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HISTORY OF COSTUMES UNIT 2

Unit 2: Indian Costume: History & Social Life, Male & Female Costume, Military & Religious Costume, Footwear, Headgear & Hairstyle, Jewellery, Textiles • Indus Valley & Vedic Age • Mauryas • Kushanas & Satvahana Outline • Indus Valley • Vedic Period • M aurya Period • Kus hana Period • Satvahana Period INDUS VALLEY CIVlLlZA'l`lON The Indus Valley civilization began around 4th Century B.C. around River Indus. It existed from 3000 B.C. to l500 B.C. The two major towns Harappa and Mohenjodaro were extensive with proper town planning. The religion was similar to puranic Hinduism. The Civilization had high standard of life. The civilization had craftsmen skilled in pottery weaving and metal work. Excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodar o have revealed a lot about clothing during civilization. Spindles were discovered in many houses. Costumes- Female From statues and figures, it was found that figures were bare upto waist with exception of Jewellery and there were very scanty garments terminating at the knee. Skirt was held by girdle made of strings of beads or band of woven material fastened in front by broach. A cloak with long sleeves, tight collar and open chest was worn. Costume - Male Some male figures appeared nude and others wore a loin cloth- A robe was worn over left shoulder and under right arm. Garments extended below knee. Hair Style and Head Dress Women took special care of their hair. Hair was tied in ponytail or plaid with a bow. Men’s hairstyles were elaborate and varied. Long hair was parted in centre with locks falling at the back and sometimes kept tidy with a fillet or a hand. Girls had their hair coiled in ring on top of the head and in similar rings at sides concealing the ear. Men and women wore fan like head dress. Fan like arrangement was on upper part of cap fitting over the head and hanging loosely at the back. The cap was held by band around forehead and supported by frame inside. Ornaments and Jewellery Jewellery was regarded as wealth and also a means of body adornment. Most of the f igures are seen without dress but adorned with ornaments. Metals along with semi precious stones were used for manufacturing ornaments. Along with fan shaped head dress, small cones of gold, silver and copper were worn on sides of head. Forehead was decorated with fillet or head band. Earrings were made of coils of gold, silver and copper. Beaded necklace with pendants were also seen. Girdles were wo round the waist. Finger rings, rn bangles and bracelets of gold, silver, bronze and copper were used.

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Beau ty and Grooming Men used to keep short beard and completely shaven upper lips or stiff flat projecting beard or beard coiled inward. Kohl pots and sticks were used by men and women. Rouge was also found in shells. Lead carbonate was also found, which may have been used to whiten the lace or as hair wash. Razors were used by both men and women as depilatory. VEDIC PERIOD (l500 —500 B.C.) The Vedic period is the period in the history of India when the sacred Vedic Sanskrit texts such as the Vedas were composed. The associated culture sometimes referred to as Vedic civilization or Aryan Civilization, was centred on the lndo-Gangetic Plain. The Aryans were Nomads who came from Central Asia. They raised livestock, rode chariots and loved to gamble. This civilization is the foundation of Hinduism and the associated Indian culture that is known today. The epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata were written in this period. The Aryans received a high degree of proficiency in the fields of philosophy, science, secular arts and line arts. This period was succeeded by the golden age of Hinduism and classical Sanskrit literature , the Maurya Empire and the Middle kingdoms of India. History and Social Life The tribes and groups in this period followed the Monarchy system. The king had the absolute power. By 4th Century B.C., the northern India had only four major states - the three kingdoms of Kashi, Kosala , Magadha and the republic of Vrijis. Taxila, the capital of Gandhara, was an important center where both Vedic and Indian learning mingled. Trade between North West India and West Asia was strengthened by the route made by Alexander from Greece through lran to lndia. ln 484 B.C. Herodotus, the Greek writer divided the Indians into two broad classes— the refined Aryans and barbarous Nomads. Further towards south he mentions about people resembling Dravidians. Society was strictly organized in a system of varna (to be distinguished from caste or colour , it pertained to the occupation of the respective people). The four major varnas were Brahmin (the priests and learned people). Kshatriya (kings and warriors), Vaishya (traders and merchants) and Shudra (labourers and workers). Those who are outside this caste structure are known as adiyasis. Cattle and cows were held in high esteem and frequently appear in Rigvedic hymns; goddesses were often compared to cows, and gods to bulls. Agriculture grew more prominent with time as the community settled down. Money was unknown, and bartering with cattle and other valuables replaced financial commerce. Families were patrilineal, and people prayed for abundance of sons. Costume There was no major dif ference between the garments of men and women. The unstitclied garments were used, which included antariya or vasa (lower garment), uttariya or adhivasa (upper garment) and kayabandh (sash) to hold the antariya. The undergarments that came in later were known as nivi. Women also wore a patk , a decorative strip made from cloth; woven bamboo fibre, leather, woollen fringes, or plaited strips of cotton, cloth or yarn tucked in the antariya at centre front or tied at the waist in artistic knots and elaborate folds and wrinkles, displaying the border. The kachcha style is a general term which indicates the wearing of antariya between the legs forming a trouser like garment. In addition to these unstitched garments, there is mention of a cut and sewn garment called the atka which was a hip or calf length garment; like a kurta or tunic worn by men and women. Drapi was a close fitting gold embroidered vest used by gallant men and women. Nivi was referred to women’s lower garment with ornamental tasselled border and to the knot that held garment in place. One or two strips of cloth was drawn across or crosswise over the bust and tied at the back to serve as bodice. It was customary to cover upper and lower part of the body.

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A special white or flame coloured dress was used by the bride at the time of marriage known as vadhuya. Clothes were generally made of cotton, wool, flax, hemp, animal skin and grass (kusa). Garments made of dark cotton and wool were most common and kusa garments were used for ceremonial purpose. Jewellery Jewellery was made from suvarna (gold), rajata (silver), loha (bronze/iron). hasti (ivory), and sankha (mother of pearl). In their hair, women wore fillet (opasa) and sra j, a garland of flowers, or gold garlands called hiranya-sraj. There were two types of necklacesChoker like necklace included niskagriva (necklace made from niska or coins) and kanthahara. Long necklace included kanchan mala (metal chain) and chandrahara (crescent shape necklace). Earrings were known as kundalas (ear drops) or trikarnas (3 circular rings joined together). Bahu or gold armlets, bracelets (parihasta) and ivory bangles (hasti) were also worn. Rings of gold and girdles were used. There were many varieties of beads in jewellery and each had a special name referring to its shape or the material from which it was made. Hair Styles & Head Dress Men used to wear their hair both long and short. Long hair were generally braided and coiled on the right side. Women dressed their hair in various styles like ‘opasa`— loose top knot, `kapardas`— young women dressed their hair in four braids. ‘kumbha or khopa`- hemispherical or pot shaped coil at the back of the head etc. Footwear Shoes, which in the early Vedic age, had been worn only during rituals, and by soldiers were later generally worn among the wealthy. Dyed leather shoes and boots of many colours like red, yellow , Black and magenta, with thick soles, or padded with cot ton wool and even gold and sliver shoes were known to be decorated with jewels. The poor wore a type of footwear which resembled sandals, made from straw or palm leaves and bamboo. Beauty & Grooming The Aryans were fond of bathing and washing, and both rich and poor made it a part of their daily ritual. Combs were in use, as were razors (ksura} to remove hair. Women were fond of dyeing their finger tips and the tips of their toes with the crimson juice of lac. Textiles Urna sutra (wool thread) has been me ntioned in Samhitas. Silk was common in Vedic rituals. It had borders , fringes and ornamental embroidery. Dyeing of textiles was in practice. Natural dyes made from extract of flowers , madder or indigo was used.

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MAURYA PERIOD (321 -72 B.C.) History and Social Life • lt was this age which produced lndia‘s first great empire. • Influenced by the Iranian and Greek civilizations, during this period, the technique of stone carving was used for the first time in place of wood, ivory, and metal. • Chandragupta Maurya married a princess from the Greek Seleucid court so the court life had a strong foreign flavour, with its foreign inmate's wearing their own costume. • The ceremonial court procedure of the Persian Empire emphasized the majestic seclusion of the king, who only appeared before the common people on rare occasions and religious festivals. • Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to this court, writes that Chandragupta was surrounded by a bodyguard of women who served him. On occasions when the monarch left the Royal Palace to offer sacrifice or to go hunting, Amazonian women guards accompanied him. • In the towns people dressed well in flowered muslins embroidered with jewels. and an umbrella was carried by an attendant over the head of a nobleman when he went out. • Pataliputra (modern Patna) was the capital ofthe Mauryan Empire. • This was an age of plenty, even for the poor, as the fields were fertile, the basic crops being rice, barley, wheat, millet, and sugarcane. Metals including gold and silver were mined. • Cattle breeding was an important activity and in addition to milk products provided skins, leather, horns, hair and wool which were used in various crafts. • Trade was carried on by ships through the ports along the coastline of Maharasht ra, the Malabar Coast, the Tamil country, and Bengal. The land routes were expanded to join the ancient Silk Route through central Asia to China, and large caravans hazarded difficult journeys for the sake of the profits that were to be made by the adventurous. Costume Men and women continued to wear three unstitched garments as in Vedic times. The antariya was of white cotton or linen or flowered muslin, sometimes embroidered in gold or precious stones. Male Costume • Antariya was an unstitched length of cloth draped around the hips and between the legs in kachcha style and extended from the waist to the calf or ankles or even shorter for peasants and commoners. • The antariyu was secured at the waist by a Sash or kayabandh tied often in a looped knot at the waist at centre front, the kayabandh could be simple sash, vethaka; one with drum-headed knot at the ends. muraja; or a many-stringed one, kalabuka. • Uttariya was length of fine cotton or silk material, which was utilized as a long scarf to drape the top half of the body, • The uttariya was worn in several ways to suit the comfort of the wearer: those at court, would drape it on both shoulders or one shoulder, or diagonally across the chest and casually knotted at the waist or it could even be worn loosely across the back and supported by the elbows or wrist, · But for the labourer and craftsman, it was a more practical garment, to be tied around the head as protection from the sun or tightly around the waist leaving the hands free for work, or as a towel to mop the face when sweating. Female Costume • Women tied their antariya in different ways. Originally opaque, it later became more and more transparent. A simple small antariya or strip of cloth, langoti, was attached to the kayabandh at centre front, and then passed between the legs and tucked in at the back. A longer version of the antariya was knee length, being first wrapped around and secured at the waist, the longer end then pleated and tucked into the front, and the shorter end finally drawn between the legs in kachcha style , and tucked into the waist at the back. Another

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version the lehnga style was a length of Cloth wrapped around the hips tightly to form a tubular type of skirt. • The uttariyas of upper class women were generally of thin material decorated with elaborate borders and quite often worn as a head covering. · Their kayabandhs were very similar to those of the men. Military Costume • Sewn garments which had been used by the Persian soldiers were sometimes utilized for military dress by the Mauryans. • This consisted of a sleeved tunic with cross straps across the chest to carry the quiver, and a leather belt with sword. The lower garment was more often the Indian antariya rather than the Persian trousers. The headgear was usually the turban or headband, whereas the Persians had worn the pointed cap. Religious People • Of the three religions- Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, it was Hinduism which evolved from early Vedic sources and had as its keepers of religion the Brahmin priests. Later in life, a Brahmin man or woman became a sadhu or sanyas in, seeking detachment. • The Brahmanical Sadhvu (Sanyasin) was an ascetic who lived either in a hermitage or visited holy places. He wore a shaped kilt—like garment made of strips sewn together, which was tied at the waist with a cord. A short rectangular cloak covered the left shoulder and breast, leaving the right side exposed. The hair and beard were allowed to grow the former being plaited and arranged in a spiral at the top of the head. He sometimes wore a headdress in the shape of a cap. • Women ascetics too wore this cloak and a cap. These garments, often made from leaves or the comple te bark of tree, were tied with a cord. • Skins of antelope and goat called ajina were used by wild ascetics. Muni, as a covering for the chest. Men ascetics did not cut their nails, hair and beard and carried few possessions in a sack balanced on the shoulders. • Buddhism, founded by Gautam Buddha , in fifth century BC, had no caste division. It had a religious order of monks. Bhikshu, and nuns. bhikshuni, who set up monasteries where they studied their religion. • Buddhist monks normally shaved their heads and beards but kept the head covered with a headdress. Lf unshaven, the hair was worn in a knot on top of the head. • Buddhist monks, bhikshu, had few possessions and their clothes were made of rags patched together and dyed red or yellow. These consisted of a lower garment amaravasaka, an upper garment uttarasanga, a cloak samghari. a waist cloth kushala ka. and buckled belt samakaksika. Worn-out leather soles strapped to their feet completed their attire. Their possessions consisted of a patra or begging bowl, a razor , tweezers for removing hair, clippers for cutting toe and finger nails, an ear pick, a t ooth pick, gauze for filtering drinking water , a needle , a walking stick, an umbrella, a fan and a bag of medicines. • The third religion Jainsim, was propagated by Mahavira. in fifth century BC. Later two sects developed— the sky clad (naked) Digamber sect and the white clad Sve tamber sect. • In the Jain monastic order, monks and nuns wore a white costume consisting of a robe and cloak. They covered their nose and mouth with a piece of gauze to ensure they would not inhale even the smallest living organism. Their hair and beard were shaven. The Jain ascetics smeared their bodies with mud, took the vow of silence, clothed themselves in skirts made of bark, and carried a stick made of three rods bound together, and an umbrella. They wore brass ring and brass b angles. Their other possessions included a water jug, clay bowl, and pot with spout, broom, hook, portable stool, rosary, and an alms bowl.

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Footwear Although footwear is often mentioned in literature, there is no sculptural evidence for this period. Except in the case of soldiers, who wear the Persian boot. Hairstyles & Headgear • The heads of women were generally covered with their utta irya. The hair centrally parted, was made into one or two plaits or in a large knot at the back. The uttariya could be worn simply hanging down at the back or secured to the head with a headband, or with one end arranged in a fan at the top of the head. • Skull cap was sometimes worn under or over the uttariya to keep it in place, or at times it could be decorated with a fringe or pendants. • Helmets too are seen as headgear for phrygian women who probably wore |ong—sleeved tunic with tight tilting trousers and a phrygian cap which was conical and had ear flaps. • Women sometimes used turbans of decorated cloth. Over the turban a band was sometimes used to hold it in place. ln addition, decorative elements like a jewelled brooch or a jhalar (fringe) could be attached to the turban, or one end folded in pleats and tucked in like a fan. • As regards male headgear in the Ma uryan period, there is no trace of the turban mauli, but in the Sunga period we find emphasis on this form of male headgear. These were remarkable head —dresses in which the hair itself was often twisted into a braid along with the turban cloth, this twisted braid being then arranged to form a protuberance in the front or the side of the head, but never in the centre top, as this style could be used only by priests. • Brahmins removed their hair at the age of three except for a ritual coil which was worn knotted at the top if they were priests or at the side of the head. In addition they wore from the age of eight the sacred cord or yajnopavita looped over the le ft shoulder and under the right arm. The cord consisted of three threads, each of nine twisted yarns. Jewellery • From the sculptures, it is found that there was a richness and profusion in the jewellery worn by both men and women. • Material used was gold and precious stones like corals, rubies , sapphires, agates’ and crystals. Pearls too were used and beads of all kinds were plentiful including those made of glass. • Certain ornaments were common to both sexes, like earrings and necklaces, as well as armlets, bracelets and embroidered belts. • Earrings or karnika were of three types - a simple ring or circle called kundal, a circular disc earring known as dehri and earrings with a flower—like shape known as karn-phul. • Necklaces were of two kinds- A short one called kantha which was broad and flat, usually gold inlaid with precious stones, and a long one , the la mbanam. These chain or bead necklaces were sometimes three to seven stringed and named after the number of strings of which they were composed. • Baju or armlets of gold or silver beads were worn on the upper arm and were occasionally studded with precious stones. Bracelets called kangan , often made of square or round beads of gold, and cloth belts richly embroidered, completed the male ensemble. • But Women, in addition, wore girdles called mekhala , a hip belt of multi stringed beads with sha pes — ranging from round to square and oval. Dancing girls then added chains of gold and silver to which bells were attached. • Anklets and thumb and finger rings were worn by all women. Anklets were often of gold in this period, though silver was more common. There is no record of nose—rings in the period. • Forehead ornaments for women were quite common, worn below the parting of the hair and at the centre of the forehead. These consisted of a thin plate of gold or silver stamped in various patterns, as well as a star—shaped sitara and bina and a tiny ornament called bindi.

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Textiles & Dyes - • Weaving of fine and coarse varieties of cloth was well established. Cotton, silk, wool, linen and jute fabrics were readily available. Furs and the better varieties o wool and silk were used. f - • A rain proof woollen cloth was available in Nepal. - • Resist dyeing and hand printing in a pattern on cloth has been mentioned by Greek visitors to the court of Chandragupta Maurya , as is the Indian glazed cotton cloth which was in common use by 400 BC. - • Material similar to the khinkhwab (which is the interweaving of silk and gold or silver wires beautiful floral pattern) was in great demand and even exported to Babylon long before the Mauryas. - • There were also fine muslins often embroidered in purple and gold and transparent like later—day material which came to be called shabnam (morning dew). The coarse varieties were used by the populace. - • Woollen cloth, avika, from the sheep’s wool was either pure white (bleached) or dyed pure red, rose, or black. Blankets or kambala were either made by completing the edges with borders or braids , or woven wool strips were joined together. - • The process of felting was also known. All varieties of wool were available, coarse for making head- dresses, trappings and blankets for richer class. - • Washer men also served as dyers, rajaka, and they perfumed garments alter washing them. - • Four primary color were recognized in the dyeing of textiles: red (dyed with safflower and madder), white (through bleaching) , yellow (natural color of yarn and saffron) , and blue (indigo leaves). Fabrics were also woven in patterns and printed for use as carpets, bedcovers , blankets, and clothes.

KUSHANA PERIOD (130 B.C. to l85 A.D.) History & Social Life - • The Kushans established their empire after defeating the Greeks. At that time, the Kushans, the Sakas and the Satvahanas were the main empires in India. - • The political stability of the Mauryan Empire, which had given some kind of cohesiveness to a large part of India, was now replaced by continuous change in the boundaries of power. - • The cultural and linguistic differences were immense, ranging from Greeks in Taxila to the Tarmilians in the south. - • The only cohesive factor was trade. Among other things , spices, condiments , and silks were sent from Gujarat and Sind, and Creek wines and girls were imported for the royal harem. Syrian and Alexandrian traders were a common sight in Broach, Ujjain and Peshawar. - • A village dwelling consisted of a single room with floor of beaten earth. The walls of would have one window and door. The roof was of reed, palm leaf or matting. If there was need to divide the room, a few reed mats were hung from the beams held up the roof. Since most people at on the ground, there was no need of furniture. Pots of earthenware or copper were used for storage of grain and cooking. - • The life lived by the court and the people were rich and full of bustle and activity. There was a great deal of singing, dancing, music , drama and magic shows during festivals. - • Roads were made permanent; trees were planted along highways, signposts installed at the junctions as and distances marked. Rest houses were provided with wells where travellers could bathe and rest. As the maintenance of roads proved expensive, a toll tax was levied on merchandisers who used these imperial highways. - • Ivory became an important export and used to make bed and table legs, handles knobs of mirrors, flywhisks, and sceptres. It ornamented chairs and carriages, walls of houses , sword hilts, and

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scabbards. From it were made combs, brooches , hairpins, boxes, bird cages , binding for manuscripts , musical instruments and many other objects. • There were two completely distinct styles of kushan art. Ghandhara in the northern part of the empire was built by craftsmen from eastern Rome, who were employed by patrons of Buddhism. They followed Greco—Roman style , particularly in the drapery of sculpture. • The second form of Kushan art arose in Mathura. The Southern capital of empire that depicted the true picture of the life style and costume of that period. There was also similarity between costume of Kushans and Parthians (East Iranians).

Costume - • There was no uniformity in this period and dress varied with each region. - • The fashion of wearing sewn garments became popular among all the classes of North India. One of the earliest sections of society to adopt these garments was the army as it found them more convenient for vigorous action. - • Kushan costumes may be divided into 5 types: (i) Those worn by the indigenous people. The antariya, uttariya, and kayabahdh. (ii) Those worn by the guardians and attendants of the harem, usually the indigenous and sewn kancuku red—brown in colour. (iii) The foreign Kushan rulers and their entourage. (iv) Other foreigners including traders. etc. (v) A mixture of foreign and indigenous garments. - • The last category is of great interest as it shows how clothes change and evolved, how some of the purely draped garments of the Indians were replaced by cut and sewn garments especially in the north and north-west where influences were felt more keenly, and where climatically, sewn garments were more suitable. Male Costume - • The Kushan dress had evolved from a nomad culture based on the use of the horse. - • This consisted of long sleeved tunic with a slit for the neck, simple or elaborately decorated. and with it could be used a short cloak or a calf length woollen coat or caftan, secured by a belt of leather or metal. - · There was occasionally a third garment in use , the chugha . This was coat—like and decorated with a border down the chest and hem line and had two slits to facilitate movement. - · The trousers could be of linen, silk, or muslin in the summer but were woollen or quilted in the winters. These trousers, chalana, were tucked into son padded boots with leather trappings. - • Along with this was the Scythic pointed cap of felt , or peaked helmet or head band with two long ends tied at the back. - • The drape of trousers was held in place by means of gold or metal plates stitched down the centre front. Elaborate embroidered panels later replaced these gold or metal plates. - • An earlier version was used by the Saka warriors, where the tunic was simply picked up and tucked into the belt on two sides at centre front, to free the spread of knees when riding a horse. Female Costume - • Clothes for women were varied. At Gandhara there are figures wearing a sari-like garment which seems to have evolved from a Roman dress. - Some of the Gandhara female figures wear a long an tariya in the kachcha style but one end continued over the left shoulder and was broached there. The total ensemble looked very much like the Deccani sari of today. - • ln addition, the typical lndian uttariya was worn across the back and over both arms. The wearing of an uttartya with the sari is still seen in the fisher-folk of Maharashtra.

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• The Gandhara figures show the beginning of the sari and one of the earlier attempts to create a garment to cover the breasts under the category of —a mixture of foreign and indigenous garme nts. • Another female figure is wearing a Persian-influenced knee or mid thigh length tunic, stanamsuka, worn with the antariya in the lehnga style. • The tunic, stanamsuka, is form-fitting with long sleeves, round neckline, and flaring at the hemline. • S imple stitched skirts ghagri began to be used with a side seam and a nada or string to hold them up at the waist. They are gathered in folds from lengths about 6-8 feet, and have a decorative border at the hem and at the centre front seam. • Some figures of women are shown wearing close fitting ruched trousers with a long sleeved jacket and an uttariya. • Amazons wearing trousers formed the royal guard which surrounded the king. These female guards adapted their own costume to a tight mid-thigh length jacket; with cross over at the neck and a gathered or pleated skirt worn with the antariya with metal buckle shield and sword. • The pravara or chaddar, a large shawl, continued to be worn by both sexes as protection against cold. • The kayaba ndh became a more loosely worn, informal piece of attire and was a wide twisted sash used mainly by women in many delightful ways to enhance the suppleness of the waist.

Military Costume - • At the Ghandhara site of Kushans is a soldier wearing the Indian antariya and turban with a Graeco-Roman style of breastplate or coat of mail. Coats of mail were made indigenously of metallic wires, woven into gauze. But it could also be made of metal scales, attached to a backing, rather than woven wire due to foreign·influenced improvement on the indigenous equipment for soldiers. - • Another soldier is seen wearing full foreign garments in the same army. His coat of mail is worn over a short tunic, which is visible at the hem and sleeves, and his bare legs are encased in greaves. On his head is a three—cornered helmet. - • Soldiers carried shields and equipments of various kinds. - • Foot soldiers used six-foot bows with very long arrows. tall shields made of ox hide. and board - swords. Costume of Religious People - • Brahmin hermits or ascetics continued to wear garments made of bark leaves, or animal skins. and live austere lives in forests or other isolated places. - The clothes of the bhik shu continued to be yellow or red in color and consisted of same anta ravasaka. uttarasanga, samghati and kushaklaka as before, along with a buckled belt or samkak siku. Only now the cloth of their garments was most probably donated to the monastery by wealthy merchants. And was not made of rags. . Headgears & Hairstyles Women - · The wearing of the uttariya on the head almost disappeared in this period. - • Most of the women in indigenous costume wear their hair in a tuft at the forehead covering the line of parting. - - Ratnavali, a jewelled net was worn, as well as brooches and decorative hairpins. - · Turbans wound around the foreign pointed scythic cap made of striped fabrics and decorated with rows of pearls or a diadem was frequently used. - • Long hair was rarely worn loose and was arranged usually in one or two plaits. sometimes joint at the tips at the back. The commoner would probably wear hers in a simple knot at the nape as is worn today. Flowers were used to decorate the hair.

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Men - • Men continued to wear the turban and the knob at the centre or side of the head slowly disappeared. - • When bare-headed, the ha ir was worn in a top knot or in the shape of a bow , but often softened by curls at the forehead or on the nape of the neck, especially in the north-west. - • Young men had begun to cut their hair short. - • The Scythian pointed cap was frequently used as was the crown or mukuta l - • The common man moved around bare-headed or used his kayabandh or utta riya to form a casual turban on the head against the sun. Jewellery - • The jewellery found at Taxila is Greco-Roman and at Mathura and Gandhara it is closer to the purely indigenous jewellery of the earlier periods. There is a greater tendency towards refinement and simplicity in this period. - • Gold was much in use and called hiranya and suvarna ; silver was known as rupya, and copper as tamra. Gold and silver were often encrusted with ratna or jewels like agates, lapis-lazuli. Amethysts , garnets, coral, pearls , sapphires, topaz, diamonds and cats-eyes. - • The art of enamelling was known. - • Beads were strung on thread or wire to be worn as short necklaces called kantha, or long ones worn between the breasts and known as hara. Stringing coins to be worn as necklaces, called niska, was in vogue; the torque, a simple necklace of gold wire, was worn by foreigners. - • Shell and terracotta beads continued to be strung and worn by the poorer classes. - • The earrings, kundala , were of three types, and most often of gold or ivory- the pendant type, the ring type, or a mixture of both types which was a ring elaborately decorated with beads. Of these, the simpler kind was used by men. - • Armlets were known as keyura and bracelets, valaya. These were worn by both men and women. Simple bangles of glass, she ll, or ivory were also used. - • Head ornaments were very varied. Turbans and head veils of women were replaced by a bejewelled diadem or a crown called mukut or a simple fillet or headband called opa sa. These were used in addition to the garlands of flowers, sraja . Hair was held up by gold or silver hairpins with attractively ornamented heads. - • The mekhla or girdle was mainly of beads and along with the nupura or anklet was worn by women. - • There is an absence of forehead ornaments like the sitara and bindi of the Mauryan Sunga period. - · Finger rings were of solid gold incised with tiny figures. - • Ivory was used a great deal, from which were made combs, brooches, hairpins, boxes, and many other objects. Textiles & Dyes - • Trade with China was directly established through the ancient silk route. - • Indian traders settled down in Chinese Turkestan. Buddhists missions too were sent to China. - • In Rome , Augustus encouraged trade with India and exports increased resulting in a flourishing merchant class. I - • In the northwest, coarse cotton and wool were used for making tunics and trousers for horsemen. Hunters, foreigners and doorkeepers. In central India textiles were of lightweight cotton. Tulapansi. Both indigenous and foreign silks were plentiful but still very expensive. - • Many other geometric patterns of checks, stripes and triangles were also printed and woven. - • In a list compiled of fabric s recovered from the ancient silk route, fabrics in the following color were found: bright blue , light blue, dark blue-copper, dull gold buff, bronze -brown, dark bronze green, crimson, pink, crimson brown, rich red, yellow , yellow-brown, yellow-green, rich dark

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yellow-brown. These are all variants and mixtures of the colors in dyes that were available in India in this period.

SATAVAHANAS (200 B.C. ~ 250 A.D.) History and Social Life - The Satavahana or Andhra Empire was the next great empire after the Mauryan, and was established in the Deccan just as the Mauryan Empire was coming to an end. - It was a peaceful and economically prosperous period and trade increased tremendously , especially with Rome. The Romans brouglmima continuous flow of Roman gold , which helped to raise the level of economic life. - Simukha, the founder of the Satavahana dynasty, unified the various Andhra principalities into one kingdom and became its ruler (27l BC.- 248 B.C.). Dharanikota near Amaravati was the first capital of Simukha, but later he shifted his capital to Pratishtana (Paithan in Aurangabad district). - There were six emblems to denote a royal personage - ushnisa or turban a pair of flywhisks, umbrella , sword, sandals, and the royal standard. Of these , the umbrella and the flywhisks were most important and almost always used on all formal occasions. The umbrella was white and gold for kings and nobles, and was carried by the chattradhara or umbrella carrier. - The flywhsiks or Chauri were made of yak tails with gold handles, u sually two, which were waved alternately by the chauri bearers. - In addition to this a fan of palm leaves gaily chequered and made of bark, usira grass, or peacock feathers was waved by another attendant. - The sword or khadga, a symbol of power, was carried by a female attendant, the khadgavahini, on her shoulder. She normally stood close behind the king or prince. - Thonged sandals originally of boarskin were the king’s prerogative. EARLY SATAVAHANAS [200 -l00 B.C.| Costume - In the first century BC their costumes were an interesting mixture of foreign and indigenous garments. Male Costume - In the first Century BC, Kancu ka (tunies) were worn by attendants or hunters. These were of mid-thigh length with short or long sleeves; in some the opening is on the left side, and in others at the front. Necklines were V—shaped or round. The tunic worn by a king in hunting dress had opening at the back. - With the tunic a thick Kayabandh was wound once or twice around the waist. - The king and most of his courtiers wore indigenous antariya, short and informal at home, with the longer style worn in a variety of ways on ceremonial occasions. - The decorative kayabandh was tied like a thick cord or be worn looped in a semi-circle at the front with conspicuous side tassels, or be made of thick twisted silk. Female Costume - With the influences from the north and from foreign invaders the Dravidians village women started using short antariyas, large uttariyas with elaborate board borders covering the head and back, tikkas on the forehead and a series of conch or ivory bangles on the arms. - Except for the skirt they looked very much like the Lambadis who are a gypsy tribe of Deccan today. - In the royal court dress the female attendant wore transparent long antariyas with loose k ayabandhs tied in a knot at the centre having beautiful ornamental tips. Their many stringed girdles or mekha la

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were made of beads. Shoulder -length hair held by fillets or top knots tied at the centre of the head seems to denote that these attendants were foreigners. Military Costume - Soldiers wore short -sleeved tunics or jackets, with elaborate headgear consisting of either a turban with a topknot, chin band and earflaps or two topknots with a turban. - They were equipped with axes, and bows and arrows, or carried sickles. - Palace guards wore the antariya with a heavy cloak draped over the left shoulder. Headgear and Hairstyles Women - The aboriginal jungle women wore rolls and headbands with peacock feathers attached. - Village women and commoners wore their hair in a simple knot at the nape covered by a large uttariya , with elaborate broad borders. - Court attendants and women of the richer classes wore their hair more fashionably, either in a topknot on the right side with a loop of flowers suspended or in a plait. Men - Most often, hair of men was worn intertwined with ushnisa, an elaborate turban worn intertwined with the hair of the wearer and a crown or tiara was used when necessary. - Sometimes it had a top knot covered with the cloth of the turban. This knot could be at centre front or protrude over the forehead in a conch-shell shape. Jewellery - When indigenous garments were worn by men, whether at court or in villages some form of jewellery was worn. But with the kancuka or tunic , very little or no jewellery is seen. Mos t often it consists of just earrings. - Indigenous jewellery consisted of Lambanam earrings, and a pair of kangan and bajuband for the males. - Women did not wear the bajuband but wore a large number of bangles made of conch or ivory. disctype earrings, the lambanam, and tikka on the forehead. - Women attendants at court wore mekhala. LATE SATAVAHANAS [100 B.C. — A.D. 250] Costume - Clothing was generally made of thin cotton. - The antariya , uttariya and kayabandh were widely used, but interesting mixtures of foreig n and indigenous garments were fairly prevalent. - The uttariya for both men and women was usually white and of cotton or silk. Men could wear it across the back and over both shoulders or merely thrown over the chest and they seldom wore it as a head covering. - The antariya was worn by both sexes in the kachcha fashion. For men it was normally to the knees or even shorter. In case of women it was of almost trans parent cloth and was worn very tight and clinging. - The kayabandh tied in a bow-shaped knot was worn by both sexes to give support to the uttariya at the waist. - The Yajnopavita (sacred thread) was cotton threads each of nine twisted strands for Brahmins, hemp for the kshatriya and of wool for the vaisya . - Kancuka was frequently used by attendants, grooms and guards in the king’s court and an indigenous long tunic was worn by eunuchs and other attendants in the women apartments in the palace. ’s

