensile and creep strengths.
Molybdenum hardened steels require higher tempering temperatures
for softening purposes.
NICKEL - Ni
is used in low alloy steels to reduce the sensitivity of the steel to variations in heat treatment and distortion and cracking on quenching. It also
improves low temperature toughness and hardenability.
NIOBIUM - Nb (Columbium - Cb)
lowers transition temperature and raises the strength of low carbon steel.
Niobium increases strength at elevated temperatures, results in finer grain
size and forms stable carbides, lowering the hardenability of the steel.
NITROGEN - N
increases the strength, hardness and machinability of steel, but it
decreases the ductility and toughness. In aluminum killed steels, nitrogen combines with the aluminum to provide grain size control, thereby
improving both toughness and strength. Nitrogen can reduce the effect
of boron on the hardenability of steels.
PHOSPHORUS - P
is generally restricted to below 0.04 weight percent to minimize its detrimental effect on ductility and toughness. Certain steels may contain
higher levels to enhance machinability, strength and/or atmospheric
corrosion resistance.
SILICON - Si
is one of the principal deoxidizers with the amount used dependent on the
deoxidization practice. It slightly increases the strength of ferrite without
a serious loss of ductility. In larger quantities, it aids the resistance to
scaling up to 500°F in air and decreases magnetic hysteresis loss.
SULFUR - S
is detrimental to transverse strength and impact resistance. It affects
longitudinal properties to a lesser degree. Existing primarily in the form
of manganese sulfide stringers, sulfur is typically added to improve
machinability.
TITANIUM - Ti
is added to boron steels because it combines with oxygen and nitrogen,
thus increasing the effectiveness of boron. Titanium, as titanium nitride,
also provides grain size control at elevated temperatures in microalloy
steels. In excess, titanium is detrimental to machinability and internal
cleanness.

124

GLOSSARY – continued
TELLURIUM - Te
is added to steel to modify sulfide type inclusion size, morphology and
distribution. The resulting sulfide type inclusions are finer and remain
ellipsoidal in shape following hot working, thereby improving transverse
properties.
VANADIUM - V
inhibits grain growth during heat treating while improving strength and
toughness of hardened and tempered steels. Additions up to .05% increase
hardenability whereas larger amounts tend to reduce hardenability
because of carbide formation. Vanadium is also utilized in ferrite/pearlite
microalloy steels to increase hardness through carbonitride precipitation
strengthening of the matrix.

Standard Mill Terminology
ANNEALING
A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to a temperature, within or
above the critical range, and cooling at a controlled rate to a temperature
under the critical range. This treatment is used to produce a definite
microstructure, usually one designed for best machinability, and/or to
remove stresses, induce softness, and alter ductility, toughness or other
mechanical properties.
BILLET
A solid semifinished round or square that has been hot worked usually
smaller than a bloom. Also a general term for wrought starting stock for
forgings or extrusions.
BLOOM
A semifinished hot rolled rectangular product. The width of the bloom is
no more than twice the thickness and the cross-sectional area is usually
not less that 36 square inches.
CAPPED STEEL
A type of steel similar to rimmed steel, usually cast in a bottle top ingot,
in which the application of a mechanical or chemical cap renders the
rimming action incomplete by causing the top metal to solidify.
DI (Ideal Diameter)
The diameter of a round steel bar that will harden at the center to a given
percent of martensite when subjected to an ideal quench (i.e., Grossman
quench severity H=infinity)
ELONGATION
In tensile testing, the increase in gage length, measured after the fracture
of a specimen within the gage length, usually expressed as a percentage
of the original gage length.

