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BEL 313: INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING ASSIGNMENT 1 PAIR WORK BY: MOHAMMAD SYAMIL BIN SELAMAT 2012461416 ROSMAH

MENGKULU 2012671496

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We want to express the greatest thanks possible to our BEL 313: Introduction to Critical Thinking lecturer, Madam Nor Aini for her relentless efforts on trying to make us thinking critically, knowing that the knowledge will help us later on in our lives. Thanks also to our classmates of Group K, for even though they are loud and sometimes hyperactive, they have given us a lot of advices on how to do this assignment. And last but not least, a million thanks to UiTM for giving us a chance to pursue our dreams. Thank you.

INSTRUCTIONS

Select an article or more that present the views of the author(s) on a SINGLE ISSUE. Newspaper editorials or Internet Blogs may be a good source for this. Using the argument mapping techniques that were discussed in class, identify in the articles(s): i. ii. Five (5) examples of contentions (claim supported by reason) Five (5) examples of objections against claims.

Present this in the form of argument maps and remember to use complete sentences in your maps. You will need to highlight the statements in the passage as well. Only go on to a new passage when you are sure the first one has no other claim. Remember to cite the source for the articles. Date of submission: Week 6.

ARTICLE ONE

Contributing to the debate over same-sex marriage By Dr. Gwendolyn Puryear Keita, APA Executive Director For The Public Interest Among APA's primary roles is increasing and disseminating knowledge about human behavior and applying what we know about psychology to address human concerns. A recent example of our work in these areas was our filing an amicus curie brief, along with the California Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association and the National Association of Social Workers, in the California case that challenged the decision to deny marriage licenses to same-sex couples. The court found that restricting marriage to same-sex couples violates the state constitution. In its decision, the court cited only APA's brief - one out of the 45 submitted. APA offered rigorous psychological evidence emphasizing the major impact stigma has on well-being, the benefits of marriage, and the lack of difference between lesbian and gay parents and heterosexual parents. According to the brief: 1. Homosexuality is neither a disorder nor a disease, but rather a normal variant of human sexual orientation. The vast majority of social prejudice, discrimination and violence against lesbians, gay men and bisexuals takes a cumulative toll on the wellbeing of members in each of these forces, structural stigma "represents the policies of private and governmental institutions that restrict the opportunities of stigmatized groups groups. "Minority stress" is the term used by researchers to refer to the negative effects associated with the adverse social conditions experienced by those belonging to a stigmatized social group. As a product of sociopolitical." By legitimating and reinforcing the undesired differences of sexual minorities and by according them inferior status relative to heterosexuals, structural stigma gives rise to individual acts against them, subsequently increasing levels of stress as a result. 2. Substantial numbers of gay and lesbian couples are successful in forming stable, long-lasting, committed relationships. Empirical studies using nonrepresentative samples of gay men and lesbians show that the vast majority of participants have been involved in a committed relationship at some point in their lives. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census indicate that of the 5.5 million couples who were living together but not married, about one in nine had a same-sex partner. 3. Being married affords individuals a variety of benefits that have important implications for physical and mental health and for the quality of the relationship itself. These health benefits do not appear to result from simply being in an intimate relationship because most studies have found that married men and women generally experience better physical and mental health than their cohabitating unmarried counterparts.

4. Empirical research has consistently shown that lesbian and gay parents do not differ from heterosexuals in their parenting skills, and their children do not show any deficits compared with children raised by heterosexual parents. In addition, if their parents are allowed to marry, the children of same-sex couples will benefit not only from the legal stability and other familial benefits that marriage provides, but also from elimination of state-sponsored stigmatization of their families. In 2004, APA's Council of Representatives adopted two resolutions relevant to this issue, which can be found on APA's Public Interest Directorate Web pages. In the Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Marriage, it was resolved, based on empirical research concerning sexual orientation and marriage, "that the APA believes that it is unfair and discriminatory to deny same-sex couples legal access to civil marriage and to all its attendant benefits, rights, and privileges." In the Resolution on Sexual Orientation, Parents, and Children, the association recognized that "There is no scientific evidence that parenting effectiveness is related to parental sexual orientation:' Adopting these and similar resolutions and filing amicus briefs are but two of the many ways that APA demonstrates its steadfast commitment to providing scientific and educational resources and support to inform public discussion and a clear and objective understanding of these issues.
Source: http://www.drcraigpeterson.com/LGBTArticles.en.html

ARTICLE TWO
Consensus
The scientific research that has directly compared outcomes for children with gay and lesbian parents with outcomes for children with heterosexual parents has been generally consistent in showing that lesbian and gay parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents,[3][4][5] despite the reality that considerable legal discrimination and inequity remain significant challenges for these families.[4] Major associations of mental health professionals in the U.S., Canada, and Australia, have not identified credible empirical research that suggests otherwise.[5][6][7][8][9] Literature indicates that parents financial, psychological and physical well-being is enhanced by marriage and that children benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally-recognized union.[5][6][22][23] Since the 1970s, it has become increasingly clear that it is family processes (such as the quality of parenting, the psychosocial well-being of parents, the quality of and satisfaction with relationships within the family, and the level of co-operation and harmony between parents) that contribute to determining childrens well-being and outcomes, rather than family structures, per se, such as the number, gender, sexuality and co-habitation status of parents.[4][22] Since the end of the 1980s, as a result, it has been well established that children and adolescents can adjust just as well in nontraditional settings as in traditional settings.[22] Judith Stacey, of New York University, stated: Rarely is there as much consensus in any area of social science as in the case of gay parenting, which is why the American Academy of Pediatrics and all of the major professional organizations with expertise in child welfare have issued reports and resolutions in support of gay and lesbian parental rights.[24] These organizations include the American Academy of Pediatrics,[6] the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,[1] the American Psychiatric Association,[25] the American Psychological Association,[26] the American Psychoanalytic Association, [27] the National Association of Social Workers,[28] the Child Welfare League of America,[29] the North American Council on Adoptable Children,[30] and Canadian Psychological Association.[31] In 2006, Gregory M. Herek stated in American Psychologist: "If gay, lesbian, or bisexual parents were inherently less capable than otherwise comparable heterosexual parents, their children would evidence problems regardless of the type of sample. This pattern clearly has not been observed. Given the consistent failures in this research literature to disprove the null hypothesis, the burden of empirical proof is on those who argue that the children of sexual minority parents fare worse than the children of heterosexual parents."[7] According to report by American Psychological Association: "In summary, research on diversity among families with lesbian and gay parents and on the potential effects of such diversity on children is still sparse (Martin, 1993, 1998; Patterson, 1995b, 2000, 2001, 2004; Perrin, 2002; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001; Tasker, 1999). Data on children of parents who identify as bisexual are still not available, and information about children of non-White lesbian or gay parents is hard to find (but see Wainright et al., 2004, for a racially diverse sample)... However, the existing data are still limited, and any conclusions must be seen as tentative... It should be acknowledged that research on lesbian and gay parents and their children, though no longer new, is still limited in extent. Although studies of gay fathers and their children have been conducted (Patterson, 2004), less is known about children of gay fathers than about children of lesbian mothers. Although studies of adolescent and young adult offspring of lesbian and gay parents are available. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LGBT_parenting

ARTICLE THREE
Parenting & Family: responses to the most frequent objections Lesbian and gay parenting harm children.
No. There is absolutely no empirical evidence to support the claim that LGBT parenting harms children. Psychologist Charlotte Patterson reports that "not a single study has found children of gay or lesbian parents to be disadvantaged in any significant respect relative to children of heterosexual parents. To the contrary, social science research indicates that LGBT individuals and same-sex couples can parent as well as their heterosexual counterparts and, in fact, may be better at managing disagreements than heterosexual parents. Children of gay and lesbian parents are as happy, healthy and emotionally well-adjusted as other children, have good relationships with their peers (although sometimes they are subject to anti-gay harassment), and are less inclined to hold stereotypical understandings of gender roles and more likely to be tolerant of differences in others. Research on transgender parents has made similar findings.

Married heterosexual parents better than lesbian and gay parents.


No. Studies show that lesbians and gay men make just as good parents as their heterosexual counterparts, and that the presence of a married father and mother is not a prerequisite to good outcomes for children.

Lesbian and gay individuals more likely to sexually abuse children.


No. The link between pedophilia and homosexuality is completely unfounded. A 1998 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association notes one study that determined that 90 percent of pedophiles are men, and that 98 percent of these individuals are heterosexual. Michael Stevenson, Ph.D., a psychologist at Ball State University, explains this statistic by noting that "gay men desire consensual sexual relations with other adult men. Pedophiles are usually adult men who are sexually attracted to pre-pubescent children. They are rarely sexually attracted to other adults." Stevenson observes that cases of pedophilia by adult lesbians are "almost non-existent." Two other major studies that examined the sexual orientation of convicted child molesters found that less than 1 percent in one study and 0 percent in the other were lesbian or gay. These studies were published in Pediatrics and Archives of Sexual Behavior, respectively, two peer-reviewed, widely respected academic journals. Preventing gay men and lesbians from becoming adoptive parents or foster parents does not protect children from sexual abuse. It simply perpetuates anti-gay prejudice.

Children need a mother and a father to have proper male and female role models.
No. Children get their role models from many places besides their parents. These include grandparents, aunts and uncles, teachers, friends and neighbors. In a case-by-case evaluation, trained professionals can, and should be free to, ensure that the child being adopted or placed in foster care is transitioning into an environment with adequate role models.

Source: http://www.thetaskforce.org/issues/parenting_and_family/questions

CONTENTION MAPS
Homosexuality is neither a disorder nor a disease.

Reason: It is a normal variant of human sexual orientation

Lesbian and gay parents do not differ from heterosexuals in their parenting skills

Reason: Their children do not show any deficits compared with children raised by heterosexual parents. The APA believes that it is unfair and discriminatory to deny same-sex legal access to civil marriages rights. Reason: There is no scientific evidence that parenting effectiveness is related to parental sexual orientation.

Lesbian and gay parents are as fit and capable of heterosexual parents Reason: Their children are as psychologically healthy and welladjusted children reared by heterosexual parents.
American Academy of Paediatrics and all of the major professional organizations with expertise in child welfare have issued reports and resolutions in support of gay and lesbian parental rights.

Reason: There is rarely as much consensus in any area of social science as in the case of gay parenting.

OBJECTION MAPS

APA offered rigorous psychological evidence emphasizing the major impact stigma has on well-being, the benefits of marriage, and the lack of difference between lesbian and gay The court found that restricting marriage to same-sex couples violates the state constitution.

Being married affords individuals a variety of benefits that have important implications for physical and mental health and for the quality of the relationship itself. These health benefits do not appear to result from simply being in an intimate relationship because most studies have found that married men and women generally experience better physical and mental health than their cohabitating unmarried counterparts. Studies show that Lesbian and gay lesbians and gay parenting harm men make just as children. good parents as Children get their Children of gay and their heterosexual role models from lesbian parents are counterparts, and many places besides as the presence of that happy, healthy their parents. These and emotionally a married father Children need a include well-adjusted as and mother is not a motherheterosexual a Married and tofather grandparents, good other children, have prerequisite aunts to have proper male parents are better and uncles, good relationships outcomes for and female role than lesbianfriends teachers, peers. with their and gay children. models. parents. and neighbours.