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- Women too wore the short kancuka with an indigenous antariya or when calf-length it was worn with a kayabandh and uttariya . Military Costume - Andhra soldiers wore an an tariya which was shortened by lifting it at the hemline and tucking it into the waist to facilitate marching. - Kaya bandh was wound tightly many times around the waist for support and was sometimes crossed at the chest for protection. - Saka foreign soldiers more a heavy tunic with ruched sleeves which reached to the knees or mid-thigh with churidar trousers, and their helmet or sirastra had earflaps. A wide sash was worn at the waist. - Footwear was not incumbent for soldiers and was probably worn by foreign rather than indigenous troops. - A trained fighter carried his sword, shield, bow, axe and spear; sometimes the mace, club, and javelin. - Swords were either curved or straight. There were 30 inches long and beautiful crafted. Handles of Ivory or horn and hilts of precious metals encrusted with jewels were carried by those in command. These swords in their sheaths, kosh a, of fine-tooled leather were normally fastened on the left side of the waist. Smaller and more ornamental swords and draggers were fastened by gold chains. Costume of Religious People - The Buddhist monks were now in a very powerful position and had more or less abjured their vow of poverty. Their clothes now retained a semblance of patchwork but were composed of rich pieces of cloth of same color. Symmetrically arranged together in checks. and most probably presented to the Buddhist order by rich donors. . - Hindu ascetics continued to wear their bark strip garments valkala with a deerskin over the left shoulder. Their hair was tied in a heavy bundled topknot of matted locks called jata-bhara and sometimes the hair was worn in small plaits. - The priests were Brahmins who wore white garments but added a red turban when of ficiating at ceremonial functions. - Jain monks and nuns have retained their white robes and all their beliefs and customs have remained unchanged because of their strong conservatism. HEADGEAR AND HAIRSTYLES Men - The ushnisa of the men was generally wrapped around three or four times after covering the topknot of hair with one end. It was normally white but could also be of dyed cloth. - Gold turbans were worn on special occasions. - Kirta or crowns were also in use studded w ith gems and ornamented with designs. - Without the turban the hair was worn in one or two topknots. - Short hair parted in the middle and reaching the neck was fairly prevalent among the common people. Women - Women wore their hair in several ways. One was in the form of a plait. Praveni, at the back, decorated with jewelled strips and tassels as Bharatnatyam dancers do today. - Another common style was the coil with five delicate plaits dangling from it. In the k esapa sa style the hair was looped close to the head in an elongated knot at the back of the head. This could have ven i a small fillet of flowers around it or a short garland of flowers dangling from it. - The dhammilia was elaborate dressing of the hair with flowers, pearls and jewels. This style was greatly admired in the Satavahana kingdom. - Turbans were no longer worn. Special ornaments were designed to be worn in the hair.

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- The chudamani was lotus -shaped ornament its petals composed of pearls and precious stones. It was worn normally in the centre of the knotted hair. - The makarika was shaped like fish-crocodile and worn at the front parting of the hair. - There were also small crown like fillets through which the hair was drawn and then plaited or hung loose. JEWELLERY - Strands of pearls were used in all forms of jewellery pa rticularly in the late Satavahana Empire. - Both me n and women wore earring, bracelets, armlets and necklaces. - The common design in earring was the kundala shaped like a coil, which could be simple or decorative. - Necklaces or hara were strung with pearls, sometimes consisting of only a single string called ekavali. - A necklace of gems and gold beads was called yashti, the central bead being often larger than the others. Several of these necklaces could be worn together. - A simple perfumed cotton-thread necklace was known to have been in use, and tiger claws were strung around the necks of children probably to ward off the evil eye. - Kantha continued to be in use and was often of gold set with rubies and emeralds. - The gold coins necklace n ishka was strung on silk thread or plaited gold cord. These gold coins were sometimes replaced by mango-shaped pieces of gold or gold set with gems. - Men and women wore bracelets valaya of solid gold set with precious stones. The more delicate ones were made of filigree. They also used bangles of ivory and rhinoceros horn. - Armlets or keyu ra for both sexes were close-fitting and could be engraved or set with jewels or be in the shape of a snake. - Jewelled girdles of one or many strings, mekhala, were worn only by women. - Anklets, worn again only by women, had an astonishing variety. The manjira was hollow and light, coiling several times around the ankles loosely and tinkling when in motion as it had gems inserted in the hollow. - The nupura was plain while the kinkin i had small bells suspended. Tinkling anklets of any kind were not wor n by the wife in the absence of her husband. - The finger ring or angu liyaka is visible on some of the Satavahana sculptures but only after A.D. l 50 Textiles and Dyes - Coarse and fine varieties of cotton were in great demand. - Silk formed an important part of rich person’s wardrobe. - A very cheap material made of hemp was worn by the weavers and by labourers of all kinds. - Wool was not need much in warm climate, but it was used in the form of chaddars or blankets in winter. - There was a variety of Dyes available. Since washer men were also dyers, these colors were known to them and the knowledge of the dyeing processes was probably handed down to each successive generation. - Printed and woven designs on textile were plentiful and embroidery in gold was also common among the richer classes. - The uttariya, in particular was very o ften of silk and embroidered with flowers all over or had a pattern of birds along with flowers. Precious stones were often used in the borders of these uttariyas or they were dyed blue or red, but a spotless white remained the favourite with men.

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