125

GLOSSARY – continued
END-QUENCH HARDENABILITY TEST (Jominy Test)
A laboratory procedure for determining the hardenability of a steel or
other ferrous alloy. Hardenability is determined by heating a standard
specimen above the upper critical temperature, placing the hot specimen
in a fixture so that a stream of cold water impinges on one end, and,
after cooling to room temperature is completed, measuring the hardness
near the surface of the specimen at regularly spaced intervals along its
length. The data are normally plotted as hardness versus distance from
the quenched end.
HARDNESS
Resistance of a metal to plastic deformation, usually by indentation.
However, this may also refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to
scratching, abrasion, or cutting.
IMPACT TEST
A test to determine the behavior of materials when subjected to high rates
of loading, usually in bending, tension or torsion. The quantity measured
is the energy absorbed in breaking the specimen by a single blow, as in
the Charpy or Izod tests.
INGOT
A casting of a simple shape which can be used for hot working or
remelting.
KILLED STEEL
Steel treated with a strong deoxidizer to reduce oxygen to a level where
no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.
LAP
A surface imperfection which appears as a seam. It is caused by the
folding over of hot metal, fins, or sharp corners and then rolling or forging
them into the surface but not welding them. Laps on tubes can form from
seams on piercing mill billets.
MACHINABILITY
This is a generic term for describing the ability of a material to be machined.
To be meaningful, machinability must be qualified in terms of tool wear,
tool life, chip control, and/or surface finish and integrity. Overall machining
performance is affected by a myriad of variables relating to the machining
operation and the workpiece. An overall review is provided in the ASM
Metals Handbook: Machinability, Ninth Edition, Volume 16, 1989.
NORMALIZING
A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to temperature at least 100°F
above the critical range and cooling in still air at room temperature. The
treatment produces a recrystallization and refinement of the grain structure
and gives uniformity in hardness and structure to the product.

126

GLOSSARY – continued
PICKLING
An operation by which surface oxide (scale) is removed by chemical
action. Sulfuric acid is typically used for carbon and low-alloy steels.
After the acid bath, the steel is rinsed in water.
QUENCHING
A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to a predetermined temperature and cooling rapidly in air or liquid medium to produce a desired
crystalline structure.
REDUCTION OF AREA
The difference, expressed as a percentage of original area, between the
original cross-sectional area of a tensile test specimen and the minimum
cross-sectional area measured after complete separation.
RIMMED STEEL
A low carbon steel having enough iron oxide to give a continuous evolution of carbon monoxide during solidification giving a rim of material
virtually free of voids.
SCAB
An imperfection which is a flat piece of metal rolled into the steel surface.
SEAM
A defect on the surface of a metal which appears as a crack. Experience
indicates that most seams are created during the cooling or reheating
of cast structures.
SEMI-KILLED STEEL
Incompletely deoxidized steel which contains enough dissolved oxygen
to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide to offset solidification
shrinkage.
SPHEROIDIZE ANNEAL
A special type of annealing that requires an extremely long cycle. This
treatment is used to produce globular carbides and maximum softness
for best machinability in some analyses, or to improve cold formability.
STRAND CASTING (Continuous Casting)
Operation in which a cast shape is continuously drawn through the bottom of the mold as it solidifies. The length is not determined by mold
dimensions.
STRESS RELIEVE TEMPER
A thermal treatment to restore elastic properties and to minimize distortion on subsequent machining or hardening operations. This treatment
is usually applied to material that has been heat treated (quenched and
tempered). Normal practice would be to heat to a temperature 100°F
lower than the tempering temperatures used to establish mechanical
properties and hardness. Ordinarily, no straightening is performed after
the stress relieve temper.

127

GLOSSARY – continued
TEMPERING
A treatment consisting of heating uniformly to some predetermined
temperature under the critical range, holding at that temperature a
designated period of time and cooling in air or liquid. This treatment is
used to produce one or more of the following end results: A) to soften
material for subsequent machining or cold working, B) to improve
ductility and relieve stresses resulting from prior treatment or cold
working, and C) to produce the desired mechanical properties or
structure in the second step of a double treatment.
TENSILE STRENGTH
In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original crosssectional area.
YIELD POINT
The first stress in a material, usually less than the maximum attainable stress, at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase
in stress. If there is a decrease in stress after yielding, a distinction
may be made between upper and lower yield points.
YIELD STRENGTH
The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from
proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of .2% is commonly
used.

Information adapted from ASM
and/or SAE publications.

128

For additional information on sizes,
grades and other value-added
services, call 1.866.284.6536,
fax 1.330.471.7032 or
visit www.timken.com/
products/alloysteel.

Bearings • Steel •
Precision Components • Lubrication
Seals • Remanufacture and Repair •
Industrial Services

www.timken.com
Timken ® is the registered trademark
of The Timken Company.
© 2006 The Timken Company
Printed in U.S.A.
5M 08-06-05 Order No. 4023

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful